Councils of Constantinople協議会のコンスタンティノープル

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The councils of Constantinople were four ecumenical Councils of the Christian church, held between the 4th and the 9th centuries.コンスタンティノープルれた4つの委員会は、キリスト教の教会エキュメニカル協議会は、 4日から9日までの間に行われた世紀にもわたっている。 Constantinople I was called in 381 by Theodosius I, then Roman emperor of the East, primarily to confront ARIANISM, the heresy that had been subdued only temporarily by the First Council of Nicaea (325).私は、 381と呼ばれるコンスタンティノープルテオドシウス私は、当時の東ローマ帝国皇帝は、主に立ち向かうアリウス主義は、異端を一時していただけで抑えたの最初のニカイア公会議( 325 ) 。 More than 150 bishops, all from the Eastern empire, met to reaffirm the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and to depose Maximus, the Arian patriarch of Constantinople. 150以上の司教は、東ローマ帝国のすべてから、会った教説を再確認するには、ニカイア信条と証言マクシムスは、アリウス主義のコンスタンティノープル総主教。 They also condemned Apollinarianism, a position that denied the full humanity of Christ.また、死刑囚apollinarianism 、という立場を完全に否定してキリストの人間です。 The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit as proceeding from God the Father, coequal and consubstantial with him.評議会は、聖霊の位置を定義内のトリニティ;聖霊に説明することから、神の父としての論文は、彼と同等と同本質です。 It also confirmed the position of the patriarch of Constantinople as second in dignity only to the bishop of Rome.の位置を確認することもコンスタンティノープル総主教としての尊厳だけではなくて、 2番目のローマ。

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Constantinople II was convoked by Justinian I in 553, to condemn the Nestorian writings called the "Three Chapters."ユスティニアヌス2世によってコンスタンティノープルconvoked私には、 553 、ネストリウス派を非難する文章と呼ばれる"の3つの章"と述べた。 Under the virtual tutelage of the emperor, the council proscribed Nestorianism and reconfirmed the doctrine that Christ's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person.仮想的指導の下で、天皇は、評議会の教義を再確認して排除nestorianismとキリストの2つの性質は、 1つ1つの神の人間とは、米国では、完全に一人の人間だ。 Pope Vigilius at first defended the Three Chapters, but later accepted the council's ruling.法王擁護vigilius最初の3つの章で、その後評議会の裁定を受け入れた。

Constantinople III was summoned by Constantine IV in 680-81 with the consent of Pope Agatho.召喚されたコンスタンティノープルコンスタンティヌス3世4世にagatho法王六百八十から八十一までの同意を得ている。 It condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Christ has two wills, one human and one divine, but that these are without division or confusion.キリスト単と断言して死刑囚には2つのキリストの意志は、 1つ1つの神と人間が、それは、これらの課や混乱なし。 In addition, it condemned an earlier pope, Honorius I, for supporting that heresy.また、それ以前の法王死刑囚は、ホノリウス私は、異端を支援しています。

Constantinople IV, meeting in 869-70, made no new dogmatic decisions; instead, it greatly contributed to the growing split between the Eastern and Western churches.コンスタンティノープル静脈内、会議室で八六九から七〇 、独断的な意思決定前にない新しい;代わりに、その成長に大きく貢献して東と西の教会の間で分割します。 The principal action was to depose Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, for usurping his ecclesiastical position.アクションは、校長をphotius証言は、コンスタンティノープル総主教は、教会のために自分の位置をusurping 。 Later, Photius was restored to his see, and he held another council in 879-80.その後、彼を参照してくださいphotius復帰していた、と彼は別の審議会が開かれた八百七十九から八十。 This latter council, not that of 869, is considered ecumenical by the Orthodox church.この後者の評議会は、それほどの869 、エキュメニカルでは、正教会とみなされます。

T. Tackett t. tackett


Council of Constantinopleコンスタンティノポリス公会議

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(381) ( 381 )

The gathering in Constantinople of 150 Eastern bishops at the request of the Emperor Theodosius I was later regarded by the Council of Chalcedon (451) as the second great ecumenical council of the church.集会で、 150コンスタンティノープルの司教からリクエストがあった東部の皇帝テオドシウス私は後で評価されるchalcedon評議会( 451 )エキュメニカル協議会としては、 2番目の大きな教会です。 Most importantly it marked the end of over fifty years of Arian political and theological dominance in the East and the restoration and pneumatological extension of Nicene orthodoxy.最も重要なことの終わりにマークを50年以上の牡羊座生まれの政治的、神学的優位性は、東からの復旧やpneumatological正教の拡張子のニカイア。

The path of history from Nicaea to Constantinople is twisted with various political and theological figures and several theological and synodal skirmishes between Arianism and orthodoxy.歴史からのパスをニカイアコンスタンティノープルでは、さまざまな政治的およびツイスト神学神学や宗教会議のいくつかの数字との間で小競り合いアリウス主義と正教です。 The varied array of heresies that emerged during this period is given in the council's first canon, where they are also anathematized. heresiesして、さまざまな配列の出現は、この期間中は、与えられた評議会の最初のキヤノンは、どこにも彼らはアナテマ。 A brief examination of these will set the theological context.これらの審査を簡単には、神学的コンテキストを設定します。

Semi-Ariansセミarians

This name was applied to those who tried to steer a middle course between Nicene orthodoxy and Arianism.この名前をしようとした人たちに適用された中道を行く正統性との間にニカイアアリウス主義です。 Too sensitive to Sabellian implications and the biblical absence of the term homoousion to fully embrace Nicaea and recoiling from blatant Arian characterizations of the Son as a creature, they took refuge in the term homoiousion.あまりにも敏感な意味合いをサベリウス主義の欠如と聖書の言葉を完全に受け入れるhomoousionニカイアcharacterizationsアリウス主義と反跳からの露骨な生き物の息子として、彼らは、任期homoiousion避難した。 By this they taught that the Son was like (homoios) the Father but not necessarily the same in essence.教えたことによって彼らの息子がこのような( homoios )の父親が本質的に同じとは限らない。 This ambiguous position was held by many who were very close to orthodoxy, eg, Cyril of Jerusalem, as well as those who were more of an Arian disposition, eg, Basil of Ancyra.このあいまいな立場で行われた非常に多くの人が正教の近くには、例えば、エルサレムの聖キュリロスだけでなく、より多くの人たちが処分するアリウス主義は、例えば、バジルのアンキラ。 Due to the efforts of Athanasius and Hilary of Poitiers many of this party were reconciled to orthodoxy, especially as more radical Arian positions developed.アタナシウスのための努力とヒラリーのポアティエの多くは、この党の正統性が仲直りして、特に過激なアリウス主義者としてのポジションをさらに発達している。

Pneumatomachians pneumatomachians

In the post-Nicene period attention was turned to the Holy Spirit and his relation to the discussions on the Father and the Son.ニカイア期間後は、電源が注目していた彼は聖霊と関連して議論をして、父と息子がいます。 About 360, Athanasius wrote to correct an Egyptian heresy advocated by the Tropici in which the Spirit was taught to have been created out of nothing.約360 、アタナシウス書きましたが、エジプトの異端正しいtropiciで提唱されたの精神を教えてきた無から有を作成します。 Athanasius maintained instead the deity of the Spirit and his homoousia with the Father and the Son.アタナシウス維持するのではなく、神の精神と彼の父親と息子homoousiaしている。 After this the pneumatomachians (literally "Spirit-fighters") appeared within the homoiousion party.この後、 pneumatomachians (文字通り"魂のファイター" )に出演内homoiousion党です。 Led by Eustathius of Sebaste (after 373), they tried to assert a nondivine, noncreaturely, intermediate status for the Spirit, even after affirming the homoousia of the Son.セバステのエウスタティオス主導した(後に373 )は、かれらを主張しようとするnondivine 、 noncreaturely 、中間の精神状態を、肯定のhomoousia後にも、息子がいます。 They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Son.かれらは反対されるcappadocians 、完全な神の教えとhomoousia人の息子がいます。 They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Spirit both implicity (as in Basil, On the Holy Spirit) and explicitly (as in Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 31).かれらは反対されるcappadocians 、完全な神の教えとhomoousia人の精神の両方implicity (バジルのようには、聖霊)と明示(ナジアンゾスの聖グレゴリオスとしては、話法31 ) 。 It is this Cappadocian (and Athanasian) theology which prevailed at the Council of Constantinople.それは、この神学cappadocian (とアタナシウス)は、コンスタンティノポリス公会議で優勢。

Eunomians or Anomoians eunomiansまたはanomoians

Founded by Aetius of Antioch and led by Eunomius of Cyzicus at the time of the council, these held the radical Arian position which refused any compromise with orthodoxy.アンティオキアaetiusによって設立されたとのcyzicus率いるeunomiusの時点では、評議会は、これらの過激なアリウス主義の立場で開かれたいかなる妥協に正統性を拒否した。 They taught a Neoplatonic hierarchy of three beings which were in essence utterly unlike (anomoios) each other, though possessing relative divinity (thus confirming the charge of polytheism).かれらに教えたの階層neoplatonic本質的に3つの生き物がお互いに全く違って( anomoios )が、所持相対的神性(多神教こうして確認を担当する) 。

Eudoxians eudoxians

These held a classical Arian position particularly advocated at the time of the council by the followers of Eudoxius, former bishop of Antioch (358) and Constantinople (360).アリウス主義の立場を開き、このような古典的特に提唱された時点では、評議会の信者のeudoxius 、元大主教とコンスタンティノープルアンティオキア( 358 ) ( 360 ) 。 He was known for the jest: "The Father is impious (since he worships no one), but the Son is pious (since he worships the Father)."彼は、冗談で知られる: "父は不敬(崇拝以来彼は誰)は、しかし、息子は、信心深い(崇拝して以来彼の父) 。 "

Sabellians, Marcellians, and Photinians sabellians 、 marcellians 、およびphotinians

Since the Arians vigorously insisted that the homoousion logically reduced to Sabellianism, it was necessary for the council to repudiate this heresy. ariansと主張して以来、精力的に論理的に縮小してhomoousionサベリウス主義は、そのために必要なことは、この協議会を否定する異端です。 One who actually came close to espousing it was Marcellus of Ancyra, who resisted the Cappadocian Trinitarian development in which three hypostases were distinguished while maintaining one ousia.実際には誰が自分の近くに来ていたespousingアンキラマーセラスは、三位一体説を信奉する人の抵抗cappadocian hypostasisの複数開発された3つの区別を維持しながら、 1つのousia 。 Marcellus preferred to speak of the expansion of an indivisible Monad (God) which resulted in the externalization of the (until then) immanently existing Logos (the Son) at the time of incarnation, with an expected future contraction of the Logos back into the Monad.マーセラスプリファードを話すのは不可分の拡大につながったモナド(神)の外面は、 (それまでの)既存のロゴimmanently (息子)の形になっている時点で、将来を期待さ収縮のロゴに戻ってモナド。 Although he was exonerated of the Sabellian label at Rome (341) and Sardica (343), Constantinople condemned his deviant views.にもかかわらず、彼は無罪とラベルでサベリウス主義とsardicaローマ( 341 ) ( 343 ) 、コンスタンティノープル死刑囚彼の見解を逸している。 Photinus of Sirmium, a pupil of Marcellus, developed his teacher's views into an adoptionist Christology and was condemned for the heresy of Paul of Samosata at various councils.シルミウムphotinusのは、瞳孔のマーセラスには、彼の教師の意見を開発するために死刑囚の養子論信奉者は異端とchristologyサモサタのパウロスのさまざまな協議会です。

Apollinarians apollinarians

Constantinople brought a final condemnation on this Christological heresy which originated within the Nicene camp.最終的な非難をもたらしたこのコンスタンティノープルchristologicalニカイアキャンプ内の発祥の異端。 A former friend of Athanasius, Apollinarius of Laodicea zealously advocated the deity of the Logos and upheld the homoousion.アタナシウス元の友人は、熱心に提唱し、ラオディケアapollinariusのロゴマークとは、神の支持homoousion 。 However, in his concern to avoid the dualistic personality of an adoptionistic Christology, he capitulated to the Arian error in which the Logos completely replaced the human soul and mind in the incarnate Christ.しかし、彼の懸念を避けるためには、二重人格adoptionistic christology 、彼capitulatedアリウス主義にエラーが発生して、ロゴを完全に置き換え、人間の魂と心は、キリストの化身。 For this deficient humanity he was opposed reluctantly by Athanasius and vigorously by the Cappadocians.人類のために、この欠乏によるアタナシウスしぶしぶと彼は精力的に反対されるcappadocians 。

The theology of the Council of Constantinople is set forth first by the condemnation of these heresies.コンスタンティノポリス公会議の神学のは、第1に定めるこれらheresies非難される。 More positively, it was expressed in a published statement of doctrine, a tomos, and the creed of the council.もっと積極的には、それは、教義を表明する声明を発表、展示中には、評議会の信条としています。 Unfortunately, the tomos is no longer extant except for what is reflected of it in the letter of the synod of 382.残念ながら、展示中は、もはや現存することを除いては、何が反映したのは、会議の手紙382 。 The creed is to be found not in the records of Constantinople, but in those of the Council of Chalcedon (451), where a creed attributed to Constantinople (C) was read along with the Nicene Creed (N). C happens to be the creed that is read in churches today under the title the Nicene Creed, but it is more appropriately known as the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. Without recounting the scholarly debates on C, it seems most likely that it was a local form of N, adopted by Constantinople and amended to reflect the council's pneumatology.信条は発見されるのではなくコンスタンティノープルの記録ではなく、それらのchalcedon評議会( 451 ) 、どこにあるの信条に起因するものだったコンスタンティノープル( C参照)とともに、ニカイア信条を読む( n )のします。 c偶然にも、それは今日の教会の信条を読んで、タイトルの下に、ニカイア信条が、それがより適切niceno - constantinopolitan信条として知られています。せずに事実上の学術討論カップ、それが最も高いよう地元のフォームを、 nは、採択されたコンスタンティノープルと聖霊論審議会の改正を反映しています。 Thus the Council of Constantinople did not see itself as producing a new creed but rather reaffirming and upholding the faith of Nicaea.したがって、コンスタンティノポリス公会議生産していないとして、新たな信条を参照してください自体ではなく、信仰のニカイアの支持を再確認しています。 At Chalcedon, however, concern for the pure form of N led them to distinguish between N and C. chalcedonでは、しかし、純粋な形で、 nの懸念を主導して、 Cによる区別なし

The pneumatological emendation of the Nicene faith followed the example of Basil by limiting itself to biblical words and phrases. pneumatological emendationニカイアの信仰は、その後の例バジルを制限することにより、自分自身を聖書の中の単語やフレーズです。 The Spirit is confessed to be the "Lord" and "Life-giver," the one "who with the Father and the Son is together worshiped and together glorified."告白されるの精神は、 "主よ"と"生活の寄贈者は、 " 1つ"の人の息子は、父親と一緒worshipedと一緒に見せかけています。 " The homoousia of the Spirit is not explicitly affirmed here, probably because of a last-minute attempt to reconcile the pneumatomachians. homoousiaは、明示的に肯定の精神ではないここでは、おそらくのため、土壇場で和解の試みをpneumatomachians 。 However, the homoousion apparently was affirmed in the tomos, since the letter of the synod of 382 summarizes the council's doctrine as faith in the uncreated, consubstantial, and coeternal trinity.しかし、どうやらhomoousionアファームドで展示中だったので、手紙は、会議の協議会の教義を要約382信仰は、まだ創造されていないとして、同本質は、トリニティと永遠に共存しています。

Besides the reaffirmation of Nicene orthodoxy, this developed pneumatology, which made possible a full Trinitarian doctrine for the East, was the most important contribution of the Council of Constantinople.ニカイア正教の再確認に加えて、この開発聖霊論は、可能性を完全に三位一体説を信奉する教義を前に、東は、最も重要な貢献は、コンスタンティノポリス公会議です。

CA Blaisingカリフォルニア州blaising
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (エルウェル福音辞書)

Bibliography 文献情報
"Canons of the One Hundred and Fifty Fathers," The Seven Ecumenical Councils, NPNF; HM Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism; JND Kelly, Early Christian Creeds and Early Christian Doctrines; CE Raven, Apollinarianism; R. Seeberg, The Textbook of the History of Doctrines; J. Taylor, "The First Council of Constantinople (381)," Pru 13:47-54, 91-97; WP DuBose, The Ecumenical Councils. "規範は、 150の祖先は、 " 7つのエキュメニカル協議会は、 npnf ;フムグオートキン、タイプのアリウス主義; jndケリー氏は、初期キリスト教の信条や初期キリスト教教説; ceカラスは、 apollinarianism ;共和党ゼーベルク、歴史の教科書は、の教説; j.テイラーは、 "第1コンスタンティノポリス公会議( 381 ) 、 " pru 13:47-54 、 91から97 ; duboseショートカットWPは、エキュメニカル協議会です。


First Council of Constantinople - 381 AD第1コンスタンティノポリス公会議-3 81広告

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INTRODUCTION導入

In the year 380 the emperors Gratian and Theodosius I decided to convoke this council to counter the Arians, and also to judge the case of Maximus the Cynic, bishop of Constantinople. 380年には、私の皇帝テオドシウスgratianと、この理事会を招集することを決めたのカウンターarians 、と判断しても、例の皮肉屋マクシムス、コンスタンティノープル司教のです。 The council met in May of the following year.同会議は、次の年の5月に会った。 One hundred and fifty bishops took part, all of them eastern Orthodox, since the Pneumatomachi party had left at the start. 150人が参加司教は、かれらのすべての東方正教会、以来、左pneumatomachiパーティーでは、スタートします。

After Maximus had been condemned, Meletius, bishop of Antioch, appointed Gregory of Nazianzus as the lawful bishop of Constantinople and at first presided over the council.マクシムスていた死刑囚の後、メレチウス、アンティオキア大主教は、合法的に任命ナジアンゾスの聖グレゴリオスとしてコンスタンティノープル大主教と、最初の理事会が主宰。 Then on Meletius's sudden death, Gregory took charge of the council up to the arrival of Acholius, who was to table Pope Damasus's demands: namely, that Maximus should be expelled as an interloper, and that the translation of bishops should be avoided.その後の突然の死をメレチウス、グレゴリーが担当して評議会の到着までにacholius氏は、法王を表damasusの要求:すなわち、その侵入者としてマクシムス追放しなければならない、として翻訳した司教は避けるべきです。 But when Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, arrived he declared Gregory's appointment invalid.しかし、ティモシーときは、アレクサンドリアの司教は、到着した彼の任命を宣言グレゴリー無効です。 Gregory resigned the episcopacy and Nectarius, after baptism and consecration, was installed as bishop and presided over the council until its closure. bishopの職を辞任し、グレゴリーnectarius 、バプテスマと奉献した後、インストールされた司教協議会が主宰し、閉鎖されるまでです。

No copy of the council's doctrinal decisions, entitled tomos kai anathematismos engraphos (record of the tome and anathemas), has survived.いいえ、評議会の教義上の意思決定の写しは、 カイと題する展示中anathematismos engraphos (レコードは、トメとanathemas )は、生き残った。 So what is presented here is the synodical letter of the synod of Constantinople held in 382, which expounded these doctrinal decisions, as the fathers witness, in summary form: namely, along the lines defined by the council of Nicaea, the consubstantiality and coeternity of the three divine persons against the Sabellians, Anomoeans, Arians and Pneumatomachi, who thought that the divinity was divided into several natures; and the enanthropesis (taking of humanity) of the Word, against those who supposed that the Word had in no way taken a human soul.だから何が提示さは、ここでは、宗教会議の手紙で開かれた会議の382コンスタンティノープルは、これらの教義上の意思決定を詳しく説明は、祖先の証人としては、フォームの概要:すなわち、その趣旨に沿ってニカイア公会議で定義された、とのcoeternityのconsubstantiality 3人に対する神のsabellians 、 anomoeans 、 ariansとpneumatomachi 、人に分けられると考えていたいくつかの性質の神性;とenanthropesis (人類の服用)という言葉が、その言葉に反対していた人のはずがない方法で撮影する人間の魂です。 All these matters were in close agreement with the tome that Pope Damasus and a Roman council, held probably in 378, had sent to the East.これらすべての問題と密接に合意していたトメdamasusとローマ教皇評議会が開かれたが、おそらく378 、東日本が送信されます。

Scholars find difficulties with the creed attributed to the council of Constantinople.学者の信条に起因するものを見つけるのが困難コンスタンティノポリス公会議です。 Some say that the council composed a new creed.協議会によると、いくつかの新たな信条で構成されます。 But no mention is made of this creed by ancient witnesses until the council of Chalcedon; and the council of Constantinople was said simply to have endorsed the faith of Nicaea, with a few additions on the holy Spirit to refute the Pneumatomachian heresy.しかし、この信条は言及しないが行われるまで、評議会の証人古代chalcedon ;コンスタンティノポリス公会議とは、裏書きによると、信仰を持つだけのニカイアは、いくつかの追加してpneumatomachian異端聖霊を論破しています。 Moreover, if the latter tradition is accepted, an explanation must be given of why the first two articles of the so-called Constantinopolitan creed differ considerably from the Nicene creed.また、後者の場合には、伝統を受け入れ、説明をしなければならないのはなぜ与えられた最初の2つの記事は、いわゆるconstantinopolitan信条ニカイア信条かなり違うからだ。

It was J. Lebon, followed by JND Kelly and AM Ritter, who worked at the solution of this problem.それはj.ルボン、次いでjnd時リッターケリーとは、誰がこの問題の解決策に勤務しています。 Lebon said that the Nicene creed, especially since it was adapted to use at baptism, had taken on a number of forms.ルボンによると、このニカイア信条、特に使用して以来、洗礼適合していることが、数の上でのフォームも取っている。 It was one of these which was endorsed at the council of Constantinople and developed by additions concerning the holy Spirit.それは1つの審議会で承認されたこれらの追加に関するコンスタンティノープルと聖霊によって開発された。 All the forms, altered to some extent or other, were described by a common title as "the Nicene faith".すべてのフォーム、またはその他の変化をある程度、共通のタイトルとして記述された"ニカイアの信仰" 。 Then the council of Chalcedon mentioned the council of Constantinople as the immediate source of one of them, marked it out by a special name "the faith of the 150 fathers", which from that time onwards became its widely known title, and quoted it alongside the original simple form of the Nicene creed.その後、評議会chalcedon言及したのコンスタンティノポリス公会議は、当面の源としてそれらの1つは、特別な名前をマークして、 "信仰は、 150人の祖先"と、これ以降の時間になったことから、広く知られているのか、それと並んで引用元の単純な形のニカイア信条です。 The Greek text of the Constantinopolitan creed, which is printed below, is taken from the acts of the council of Chalcedon.テキストは、ギリシャのconstantinopolitanの信条は、以下のとおりであるプリントは、撮影からは、評議会chalcedon行為です。

The council of Constantinople enacted four disciplinary canons: against the Arian heresy and its sects (can. 1), on limiting the power of bishops within fixed boundaries (can. 2), on ranking the see of Constantinople second to Rome in honour and dignity (can. 3), on the condemnation of Maximus and his followers (can. 4).この4つの懲戒規範制定コンスタンティノポリス公会議:アリウス主義に対する異端とその宗派( can. 1 ) 、司教のパワーを制限内に固定境界( can. 2 ) 、上から2番目のランク付けを参照してくださいコンスタンティノープルローマでの名誉と尊厳( can. 3 ) 、非難してマクシムスとその部下( can. 4 ) 。 Canons 2-4 were intended to put a stop to aggrandisement on the part of the see of Alexandria. 2-4規範を意図していたaggrandisementに待ったをかけるのは、団体のアレキサンドリアを参照してください。 The two following canons, 5 and 6, were framed at the synod which met in Constantinople in 382.以下の2つの規範は、 5と6は、会議には、フレームが満たされたコンスタンティノープルでは382です。 The 7th canon is an extract from a letter which the church of Constantinople sent to Martyrius of Antioch.キヤノンは7日、手紙からの抜粋では、教会のコンスタンティノープルアンティオキアmartyriusに送られる。

The council ended on 9 July 381, and on 30 July of the same year, at the request of the council fathers, the emperor Theodosius ratified its decrees by edict . 7月9日の理事会終了して381 、とされ、同年7月30日、評議会の要請を受け、父親は、天皇の令を布告テオドシウス批准しています。

Already from 382 onwards, in the synodical letter of the synod which met at Constantinople, the council of Constantinople was given the title of "ecumenical".すでに382以降からは、手紙は、宗教会議では、会議で会ったコンスタンティノープル、コンスタンティノポリス公会議は、与えられたのタイトルが"エキュメニカル" 。 The word denotes a general and plenary council.その言葉を表します総評議会と本です。 But the council of Constantinople was criticised and censured by Gregory of Nazianzus.しかし、コンスタンティノポリス公会議では問責ナジアンゾスの聖グレゴリオスと批判した。 In subsequent years it was hardly ever mentioned.その後数年間に言及することはほとんどない。 In the end it achieved its special status when the council of Chalcedon, at its second session and in its definition of the faith, linked the form of the creed read out at Constantinople with the Nicene form, as being a completely reliable witness of the authentic faith. In the end it achieved its special status when the council of Chalcedon, at its second session and in its definition of the faith, linked the form of the creed read out at Constantinople with the Nicene form, as being a completely reliable witness of the authentic信仰です。 The fathers of Chalcedon acknowledged the authority of the canons -- at least as far as the eastern church was concerned -- at their sixteenth session. chalcedon認めたが、父親の権威の規範-少なくとも、東方教会は限り懸念-で、第1 6のセッションです。 The council's dogmatic authority in the western church was made clear by words of Pope Gregory I: "I confess that I accept and venerate the four councils (Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon) in the same way as I do the four books of the holy Gospel...."評議会の独断的な権限は、西洋の教会は前にクリアされた単語のグレゴリウス私: "私は告白して私を受け入れるとあがめるの4つの協議会(ニカイア、コンスタンティノープル、エフェソスとchalcedon )と同じように私には、 4つの書籍神聖な福音...."

The bishop of Rome's approval was not extended to the canons, because they were never brought "to the knowledge of the apostolic see''. Dionysius Exiguus knew only of the first four -- the ones to be found in the western collections. Pope Nicholas I wrote of the sixth canon to Emperor Michael III: "It is not found among us, but is said to be in force among you''.ローマ司教の承認の規範を延長ではないので、かれらは決してもたらした"とし、ローマ教皇の知識''を参照してください。ディオニュシオスExiguusにより、最初の4つだけを知っていた-が引か西洋のコレクションにも認められています。法王ニコラスキヤノンは、 6番目に書いた天皇マイケル3世: "それは私たちの間では見つかりませんでしたが、力の間では、と言われること'' 。

The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version.ギリシャ語から英語への翻訳は、テキスト、これは、もっと権威のバージョンです。

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The exposition of the 150 fathers この博覧会は、 150人の祖先

We believe in one God the Father all-powerful, maker of heaven and of earth, and of all things both seen and unseen.自分を信じて、私たちの父全能の神は、天国と地球のメーカーは、すべてのものの両方を見られると、目に見えないのです。 And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten from the Father before all the ages, light from light, true God from true God, begotten not made, consubstantial with the Father, through whom all things came to be; for us humans and for our salvation he came down from the heavens and became incarnate from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, became human and was crucified on our behalf under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried and rose up on the third day in accordance with the scriptures; and he went up into the heavens and is seated at the Father's right hand; he is coming again with glory to judge the living and the dead; his kingdom will have no end.とは1つの主イエスキリストは、神のみ生まれた息子は、父親の前のひとり子のすべての年齢層は、ライトからの光、真の神からの真の神は、ひとり子は前には、父と同本質とは、誰から来たすべてのものに; for us humans and for our salvation he came down from the heavens and became incarnate from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, became human and was crucified on our behalf under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried and rose up on the third day聖書に基づいて;と彼は、天とは、装着するには、父の右手;栄光を再び彼が来ると判断し、リビングデッド;彼の王国は終わりがない。 And in the Spirit, the holy, the lordly and life-giving one, proceeding forth from the Father, co-worshipped and co-glorified with Father and Son, the one who spoke through the prophets; in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church.との精神では、聖なるは、堂々と生命の1つは、論文の父から来たり、見せかけの共同崇拝と共同で父親と息子は、 1つのスポークを通じて、預言者;中の1つ、聖なる、カトリックとローマ教皇教会です。 We confess one baptism for the forgiving of sins.洗礼を告白するために、我々の罪を赦される方です。 We look forward to a resurrection of the dead and life in the age to come.復活を心待ちにする我々の生活の中で、死者の年齢に来ています。 Amen.アーメン。

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A letter of the bishops gathered in Constantinople [1] 手紙の司教に集まったコンスタンティノープル [ 1 ]

To the most honoured lords and most reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Damasus, Ambrose, Britton, Valerian, Acholius, Anemius, Basil, and the rest of the holy bishops who met in the great city of Rome: the sacred synod of orthodox bishops who met in the great city of Constantinople sends greetings in the Lord.して、最も名誉ある貴族や仲間で、最も尊い同胞の閣僚は、 damasus 、アンブローズ、 britton 、カノコソウ、 acholius 、 anemius 、バジル、そして、残りの聖なる司教は、偉大な人に会ったローマ:聖なる司教会議の正統派誰に会ったのは、偉大な都市コンスタンティノープル挨拶で、主に送信します。

It may well be unnecessary to instruct your reverence by describing the many sufferings that have been brought upon us under Arian domination, as if you did not know already.余計なことかもしれない畏敬の念を指示して、多くの苦しみを説明してきた我々にもたらしたアリウス主義支配下には、覚えがない場合は、すでに知っている。 Nor do we imagine that your piety considers our affairs so trivial that you need to learn what you must be suffering along with us.想像しても我々は我々の事情を考慮して忠義にする必要がありますのでささいなことを学ぶとともに何をしなければならない我々の苦しみです。 Nor were the storms which beset us such as to escape your notice on grounds of insignificance.が、私たちを取り巻くも嵐のような理由から脱出して注意して卑しい身分です。 The period of persecution is still recent and ensures that the memory remains fresh not only among those who have suffered but also among those who have through love made the lot of those who suffered their own.最近の期間については、まだ迫害とすることにより、メモリは新鮮な被害だけでなく、人々の間だけでなく人々の間の愛を通して、たくさんの苦しんだ人々の前に、自分のです。 It was barely yesterday or the day before that some were freed from the bonds of exile and returned to their own churches through a thousand tribulations.それは昨日やっとまたはいくつかの前の日にしていたボンズの亡命者からの解放と、自分の教会に戻って千苦難を介している。 The remains of others who died in exile were brought back.亡くなったの遺骨が他人の亡命者が持ち帰った。 Even after their return from exile some experienced a ferment of hatred from the heretics and underwent a more cruel fate in their own land than they did abroad, by being stoned to death by them in the manner of the blessed Stephen.亡命からの帰還後も彼らの憎しみを発酵させるいくつかの経験からすると、異端受け、もっと残酷な運命が彼らは、自分の土地よりも海外では、投石されて死亡したが、かれらの態度によっては、祝福のスティーブン。 Others were torn to shreds by various tortures and still carry around on their bodies the marks of Christ's wounds and bruises.ボロボロにされた他のさまざまな拷問や静止して、自分の体を持ち歩くのは、マークキリストの傷やあざがある。 Who could number the financial penalties, the fines imposed on cities, the confiscations of individual property, the plots, the outrages, the imprisonments?数人が、金融の罰則は、罰金が課せられ、都市では、個々のconfiscations財産は、座標は、 outrages 、 imprisonments ? Indeed all our afflictions increased beyond number: perhaps because we were paying the just penalty for our sins; perhaps also because a loving God was disciplining us by means of the great number of our sufferings.確かに私たちのすべての試練を超えて増加番号:たぶん払っているため、私たちは私たちの罪のためだけでペナルティー;たぶんでも、神を愛するためには手段をつけ、私たちによって数多くの我々の苦しみです。

So thanks be to God for this.神のおかげで、このようにしています。 He has instructed his own servants through the weight of their afflictions, and in accordance with his numerous mercies he has brought us back again to a place of refreshment The restoration of the churches demanded prolonged attention, much time and hard work from us if the body of the church which had been weak for so long was to be cured completely by gradual treatment and brought back to its original soundness in religion.彼は、自分の召使に指示を通じて、自分の体重の試練は、彼の数多くのマーシーに基づいて、彼は私たちをもたらしました場所に再び戻るのは、教会の修復を要求軽食長引く注目は、私たちに多くの時間とハードワークから体の場合教会の弱されていたが、あまりにも長い間に徐々に処理されると完全に治るを元の健全性に帰される宗教です。 We may seem on the whole to be free from violent persecutions and to be at the moment recovering the churches which have long been in the grip of the heretics.我々は、全体のように見えるかもしれませんが暴力的な迫害から解放されると、現時点では回復されてきた教会は、異端に捕らわれている。 But in fact we are oppressed by wolves who even after expulsion from the fold go on ravaging the flocks up and down dale, making so bold as to hold rival assemblies, activating popular uprisings and stopping at nothing which might harm the churches.しかし、実際に我々は抑圧され、後にも除名狼たちのひだに行くravagingデールの群れを上下には、大胆なので、ライバルとして集会を開き、活性化および停止uprisings何事にも人気が教会に悪影響を与えるかもしれない。 As we have said, this made us take a longer time over our affairs.によると我々は、これ以上の長い月日がかかる前に私たち私たちの問題です。

But now you have shown your brotherly love for us by convoking a synod in Rome, in accordance with God's will, and inviting us to it, by means of a letter from your most God-beloved emperor, as if we were limbs of your very own, so that whereas in the past we were condemned to suffer alone, you should not now reign in isolation from us, given the complete agreement of the emperors in matters of religion.しかし、今すぐに表示する必要があなたの兄弟愛のために私たちが会議をconvokingローマでは、神の意志に基づいて、私たちを招待して、一通の手紙を意味してから最も愛された神天皇は、まるで私たちは、お客様の手足非常に自身のように、私たちは死刑囚では、過去に苦しむだけでも、今すぐお治世から孤立してはいけない私たちは、与えられたのは、天皇の完全な合意の点では宗教です。 Rather, according to the word of the apostle, we should reign along with you'.むしろ、その言葉は、伝道者によると、我々はあなたと共に治世' 。 So it was our intention that if it were possible we should all leave our churches together and indulge our desires rather than attend to their needs.だからそれは我々の意図している場合我々はすべての可能性を残すことが私たちの教会と一緒に耽溺する私たちの欲望というより自分のニーズに出席している。 But who will give us wings as of a dove, so we shall fly and come to rest with you?しかし、誰が私たちの翼としては、鳩を与えるので、わたしたちは残りのフライとして来てね? This course would leave the churches entirely exposed, just as they are beginning their renewal; and it is completely out of the question for the majority.このコースは、教会を完全に露出したままにしておくと同様に、彼らは彼らの再生の始まり;とすることは完全には、過半数のは問題外だ。 As a consequence of last year's letter sent by your reverence after the synod of Aquileia to our most God-beloved emperor Theodosius, we came together in Constantinople.その結果として、昨年のお手紙から送られた会議の後に畏敬の念を我々の最も神に愛されaquileiaテオドシウス皇帝は、我々コンスタンティノープル集まって来た。 We were equipped only for this stay in Constantinople and the bishops who remained in the provinces gave their agreement to this synod alone.私たちはこの滞在のための設備だけでコンスタンティノープルと地方の司教たちは、引き続きこの会議を与えただけでも合意した。 We foresaw no need for a longer absence, nor did we hear of it in advance at all, before we gathered in Constantinople.我々の予想を長くする必要がないの不在、またわれは、事前にすべてのことを聞くのは、我々の前に集まったコンスタンティノープル。 On top of this the tightness of the schedule proposed allowed no opportunity to prepare for a longer absence, nor to brief all the bishops in the provinces who are in communion with us and to get their agreement.この上には、スケジュールの逼迫提案の準備をする機会を認めていないの不在長くしたり、簡単なすべての司教には、地方の人が聖体拝領して、わたしたちと彼らの合意を得る。 Since these considerations, and many more besides, prevented most of us from coming, we have done the next best thing both to set matters straight and to make your love for us appreciated: we have managed to convince our most venerable and reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Bishops Cyriacus, Eusebius and Priscian to be willing to undertake the wearisome journey to you.これらの配慮から、そしてもっと多くのほかに、予防から来る私たちのほとんどが、我々は、次のことの両方を設定する最良のものを作る事をまっすぐと感謝して私たちの愛:我々は我々の管理下で最も由緒あると牧師を説得すると仲間の兄弟-閣僚は、司教cyriacus 、ユーセビアスpriscianされると、退屈な旅を喜んで引き受けることができます。 Through them we wish to show that our intentions are peaceful and have unity as their goal.それらを通して我々が望むことを証明して我々の平和的意図を自分の目標として団結している。 We also want to make clear that what we are zealously seeking is sound faith.我々も希望を明確にして我々は何を求めて熱心には、健全な信仰です。

What we have undergone -- persecutions, afflictions, imperial threats, cruelty from officials, and whatever other trial at the hands of heretics -- we have put up with for the sake of the gospel faith established by the 318 fathers at Nicaea in Bithynia.我々は何を受け-迫害、試練は、皇室の脅威には、関係者からの残酷さは、他の裁判とは、どのような手の異端-私たちは我慢しなくては、福音信仰のために設立された31 8の祖先は、ニカイアbi thynia。 You, we and all who are not bent on subverting the word of the true faith should give this creed our approval.あなたは、我々とすべての人が曲がってsubvertingという言葉は、私たちの真の信仰を与え、この承認を信条です。 It is the most ancient and is consistent with our baptism.それは、最も古いとは、私たちの洗礼一貫している。 It tells us how to believe in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy Spirit: believing also, of course, that the Father, the Son and the holy Spirit have a single Godhead and power and substance, a dignity deserving the same honour and a co-eternal sovereignty, in three most perfect hypostases, or three perfect persons.どのように教えてくれることを信じているのは、名前は、父と息子とは、聖霊:信者でも、もちろん、それは父、子、聖霊の力とは、 1つの物質神性とは、尊厳に値する同じ名誉と永遠の主権を共同で、 3つの中で最も完璧なhypostasisの複数形、または3つの完璧な人です。 So there is no place for Sabellius's diseased theory in which the hypostases are confused and thus their proper characteristics destroyed.今場所ではないの病んだサベリウスhypostasisの複数の理論では、このように混乱し、彼らの適切な特性を破棄してください。 Nor may the blasphemy of Eunomians and Arians and Pneumatomachi prevail, with its division of substance or of nature or of Godhead, and its introduction of some nature which was produced subsequently, or was created, or was of a different substance, into the uncreated and consubstantial and co-eternal Trinity.また、 5月の冒とくeunomiansとariansとpneumatomachi広まり、その課の物質や自然の神性や、いくつかの性質とその導入に続いて制作された、または作成された、または、別の物質は、まだ創造されていないとする同本質と共同で永遠のトリニティ。 And we preserve undistorted the accounts of the Lord's taking of humanity, accepting as we do that the economy of his flesh was not soulless nor mindless nor imperfect.そして我々のゆがみのない口座を維持するのは、人類の主の服用は、我々としては、経済を受け入れて自分の魂のない肉も意に介さないも不完全ではない。 To sum up, we know that he was before the ages fully God the Word, and that in the last days he became fully man for the sake of our salvation.かいつまんで言えば、我々が知っている彼は神の前に完全に年齢という言葉は、その中の最後の日となった彼は完全に男のための我々の救いだ。

So much, in summary, for the faith which is openly preached by us.それほど、要約すると、信仰のために私たちは、公然と説教された。 You can take even more heart concerning these matters if you think fit to consult the tome that was issued in Antioch by the synod which met there as well as the one issued last year in Constantinople by the ecumenical synod.もっと心を取ることができますこれらの問題に関する相談が適切と考えるなら、それはトメアンティオキア発行される会議だけでなく、そこで出会ったのは昨年の1つで発行されるコンスタンティノープルエキュメニカル会議です。 In these documents we confessed the faith in broader terms and we have issued a written condemnation of the heresies which have recently erupted.これらの文書は、我々の信仰告白より広範な条件で発行すると我々は非難を書かれたが、最近は、噴火heresies 。

With regard to particular forms of administration in the churches, ancient custom, as you know, has been in force, along with the regulation of the saintly fathers at Nicaea, that in each province those of the province, and with them-should the former so desire -- their neighbours, should conduct ordinations as need might arise.政権と関連して、特定の形態の教会は、古代のカスタムは、ご存知のように、強制されては、規制の気高いと共にニカイア祖先では、それらのことで、各県の県、およびそれらには、元にだから欲求-自分の隣近所、 o rdinationsとして行う必要が生じるかもしれない。 Accordingly, as you are aware, the rest of the churches are administered, and the priests [= bishops] of the most prominent churches have been appointed, by us.したがいまして、ご承知のとおり、教会の残りの部分は、投与し、プリースト[ =司教]として最も有名な教会が任命され、私たちです。 Hence at the ecumenical council by common agreement and in the presence of the most God-beloved emperor Theodosius and all the clergy, and with the approval of the whole city, we have ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Nectarius as bishop of the church newly set up, as one might say, in Constantinople -- a church which by God's mercy we just recently snatched from the blasphemy of the heretics as from the lion's jaws.したがってエキュメニカル協議会では、共通の合意とは、神の存在を最も愛された皇帝テオドシウスのすべての聖職者とし、市全体での承認を得て、我々は、最も由緒あると定められた神に愛され、教会の大主教としてnectarius新たに設定すると、言ってみれば、コンスタンティノープル-教会が、神の慈悲をひったくられるから、我々だけで、最近は、異端として冒とくライオンのジョーズからです。 Over the most ancient and truly apostolic church at Antioch in Syria, where first the precious name of "Christians" came into use, the provincial bishops and those of the diocese of the East came together and canonically ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Flavian as bishop with the consent of the whole church, as though it would give the man due honour with a single voice.真に超えると、最も古い教会でローマ教皇のシリアアンティオキアでは、最初の貴重な場所の名前を"キリスト教徒"に入ってきた使用中の場合、それらは、地方の司教と司教管区一緒に来たとは、東正準定められた神に愛され、最も由緒あるとフラウィウス司教として教会全体の同意を得て、まるでそれが実現すれば、その男の名誉のため、 1つの声です。 The synod as a whole also accepted that this ordination was legal.全体会議でも、この聖職叙任が法的に認められています。 We wish to inform you that the most venerable and God-beloved Cyril is bishop of the church in Jerusalem, the mother of all the churches.我々の望むことをお知らせするもので最も由緒あるとは、神に愛されシリルエルサレム司教は、教会では、すべての教会の母。 He was canonically ordained some time ago by those of the province and at various times he has valiantly combated the Arians.正準彼は定められた時間前に、それらのいくつかの州では、いろいろな時に彼は果敢にcombatedのarians 。

We exhort your reverence to join us in rejoicing at what we have legally and canonically enacted.畏敬の念に参加するよう強く勧める我々は歓喜して、我々はどのような法的および正準制定。 Let spiritual love link us together, and let the fear of the Lord suppress all human prejudice and put the building up of the churches before individual attachment or favour.精神的な愛のリンクをクリックするよう私たちは、神を恐れる心とさせてから、すべての人間の偏見を抑制すると、建物には、教会の前に個々の添付ファイルまたは賛成です。 In this way, with the account of the faith agreed between us and with christian love established among us, we shall cease to declare what was condemned by the apostles, "I belong to Paul, I to Apollo, I to Cephas"; but we shall all be seen to belong to Christ, who has not been divided up among us; and with God's good favour, we shall keep the body of the church undivided, and shall come before the judgment-seat of the Lord with confidence.は、このようにして、私たちの間で合意したアカウントでは、信仰とキリスト教の愛を確立して私たちの間で、わたしたちは何が非難されるの中止を宣言するの使徒は、 "私はポールに所属して、私にアポロは、私をシーファス" ;しかし、我々すべてに見られるものをキリストに所属して、誰が私たちの間に分割されていないといい、神の恵みを、わたしたちは、教会の分裂していないの体を維持する、との判断には、座席の来る前に、主の自信を持っています。

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CANONS 規範

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The profession of faith of the holy fathers who gathered in Nicaea in Bithynia is not to be abrogated, but it is to remain in force.その神聖な信仰告白の父親ではないに集まったbithyniaニカイアで廃止されるが、それは力を維持しています。 Every heresy is to be anathematised and in particular that of the Eunomians or Anomoeans, that of the Arians or Eudoxians, that of the Semi-Arians or Pneumatomachi, that of the Sabellians that of the Marcellians, that of the Photinians and that of the Apollinarians.すべての異端とは、特にanathematisedされることは、 eunomiansまたはanomoeans 、それは、 ariansまたはeudoxians 、それは、セミariansまたはpneumatomachi 、それは、 sabelliansことは、 marcellians 、それは、そのphotiniansとしてapollinarians 。

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Diocesan bishops are not to intrude in churches beyond their own boundaries nor are they to confuse the churches: but in accordance with the canons, the bishop of Alexandria is to administer affairs in Egypt only; the bishops of the East are to manage the East alone (whilst safeguarding the privileges granted to the church of the Antiochenes in the Nicene canons); and the bishops of the Asian diocese are to manage only Asian affairs; and those in Pontus only the affairs of Pontus; and those in Thrace only Thracian affairs.司教監督管区では、教会に侵入しないように、自分の境界線を越えても彼らは教会を混同し:しかし、この規範に基づいて、アレクサンドリアの司教のエジプトでは、業務を管理するだけ;の司教は、東は東を管理するだけで(間の権限を守ることは、その教会は、ニカイアantiochenes規範) ;と、アジアの司教監督管区のみを管理するには、アジア担当;とポントゥスだけで、担当者のポントゥス;と担当者はトラキアトラキア人のみです。 Unless invited bishops are not to go outside their diocese to perform an ordination or any other ecclesiastical business.司教に招待されない限りではありません外に行って自分の監督管区を実行するか、他の教会の聖職叙任ビジネスです。 If the letter of the canon about dioceses is kept, it is clear that the provincial synod will manage affairs in each province, as was decreed at Nicaea.手紙の場合は、キヤノンについては、保管dioceses 、それは明確にしては、管理業務会議で、各地方省は、ニカイアとしては、定められた。 But the churches of God among barbarian peoples must be administered in accordance with the custom in force at the time of the fathers.しかし、神の教会に投与しなければならない人々の間で野蛮では、カスタムに力を合わせている時点で、父親のです。

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Because it is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honour after the bishop of Rome.なぜならこれは新しいローマ、コンスタンティノープルの大主教は、名誉特権を享受した後、ローマ司教です。

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Regarding Maximus the Cynic and the disorder which surrounded him in Constantinople: he never became, nor is he, a bishop; nor are those ordained by him clerics of any rank whatsoever.皮肉屋や障害に関するマクシムス彼を囲んでコンスタンティノープル:彼は絶対になったし、また彼は、ある司教;も彼には、これらの聖職者は、各ランクによって定められたものです。 Everything that was done both to him and by him is to be held invalid.すべてのことが行われたとされた彼は、彼の両方に開催される無効です。

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Regarding the Tome [2] of the Westerns: we have also recognised those in Antioch who confess a single Godhead of Father and Son and holy Spirit.トメに関しては、西部劇[ 2 ] :我々はそれらの中にも認められ、 1つの神性を告白アンティオキア人の父と息子と聖霊です。

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There are many who are bent on confusing and overturning the good order of the church and so fabricate, out of hatred and a wish to slander, certain accusations against orthodox bishops in charge of churches.そこには多くの人が曲がって転倒して紛らわしいとの良好な秩序を作り上げるための教会とは、憎しみとの願いを誹謗中傷し、非難する特定の正統派教会の司教を担当しています。 Their intention is none other than to blacken priests' reputations and to stir up trouble among peace- loving laity.彼らの意図はなし以外に黒くプリースト'評判との間でトラブルを巻き起こす平和を愛する素人です。 For this reason the sacred synod of bishops assembled at Constantinople has decided not to admit accusers without prior examination, and not to allow everyone to bring accusations against church administrators -- but with- out excluding everyone.この理由から、聖なる司教会議の組み立てをすることに決めました。コンスタンティノープル告発者は、事前審査を認めることは、みんなを許可を持っていないと非難する教会の管理者-しかし、誰もアウトを除く。 So if someone brings a private (that is a personal) complaint against the bishop on the grounds that he has been defrauded or in some other way unjustly dealt with by him, in the case of this kind of accusation neither the character nor the religion of the accuser will be subject to examination. So if someone brings a private (that is a personal) complaint against the bishop on the grounds that he has been defrauded or in some other way unjustly dealt with by him, in the case of this kind of accusation neither the character nor the religion of告発されるの審査の対象となる。 It is wholly essential both that the bishop should have a clear conscience and that the one who alleges that he has been wronged, whatever his religion may be, should get justice.それは完全に欠かせないの両方をクリアしなければならないことの司教は、一人の良心と主張して不当な扱いをされて彼は、彼のどんな宗教かもしれないが、正義を取得すべきだ。

But if the charge brought against the bishop is of an ecclesiastical kind, then the characters of those making it should be examined, in the first place to stop heretics bringing charges against orthodox bishops in matters of an ecclesiastical kind.しかしもし反対の電荷もたらしたのは、教会の司教の種類、そしてそれらの文字を検討しなければならないことは、まず第一に持ち込む異端告発を停止する正統派教会の司教の点ではある種です。 (We define "heretics" as those who have been previously banned from the church and also those later anathematised by ourselves: and in addition those who claim to confess a faith that is sound, but who have seceded and hold assemblies in rivalry with the bishops who are in communion with us.) In the second place, persons previously condemned and expelled from the church for whatever reason, or those excommunicated either from the clerical or lay rank, are not to be permitted to accuse a bishop until they have first purged their own crime. (我々を定義する"異端"として持っている人は、以前から追放され、それらの後も教会とは、自分自身がanathematised :と主張する人たちに加えて、信仰を告白しては、健全な、でも、だれがsecededおよびアセンブリに対抗して、司教ホールド誰が私たちに聖体拝領しています。 )で、第2位は、人々を非難し、以前の教会から追放さどんな理由であれ、またはそれらのいずれかからexcommunicated事務またはレイランクは、許可していないと非難される彼らは最初に削除されるまで、ビショップ独自の犯罪です。 Similarly, those who are already accused are not permitted to accuse a bishop or other clerics until they have proved their own innocence of the crimes with which they are charged.同様に、人々は、すでに起訴さを非難することは許可しては、ビショップやその他の聖職者、自分の無実を証明するまで彼らは、犯罪を請求されている。 But if persons who are neither heretics nor excommunicates, nor such as have been previously condemned or accused of some transgression or other, claim that they have some ecclesiastical charge to make against the bishop, the sacred synod commands that such persons should first lay the accusations before all the bishops of the province and prove before them the crimes committed by the bishop in the case.しかし、どちらの場合には、異端者もexcommunicates 、また以前のように非難されたり罪や他のいくつかの告発は、主張して請求を行うことがいくつかある教会の司教に対しては、そのような人は神聖な会議のコマンドを最初に横たわって非難すべき以前のすべての司教は、州およびそれらの犯罪を立証する前に、司教の場合です。 If it emerges that the bishops of the province are not able to correct the crimes laid at the bishop's door, then a higher synod of the bishops of that diocese, convoked to hear this case, must be approached, and the accusers are not to lay their accusations before it until they have given a written promise to submit to equal penalties should they be found guilty of making false accusations against the accused bishop, when the matter is investigated.司教がemergeしている場合は、道を修正することはできませんが、犯罪のレイアウトは、司教のドアには、次に高い司教会議は、その監督管区は、この事件を聞いてconvoked 、接近しなければならない、との告発をレイではないそれまで、彼らは彼らの非難する前に与えられた平等の書面を提出する約束をかれらに有罪罰則は、虚偽の告発も非難する司教は、その件については、調査時。

If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church. If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church.

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Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians-these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians- these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. They are first sealed or anointed with holy chrism on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth and ears. As we seal them we say: "Seal of the gift of the holy Spirit". But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures; and then we baptise them. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures ; and then we baptise them.

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FOOTNOTES
  1. Namely the synod of Constantinople in 382
  2. This tome has not survived; it probably defended Paul of Antioch

Translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

Second Council of Constantinople - 553 AD

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Introduction導入

The emperor Justinian and Pope Vigilius decided to summon this council after the latter withdrew his "Judgment" condemning the "Three Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas. This "Judgment" had been issued on 11 April 548 but the bishops of the west and especially of Africa unanimously opposed it. The council was summoned by Justinian to Constantinople, although Vigilius would have preferred to convene it in Sicily or Italy so that western bishops might be present. It assembled on 5 May 553 in the great hall attached to Hagia Sophia cathedral.

Since the Roman pontiff refused to take part in the council, because Justinian had summoned bishops in equal numbers from each of the five patriarchal sees, so that there would be many more eastern than western bishops present, Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, presided. The decrees of the council were signed by 160 bishops, of whom 8 were Africans.

On 14 May 553 Pope Vigilius issued his "Constitution", which was signed by 16 bishops (9 from Italy, 2 from Africa, 2 from Illyricum and 3 from Asia Minor). This rejected sixty propositions of Theodore of Mopsuestia, but spared his personal memory and refused to condemn either Theodoret or Ibas since, on the testimony of the council of Chalcedon, all suspicion of heresy against them had been removed. Nevertheless, the council council in its 8th session on 2 June 553 again condemned the "Three Chapters" , for the same reasons as Justinian had done so, in a judgment which concludes with 14 anathemas .

After carefully considering the matter for six months, Vigilius ,weighing up the persecutions of Justinian against his clergy and having sent a letter to Eutychius of Constantinople, approved the council , thus changing his mind "after the example of Augustine". Furthermore he anathematized Theodore and condemned his writings and those of Theodoret and Ibas . On 23 February 554, in a second "Constitution", he tried to reconcile the recent condemnation with what had been decreed at the council of Chalcedon.

The council did not debate ecclesiastical discipline nor did it issue disciplinary canons. Our edition does not include the text of the anathemas against Origen since recent studies have shown that these anathemas cannot be attributed to this council.

For the 14 anathemas (pp. 114-122) the translation is from the Greek text, since this is the more authoritative version.


Sentence against the "Three Chapters"

Our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, as we are told in the parable in the gospel, gives talents to each one according to his ability, and at the proper time asks for an account of what has been done by each one. If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? It is clear to all believers that when a problem about the faith comes up it is not only the heretical person who is condemned but also the person who is in a position to correct the heresy of others and fails to do so. To those of us to whom the task has been given of governing the church of the Lord, there comes a fear of the condemnation which threatens those who neglect to do the Lord's work. We hurry to take care of the good seed of faith protecting it from the weeds of heresy which have been planted by the enemy. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Our observations prompted us to correct what was happening. We assembled in this imperial city, summoned here by the will of God and the command of the most religious emperor.

The most religious Vigilius happened to be present in this imperial city and took part in all the criticisms against the three chapters. He had frequently condemned them by word of mouth and in his writings. Later he gave a written agreement to take part in our council and to study with us the three chapters so that we could all issue an appropriate definition of the true faith. The most pious emperor, prompted by what was acceptable to us, encouraged a meeting between Vigilius and ourselves because it is proper that the priesthood should impose a common conclusion to matters of common concern. Consequently we asked his reverence to carry out his written undertakings. It did not seem right that the scandal over these three chapters should continue and that the church of God should be further disturbed. In order to persuade him, we reminded him of the great example left us by the apostles and of the traditions of the fathers. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures.

In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity. In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity.

The holy fathers, who have gathered at intervals in the four holy councils, have followed the examples of antiquity. They dealt with heresies and current problems by debate in common, since it was established as certain that when the disputed question is set out by each side in communal discussions, the light of truth drives out the shadows of lying.

The truth cannot be made clear in any other way when there are debates about questions of faith, since everyone requires the assistance of his neighbour. As Solomon says in his proverbs: A brother who helps a brother shall be exalted like a strong city; he shall be as strong as a well-established kingdom. Again in Ecclesiastes he says: Two are better than one, for they have a good reward for their toil. And the Lord himself says: Amen I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Vigilius was frequently invited by us all, and most distinguished judges were sent to him by the most pious emperor. Eventually he promised to give judgment personally on the three chapters. When we heard this promise, we remembered the warning of the Apostle that each of us shall give an account of himself to God. We were afraid of the condemnation which threatens those who scandalize one of the least important, and of the much more serious one which threatens those who scandalize so very christian an emperor, the people and all the churches. We also remembered what was said by God to Paul: Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not be silent; for I am with you, and nobody shall be able to harm you. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. We confessed that we believe, protect and preach to the holy churches that confession of faith which was set out at greater length by the 318 holy fathers who met in council at Nicaea and handed down the holy doctrine or creed. The 150 who met in council at Constantinople also set out the same faith and made a confession of it and explained it. The 200 holy fathers who met in the first council of Ephesus agreed to the same faith. We follow also the definitions of the 630 who met in council at Chalcedon, regarding the same faith which they both followed and preached. We confessed that we held to be condemned and anathematized all those who had been previously condemned and anathematized by the catholic church and by the aforesaid four councils. When we had made this confession in this way, we made a start on the examination of the three chapters. First, we considered Theodore of Mopsuestia. When all the blasphemies in his works were exposed, we were astonished at God's patience, that the tongue and mind which had formed such blasphemies were not straightaway burned up by divine fire. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. All of us, angered by the blasphemies against God, burst into attacks and anathemas against Theodore, during and after the reading, as if he had been living and present there. We said: Lord, be favourable to us; not even the demons themselves have dared to speak such things against you.

O his intolerable tongue! O the wickedness of the man ! O the proud hand he raised against his creator! This disgraceful man, who had made a promise to understand the scriptures, did not remember the words of the prophet Hosea: Woe to them, for they have strayed from me! They have become notorious because of their impiety towards me. They spoke evil things about me, and after they had considered them, they spoke even worse things against me. They will fall into a trap because of the depravity of their tongues. Their contempt will be turned inwards on themselves, because they have broken my covenant and acted impiously against my law. The impious Theodore deserves to come under these curses. He dismissed the prophecies about Christ and he vilified, as far as he could, the great mystery of the arrangements that have been made for our salvation. In many ways he tried to demonstrate that the divine word was nothing but fables composed for the amusement of the gentiles. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. This refers to their teachings which are full of darkness and quite separate from the light.

Why ought we to add anything more? Anyone who wishes can consult the volumes of the heretical Theodore or the heretical chapters from his heretical books which have been included in our acts. Anyone can see his unbelievable folly and the disgraceful utterances made by him. We fear to continue and to rehearse again those shameful things. The writings of the holy fathers against him were also read out to us. We heard what had been written against his folly which was more than all the other heretics, and the historical records and imperial laws which set out his heresy from its beginning. Despite all this, those who defended his heresy, delighting in the insults offered by him to his creator, declared that it was improper to anathematize him after his death. Although we were aware of the ecclesiastical tradition concerning heretics, that they are anathematized even after death, we deemed it necessary to go into this matter as well and it can be found in the acts how several heretics were anathematized after they were dead. In many ways it has become clear to us that those who put forward this argument have no concern for God's judgments, nor for the pronouncements of the apostles, nor for the traditions of the fathers. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only -begotten Son of God. And about that claim of the Apostle: Even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed. As we said earlier, I repeat once more: If anyone preaches to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed.

Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Are they unaware, or rather pretending to be unaware, that to be judged anathematized is just the same as to be separated from God? The heretic, even though he has not been condemned formally by any individual, in reality brings anathema on himself, having cut himself off from the way of truth by his heresy. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned 。

It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover, several letters of Augustine of sacred memory, who was particularly outstanding among the African bishops, were read in which he indicates that it is correct to condemn heretics even after their death. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. These followers have willfully misunderstood what the holy fathers wrote, even though it was true and appropriate; they have quoted these writings, dissembling excuses for their own iniquities. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. The fathers indicate their intention in this matter despite the conciliatory forms used: Theodore was to be anathematized. This has been very clearly shown to be the case by us in our acts from the works of Cyril and Proclus of blessed memory in respect of the condemnation of Theodore and his heresy. This conciliatory attitude is also to be found in the holy scriptures. The apostle Paul employed this tactic at the start of his ministry when he was dealing with those who had been Jews; he circumcised Timothy so that by this conciliation and concession he might lead them to perfection. Afterwards, however, he ruled against circumcision, writing on the subject to the Galatians: Now I Paul say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you. We found that the defenders of Theodore have done exactly what the heretics were accustomed to do. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. The passages which they quoted made the truth absolutely clear once the omitted sections were put back in their proper place. The falsehoods were quite apparent when the true writings were collated. In this matter those who issued these empty statements are those who, in the words of scripture, rely on lies, they make empty pleas; they conceive mischief and bring forth iniquity, they weave the spider's web.

After we had investigated in this way Theodore and his heresy, we took the trouble to quote and include in our acts a few of Theodoret's heretical writings against true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus. We also included some of Theodoret's writings on the side of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius so that it would be made clear, to the satisfaction of anyone reading our acts, that these opinions had been properly rejected and anathematized.

Thirdly, the letter which is alleged to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian was brought under scrutiny and we discovered that it too ought to be officially read out. When the letter was read out, its heretical character was immediately apparent to everyone. Until this time there had been some dispute as to whether the aforesaid three chapters ought to be condemned and anathematized. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon, it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon , it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. It was demonstrated in our acts that Ibas was previously accused of the same heresy which is contained in this letter. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. When Ibas was later found to be blameworthy, he was deposed from the episcopate. This being the state of affairs, how could anyone be so bold as to allege that that heretical letter was accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon or that the holy council of Chalcedon agreed with it in its entirety? So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon, on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon , on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. We gathered from these authorities that nothing which has been written by anyone ought to be accepted unless it has been shown conclusively that it is in accord with the true faith of the holy fathers. Therefore we broke off from our deliberations so as to reiterate in a formal declaration the definition of faith which was promulgated by the holy council of Chalcedon. We compared what was written in the letter with this official statement. When this comparison was made, it was quite apparent that the contents of the letter were quite contradictory to those of the definition of faith. The definition was in accord with the unique, permanent faith set out by the 318 holy fathers, and by the 150, and by those who gathered for the first council at Ephesus. The heretical letter, on the other hand, included the blasphemies of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and even gave support to them and describes them as doctors, while it condemns the holy fathers as heretics. We make it quite clear to everyone that we do not intend to omit what the fathers had to say in the first and second investigations, which are adduced by the supporters of Theodore and Nestorius in support of their case. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. This was the view not only of the two bishops whose interventions some have tried to misapply but also of the other religious bishops of that holy council. They also acted thus in the case of Theodoret and insisted that he anathematize those opinions about which he was accused. If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? We are rightly told: What partnership has righteousness with iniquity? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? What participation has the temple of God with idols?

Now that we have given the details of what our council has achieved, we repeat our formal confession that we accept the four holy synods, that is, of Nicaea, of Constantinople, the first of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon. Our teaching is and has been all that they have defined concerning the one faith. We consider those who do not respect these things as foreign to the catholic church. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Additionally, we anathematize the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written to Mari the Persian. This letter denies that God the Word was made incarnate of the ever virgin Mary, the holy mother of God, and that he was made man. It also condemns as a heretic Cyril of holy memory, who taught the truth, and suggests that he held the same opinions as Apollinarius. The letter condemns the first synod of Ephesus for deposing Nestorius without proper process and investigation. It calls the twelve chapters of holy Cyril heretical and contrary to the orthodox faith, while it supports Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and writings. Consequently we anathematize the aforesaid three chapters, that is, the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia along with his detestable writings, and the heretical writings of Theodoret, and the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon.

These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. So we declare to them: Behold all you who kindle a fire, who set brands alight! Walk by the light of your fire, and by the brands which you have kindled! Since we are under command to encourage the people with orthodox teaching and to speak to the heart of Jerusalem, that is the church of God, we very properly hurry to sow in righteousness and to reap the fruit of life. In doing this we are lighting for ourselves the lamp of knowledge from the scriptures and the teachings of the fathers. It has therefore seemed necessary to us to sum up in certain statements both our declarations of the truth and our condemnations of heretics and their heretical teachings.

Anathemas against the "Three Chapters"

  1. If anyone will not confess that the Father, Son and holy Spirit have one nature or substance, that they have one power and authority, that there is a consubstantial Trinity, one Deity to be adored in three subsistences or persons: let him be anathema . There is only one God and Father, from whom all things come, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and one holy Spirit, in whom all things are.

  2. If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema . If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema .

  3. If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema .

  4. If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . The notion of "union" can be understood in many different ways. The supporters of the wickedness of Apollinarius and Eutyches have asserted that the union is produced by a confusing of the uniting elements, as they advocate the disappearance of the elements that unite. Those who follow Theodore and Nestorius, rejoicing in the division, have brought in a union which is only by affection. The holy church of God, rejecting the wickedness of both sorts of heresy, states her belief in a union between the Word of God and human flesh which is by synthesis, that is by a union of subsistence. In the mystery of Christ the union of synthesis not only conserves without confusing the elements that come together but also allows no division.

  5. If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . There has been no addition of person or subsistence to the holy Trinity even after one of its members, God the Word, becoming human flesh.

  6. If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema .

  7. If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh, but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema . If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh , but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema .

  8. If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was, and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was , and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. So there is only one Christ, God and man, the same being consubstantial with the Father in respect of his divinity, and also consubstantial with us in respect of our humanity. Both those who divide or split up the mystery of the divine dispensation of Christ and those who introduce into that mystery some confusion are equally rejected and anathematized by the church of God.

  9. If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema . If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema .

  10. If anyone does not confess his belief that our lord Jesus Christ, who was crucified in his human flesh, is truly God and the Lord of glory and one of the members of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema .

  11. If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema . If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema .

  12. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. Furthermore this heretical Theodore claimed that the union of God the Word to Christ is rather like that which, according to the teaching of the Apostle, is between a man and his wife: The two shall become one. Among innumerable other blasphemies he dared to allege that, when after his resurrection the Lord breathed on his disciples and said, Receive the holy Spirit, he was not truly giving them the holy Spirit, but he breathed on them only as a sign. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema . If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema .

  13. If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema .

  14. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema .

Such then are the assertions we confess. We have received them from

  1. holy Scripture, from
  2. the teaching of the holy fathers, and from
  3. the definitions about the one and the same faith made by the aforesaid four holy synods.
Moreover, condemnation has been passed by us against the heretics and their impiety, and also against those who have justified or shall justify the so-called "Three Chapters", and against those who have persisted or will persist in their own error. If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema . If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema .


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

Third Council of Constantinople - 680 - 681 AD第3コンスタンティノポリス公会議-6 80- 68 1広告

Advanced Information 高度情報

Contents目次

Exposition of faith 万博の信仰

INTRODUCTION導入

To make an end of the Monothelite controversy , Emperor Constantine IV asked Pope Donus in 678 to send twelve bishops and four western Greek monastic superiors to represent the pope at an assembly of eastern and western theologians. Pope Agatho , who meanwhile had succeeded Donus, ordered consultation in the west on this important matter. キリスト単意して論争を終わらせるのは、皇帝コンスタンティヌス4世法王donusで678依頼を送信すると12の司教修道士の上司4人を代表して西ギリシャローマ教皇は、アセンブリの東部と西部の神学者です。 agatho法王は、成功した人はdonus一方、指示西の方では相談して、この重要な問題だ。 Around Easter 680 a synod in Rome of 125 Italian bishops, with Pope Agatho presiding, assessed the replies of the regional synods of the west and composed a profession of faith in which Monothelitism was condemned .イースターの周り 680の125イタリアのローマ司教会議で、議長を務めるagatho法王は、返事は、この地域の評価は、西側諸国とで構成さ synods な信仰告白するキリスト単では、死刑囚です。 Legates of the pope took this profession to Constantinople, arriving at the beginning of September 680. legatesのコンスタンティノープル法王は、この職業には、 9月初めに到着して680 。

On 10 September 680 the emperor issued an edict to Patriarch George of Constantinople, ordering a council of bishops to be convoked. 9月10日に発行して、天皇の勅令を680ジョージのコンスタンティノープル総主教、司教協議会に発注するconvoked 。 The council assembled on 7 November in the hall of the imperial palace in Constantinople. 11月7日の理事会で、ホールに集合して、皇居でのコンスタンティノープル。 It immediately called itself an ecumenical council.すぐに呼ばれること自体、エキュメニカル協議会です。 There were 18 sessions, at the first eleven of which the emperor presided.セッションがあった18日には、最初の11人の大統領が、天皇です。

In the 8th session, on 7 March 681, the council adopted the teaching of Pope Agatho in condemnation of Monothelitism .第8回のセッションでは、 681を3月7日、 同会議採択さagatho法王の指導のキリスト単非難した。 Patriarch Macarius of Antioch was one of the few who refused his assent; he was deposed in the 12th session.アンティオキア総主教のマカリウスられた数少ない彼の同意を拒否した人;彼は、 12日のセッションで退陣。

The doctrinal conclusions of the council were defined in the 17th session and promulgated in the 18th and last session on 16 September 681. The acts of the council, signed both by 174 fathers and finally by the emperor himself, were sent to Pope Leo II , who had succeeded Agatho, and he, when he had approved them, ordered them to be translated into Latin and to be signed by all the bishops of the west.結論は、評議会の教義上で定義された第17回のセッションでは、 18日に公布して、昨年9月16日のセッション681 。 行為は、評議会は、登録 された174の両方で、天皇自身の祖先そして最後には、送信された教皇レオ2世は、 agathoに成功した、と彼は、 承認していたときに、それらを指示したとされるラテン語に翻訳されると署名され、西側のすべての司教のです。 Constantine IV, however, promulgated the decrees of the council in all parts of the empire by imperial edict.コンスタンティノス4世は、しかし、政令公布のすべての部分では、評議会の帝国勅令勅命。 The council did not debate church discipline and did not establish any disciplinary cannons.審議会の議論しなかった教会の規律を確立していない任意の懲戒大砲。


Exposition of faith 万博の信仰

The only Son and Word of God the Father, who became a man like us in all things but sin, Christ our true God, proclaimed clearly in the words of the gospel; I am the light of the world; anyone who follows me shall not walk in darkness but shall have the light of life, and again, My peace I leave to you, my peace I give you.神のみことばは、父親と息子は、一人の男の人が私たちのように、すべての物事しかし、罪は、キリストの私たちの真の神を、はっきりと宣言は、言葉の福音;私は、光の世界;私には、以下のとおりです人は誰でもないしかし、暗闇の中を歩く人生の光を有するものとし、また、私の平和を残す場合私は、私の平和をあげるからね。 Our most mild emperor, champion of right belief and adversary of wrong belief, guided in godly wisdom by this teaching of peace spoken by God, has brought together this holy and universal assembly of ours and set at one the whole judgment of the church.我々の最も軽度の天皇は、チャンピオンの権利の信念と間違った信念対審は、信心深い知恵によって導かれたこの授業で話される平和の神は、普遍的には国会を召集し、この聖なると偽り、 1つのセットでは、教会全体の判断だ。

Wherefore this holy and universal synod of ours , driving afar the error of impiety which endured for some time even till the present, following without deviation in a straight path after the holy and accepted fathers, has piously accorded in all things with the five holy and universal synods : that is to say, with何のために私たちのこの聖なる教会会議や普遍は、遠くの運転に耐えるために、エラーの不信心で、現在までにもいくつかの時間は、以下の偏差がなく、正しい道を受け入れた後、聖なる父は、 これですべてがpiouslyの5つの神聖なものとしてユニバーサルsynodsこれは、つまり、

  1. the synod of 318 holy fathers who gathered at Nicaea against the madman Arius, andこの会議に集まった人の祖先の聖なるニカイア 318対マッドマンアリウス、および
  2. that which followed it at Constantinople of 150 God-led men against Macedonius, opponent of the Spirit, and the impious Apollinarius; similarly too, withそれに続いて150 コンスタンティノープルの男性主導の対macedoniusは、対戦相手の精神には、不敬とapollinarius ;あまりにも同様で、
  3. the first at Ephesus of 200 godly men brought together against Nestorius, who thought as the Jews and エフェソスの最初の200人の信仰心の厚い人で召集に反対nestorius 、ユダヤ人と人としての思想
  4. that at Chalcedon of 630 God-inspired fathers against Eutyches and Dioscorus, hateful to God; also, in addition to these, with chalcedonことで、反対630の祖先神に触発さeutychesdioscorus 、憎らしいを神;また、これらに加えて、
  5. the fifth holy synod, the latest of them, which was gathered here against Theodore of Mopsuestia, Origen, Didymus and Evagrius , and the writings of Theodoret against the twelve chapters of the renowned Cyril, and the letter said to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian.第5聖務会院は、かれらの最新のは、 ここに集まった反対されたモプスエスティアのテオドロス、原産地、 didymusとevagrius 、との記述がtheodoret対12の支部は、高名なシリル、と書かれた手紙によるとibasをしてきたマリのペルシャ。
Reaffirming the divine tenets of piety in all respects unaltered, and banishing the profane teachings of impiety, this holy and universal synod of ours has also, in its turn, under God's inspiration , set its seal on the creed which was made out by the 318 fathers and confirmed again with godly prudence by the 150 and which the other holy synods too accepted gladly and ratified for the elimination of all soul-corrupting heresy神の教義の再確認忠義変質していないすべての点では、との不敬banishing不信心の教えは、この会議の神聖で普遍的にも我々は、その電源は、 神の霊感の下で 、そのシールを信条に設定された318される前に出す信心深い父親と慎重な対応をして再度確認された150人と、他の神聖さとsynodsあまりにも喜んで受け入れたの廃絶のためのすべての批准の魂-堕落異端

We believe in one God ...[Creed of Nicaea and of Constantinople 1] 1つの神を信じる我々 ... [ニカイア信条とは、コンスタンティノープル1 ]

The holy and universal synod said:会議によると、聖なると普遍:

This pious and orthodox creed of the divine favour was enough for a complete knowledge of the orthodox faith and a complete assurance therein.この信心深い神の恵みと正統派の信条のためには、十分な知識が、完全な正統派の信仰とそこに完全に保証します。 But since from the first, the contriver of evil did not rest, finding an accomplice in the serpent and through him bringing upon human nature the poisoned dart of death, so too now he has found instruments suited to his own purpose--namely Theodore, who was bishop of Pharan, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul Paul and Peter, who were bishops of this imperial city, and further Honorius, who was pope of elder Rome, Cyrus, who held the see of Alexandria, and Macarius, who was recently bishop of Antioch, and his disciple Stephen -- and has not been idle in raising through them obstacles of error against the full body of the church sowing with novel speech among the orthodox people the heresy of a single will and a single principle of action in the two natures of the one member of the holy Trinity Christ our true God, a heresy in harmony with the evil belief, ruinous to the mind, of the impious Apollinarius, Severus and Themistius , and one intent on removing the perfection of the becoming man of the same one lord Jesus Christ our God, through a certain guileful device, leading from there to the blasphemous conclusion that his rationally animate flesh is without a will and a principle of action.しかし、最初から、悪のなかった残りの考案者は、共犯者を見つけるのには、蛇と人間の本性に持ち込むを通して彼の死の毒矢ので、あまりにも彼は現在、自分の目的に適している楽器が見つかりました-セオドアすなわち、ビショップpharanていたのは、 セルギウス、ピュロス、ポールポールとピーターは、司教たちが、この皇室の都市、およびさらなるホノリウス氏はローマ教皇の長老、 キュロスは、誰のアレクサンドリアで開かれたのを参照してください、とマカリウス氏は最近の司教アンティオキアのは、彼の弟子とスティーブン -アイドル状態にされていないとして障害物を介して、エラーの引き上げに反対してフルボディの小説をまき、教会の演説ので、正統派の人々は異端と 1つ1 つの行動原理は、 2つの性質は、 1つのメンバーである私たちの真の三位一体の神キリストは、異端と調和して、悪の信念は、心の破滅には、その不敬apollinarius 、セウェルスとthemistius 、および1つの取り外し完ぺきには、意図して男になる私たちの主イエスキリストと同じ神の1つは、特定の狡猾なデバイスを介して、そこからリードを冒とく的な結論を出すことは、彼の合理的有生肉なしでは、行動の原則とする。

Therefore Christ our God has stirred up the faithful emperor, the new David, finding in him a man after his own heart, who, as the scripture says, did not allow his eyes sleep or his eyelids drowsing until through this holy assembly of ours, brought together by God, he found the perfect proclamation of right belief; for according to the God-spoken saying, Where there are two or three gathered in my name, there am I in their midst.従って私たちの神は、キリストの忠実な天皇論議を巻き起こし、新しいデビッドは、彼一人の男を見つけるのは、自分の心臓の後には、人は、この啓典によれば、彼の目を許可しなかった彼のまぶたdrowsing睡眠や神聖されるまで、このアセンブリを介して、我々は、召集された神は、彼の権利宣言が見つかりました完璧な信念;によると、神のために話されると言って、そこには2つまたは3つに集まった私の名前は、私は彼らの中にある。

This same holy and universal synod, here present, faithfully accepts and welcomes with open hands the report of Agatho , most holy and most blessed pope of elder Rome, that came to our most reverend and most faithful emperor Constantine, which rejected by name those who proclaimed and taught, as has been already explained, one will and one principle of action in the incarnate dispensation of Christ our true God; and likewise it approves as well the other synodal report to his God-taught serenity, from the synod of 125 bishops dear to God meeting under the same most holy pope, as according with the holy synod at Chalcedon and with the Tome of the all-holy and most blessed Leo, pope of the same elder Rome, which was sent to Flavian, who is among the saints, and which that synod called a pillar of right belief, and furthermore with the synodal letters written by the blessed Cyril against the impious Nestorius and to the bishops of the east.これと同じ聖なる普遍教会会議は、ここに存在する場合、 忠実に受け入れるとの報告書を歓迎して手を開くagatho 、最も神聖で、最も祝福ローマ教皇の長老は、私たちのほとんどの牧師をして来たと最も忠実な皇帝コンスタンティヌスは、人々の名前を拒否される宣言と教えは、すでに説明してきたとして、 1つの原則と1つのアクションでは、キリストの私たちの真の神の化身特免; として承認することと同様に、他の宗教会議の報告書井戸の神の教えに落ち着き払って彼は、 125からの司教会議親愛なるを神の下で、同じ会議室で最も神聖ローマ教皇は、聖務会院によると、トメchalcedonとして、すべての神聖で、最も祝福レオは、ローマ教皇のと同じエルダー、これをフラウィウスが送られて、その中で誰が聖人と呼ばれる会議にして右側の柱の信念、そしてまた、祝福された宗教会議で書かれた手紙に対する不敬シリルnestorius司教は、東としています。

Following the five holy and universal synods and the holy and accepted fathers, and defining in unison, it professes our lord Jesus Christ our true God, one of the holy Trinity, which is of one same being and is the source of life, to be perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, of a rational soul and a body; consubstantial with the Father as regards his divinity, and the same consubstantial with us as regards his humanity, like us in all respects except for sin; begotten before the ages from the Father as regards his divinity, and in the last days the same for us and for our salvation from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, who is properly and truly called mother of God, as regards his humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no separation, no division; at no point was the difference between the natures taken away through the union, but rather the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single subsistent being [in unam personam et in unam subsistentiam concurrente]; he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, Word of God, lord Jesus Christ, just as the prophets taught from the beginning about him, and as Jesus the Christ himself instructed us, and as the creed of the holy fathers handed it down to us.次の5つの神聖で普遍的synodsと、聖なる父と受け入れた、と定義ユニゾンで 、わたしたちの主イエスキリストprofesses私たちの真の神は、 1つのホーリートリニティー、これは、 1つのと同じでは、生命の源は、される完璧で、完璧な神と人類は、神と同じ真に真に男は、魂と体を合理的;同本質で、彼の父親としての神性に関しては、同本質を私たちと同じ人間としての彼に関しては、我々のようにすべての点を除いて罪のため;ひとり子の年齢より前に彼の父親としての神性に関しては、との最後の日のために、わたしたちと同じですから、我々の救いと聖霊は、聖母マリアには、誰が真に適切と呼ばれ、神の母は、彼に関して人類;自分と同じキリストは、息子は、主に、ひとり子のみには、 2つ性質を認めていないが受ける混乱は、何の変化も、分離ない、ない課;での違いはない点が連れ去らを通じて、労働組合の性質が、むしろ、財産の両方の性質が来ると一緒に保存され、 1つの実存 [ subsistentiam雲岩には雲岩対人et concurrente ] ;彼ではない2つに分かれてpartedあるいは人が、自分と同じだけ生まれた息子は、単語の神は、主イエスキリストは、預言者と同じように、初めから彼について教えられる、とのイエスキリストとして私たち自身を指示し、父親としての信条は、神聖な利きダウンすることとしています。

And we proclaim equally two natural volitions or wills in him and two natural principles of action which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, in accordance with the teaching of the holy fathers. 宣言同様に 2つの天然volitions 我々は彼の意志や自然の原則と2つのアクションを受ける課いいえ、何の変化も、パーティションのない、混乱のない、その教えに基づいて、聖なる父です。 And the two natural wills not in opposition, as the impious heretics said, far from it, but his human will following, and not resisting or struggling, rather in fact subject to his divine and all powerful will.自然の意志がないと、 2つの反対意見は、異端として、不敬によると、それには程遠いが、彼の人間には以下のは、抵抗したりと奮闘していない、むしろ彼の実際の対象となるすべての強力な神とは別です。 For the will of the flesh had to be moved, and yet to be subjected to the divine will, according to the most wise Athanasius.そのためには肉に動かさなければならないが、それにもかかわらず、神を受けるには、アタナシウスによると、最も賢明です。 For just as his flesh is said to be and is flesh of the Word of God, so too the natural will of his flesh is said to and does belong to the Word of God, just as he says himself: I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of the Father who sent me, calling his own will that of his flesh, since his flesh too became his own.肉と同じように彼のためには肉と言われるとは、神のみことばが、今はあまりにも自然によると、彼の肉体は、神のみことばが所属して同じように、自分自身と彼は言います:私は天から降りてくるは、自分自身のことはしていないが、父の意志を送ってきた人は、彼自身をコールして、彼の肉体は、あまりにも以来彼は、自分の肉体。 For in the same way that his all holy and blameless animate flesh was not destroyed in being made divine but remained in its own limit and category, so his human will as well was not destroyed by being made divine, but rather was preserved, according to the theologian Gregory, who says: "For his willing, when he is considered as saviour, is not in opposition to God, being made divine in its entirety."彼のためには同じようにしてすべての聖なる有生肉と清廉潔白ではないしかし、神の前で破壊され、独自の限度額やカテゴリでは依然、だから彼は、人間としての井戸ではなかった神によって破壊されているのではなく保存されたによると、グレゴリーの神学者は、誰によれば: "彼のために喜んでは、救い主見なされているときは、神への反対ではないが、全体として神の前にいる"と述べた。 And we hold there to be two natural principles of action in the same Jesus Christ our lord and true God, which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, that is, a divine principle of action and a human principle of action, according to the godly-speaking Leo, who says most clearly: "For each form does in a communion with the other that activity which it possesses as its own, the Word working that which is the Word's and the body accomplishing the things that are the body's".そして我々が保持される2つのアクションは、同じ自然の原理を私たちの主イエスキリストの真の神と、これを受ける課いいえ、何の変化も、パーティションのない、混乱のない、それは、神と人間の行動原理原則の作用によると、信仰心の厚い話せるレオは、明確によれば、大半の人: "の各フォームでは、他の聖体拝領して活動してそれを保有し、独自のは、その言葉働いていることと、その単語の体のことを成し遂げるのは、体の"です。 For of course we will not grant the existence of only a single natural principle of action of both God and creature, lest we raise what is made to the level of divine being, or indeed reduce what is most specifically proper to the divine nature to a level befitting creatures for we acknowledge that the miracles and the sufferings are of one and the same according to one or the other of the two natures out of which he is and in which he has his being, as the admirable Cyril said.グラントは、もちろん私たちは自然の存在は1つだけの行動原理と神の両方の生き物は、しないように我々のレベルを上げることは、神の前にしている、または実際に減らすには何が最も適切な神の性質を明確にする生き物にふさわしいレベルであることを確認するために、我々の苦しみとは、 1つの奇跡と同じによると、他のは、 1つまたは2つの性質のうちに彼は、彼には彼がどのように、見事なシリルと述べた。 Therefore, protecting on all sides the "no confusion" and "no division", we announce the whole in these brief words: Believing our lord Jesus Christ, even after his incarnation, to be one of the holy Trinity and our true God, we say that he has two natures [naturas] shining forth in his one subsistence [subsistentia] in which he demonstrated the miracles and the sufferings throughout his entire providential dwelling here, not in appearance but in truth, the difference of the natures being made known in the same one subsistence in that each nature wills and performs the things that are proper to it in a communion with the other; then in accord with this reasoning we hold that two natural wills and principles of action meet in correspondence for the salvation of the human race.したがって、すべての側面を保護して、 "混乱なし"と"いいえ課"と、我々はこのような簡単な言葉で全体を発表:私たちの主イエスキリストを信じ、彼の化身した後も、 1つのホーリートリニティーされると私たちの真の神、我々 彼は、 2つの性質を言う[ naturas ]輝いて来たりする彼の1つの自給自足 [ subsistentia ]奇跡のデモンストレーションをやっているんや苦しみを通して、彼の住居全体の摂理ここでは、外観が、真実は、その性質の違いで知られている同じ1つの生存中には、各自然の意志とは、適切なことを実行することで、他の聖体拝領;次に、この推論に合致する我々の意志と自然保留して2つの行動原則を満たすのは、人間の救済のための対応レースです。

So now that these points have been formulated by us with all precision in every respect and with all care, we definitely state that it is not allowable for anyone to produce another faith , that is, to write or to compose or to consider or to teach others; those who dare to compose another faith, or to support or to teach or to hand on another creed to those who wish to turn to knowledge of the truth, whether from Hellenism or Judaism or indeed from any heresy whatsoever, or to introduce novelty of speech, that is, invention of terms, so as to overturn what has now been defined by us, such persons, if they are bishops or clerics, are deprived of their episcopacy or clerical rank, and if they are monks or layfolk they are excommunicated.だから今は、これらのポイントが策定されたすべての精度で私たちをあらゆる点で、全てのケアとは、 私たち ではないこと を明らかに 許容 状態 を作り出すために別の信仰を誰にも 、それは、構成を書くのかを検討したりするかを教える他;作曲思い切って別の信仰者たち、あるいはをサポートするかを教えるかを手にして別の信条をしたい人々に救いを求める、真理の知識、ユダヤ教かどうかを実際よりヘレニズムや異端から任意のもの、あるいは新規性を導入するの演説で、それは、発明の条件は、これを覆すものとして定義されていたが、今私たちは、そのような人は、もし彼らは司教や聖職者、または事務主教団が奪わランクしている場合では、彼らは彼らの僧侶やlayfolk excommunicated 。


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed.翻訳から取ら令の導入や、エキュメニカル協議会は、エドです。 Norman P. Tannerノーマンp.タナー

Fourth Council of Constantinople - 869 - 870 AD第4コンスタンティノポリス公会議-8 69- 87 0広告

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