Council of Ephesusエフェソス公会議

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The Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council of the Christian church was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ.エフェソスの評議会( 431 ) 、第3のキリスト教教会協議会エキュメニカルためには重要な位置をして、独断的な令は、聖母マリアには、天の階層とは、イエスキリストの性質の権化。 It was convened by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II with the approval of Pope Celestine I in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism).招集されることがテオドシウス2世東ローマ帝国皇帝が法王の承認を得てセレスタインに対応するためには私の教えnestoriusメアリーと見なされることにのみ、 "キリストの母"ではなく、 "神の母" ( nestorianismを参照してください) 。 After lengthy debates continuing even after the end of the council, the pope's representative, Cyril of Alexandria, reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all.長期にわたる議論の後も継続的に協議会終了後、法王の担当者には、シリルアレクサンドリアのは、合意に達したの名称で、 "神の母は、 "理事会で正式に定められた、すべて承認された。 The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ.洗練された理事会でも、その教義は、人間と神の側面に、イエスは、今すぐ宣言して2つの別々の性質にかかわらず、キリストユナイテッド完璧です。

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In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus. 449別の理事会では、歴史上知られてlatrociniumとしては、会議や強盗、エフェソスで出会った。 It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned (451) at the Council of Chalcedon. eutyches教説を承認したことは、その後にされた死刑囚は、評議会( 451 ) chalcedon 。

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Ephesusエペソ

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Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor.地方総督のエフェソスはアジアの首都、これは、小アジア西部です。 It was colonized principally from Athens.それは主として植民地アテネからです。 In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia."ローマ人への手紙のときにはそれ口径のタイトルが"と、最初のアジア最大のメトロポリスです。 " It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (qv), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators.それは、著名な寺のダイアナ( qv ) 、そこが彼女たちのチーフ神社;とその劇場では、世界最大規模で、観客50000能力が含まれています。 It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky.それは、すべての古代劇場のように、空をオープンしています。 Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts.ここに展示された野生動物たちのけんかや獣の男性がいる。 (Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9). ( comp. 1うわっ。 4時09分、 9時24分、 25 ;午後3時32分です。 )多くのユダヤ人がこの都市に居住して、そしてここでは、種子の作付面積の直後に福音ペンテコステ( 2時09行為; 6 : 9 ) 。

At the close of his second missionary journey (about AD 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city. 2番目に近いのは、彼の宣教の旅(約51の広告)は、ギリシャからの復帰時には、シリアポール( 18:18-21 ) 、彼は最初にこの街を訪れています。 He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel.彼は、しかし、ほんの短い時間のために、彼は急いでごちそうを保つのは、おそらく、聖霊降臨日、エルサレム;しかし、彼の左アクイラとプリシラ後ろ手にして仕事を運ぶの福音広がっている。 During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), ie, from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10).期間中、 3番目のポールに達したエペソからの宣教師の旅"アッパー海岸" ( 19時01行為)は、すなわち、内陸の部分から小アジア、そしてここでは約3年間滞在;そして今は彼の成功と豊富な労働は、 "すべての彼らが住んで、アジアの主イエスの言葉を聞いたのは、ユダヤ人とギリシアの両方" ( 19時10分) 。 Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes.おそらく、この期間中に設立された7つの教会の黙示録、パウロの個人的な労働ではなく、誰でも彼宣教師によって送られる可能性があるからエフェソス、影響力に変換されると、自宅に戻っています。

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35.彼の旅から帰国して、ポールに触れたミレトスでは、いくつかの南三十マイルエペソ(行為20:15 ) 、および送信するためのエフェソスpresbyters彼に会うが、彼は配達をして別れを告げることに触れる行為電荷が記録され20:18-35 。 Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3).エペソ再び言及ではないのポールを閉じるまでの人生の近くには、書き込みをしたときのティモシーexhorting彼に"まだエフェソスに従う" ( 1ティム。 1時03分) 。 Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12). 2つのポールの仲間、 trophimusとtychicus 、先住民のは、おそらくエフェソス(行為20 : 04 ;午前21時29分; 2ティム。 4時12分) 。 In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18).彼の2番目の信徒へのティモシー、ポールが喋るオネシファラスとしての彼には多くのことをすることを配布エフェソス( 2ティム。 1時18分) 。 He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there.彼はまた、 " tychicusを送ったエペソ" (午前4時12分) 、多分に出席して教会の利益のためにある。 Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1).エフェソスは、すでにこの2倍の黙示録( 1時11分; 2:1 ) 。 The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried.使徒ヨハネは、伝統によると、長年の間で過ごしたエフェソスは、彼が死亡したとはどこに埋まっています。 A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; ie, "the holy divine."このサイトの団体名で有名なこの街は今一度によって占有されてトルコの小さな村、 ayasaluk 、これは、不正行為と見なされる2つのギリシャ語の単語は、 hagios theologos ;すなわち、 "聖なる神"と述べた。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (イーストン図解辞典)


The Council of Ephesus - 431 AD評議会のエフェソス-4 31広告

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Contents目次

  1. Introduction 導入
  2. Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved 2番目の手紙をシリルnestorius -承認
  3. Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril - condemned 2番目の手紙をnestoriusシリル-死刑囚
  4. Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved 3番目の手紙をシリルnestorius -承認
  5. The judgment against Nestorius 反対の判断nestorius
  6. Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.) 宗教会議の書簡については、除名の東部司教(らです。 )
  7. Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431] 信仰の定義では、ニカイア[ 6回のセッション7月22日431 ]
  8. Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites 定義に対する不敬messaliansまたはeuchites
  9. Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations 分解能:司教は、自らの行為の可能性キプロスordinations
  10. Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch 公式の労働組合との間にジョンのアンティオキアcyrill
  11. Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace シリルヨハネの手紙を平和についてのアンティオキア
  12. Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon accepting the Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace. 評議会からの抜粋chalcedonシリルを受け入れ、ヨハネの手紙のアンティオキア平和についてです。

Introduction 導入

Nestorius , who had been condemned in a council at Rome on 11 August 430, asked the emperor Theodosius II to summon this council. nestorius 、非難されていた評議会は、 8月11日にローマで430 、皇帝テオドシウス2世の要請を召喚し、この協議会です。 The emperor therefore decided to summon it together with his co-emperor Valentinian III and with the agreement of Pope Celestine I . Theodosius's letter of 19 November 430 requested all those who had been summoned to be present at Ephesus on 7 June 431, the feast of Pentecost.したがって、天皇を召喚することを決めたと一緒に彼の共同皇帝ウァレンティニアヌス3世との契約書の法王セレスタイン私です。テオドシウスの手紙11月19日の430のすべての要求を召喚していた者たちにプレゼントして6月7日で431エフェソスは、宴会の聖霊降臨。

On 22 June, however, 6月22日には、しかし、

  • before the arrival either of the Roman legates or the eastern bishops led by John of Antioch ,が到着する前に、ローマのいずれかのlegatesや東部のアンティオキア司教率いるジョンは、
  • Cyril of Alexandria began the council. シリルアレクサンドリアの理事会が始まった。
  • Nestorius was summoned three times but did not come. 3回召喚nestoriusが来ることができなかった。
  • His teaching was examined and judgment passed upon it, which 197 bishops subscribed at once and others later accepted.教えることは、彼の判断を可決することを検討し、これをまとめて申し込んで197司教や他後で受け入れた。

    Shortly afterwards John of Antioch and the easterners arrived: they refused communion with Cyril and set up another council. The Roman legates (the bishops Arcadius and Projectus and the priest Philip), on arriving, joined Cyril and confirmed the sentence against Nestorius.その後すぐにジョンのアンティオキアに到着したとのeasterners :彼ら聖体拝領を拒否してセットアップすると別の審議会シリル。 legatesローマ ( arcadiusの司教、司祭とprojectusとフィリップ)は、到着して、確定判決と合流シリル nestorius反対です。 Then the council in its fifth session on 17 July excommunicated John and his party.その後、理事会は、 5番目のセッションで7月17日ジョンと彼の党excommunicated 。

    The documents of the Cyrilline council , the only one which is ecumenical , are included below and are as follows. cyrilline文書は、評議会は、これ 1つしかエキュメニカルは、以下のとおりとは、以下の通りが含まれています。

    1. The central dogmatic act of the council is its judgment about whether the second letter of Cyril to Nestorius, or Nestorius's second letter to Cyril, was in conformity with the Nicene creed which was recited at the opening of the council's proceedings.中央審議会は、独断的な行動をするかどうかの判断については、第2の手紙をnestoriusシリル、またはシリルnestoriusの第二の手紙を、適合していたが読誦されたニカイア信条の冒頭で、理事会の議事。 Both are here printed.現在地の両方を印刷します。 Mention is made of Cyril's letter in the definition of Chalcedon.シリルの手紙には、前に言及したのは、定義chalcedon 。
    2. The 12 anathemas and the preceding explanatory letter, which had been produced by Cyril and the synod of Alexandria in 430 and sent to Nestorius, were read at Ephesus and included in the proceedings . 12 anathemasの 説明は、前の手紙は、 シリル産生されるとされていた会議に送られるnestorius アレキサンドリアで430とは、 読んでいたエフェソスや手続きに含まれています。
    3. The decision about Nestorius. この決定についてnestorius 。
    4. The letter of the council advising all the bishops, clergy and people about the condemnation of John of Antioch; and some paragraphs dealing with the discipline of the Nestorian party. この書簡は、理事会の勧告のすべての司教は、聖職者や国民の非難については、ジョンのアンティオキア;およびいくつかの段落を扱うネストリウス派の党の規律のです。
    5. A decree on the faith, approved in the sixth session on 22 July, which confirmed the Nicene creed, ordered adherence to that alone and forbade the production of new creeds. 法令には、信仰は、承認済みの6番目のセッションでは、 7月22日、これを確認したニカイア信条は、順守を指示して一人で、新しい信条の生産を禁じた。
    6. A definition against the Messalians. messaliansに反対するのかを定義しています。
    7. A decree about the autonomy of the church of Cyprus. 法令には、教会の自律性については、キプロス。

    Both councils sent legates to the emperor Theodosius, who approved neither and sent the bishops away.両方の協議会に送られるlegatesテオドシウス皇帝は、どちらも、送信者の承認司教去った。 Nestorius had already been given permission to revisit his monastery at Antioch, and on 25 October 431 Maximianus was ordained patriarch at Constantinople. The decrees of the council were approved by Pope Sixtus III shortly after his own ordination on 31 July 432.許可を与えられたnestorius再訪されていた彼のアンティオキア修道院では、 10月25日としていた431マクシミアヌスで定められたコンスタンティノープル総主教。 令は、評議会のシクストゥス3世によって承認された直後に、自分の聖職授与式を7月31日432 。

    The reconciliation between the Cyrilline party and the eastern bishops was not easy. cyrilline党との間の和解東部の司教容易ではない。 In the end, on 23 April 433, Cyril and John of Antioch made peace.最後には、 4月23日に433 、シリルとジョンの前に平和アンティオキア。 John's profession of faith was accepted by Cyril and became the doctrinal formula of union. It is included here, together with Cyril's letter in which he at some length praises John's profession and accepts it, adding to it some explanation about his own expressions; this letter is mentioned in the definition of Chalcedon .ジョンの職業が受け入れられるシリルの信仰と教義上の公式の労働組合になった含まれることはここでは、 シリルの手紙と一緒に、彼はいくつかの長さを褒めるジョンの職業とすることを承認し、いくつかの説明を追加して、自分の表現について;この手紙chalcedonの定義記載されています。 Shortly afterwards, probably in 436, Nestorius was definitely sent into exile by the emperor .その後すぐには、おそらく、 436 、 nestoriusは間違いなく、天皇亡命した。

    The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version.ギリシャ語から英語への翻訳は、テキスト、これは、もっと権威のバージョンです。


    Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius 2番目の手紙をnestoriusシリル

    [Declared by the council of Ephesus to be in agreement with Nicaea] [宣言されたエフェソスの評議会で合意されてニカイア]

    Cyril sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Nestoriusシリルあいさつで、主に送信して、最も尊い宗教と仲間-大臣nestorius

    I understand that there are some who are talking rashly of the reputation in which I hold your reverence, and that this is frequently the case when meetings of people in authority give them an opportunity.私たちはいくつかありますが、理解して話を軽率には、お客様の評判にも私で畏敬の念を持って、事件時にはこれは、頻繁に権限を与えている人たちのミーティングの機会です。 I think they hope in this way to delight your ears and so they spread abroad uncontrolled expressions.私が思うに、彼らの希望をこのようにして大喜びして海外に耳を野放しに広がるように表現した。 They are people who have suffered no wrong, but have been exposed by me for their own profit, one because he oppressed the blind and the poor, a second because he drew a sword on his mother, a third because he stole someone else's money in collusion with a maidservant and since then has lived with such a reputation as one would hardly wish for one's worst enemy.彼らは人々が苦しんで間違っていないが、私が露出された自分の利益のために、 1つ目の不自由なので、彼は貧しい人々を抑圧し、第二刀ドリューなぜなら、彼は彼の母親は、 3分の1の誰かのために彼はお金を盗んだしもべと共謀して、その後に住んでは、このような願望としての名声を1つ1つは、ほとんどの最悪の敵です。 For the rest I do not intend to spend more words on this subject in order not to vaunt my own mediocrity above my teacher and master or above the fathers.私の残りと意図していないこの問題について、もっと多くの言葉を自慢しないようにするために自分自身の凡人の上に私の先生とマスタまたは上記の父親です。 For however one may try to live, it is impossible to escape the malice of evil people, whose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness and who will have to defend themselves before the judge of all.しかし自分のために生きてみてください可能性は、悪意を逃れることは不可能には邪悪な人々に、その口いっぱいののろいとは、苦味と自身を守るためには誰が判断する前に、すべてのです。

    But I turn to a subject more fitting to myself and remind you as a brother in Christ always to be very careful about what you say to the people in matters of teaching and of your thought on the faith.しかし、私に救いを求めるより、件名や着付けを思い出していただくとして、自分の弟で、キリストはいつもあなたを非常に気にするようにしている人、と言う点では、お客様の指導思想と信仰しています。 You should bear in mind that to scandalise even one of these little ones that believe in Christ lays you open to unendurable wrath.ことを念頭に置く必要がscandaliseこれらの小さなものでも1つのキリストを信じるの蓄えを開くと怒りを我慢できない。 If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth.場合には、痛めている人の数は非常に大規模な、そしてすべてのスキルを使用すると必ずしなければならない不祥事ケアを削除すると、健全な単語を詳しく説明して人々の信仰の真理を求める。 The most effective way to achieve this end will be zealously to occupy ourselves with the words of the holy fathers , to esteem their words, to examine our words to see if we are holding to their faith as it is written, to conform our thoughts to their correct and irreproachable teaching.最も効果的な方法でこの目的を達成するために熱心に占拠されると、自分自身の言葉で、聖なる父は、彼らの言葉を尊敬して、私たちの言葉を検討している場合を参照してください我々は彼らの信仰として保有して書かれたことは、私たちの考えに合致して申し分のない自分の正しいと教えています。

    The holy and great synod, therefore, stated that神聖と偉大な会議は、このため、記載して

  • 1. 1 。 the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, 生まれた息子だけでは、神のひとり子の父親によると、自然は、真の神からの真の神は、ライトからの光は、一人の父親の前にすべてのことを通して、来たダウン、化身が、男は、
  • 2. 2 。 suffered, rose on the third day and ascended to heaven .苦しんで、バラして3日目に天国へと昇っている。

  • 1. 1 。 We too ought to follow these words and these teachings and consider what is meant by saying that the Word from God took flesh and became man.これらの言葉を我々もすべきだとこれらの教えに従うことを考慮するとは何を意味するからと言って、神の言葉が肉となった男だ。 For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that he was turned into a whole man made of body and soul.そんなこと言わないで、我々のための性質の単語が変更となったの肉でもしていた男に変えられて全体の体と心を作った。 Rather do we claim that the Word in an unspeakable, inconceivable manner united to himself hypostatically flesh enlivened by a rational soul, and so became man and was called son of man, not by God's will alone or good pleasure, nor by the assumption of a person alone.むしろ私たちの主張は、言いようのない言葉は、自分自身を信じられない態度ユナイテッドhypostatically肉魂の合理的な活性化される、と呼ばれるようになった男とは、男の息子は、神の意志だけではなく、良い喜びや、また、想定される人一人です。 Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity , and from both arose one Christ, one Son.という、 2つの異なる性質を形成するために集まる団結して、 1つの両方から立ち上がったキリストは、自分の息子がいます。 It was not as though the distinctness of the natures was destroyed by the union , but divinity and humanity together made perfect for us one Lord and one Christ, together marvellously and mysteriously combining to form a unity.それはまるで、よく知られていないが、労働組合の性質によって破壊されたが、神と人類の共同主の前に、 1つ1つの完璧なキリストのために私たちは、不思議と一緒に組み合わせることを意味ありげに団結を形成する。 So he who existed and was begotten of the Father before all ages is also said to have been begotten according to the flesh of a woman, without the divine nature either beginning to exist in the holy virgin, or needing of itself a second begetting after that from his Father.そこで彼の人の存在は、父と子を生まれる前には、すべての年齢層にもよるとしてきた人間の肉のひとり子によると、女性は、自然のいずれかを始めていることなく、神の存在は、聖処女、または必要なことはそれ自体が、 2番目以降はbegetting父親からです。 (For it is absurd and stupid to speak of the one who existed before every age and is coeternal with the Father, needing a second beginning so as to exist.) The Word is said to have been begotten according to the flesh, because for us and for our salvation he united what was human to himself hypostatically and came forth from a woman. (不条理と愚かなことを話すのは、自分たちの前に存在するすべての年齢の父親とは永遠に共存して、 2番目の始まりとなるようにする必要が存在します。 )という言葉が生まれたといわれて肉によると、私たちのために彼は私たちの救いとはどのような人間に自分自身hypostaticallyユナイテッドと来た女性から来たりする。 For he was not first begotten of the holy virgin, a man like us, and then the Word descended upon him; but from the very womb of his mother he was so united and then underwent begetting according to the flesh, making his own the begetting of his own flesh.最初に生まれたのではなかったために彼は、聖なる処女は、一人の男のように私たちは、その言葉を降りて、それから彼;しかし、母親の胎内から、非常にユナイテッドそれから彼はとてもbegettingによると、肉を受けて、彼自身のbegetting自分の肉体だ。

  • 2. 2 。 In a similar way we say that he suffered and rose again, not that the Word of God suffered blows or piercing with nails or any other wounds in his own nature (for the divine, being without a body, is incapable of suffering), but because the body which became his own suffered these things, he is said to have suffered them for us.我々のようなやり方で言うとバラを患っていることではなく、神のみことばにピアスをして苦しんで殴られたり爪やその他の傷は、自分自身の性質(神のためには、体がなく、苦痛はできない) 、しかし、自分の体のために苦しんでこれらのものになった、と彼は、かれらのために私たちが苦しんでいる。 For he was without suffering, while his body suffered.彼は苦しみをせずに、自分の体の中に苦しんでいる。 Something similar is true of his dying.彼は本当の死にかけているようだ。 For by nature the Word of God is of itself immortal and incorruptible and life and life-giving, but since on the other hand his own body by God's grace, as the apostle says, tasted death for all, the Word is said to have suffered death for us, not as if he himself had experienced death as far as his own nature was concerned (it would be sheer lunacy to say or to think that), but because, as I have just said, his flesh tasted death.自然を神のみことばによっては、それ自体が不滅と清廉潔白な生活と生命を与えると、しかしその一方で、自分の体を神のお恵みでは、使徒としては、死を味わうためにも、その言葉にあるといわれ苦しんで私たちの死のためではなく、自分自身としては彼の死を経験した場合に限り、自分の性格が心配(薄手の狂気と言うことだろうかと思う) 、しかし、理由は、私が今言ったことは、彼の死肉を味わった。 So too, when his flesh was raised to life, we refer to this again as his resurrection, not as though he had fallen into corruption--God forbid--but because his body had been raised again.これもまた、肉が提起された時、彼の人生には、我々を参照しているとして、この彼の復活ではなく、まるで彼が落ちてしまったの腐敗-神を禁じる-しかし、彼の遺体が提起されたためだ。

    So we shall confess one Christ and one Lord.だからわたしたちは、キリストを告白すると1つの主です。 We do not adore the man along with the Word, so as to avoid any appearance of division by using the word "with".その男を崇拝することはありませんという言葉と共に、どのような外観の分裂を避けるためにその言葉を使って"を"です。 But we adore him as one and the same, because the body is not other than the Word, and takes its seat with him beside the Father, again not as though there were two sons seated together but only one, united with his own flesh. If, however, we reject the hypostatic union as being either impossible or too unlovely for the Word, we fall into the fallacy of speaking of two sons .しかし、我々の一つとして彼を崇拝と同じですが、体のためではないという言葉以外には、その席で、彼の父のそばには、再びそこはまるで一緒に装着された2人の息子が1つだけ、ユナイテッドで、自分の肉体。 もし、しかし、我々労働組合として沈下を拒否するかのどちらか不可能愛らしくないすぎる言葉のため、我々の誤謬に陥るといえば、二人の息子です。 We shall have to distinguish and speak both of the man as honoured with the title of son, and of the Word of God as by nature possessing the name and reality of sonship, each in his own way.我々の両方を有するものとを区別して話すのは、人間として尊敬して息子のタイトルは、神のみことばとは、自然を所持したとして、名前と現実との息子であることは、それぞれ自分のやり方です。 We ought not, therefore, to split into two sons the one Lord Jesus Christ.私たちは、そのため、 2人の息子に分割され、 1つの主イエスキリストです。 Such a way of presenting a correct account of the faith will be quite unhelpful, even though some do speak of a union of persons.このような方法を提示するアカウントは、正しい信仰されるかなり助けにならないにもかかわらず、いくつかのことを話す人は、労働組合です。 For scripture does not say that the Word united the person of a man to himself, but that he became flesh.啓典をユナイテッドその言葉ではないと言うのを自分一人の男の人が、それは彼の肉です。 The Word's becoming flesh means nothing else than that he partook of flesh and blood like us; he made our body his own, and came forth a man from woman without casting aside his deity, or his generation from God the Father, but rather in his assumption of flesh remaining what he was.その言葉の意味になる肉partakeのほかの何よりも彼のことよりも生身の人間のように私たち;彼のおかげで私たちの体自身の、そして一人の男が来たりするから彼の神女なしで鋳造さておき、あるいは彼の父親の世代からの神ではなく、彼の彼はどのような仮定の残りの肉です。

    This is the account of the true faith everywhere professed . これは、真の信仰は、どこでもアカウントを公言した。 So shall we find that the holy fathers believed.だからわたしたちの祖先と考えられ、聖なる見つけることです。 So have they dared to call the holy virgin, mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word or his godhead received the origin of their being from the holy virgin, but because there was born from her his holy body rationally ensouled, with which the Word was hypostatically united and is said to have been begotten in the flesh.だからかれらを呼んで敢えて聖処女は、 神の母ではなく、まるで彼の性格は、単語や神性を受け取ったが、その起源は、聖処女からは、彼女が彼のためにそこから生まれたボディ合理ensouled神聖で、これとは、その言葉はhypostaticallyユナイテッドによると、肉が生まれた。 These things I write out of love in Christ exhorting you as a brother and calling upon you before Christ and the elect angels, to hold and teach these things with us, in order to preserve the peace of the churches and that the priests of God may remain in an unbroken bond of concord and love.これらのことを書いている今のうちに、キリストの愛exhortingとして、あなたの前にキリストの弟と通話する場合や天使の選出は、これらを開くことを教えることで、私たちは、平和を維持するためには、教会やプリーストは、神の可能性切れ目のないままに、愛のきずな呼応しています。


    Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril 2番目の手紙をnestoriusシリル

    [condemned by the council of Ephesus] [非難される評議会エペソ]

    Nestorius sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Cyril.送信nestoriusあいさつで、主に、最も宗教牧師仲間とシリル-大臣。 I pass over the insults against us contained in your extraordinary letter.私通り越す、我々に対する侮辱して臨時の手紙に含まれています。 They will, I think, be cured by my patience and by the answer which events will offer in the course of time.彼らは、私が思うに、私の忍耐力によって治癒されたとされる答えは、どのイベントでは、時間の経過です。 On one matter, however, I cannot be silent, as silence would in that case be very dangerous. 1つの問題は、しかし、沈黙することはできません私は、その場合には、沈黙が非常に危険だ。 On that point, therefore avoiding longwindedness as far as I can, I shall attempt a brief discussion and try to be as free as possible from repelling obscurity and undigestible prolixity.その点に関しては、したがって回避longwindedness限り私は、私は簡単な試みとして自由に議論してみてから反発し、できるだけ無名の未消化と冗長です。 I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word.わたしは賢明な発言を開始してから、畏敬の念を、逐語的にダウンして設定します。 What then are the words in which your remarkable teaching finds expression ?その後は、どのような言葉で表現して顕著な指導を見つけるか?

    "The holy and great synod states that the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, suffered, rose." "神聖な国とは、偉大な宗教会議にのみ生まれた息子は、父親によると、神のひとり子の性質は、真の神からの真の神は、ライトからの光は、一人の父親の前にすべてのことを通して、来たダウン、化身になった、男は、苦しんでは、バラのです。 "

    These are the words of your reverence and you may recognise them.これらは、あなたの言葉を認識する場合があります畏敬の念としています。 Now listen to what we say, which takes the form of a brotherly exhortation to piety of the type of which the great apostle Paul gave an example in addressing his beloved Timothy: "Attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. For by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers".今私たちが言うことに耳を傾ける、これまでのフォームには、兄弟の勧告を尊重する気持ちは、どのタイプの偉大な使徒パウロは彼の最愛のティモシーアドレッシングでは例: "に出席して、国民の啓典を読んで、説教し、指導しています。そうすることによってあなたのために自分との両方を保存して耳をかす" 。 Tell me, what does "attend" mean?教えてくれ、どのような"出席"とはどういう意味ですか? By reading in a superficial way the tradition of those holy men (you were guilty of a pardonable ignorance), you concluded that they said that the Word who is coeternal with the Father was passible.読書の浅さは、これらの方法では、伝統の聖なる男性(あなたが許せる有罪の無知)は、かれらによると、この言葉を締結して誰が永遠に共存していた父親passibleしている。 Please look more closely at their language and you will find out that that divine choir of fathers never said that the consubstantial godhead was capable of suffering, or that the whole being that was coeternal with the Father was recently born, or that it rose again, seeing that it had itself been the cause of resurrection of the destroyed temple.彼らの言語より密接にしてください見ることは、神を知ることは決して合唱団の父親によると、同本質は、有能な神性の苦しみ、またはその全体が永遠に共存していることがこのほど、生まれで、父は、再び上昇することや、というのがわかるとされていたという大義自体は、復活の寺院を破壊した。 If you apply my words as fraternal medicine, I shall set the words of the holy fathers before you and shall free them from the slander against them and through them against the holy scriptures.私の兄弟のような言葉を適用した場合の薬としては、わたしは、聖なる父の言葉を設定する前に、彼らは自由に対する中傷から、かれらを介して、聖書に反対しています。

    "I believe", they say, "also in our Lord Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son". "私は信じる"と、かれらは、 "わたしたちの主イエスキリストの中でも、彼の息子のひとり子のみ" 。 See how they first lay as foundations "Lord" and "Jesus" and "Christ" and "only begotten" and "Son", the names which belong jointly to the divinity and humanity.最初のレイの基盤としてどのように彼らを参照してください"主"と"イエス"と"キリスト"と"ひとり子のみ"と"息子"は、その名が共同して、神と人類に属しています。 Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion.それからかれらはその基礎を築くの伝統の復活と情熱の権化とします。 In this way, by prefixing the names which are common to each nature, they intend to avoid separating expressions applicable to sonship and lordship and at the same time escape the danger of destroying the distinctive character of the natures by absorbing them into the one title of "Son".このように、名前を付けてそれぞれの性質が共通して、彼らを分離するつもりな表現を避けるために適用されると息子であることを免れる支配すると同時に、独特のキャラクターを破壊する危険性の性質を吸収して、 1つのタイトル"息子" 。 In this Paul was their teacher who, when he remembers the divine becoming man and then wishes to introduce the suffering, first mentions "Christ", which, as I have just said, is the common name of both natures and then adds an expression which is appropriate to both of the natures.このポールは、彼らの教師たちは、神になるとき、彼はよく覚えて男の願いを導入し、その後の苦しみは、最初に言及"キリスト"と、これは、私が今言ったことは、共通の名前は、両方の性質を持つ式を追加し、次に両方の性質には、適切な。 For what does he say ?彼は言うためにはどのような機能ですか? "Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus who though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped", and so on until, "he became obedient unto death, even death on a cross". "これが自分自身の心の中で、イエスキリストはあなたたちにかかわらず、彼は神の形で、平等にカウントしていないことを神に把握する" 、といったようになるまでは、 "彼は死に至る従順でも、死十字架上で" 。 For when he was about to mention the death, to prevent anyone supposing that God the Word suffered, he says "Christ", which is a title that expresses in one person both the impassible and the passible natures, in order that Christ might be called without impropriety both impassible and passible impassible in godhead, passible in the nature of his body.のために言及したとき、彼は、死については、誰かを防止すると仮定して、神の言葉を受けた、と彼は言います。 "キリスト" 、これは、 1つのタイトルを表現して平気な人との両方の性質passible 、キリストのために呼ばれるかもしれない不穏当なしの両方で平気平気とpassible神性は、自然に自分の体のpassible 。

    I could say much on this subject and first of all that those holy fathers, when they discuss the economy, speak not of the generation but of the Son becoming man.私が言えたのはるか上まず第一に、この主題として、これらの聖なる父は、経済について話し合う際には、話すの世代がいないのは、男の息子になる。 But I recall the promise of brevity that I made at the beginning and that both restrains my discourse and moves me on to the second subject of your reverence.しかし、私の約束を想起して作ったの冒頭に短いのが良いと私の談話では、双方の動きを抑制して私に畏敬の念をして2番目の主題です。 In that I applaud your division of natures into manhood and godhead and their conjunction in one person.私にして拍手をして男らしさと神性課の性質とその接続詞で一人の人間だ。 I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering.声明はその神は私にも拍手をしていないという言葉を必要に応じて第二世代の女性から、と告白して、神があなたの苦しみの余地がない。 Such statements are truly orthodox and equally opposed to the evil opinions of all heretics about the Lord's natures.このような発言は、真に正統派と同様にすべてのご意見に反対して邪悪な異端については、主の性質です。 If the remainder was an attempt to introduce some hidden and incomprehensible wisdom to the ears of the readers, it is for your sharpness to decide.もし、残りを導入する試みがいくつか隠されて不可解な知恵とは、読者の耳に、それは、お客様の鮮明度を決める。 In my view these subsequent views seemed to subvert what came first.その後の私の視点でこれらの見解を覆すように最初に来たものです。 They suggested that he who had at the beginning been proclaimed as impassible and incapable of a second generation had somehow become capable of suffering and freshly created, as though what belonged to God the Word by nature had been destroyed by his conjunction with his temple or as though people considered it not enough that the sinless temple, which is inseparable from the divine nature, should have endured birth and death for sinners, or finally as though the Lord's voice was not deserving of credence when it cried out to the Jews: "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.'' He did not say, "Destroy my godhead and in three days it will be raised up."彼らと示唆していた彼の冒頭に無感覚と無能として宣言され、第二世代となる能力が、何らかの理由で苦しんでいたし、新たに作成されると、まるで神の言葉をどのように自然に属していた彼の併用によって破壊されるとしての彼の寺院や人々はそれで十分考慮してsinless寺、これは切っても切れない神の性質から、耐えるはずの誕生と消滅を罪人、または最後にまるでその声の主の信用に値する時ではないことを、ユダヤ人は叫んだ: "を破壊するこの寺で3日間、私は引き上げるとしてください。 ''しなかったと言う彼は、 "私の神性を破壊されると、 3日間で甦ることです。 "

    Again I should like to expand on this but am restrained by the memory of my promise.再び私は、このようにして展開して拘束された時の記憶が私の約束だ。 I must speak therefore but with brevity.だから私に話す必要がありますが、短いのが良い。 Holy scripture, wherever it recalls the Lord's economy, speaks of the birth and suffering not of the godhead but of the humanity of Christ, so that the holy virgin is more accurately termed mother of Christ than mother of God .教典は、どこにリコールの経済の主は、苦しみの誕生と喋るのは、人類の神性しかし、キリストのように、 より正確には、神聖なバージン呼ばれるよりも、キリストの母神の母親です。 Hear these words that the gospels proclaim: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham."これらの言葉を聞くことgospels宣言: "この本は、イエスキリストの世代は、息子のデビッドは、アブラハムの息子である"と述べた。 It is clear that God the Word was not the son of David.それは、神の言葉を明確にして、息子のデビッドではなかった。 Listen to another witness if you will: "Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called the Christ. " Consider a further piece of evidence: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, she was found to be with child of the holy Spirit."別の目撃者に耳を傾けるの場合は: "ジェイコブジョセフbegetの過去の夫、メアリーは、イエスキリストが生まれた人は、誰がキリストと呼ばれています。 "さらなる証拠を検討する: "今すぐにイエスキリストの降誕をこの方法で行われた。際に婚約していた母親のメアリージョセフは、彼女が子供だったことが判明して、聖霊のです。 " But who would ever consider that the godhead of the only begotten was a creature of the Spirit?しかし、これまで検討してくださる神のひとり子だけでは、生き物の精神ですか? Why do we need to mention: "the mother of Jesus was there"?なぜ我々に言及する必要があります: "イエスの母があった"とは? And again what of: "with Mary the mother of Jesus"; or "that which is conceived in her is of the holy Spirit"; and "Take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt"; and "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh"?そして再び何名: "とメアリーは、イエスの母" ;か"と考えていることを彼女は、聖霊" ;や"と、母親と子供を取るエジプトへ逃亡する" ;および"に関する彼の息子さん種子が生まれたのは、デビッドによると、肉"とは? Again, scripture says when speaking of his passion: "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh"; and again "Christ died for our sins" and "Christ having suffered in the flesh"; and "This is", not "my godhead", but "my body, broken for you".繰り返しますが、啓典氏は話すときの彼の情熱: "神を送って、自分の息子に似ているために罪の罪深い肉と、彼は罪で死刑囚の肉" ;そして再び"私たちの罪のためにキリストが死ん"と"キリストの苦労は、肉" ;と、 "これは"ではなく、 "私の神"ですが、 "私の体は、壊れたために" 。

    Ten thousand other expressions witness to the human race that they should not think that it was the godhead of the Son that was recently killed but the flesh which was joined to the nature of the godhead. 10000人類の他の表現を目の当たりにしてはいけないと思うが、それは、神の息子を殺したことは、最近入社していたが、肉の性質の神性。 (Hence also Christ calls himself the lord and son of David: " 'What do you think of the Christ ? Whose son is he ?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' Jesus answered and said to them, 'How is it then that David inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, sit at my right hand"?'". He said this as being indeed son of David according to the flesh, but his Lord according to his godhead.) The body therefore is the temple of the deity of the Son, a temple which is united to it in a high and divine conjunction, so that the divine nature accepts what belongs to the body as its own. (そのためにも、主キリストの自称と息子のデイビッド: " 'は、キリストを何だと思いますか?者は、彼の息子ですか? ]かれらは言った彼には、 'の息子デビッド。 'イエスと答えたとしてかれらによると、 'どのようにそれじゃ、それはデビッドの精神に触発されて、彼の電話の主は、 "わたしの主に、主によると、私の右手に座る"?'".彼によると、このように実際によると、肉の息子デビッドが、彼の主によれば、彼は神です。 )寺には、そのための体は、神の息子、寺にはユナイテッドにして神の接続詞が高いとは、どのような受け付けますので、神の性質として、独自のボディに属します。 Such a confession is noble and worthy of the gospel traditions.このような告白は、崇高な価値があると福音と伝統。 But to use the expression "accept as its own" as a way of diminishing the properties of the conjoined flesh, birth, suffering and entombment, is a mark of those whose minds are led astray, my brother, by Greek thinking or are sick with the lunacy of Apollinarius and Arius or the other heresies or rather something more serious than these.しかし、その表現を使用する"と受け入れるとして、独自の"プロパティ逓減のようにする方法としては、結ばれた肉は、生まれ、苦しみや埋葬、その心は、それらのマークが迷わせたが、私の弟は、ギリシャ語では、思考や病気でアリウスの狂気のapollinariusというか、あるいは何か他のheresiesこれらよりもさらに深刻だ。

    For it is necessary for such as are attracted by the name "propriety" to make God the Word share, because of this same propriety, in being fed on milk, in gradual growth, in terror at the time of his passion and in need of angelical assistance.のために必要なことは惹かれるような名前は、 "妥当性"を作る神の言葉を共有するために、これと同じな礼儀作法には、連邦準備している牛乳では、緩やかな成長では、テロは、彼の情熱と時間を必要とするangelicalお問い合わせください。 I make no mention of circumcision and sacrifice and sweat and hunger, which all belong to the flesh and are adorable as having taken place for our sake.割礼私には言及しないと飢餓の犠牲と汗と、これに属するすべての肉や愛らしいとしては、我々のために行われています。 But it would be false to apply such ideas to the deity and would involve us in just accusation because of our calumny.しかし、虚偽を適用することが、神とは、このようなアイデアを巻き込む告発のために私たちは私たちの中傷だけです。

    These are the traditions of the holy fathers .これらは、 伝統の聖なる父です。 These are the precepts of the holy scriptures .これらは、 聖書の教えです。 In this way does someone write in a godly way about the divine mercy and power, "Practise these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress''. This is what Paul says to all. The care you take in labouring for those who have been scandalised is well taken and we are grateful to you both for the thought you devote to things divine and for the concern you have even for those who live here. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. In fact the church daily progresses here and through the grace of Christ there is such an increase among the people that those who behold it cry out with the words of the prophet, "The earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the water covers the sea". As for our sovereigns, they are in great joy as the light of doctrine is spread abroad and, to be brief, because of the state of all the heresies that fight against God and of the orthodoxy of the church, one might find that verse fulfilled "The house of Saul grew weaker and weaker and the house of David grew stronger and stronger".この方法では手紙を書くようにする方法については、信心深い神の慈悲とパワーは、 "これらの職務に練習し、それらに専念するため、進行中のすべての可能性を参照してください。 ''ポールによればこれは何をすべてのケアを見に行くlabouringを持っている人はscandalisedが十分考慮され、私たちはあなたに感謝して、両方のために充てることを考えたことは、神との懸念がここに住む人たちのためにも。理解しておく必要がありますあなたが誤って導かれるいくつかのどちらかここの人が退陣されるための聖務会院manichaeismや聖職者は、自分の説得された。ここで実際には教会が進行すると日常を通してキリストの恵みにはそのような人々が増加して、これらの人のうち、これ見よがしの言葉を叫ぶその預言者は、 "地球に満ちているのは、主としての知識をカバーし、海の水"です。皇としての我々のために、かれらは、大喜びで、光の教義としては、海外でのまん延とは、簡単に言えば、理由同州のすべてのheresiesことは、神との闘い正教の教会では、 1つの可能性を見つけること果たさ詩"の家のソールと弱い弱い成長率と成長の家のデビッドと強い強い" 。

    This is our advice from a brother to a brother.これは私たちの助言をする兄から弟です。 "If anyone is disposed to be contentious", Paul will cry out through us to such a one, "we recognize no other practice, neither do the churches of God". "もし誰にも異論が処分される"と、ポールは、我々を介して叫ぶような1つは、 "我々認識していない他の練習は、どちらかの教会の神様" 。 I and those with me greet all the brotherhood with you in Christ.それらが私と私のすべての同胞団を迎えることで、キリストです。 May you remain strong and continue praying for us, most honoured and reverent lord. 5月に引き続き堅調を維持するために祈りをささげ、私たちは、主の最も光栄と崇敬の念を表した。


    Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius 3番目の手紙をnestoriusシリル

    [Read at the council of Ephesus and included in the proceedings . [読んでは、評議会の議事に含まれてエフェソスとします。 We omit the preface of the letter]我々の手紙の序文を省略]

    We believe in one God .我々の1つの神を信じている。 . .[Nicene Creed] 。 [ニカイア信条]

    Following in all points the confessions of the holy fathers, which they made with the holy Spirit speaking in them , and following the direction of their opinions and going as it were in the royal way, we say that the only-begotten Word of God, who was begotten from the very essence of the Father, true God from true God, the light from the light and the one through whom all things in heaven and earth were made, for our salvation came down and emptying himself he became incarnate and was made man. This means that次の自白は、すべての点で、聖なる父は、 聖霊が彼ら前にして言えば、かれらは、自分の意見を言うと、次の方向に行くことは、王室の方法として、我々 言って生まれた神のみことばにのみ、本質的には非常に生まれた人は、父親からは、真の神からの真の神は、ライトからの光を介して人と、 1つの天と地のすべてのことは前には、私たちの救済のための排出ダウンして来た彼は自分自身の化身とは前に男です。 これは、

  • he took flesh from the holy virgin and made it his own, undergoing a birth like ours from her womb and coming forth a man from a woman.彼は、聖なる処女の肉や前から、自分のことは、我々のように出産を受けてから、彼女の胎内から一人の男と女来たり来ています。
  • He did not cast aside what he was, but although he assumed flesh and blood, he remained what he was, God in nature and truth.彼は彼がどのような踏ん切りが、生身の人間と仮定にもかかわらず彼は、彼はどのような彼は、神が自然と真実ではない。
  • We do not say that his flesh was turned into the nature of the godhead or that the unspeakable Word of God was changed into the nature of the flesh.そんなこと言わないで我々は彼の肉体に電源が入ったりして自然の神性は、神の言葉では表せない言葉は、肉の性質を変更します。 For he (the Word) is unalterable and absolutely unchangeable and remains always the same as the scriptures say.彼は不変(という言葉)は、いつもと全く変わらないとは、聖書と言うのと同じです。 For although visible as a child and in swaddling cloths, even while he was in the bosom of the virgin that bore him, as God he filled the whole of creation and was fellow ruler with him who begot him.目に見えるようにもかかわらず、子供のためにうぶや布、彼は、安らかに眠っている間にも、彼に処女をうんざりさは、全体として満たされた神の創造と彼は、彼の仲間たちbegetの過去過去分詞支配していた。 For the divine is without quantity and dimension and cannot be subject to circumscription.神はなしでは、数量や寸法や件名を画定することはできません。

    We confess the Word to have been made one with the flesh hypostatically , and we adore one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ.告白してきた我々に単語を前にして、 1つの肉hypostatically 、そして私たちの息子と1つの崇敬の主は、イエスキリストです。 We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God in him, as though the two natures were mutually united only through a unity of dignity and authority ; that would be an empty expression and nothing more.彼の部分に分割することはありませんし、神が彼と別の男とは、まるで米国の2つの性質が相互の結束を介してのみの尊厳と権威 ;それは、空の表現しても何もこちらです。 Nor do we give the name Christ in one sense to the Word of God and in another to him who was born of woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. As man he was anointed with us, even though he himself gives the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it and not in measure, as the blessed evangelist John says.我々の名前を与えることも1つの意味で、キリストは神のみことばにして彼とは別の女の人が生まれたのは、 1つだけ知っているキリストしかし、我々は、神の言葉からして、自分の肉体の父親です。 として公認していた男私たちは、自分自身にもかかわらず、彼の精神を受け取ることに価値がある人たちはしていないことを測定すると、祝福エバンジェリストとして、ジョンは述べている。

    But we do not say that the Word of God dwelt as in an ordinary man born of the holy virgin, in order that Christ may not be thought of as a God-bearing man.しかし、我々そんなこと言わないで、神のみことばに住んで、普通の男として生まれ、聖なる処女のためには、されないかもしれませんが、キリストの思想を持った男としての神。 For even though "the Word dwelt among us", and it is also said that in Christ dwelt "all the fullness of the godhead bodily", we understand that, having become flesh, the manner of his indwelling is not defined in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints , he was united by nature and not turned into flesh and he made his indwelling in such a way as we may say that the soul of man does in his own body.にもかかわらず"という言葉の中に住んus "で、それによると、キリストに住んでも"身体のすべての膨満の神性"は、我々を理解し、肉になることは、彼の留置態度ではないのと同じ方法で定義されたうちに住むようによると彼は、セインツ 、彼はユナイテッドで自然と電源が入っていないと、彼は肉を留置するような方法としては、我々の魂と言うかもしれませんが、男は、自分自身の体です。

    There is therefore one Christ and Son and Lord, but not with the sort of conjunction that a man might have with God as unity of dignity or authority .そのためには1つの主キリストと息子と、この種の接続詞ではないことを神の可能性がある一人の男としての尊厳や権威の団結です。 Equality of honour by itself is unable to unite natures.名誉の平等を団結さ自体ができない性質です。 For Peter and John were equal in honour to each other, being both of them apostles and holy disciples, but they were two, not one.ピーターとジョンは、お互いに対等に敬意を表して、かれらの使徒との両方が神聖な弟子が、かれらは2人ではなく、 1つです。 Neither do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition for this is not enough for natural union.どちらかの方法で我々を理解する接続詞の1つ並置されるだけでは不十分であるため、この自然の労働組合です。 Nor yet is it a question of relative participation , as we ourselves, being united to the Lord, are as it is written in the words of scripture "one spirit with him".の質問にもまだ相対的に参加することは、私たち自身としては、主に米国には、それは、啓典の言葉が書かれている"と彼の精神" 。 Rather do we deprecate the term "conjunction" as being inadequate to express the idea of union.我々の用語を軽視するというか"接続詞"として不十分な労働組合の考えを表明した。

    Nor do we call the Word from God the Father, the God or Lord of Christ.コールという言葉からも、神は私たちの父は、神やキリスト主です。 To speak in that way would appear to split into two the one Christ and Son and Lord and we might in this way fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself.そのようにして話すの2つに分割して表示されるのは、 1つの主キリストと息子とこのように落ちるかもしれないと我々の責任のもとで、神への冒とく、彼は自分自身の主を神とします。 For, as we have already said, the Word of God was united hypostatically with the flesh and is God of all and Lord of the universe, but is neither his own slave or master.のために、我々はすでに氏は、神のみことばユナイテッドhypostaticallyしていたとは、神のすべての肉や宇宙の主よ、しかし、彼自身は、どちらかのマスタースレーブです。 For it is foolish or rather impious to think or to speak in this way.かというのは愚かなことを考えたりして不敬がこのように話す。 It is true that he called the Father "God" even though he was himself God by nature and of his being, we are not ignorant of the fact that at the same time as he was God he also became man, and so was subject to God according to the law that is suitable to the nature of manhood .それは事実だが、彼の父と呼ばれる"神" もかかわらず、 彼は神によって自然と彼自身が、我々の無知ではないという事実を、同時に彼は神のようになった彼はまた、男は、今とは、 対象となる同法によると、それは神の本質にふさわしい男らしされます。 But how should he become God or Lord of himself?しかし、彼はどうすれば神になるか、自分自身の主ですか? Consequently as man and as far as it was fitting for him within the limits of his self-emptying it is said that he was subject to God like ourselves.されており、その結果として男性向けギフトフィッティングそれは彼の自己の範囲内で排出することが話題によると、彼は自分自身を神のようにします。 So he came to be under the law while at the same time himself speaking the law and being a lawgiver like God.だから彼がやって来ている間には法の下でそれと同時に自分自身に言えば、法と立法者が神のようだ。

    When speaking of Christ we avoid the expression: "I worship him who is carried because of the one who carries him; because of him who is unseen, I worship the one who is seen."キリストの際に言えば、我々を避ける表現: "私は彼を崇拝する者は、自分たちのために運ば運ぶ彼は、目に見えない人のために彼は、私が見たの崇拝者の1つだ。 " It is shocking to say in this connexion: "The assumed shares the name of God with him who assumes."衝撃的なことを言うが、このconnexion : "神の名の株を想定して彼の人と仮定しています。 " To speak in this way once again divides into two Christs and puts the man separately by himself and God likewise by himself.再びこのように話すの2つに分かれて、男を別々に配置されたキリストと自分自身と同様に、神を下そうとした。 This saying denies openly the union, according to which one is not worshipped alongside the other, nor do both share in the title "God", but Jesus Christ is considered as one, the only begotten Son, honoured with one worship, together with his own flesh.率直に言って、これを否定する労働組合によると、 1つではないが、他の崇拝の横には、両方を共有することで、タイトルも"神"が、イエスキリストは見なされて1つは、生まれた息子だけでは、 1つの栄誉を崇拝して、彼と一緒に自分の肉体だ。

    We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". And that he might make a way for human nature to return to incorruption by the grace of God, as we have just said, "he tasted death for all" and on the third day he returned to life, having robbed the underworld. Accordingly, even though it is said that "through man came the resurrection of the dead", yet we understand that man to have been the Word which came from God, through whom the power of death was overcome. At the right time he will come as one Son and Lord in the glory of the Father, to judge the world in justice, as it is written.

    We will necessarily add this also. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so. For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so.

    For we do not divide up the words of our Saviour in the gospels among two hypostases or persons . For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union. In the same sort of way a human being, though he be composed of soul and body, is considered to be not dual, but rather one out of two. Therefore, in thinking rightly, we refer both the human and divine expressions to the same person. For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man ? For if he should reject words suitable to him as man, who was it that forced him to become a man like us? Why should he who submitted himself to voluntary self-emptying for our sake, reject expressions that are suitable for such self-emptying? All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word . For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures.

    Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. For he became the "mediator between God and humanity" and the establisher of peace between them, offering himself for an odour of sweetness to the God and Father . Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". For our sake and not for his own he brought forward his own body in the odour of sweetness. Indeed, of what offering or sacrifice for himself would he have been in need, being as God superior to all manner of sin? For though "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God", and so we are prone to disorder and human nature has fallen into the weakness of sin, he is not so and consequently we are behind him in glory. How then can there be any further doubt that the true lamb was sacrificed for us and on our behalf? The suggestion that he offered himself for himself as well as for us is impossible to separate from the charge of impiety . For he never committed a fault at all, nor did he sin in any way. What sort of offering would he need then since there was no sin for which offering might rightly be made?

    When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. For even though the Spirit exists in his own hypostasis and is thought of on his own, as being Spirit and not as Son, even so he is not alien to the Son. He has been called "the Spirit of truth", and Christ is the truth, and the Spirit was poured forth by the Son, as indeed the Son was poured forth from the God and Father. Accordingly the Spirit worked many strange things through the hand of the holy apostles and so glorified him after the ascension of our lord Jesus Christ into heaven. For it was believed that he is God by nature and works through his own Spirit. For this reason also he said: "He (the Spirit) will take what is mine and declare it to you". But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing. Since he is the Spirit of the power and wisdom of the Father, that is the Son, he is himself, evidently, wisdom and power.

    Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". It is for this cause that we say that in his economy he blessed marriage and, when invited, went down to Cana in Galilee with his holy apostles.

    We have been taught to hold these things by

  • the holy apostles and evangelists and by
  • all the divinely inspired scriptures and by the true confession of
  • the blessed fathers .

    To all these your reverence ought to agree and subscribe without any deceit. What is required for your reverence to anathematise we subjoin to this epistle.

    Twelve Anathemas Proposed by Cyril and accepted by the Council of Ephesus

    1. 1 。 If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God (for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema .

    2. 2 。 If anyone does not confess that the Word from God the Father has been united by hypostasis with the flesh and is one Christ with his own flesh, and is therefore God and man together, let him be anathema .

    3. 3 。 If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union, joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power, and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature, let him be anathema .

    4. 4 。 If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema . If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema .

    5. 5 。 If anyone dares to say that Christ was a God-bearing man and not rather God in truth, being by nature one Son, even as "the Word became flesh", and is made partaker of blood and flesh precisely like us, let him be anathema .

    6. 6 。 If anyone says that the Word from God the Father was the God or master of Christ, and does not rather confess the same both God and man, the Word having become flesh, according to the scriptures, let him be anathema .

    7. 7 。 If anyone says that as man Jesus was activated by the Word of God and was clothed with the glory of the Only-begotten, as a being separate from him, let him be anathema .

    8. 8 。 If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema . If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema .

    9. 9 。 If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema . If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema .

    10. 10 。 The divine scripture says Christ became "the high priest and apostle of our confession"; he offered himself to God the Father in an odour of sweetness for our sake. If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema . If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema .

    11. 11 。 If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema . If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema .

    12. 12 。 If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema . If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema


    The judgment against Nestorius

    The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties. We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by

  • the canons and by
  • the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans , to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.

    Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.


    Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.)

    The holy and ecumenical synod, gathered together in Ephesus at the behest of the most pious princes, [sends greeting] to the bishops, priests, deacons and the whole people in every province and city.

    When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number. The leader of this apostasy was John, bishop of Antioch, and their names are as follows: First the same John, bishop of Antioch in Syria, [the names of 33 other eastern bishops follow]

    These men, despite the fact that they were members of the ecclesiastical community, had no licence either to do harm through their priestly dignity or to do good, because some among their number had already been deposed. Their support of the views of Nestorius and Celestius was clearly shown by their refusal to condemn Nestorius together with us. By a common decree the sacred synod has expelled them from ecclesiastical communion and deprived them of the exercise of their priestly office, through which they have been able to harm some and help others.

    Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. He is thereby cast out by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is deprived of all ecclesiastical authority. Instead he is to be subjected to the bishops of his own province and the surrounding metropolitans, provided they be orthodox, even to the extent of being completely deposed from the rank of bishop.

    If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod, are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank. If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod , are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank.

    If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics should apostatise and in private or in public dare to hold the views of Nestorius or Celestius, it is thought right that such should stand deposed by the holy synod.

    Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before. Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before.

    Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated. Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated.


    Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]

    The synod of Nicaea produced this creed: We believe ... [the Nicene Creed follows]

    It seems fitting that all should assent to this holy creed. It is pious and sufficiently helpful for the whole world. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. All those who have a clear and blameless faith will understand, interpret and proclaim it in this way.

    When these documents had been read out, the holy synod decreed the following.

    1. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea.
    2. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised.
    3. In the same way if any should be discovered, whether bishops, clergy or laity, thinking or teaching the views expressed in his statement by the priest Charisius about the incarnation of the only-begotten Son of God or the disgusting, perverted views of Nestorius, which underlie them, these should be subject to the condemnation of this holy and ecumenical synod. A bishop clearly is to be stripped of his bishopric and deposed, a cleric to be deposed from the clergy, and a lay person is to be anathematised, as was said before.


    Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites

    The most pious and religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius came together to us and made a joint enquiry about the so called Messalians or Euchites or Enthusiasts, or whatever name this appalling heresy goes under, who dwell in the region of Pamphylia. We made investigation and the god-fearing and reverent Valerian produced a synodical document concerning these people, which had been drawn up in great Constantinople in the time of Sisinnius of blessed memory. When this had been read out in the presence of all, it was agreed that it had been well made and was correct. We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. But if they decline and do not anathematise, if they are presbyters or deacons or hold any other rank in the church, they are to forfeit their clerical status and grade and communion, and if they are laity let them be anathematised.

    In addition, those who have been condemned are not to be permitted to govern monasteries, lest tares be sown and increase. The vigorous and zealous execution of all these decrees is enjoined upon the reverent bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops throughout the whole province. Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him. Any other production savouring of the like impiety which is found anywhere is to be treated similarly.

    In addition, when they come together, they should commit clearly to writing whatever conduces to the creation of concord, communion and order. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. In this way the disputed questions should through their means be brought to an appropriate solution.


    Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations.

    The holy synod declared:

    The most reverent bishop Rheginus and with him Zenon and Evagrius, revered bishops of the province of Cyprus, have brought forward what is both an innovation against the ecclesiastical customs and the canons of the holy fathers and concerns the freedom of all. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom.

    The same principle will be observed for other dioceses and provinces everywhere . None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors. Any one who has thus seized upon and subjected a province is to restore it, lest the canons of the fathers be transgressed and the arrogance of secular power effect an entry through the cover of priestly office . We must avoid bit by bit destroying the freedom which our lord Jesus Christ the liberator of all people, gave us through his own blood. It is therefore the pleasure of the holy and ecumenical synod to secure intact and inviolate the rights belonging to each province from the first, according to the custom which has been in force from of old. Each metropolitan has the right to take a copy of the proceedings for his own security. If any one produces a version which is at variance with what is here decided, the holy and ecumenical synod unanimously decrees it to be of no avail.


    Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch

    We will state briefly what we are convinced of and profess about

  • the God-bearing virgin and
  • the manner of the incarnation of the only begotten Son of God -- For, as we have just said, that creed is sufficient both for the knowledge of godliness and for the repudiation of all heretical false teaching. We shall speak not presuming to approach the unapproachable; but we confess our own weakness and so shut out those who would reproach us for investigating things beyond the human mind.

    We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be the mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.


    Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace

    Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin, I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin , I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you.

    O fools, whose only competence is in slander! How did you become so perverted in thought and fall into such a sickness of idiocy? For you must surely know that almost all our fight for the faith arose in connexion with our insistence that the holy virgin is the mother of God . But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer? For whom indeed did she bear, if it is untrue that she bore Emmanuel according to the flesh? It is rather they who speak such nonsense against me who deserve to be ridiculed. For the holy prophet Isaiah does not lie when he says, "Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is interpreted God with us". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins".

    But when we say that our lord Jesus Christ came from heaven and above, we do not apply such expressions as "from above" and "from heaven" to his holy flesh. Rather do we follow the divine Paul who clearly proclaimed: "The first man was of the earth, earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven".

    We also recall our Saviour who said: "No one has gone up into heaven except him who came down from heaven, the son of man". Yet he was born, as I have just said, from the holy virgin according to the flesh.

    But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. For there is one lord Jesus Christ, even though we do not ignore the difference of natures, out of which we say that the ineffable union was effected. As for those who say that there was a mixture or confusion or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let your holiness see fit to stop their mouths. For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things. But I am so far from thinking anything of the kind that I think that those are quite mad who suppose that "a shadow of change" is conceivable in connexion with the divine nature of the Word. For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it. Furthermore we all confess that the Word of God is impassible though in his all-wise economy of the mystery he is seen to attribute to himself the sufferings undergone by his own flesh. So the all-wise Peter speaks of "Christ suffering for us in the flesh" and not in the nature of his unspeakable godhead. For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" . For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" .

    Let your holiness be persuaded and let no one else cherish any doubt, that we everywhere follow the opinions of the holy fathers especially those of our blessed and glorious father Athanasius, with whose opinions we differ not in the slightest. I would have added many of their testimonies, proving my opinions from theirs, had I not feared that the length of the letter would be made tedious thereby. We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded. We give neither ourselves nor them the licence to alter any expression there or to change a single syllable, remembering the words: "Remove not the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set".

    For it was not they that spoke, but the Spirit of God the Father, who proceeds from him and who is not distinct from the Son in essence . We are further confirmed in our view by the words of our holy spiritual teachers. For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written: "When they came to Mysia, they tried to go to Bithynia and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame. When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame.

    Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have. Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have.


    Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon

    The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.". The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.".


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

    Ephesus

    Catholic Information

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century BC by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists. Its coinage dates back to 700 BC, the period when the first money was struck. After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100,000 persons. It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100000 persons. Four years later Sulla, again master of the territory, slaughtered at Ephesus all the leaders of the rebellion. From 27 BC till a little after AD 297, Ephesus was the capital of the proconsular province of Asia, a direct dependency of the Roman Senate. Though unimportant politically, it was noted for its extensive commerce. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Ephesus owed its chief renown to its temple of Artemis (Diana), which attracted multitudes of visitors. Its first architect was the Cretan Chersiphron (seventh to sixth century BC) but it was afterwards enlarged. It was situated on the bank of the River Selinus and its precincts had the right of asylum. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. Its construction is said to have lasted 120 years, according to some historians 220. It was over 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and rested upon 128 pillars of about sixty feet in height. It was stripped of its riches by Nero and was finally destroyed by the Goths (AD 262).

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus.それは、ユダヤ人とキリスト教を介して最初に導入されたエフェソス。 The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12).オリジナルのコミュニティーは、アポロのリーダーシップのもとに( 1コリンチャンス1時12分) 。 They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla.かれらは、弟子の聖ヨハネバプテスト、アクイラと変換されるとはプリシラ。 Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles.やがて聖パウロは、エフェソスに住んで3年間、新しい教会を確立して整理;を教えるのは、彼がいつもscholaホールの雄弁家や講義- tyrannus (行為19 : 09 )と多くの奇跡が行われています。 Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.).やがて彼は出発する義務が、論議を巻き起こし、結果は、扇動されるゴールドスミスディミートリアスおよびその他のメーカーのために同寺の元votoesダイアナ( 18時24 sqq行為です。 ;午前19時01 sqq 。 ) 。 A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35).その少し後、自分の道をエルサレムで、彼は、年長者には、地域社会のために送られるのをミレトスエフェソスに来ると、かれらに触れて別れのあいさつを命じた(行為20:17-35 ) 。 The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12).エペソ教会コミットしていた彼の弟子、聖ティモシー、市内に自生する植物( 1ティモシー1 、 3 ; 2ティモシー1 、 18 ;午前4時12分) 。 The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches.信徒の聖パウロのエペソ人ではないが、おそらく彼ら宛に直接;円形すぎないのかもしれないが彼にいくつかの教会から送られた手紙です。 The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists.死の逗留とは、使徒聖ヨハネはエフェソス新約聖書には記載されていないが、両方とも証言し、早ければ第2世紀後半irenæusされた聖( adv. haer 。 、 3世、 3世、 4 ) 、 polycrates 、司教のエフェソス(ユーセビアス、シーッ。 eccl 。 、 v 、 21 ) 、アレクサンドリアのクレメンスは、 " acta joannis "で、少し早いとされた聖ジャスティンmontanists 。 Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle.ビザンチンの伝統では常に表示さエフェソスの墓の使徒です。 Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen.もう一つの伝統では、信頼される可能性がありますが、古代少なく、そのシーンは、死をエフェソスの聖マリアマグダレン。 On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin.その半面、聖母マリアの意見は、そこにかかって死亡していない古代の証言;しかし、あいまいなテキストは、しばしば引用符では、評議会のエフェソス( 431 ) 、意味があることだけは、その時点では、聖母教会のエフェソス。 (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (参照してくださいラムゼイは、 "エクスポジター"は、 6月に、 1905年にも彼の"アジアの7都市"とします。 )我々学び、さらに、よりユーセビアス( hist. eccl 。 、 v 、 xxiv )は、 3人の娘が、使徒聖フィリップエフェソスに埋葬した。

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles.約110聖イグナティウスのアンティオキア、スミュルナを続けてきた使徒を迎え、エフェソス教会は、彼の7人に送られることで有名なの書簡の1つです。 During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor.最初の3つの中世紀にもわたって、エフェソスは、アンティオキアの横には、キリスト教、アジアの中心部主任マイナーです。 In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches. 190年には、その司教は、聖polycrates 、理事会を開き、復活祭の論争を考慮すると宣言し、自分自身を支持しquartodeciman練習; ephesian教会にもかかわらず、すぐに練習に適合して、この特定の他のすべての教会です。 It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority.キヤノンよう特定して、第6回ニカイア公会議( 325 ) 、確認のために全体を管轄するエフェソスの教会"の司教管区"のアジア地域や市民のマイナー、すなわち、 11人以上の地方教会;すべてのイベントでは、キヤノンの2番目このコンスタンティノポリス公会議( 381 )この権限を正式に認めています。 But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus.しかしコンスタンティノープルはすでに所有権のランクのうち、最初の教会と東方教会は、附属書トラキアしようとして、アジア、そしてポントスです。 To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria.これらのencroachmentsに抵抗は、共通の原因を前にしてアレキサンドリアエフェソス。 We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches.従って我々の司教を見つけると聖シリルサイディングメムノンのエフェソス公会議は、 3番目は、 431で開かれたエフェソスでnestorianism非難し、別のビショップ、スティーブン、 dioscorusをサポートしている、いわゆる強盗で評議会( latrocinium ephesinum ) 、 449 、異端のeutychesこれを承認した。 But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.しかし、抵抗を克服するのは、評議会は、エフェソスchalcedon ( 451 ) 、二十八の有名なキヤノンの置かれた教会の28の地方行政ポントス、アジア、そしてトラキアの管轄下にあるのコンスタンティノープル総主教のです。 Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights.しかし、 2番目の大都市エフェソスあげたのは、正教会のコンスタンティノープルは、これまで回復しなかったの前に立って、評議会にもかかわらず、 474でポールは、キリスト単性論のアレキサンドリア総主教に復元した古代の権利です。 Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops.エジプトの影響力を保持する責任を負うのは、キリスト単エペソ得た中で、 6世紀;教会の有名な歴史学者、ジョンのアジアでは、当時の司教の1つです。 The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees.エフェソスのメトロポリスの支配当時36副監督は見ています。 Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage.ユスティニアヌスは、その都市の人のまねストリッピングコンスタンティノスで、多くの芸術作品を飾るコンスタンティノープルは、内蔵してある壮大な聖ヨハネ教会の聖体拝領;これはすぐにある有名な巡礼地です。

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs.エフェソスでは、撮影された655と717のアラブ人です。 Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians.それ以降のテーマは、資本金のthracesians 。 During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century.因習打破の期間中に2つの司教の殉教エペソ苦しんで、テオフィロスhypatiusでは、 9世紀の735とした。 In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images.同じ都市で、熾烈な総合lachanodracon死刑を38から修道院の僧侶たちpeleceteおよびその他の者には、神聖なbithyniaイメージです。 In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople. 899転送にして英明でられるレオの聖母の遺物をコンスタンティノープルモードリン。 The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John. 1090キャプチャーでは、市のセルジュクトルコによって破壊されると、それが、ビザンティン諸国と再構築することに成功したものは、隣接する丘の聖ヨハネ教会の周りです。 Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo.今後と呼ばれることがよくhagios theologos (聖なる神学者、すなわち聖ヨハネ) 、または、トルコのアヤsolouk (ギリシアには、使徒聖ヨハネ"の神学者" ) ; altelotサイトと呼ばれ、フランス、イタリアアルトluogo 。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins. 13世紀の初めに、首都圏、 mesaritesニコラスは、会議で重要な役割を持って来て、ギリシア人との間にlatins 。 The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks.略奪されるが、同市に再びトルコでは、 14世紀の最初の数年間は、その後のカタロニア地方の傭兵の給料は、ビザンティン圏では、より多くのトルコといったんだ。 The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop.聖ヨハネ教会はモスクへと姿を変え、そしてその都市を支配されていたトルコameer 、ほとんどの人は、貿易で運ば西側が、それを維持する可能性はもはや、ギリシャの司教。 A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411.ラテン系の司教の統治を参照してください一千三百十八〜一千四百十一。 The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters.エフェソスの遺跡が完成されたのは1403ティムール- lengと、半世紀近くの間で、トルコの内戦マスターズ。 When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks. It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway. The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village. There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held. The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia.フィレンツェでは、評議会のときにマークのエフェソス1439 (マーカスeugenicus ) latins見せた自分自身に向かって横柄なので、彼は、牧師の惨めな村は、すべてのことは、偉大な都市では依然と呼ばれるalterumルーメンasiaeいったんpliny 、あるいは2番目アイオブアジア( hist.ナッ。 、 v 、 29 ;もapoc 。 、 2世、 5 ; cf 。 brockhoffウィリアムは、 "エペソvom viertenキリスト教です。 jhdt 。ビスseinem untergang : 、イエナ、 1906 ) 。 solouk今日はアヤ3000住民たちは、すべてのギリシャ人です。それは街の中心、カザのkoush adassi 、またはスミュルナaidenのvilayetのは、約50マイルスミュルナから、スミュルナ- aidin鉄道している。エペソ廃墟の中で、スタンドの下の湿地で不健康な平原の村があり、同寺の遺骨のダイアナは、劇場、観衆25000の容量を持つのは、競技場、体育館の偉大され、 "二重の教会"は、おそらく、古代の大聖堂は、 1つの通路には専用の聖母は、他の聖ヨハネには、 431と449はどこの委員会が開かれた。 manissaでは、ギリシャの首都圏に居住し、古代マグネシア。

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé.米vailhé書かれた文献の情報です。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.カトリック百科事典は、ボリュームの対日付1909 。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.ニューヨーク:ロバートアップルトン会社です。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.公認は、 09年5月1日です。 Remy Lafort, Censor.レミlafort 、検閲。 Imprimatur.許可します。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +のJohn M.ファーリー、大司教オブニューヨーク

    Bibliography文献情報

    Wood, On the Antiquities of Ephesus having relation to Christianity in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology, VI, 328; Idem, Discoveries at Ephesus (London, 1877); Falkener, Ephesus and the Temple of Diana (London, 1862); Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor (London, 1834), II, 247-272; Barclay-Head, History of the Coinage of Ephesus (London, 1880); Guhl, Ephesiaca (Berlin, 1843); Curtius, Ephesos (Berlin, 1874); Benndorf, Forschungen in Ephesos (Vienna, 1905); Chapot, La province Romaine proconsulaire d'Asie (Paris, 1904); Gude, De ecclesiae ephesinae statu aevo apostolorum (Paris, 1732); Cruse-Blicher, De statu Ephesiorum ad quos scripsit Paulus (Hanover, 1733); Le Camus in Vig., Dict.木材、エフェソスには、骨董品の取引と関連して、キリスト教の聖書考古学協会は、 6 、 328 ;同文献は、発見数はエフェソス(ロンドン、 1877 ) ; falkener 、エフェソスのアルテミス神殿と(ロンドン、 1862 ) ; arundellは、アジアでの発見マイナー(ロンドン、 1834 ) 、 2世、二四七〜二七二;バークレイ-頭は、歴史の硬貨のエフェソス(ロンドン、 1880 ) ; guhl 、 ephesiaca (ベルリン、 1843 ) ;クルティウス、エフェソス(ベルリン、 1874 ) ; benndorf 、 forschungenでエフェソス(ウィーン、 1905 ) ;シャポ、ラ州ロマインproconsulaire d' asie (パリ、 1904 ) ;グーデ、デecclesiaの複数ephesinae statu aevo apostolorum (パリ、 1732 ) ; cruse -ブリッカー、デstatu ephesiorum広告quos scripsitパウルス(ハノーバー、 1733 ) ;ルカミュでビグ。 、辞書です。 de la Bible, sv Ephese; Zimmermann, Ephesos im ersten christl.デラ聖書は、 ephese sv ;ツィンマーマン、エフェソスイムersten christl 。 Jhdt. jhdt 。 (Berlin, 1894): Lequien, Oriens christianus (Paris, 1740), I, 671-694; Brockhoff, Studien zur Gesch. (ベルリン、 1894 ) : lequien 、 oriens christianus (パリ、 1740 ) 、私は、六七一〜六九四; brockhoff 、 studienツアgesch 。 der Stadt Ephesos (Jena, 1905); Weber, Le guide du voyageur a Ephese (Smyrna, 1891); Buerchner, Ephesos in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc., sv; Ramsey, The Seven Cities of Asia (London, 1907).デアシュタットエフェソス(イエナ、 1905 ) ;ウェーバーは、ルガイドデュ運び屋にephese (スミュルナ、 1891 ) ; buerchner 、パウリ-ウィッソーワエフェソスでは、実encyc 。 、 sv ;ラムジーは、アジアの7都市(ロンドン、 1907 ) 。


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