New Testament新約聖書

Jewish Information ユダヤ教の情報

-Historical Books: -歴史的な書籍:

The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that by the advent of Jesus of Nazareth the Messianic prophecies had been fulfilled and a new covenant (LXX., διαϑέκη; Vulgate, "testamentum") or dispensation had taken the place of the old Mosaic one (Gal. iii. 15-22; Luke xxii. 20; Heb. ix. 15-22; comp. Ex. xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2, 23; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 23).名前を"新約聖書"はキリスト教の教会に与えられたのは、 2番目の世紀の終了時、他の使徒をgospelsと記述して、 〜だけれどもていたことを示すという目的で構成されるナザレのイエスの到来救世主予言する新しい契約に満足していた( lxx. 、 διαϑέκη ;ウルガタ聖書は、 " testamentum " )または特免取ってかわっていた古いモザイクの1つ( gal. Ⅲ 。 15から22 ;ルーク22 。 20 ; heb 。 9 。 15から22まで;伴奏。例です。 xxiv 。 7 ; 2世の王23 。 2 、 23 ; ecclus 。 [シラク] xxiv 。 23 ) 。 The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer.そのアイデアは、新しい契約は、主にベースjer 。 xxxi. 31 。 31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16). 31から34まで( comp. heb 。 viii 。 6月13日、 Xの16 ) 。 That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer. xxxi. 35-36; comp. xxxiii. 25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people.預言者のことを意味する言葉ではありませんが、法の廃止にみられるように彼の断固たるimmutabilityの盟約宣言してイスラエル( 31 jer. 。 35から36まで;伴奏。 33 。 25 ) ;彼は、明らかに探した更新法律を介して人々の心の再生です。 To Paul and his followers, however (see Rom. x. 4; II Cor. iii. 14), the Mosaic dispensation ended with Jesus, and consequently the Hebrew Scripture became the "Old Covenant," or "Testament," while Jesus was regarded as the mediator of the "New."ポールとその部下が、しかし( ROMを参照してください。 Xの4 ; 2世うわっ。 Ⅲ 。 14 )は、イエスキリストのモザイク特免終了して、その結果、ユダヤ教の聖典となった"旧契約は、 "または"新約聖書は、 "イエスの中には調停者と見なされて、 "新規"と述べた。 But the names "Old" and "New Testament," when used by Jewish writers, serve only as terms of identification, and do not imply acceptance of the principle implied.しかし、名前を"古い"と"新約聖書は、 "ユダヤ人の作家で使用されるときには、身分証明書の条件としてのみ提供する、との原則を受け入れていない言外の意味です。

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Contents of the New Testament.新約聖書の内容だ。

The early Church had no other sacred books than those in use in the Synagogue, and on these were based the claims of the Messiahship of Jesus as "the fulfilment of Scripture."初期の教会ではない、他の書籍に比べて、使用する神聖なシナゴーグでは、請求の範囲をベースとしていたが、これらのmessiahshipイエスを"啓典の達成です。 " In the course of time, however, the custom adopted from the Synagogue of reading at the service epistles of apocalyptic or Messianic character (see Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, p. 4; Baruch i. 3; Apoc. Baruch lxxviii.) not merely established the regular reading of the apostolic epistles in the Church, but made the reading of the story of the advent and doings of Jesus as the good tidings or gospel ("good spell" =εὐαγγέλιον; Mark i. 1, 15; Luke iv. 18; comp. Isa. lii. 7, lxi. 1) an essential part of the service; readings from the Old Testament were selectedas containing the prophecy or preparation, and those from the New as showing the fulfilment ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 55; Justin, "Apologia," i. 67; comp. 28; idem, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 18, 48, 49).時間の経過では、しかし、シナゴーグは、カスタムの採択からの書簡を読んで、サービスの終末論やメシアキャラクター(タンを参照してください。 、 wa'era 、エド。ブーバー、 p. 4 ;バルークi. 3 ; apoc 。バルーク78 。 )だけではない、通常の設立は、使徒の書簡を読んで、教会ではなく、読書の前に出現し、その物語の所業として、吉報を伝えたり、イエスの福音( "良いスペル" = εὐαγγέλιον ;マークi. 1 、 15 ;ルーク4世です。 18 ;伴奏。のISAです。 52 。 7 、 61 。 1 )サービスの不可欠な部分である;読みから、旧約聖書の予言がselectedasまたは準備中を含む、およびそれらより新しいとして達成を示す( "ローマ教皇の憲法は、 " Ⅱ 。 55 ;ジャスティンは、 "弁明は、 " i. 67 ;伴奏。 28 ;同著者は、 " dialogus付きでtryphone 、 " § § 18 、 48 、 49 ) 。

Concerning the mode of composition and the dates of the various New Testament writings a wide divergence of opinion prevails among the several schools of Christian theologians and critics.モードの組成に関する日程や、新約聖書の記述は、多種多様な意見の相違が広がる中で、いくつかの学校とキリスト教神学を批判した。 It is solely from the Jewish point of view that they are considered here, the attempt being made to indicate to what extent their contents may be called Jewish in origin and character, and to what extent they contain anti-Jewish elements.それだけではユダヤ教の観点から検討されているここでは、この試みれていることを示す内容をどの程度自分のユダヤ人の起源と呼ばれるかもしれないとキャラクター、そして彼らがどの程度反ユダヤ主義の要素が含まれています。

The New Testament consists of the following books: I. The historical books: the Four Gospels-(1) according to Matthew; (2) according to Mark; (3) according to Luke; (4) according to John-and the Acts of the Apostles.新約聖書の構成は、以下の書籍: i. 、歴史的な書籍: gospels - ( 1 )の4つのマシューによると、 ( 2 )によると、マーク;ルカによる福音書によると( 3 ) 、 ( 4 )によると、ジョンとの行為その使徒です。 II. Ⅱ 。 The Pauline epistles: (1) to the Romans; (2 and 3) to the Corinthians; (4) to the Galatians; (5) to the Ephesians; (6) to the Philippians; (7) to the Colossians; (8 and 9) to the Thessalonians; (10 and 11) to Timothy; (12) to Titus; (13) to Philemon; (14) to the Hebrews.そのパウロの書簡: ( 1 )に、ローマ人への手紙; ( 2および3 )にコリンチャンス;ガラテヤ人への手紙に( 4 ) 、 ( 5 )を、エペソ人;ピリピ人への手紙に( 6 ) 、 ( 7 )に、コロサイ人への手紙; ( 8そして9 )をthessalonians ; ( 10および11 )をティモシー;タイタス( 12 )を、 ( 13 )をフィレモン;ヘブル人への手紙( 14 )がいる。 III. Ⅲ 。 The so-called Catholic epistles: (1) the Epistle of James; (2 and 3) of Peter; (4, 5, and 6) of John; (7) of Jude; and (8) the Apocalypse of John, called also the Revelation of St. John the Divine.いわゆるカトリックの書簡: ( 1 )の信徒のジェームズ;ピーター( 2および3 ) 、 ( 4 、 5 、 6 )のジョン;のジュード( 7 ) 、 ( 8 ) 、ヨハネの黙示録のは、呼ばまた、ヨハネの黙示録の聖ヨハネ。 Of these works it is necessary here to deal with only the first section.これらの作品に対処することが必要ここだけの最初のセクションをご覧ください。

The Four Gospels: 4つのgospels :

The gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were in the main composed between 80 and 150 CE; each relates, with a characteristic tendency of its own, the story of Jesus from the time of the appearance of John the Baptist until the "resurrection," with the purpose of showing that he was the looked-for Messiah of the Jewish prophecies. gospelsによると、マタイ、マルコ、ルカ、ヨハネは、主に構成された80人から150人の間ce ;ごとに関連し、独自の特徴的な傾向は、イエスキリストの物語が、外観からは、時間になるまでジョンザバプティスト"復活"としていたことを示すという目的のために顔には、ユダヤ教の予言救世主です。 But while the first three gospels, called the "synoptic gospels," bear the same character and agree as to the plan of the work and the conception of Jesus as the Messiah, the son of David, the fourth gospel attempts to put a metaphysical and mystical construction upon the doings and sayings of Jesus narrated in the other three, with the view of presenting him as the son of God in the cosmic sense of the word.しかし、最初の3つの中gospels 、呼ばれ、 "総観gospels 、 "クマのキャラクターと同じように、計画に同意すると、その仕事がイエスの受胎の救世主として、その息子であるデビッドは、第4福音書と形而上を入れることを試みます神秘的な施工時の所業とイエスのことわざで、他の3つのナレーションは、その見方を提示して彼に神の御子としては、宇宙の意味での言葉だ。

The gospels do not claim to have been written by any of the apostles, but only to have been transmitted orally as tradition emanating from them.そのgospelsていないと主張してきた任意の使徒によって書かれただけの伝統を持つとされて経口感染することからやって来る。 Thus Luke i.こうしてルークi. 1-3 refers to the existence of many gospels resting upon the report of "eye-witnesses and disciples," and Papias, an early second-century authority, relates that Mark wrote down what he, in a rather disconnected way, heard from Peter, and that Matthew had made a collection of the sayings of Jesus in the Hebrew (Aramean) without the historical framework, which was given differently by each commentator (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 39, § 16). 1-3の存在を指しているため、多くのgospels安静時の報告書には"目に目撃者や弟子"とpapias 、 2番目の早期世紀の権限は、どのような関連性をマーク書き留めた彼は、どちらかというと切断方法では、ピーターから聞いたは、マシューとしていたの収集前に、イエスは、ヘブライ語のことわざ(アラム人)なしで、歴史的な枠組みの中で、指定された各評論家によって違う(ユーセビアス、 "シーッ。 eccl 。 " Ⅲ 。 39 、 § 16 ) 。

These two facts-a collection by Matthew of the sayings of Jesus in the Aramean language, and a gospel by Mark, as the oldest connected narrative of Jesus' sayings and doings-have served modern critics as the basis of their investigations.これらの2つの事実には、収集されたマシューことわざイエスは、アラム人の言語では、福音をマークすると、接続最古の物語としてのイエスの言行にある近代的批評家としての基礎を配布彼らの捜査です。 Finding a striking similarity in the arrangement, and at times even an identity in the diction, of the larger part of the three gospels, they have arrived at the conclusion that the second gospel, which presents the whole record of Jesus in the simplest form and the best chronological order, was the original composition and was used by the other two; whereas the stories and sayings offered either by the other two gospels in common or by each separately rest on collections and traditions clustering around those of Matthew and others.顕著な類似点を見つけるの取り決めは、時とは、言葉遣いも、アイデンティティは、その大部分は、 3つのgospels 、という結論に到着した彼らは2番目の福音書は、イエスキリストが男性の記録は、全体の簡単な形式と最良の年代順は、オリジナルの組成とは、使用されていた他の2つの;いますが、どちらかの物語やことわざで提供される他の2つの共通点やgospels残りを別々には、各コレクションや伝統をクラスタリングして周りの人や他のマシュー。

Still, there are other criteria by which the Jewish investigator is able to ascertain the origin and authenticity of the gospel stories and trace the various stages of their growth.それでも、条件によっては他にもありますが、ユダヤ人の調査官ができるの真偽を確かめるの起源と福音ストーリーや、様々な段階で自分の成長をトレースします。 A careful analysis corroborates the conclusion, assumed to be axiomatic by Jewish scholars, that the older and more genuine the records, written or unwritten, of the doings and teachings of Jesus, the more they betray close kinship with and friendly relations to Jews and Judaism; but that the more remote they are from the time and scene of the activity of Jesus, the more they show of hostility to the Jewish people and of antagonism to the Mosaic Law.その結論を慎重に分析corroborates 、公理されたユダヤ人の学者と推定される、としてもっと古い正規の記録によりますと、書面または暗黙のは、イエスキリストの教えの所業とは、もっと彼らとの友好関係を裏切る近い血縁関係をユダヤ人とユダヤ教;しかし、彼らはリモートからは、より多くの時間とのシーンは、イエスの活動を、より多くの彼らの敵意を示すユダヤ人との対立をモザイク法です。 The changing attitude and temper of the new sect influenced the records at every stage, and this accounts for the conflicting statements found beside each other in the various gospels and gospel stories.気性的な態度の変化や、新教派の影響を受けたレコードのあらゆる段階では、このアカウントとは、お互いに相反するステートメントが見つかりましたそばには、様々なストーリーgospelsと福音です。

The Different Versions.異なるバージョンの。

To begin with the crucifixion story, the older version knows only that the chief priests and scribes constituting the Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death and handed him over to the Romans, who mocked, scourged, and killed him (Mark x. 33; Matt. xx. 17-19; comp. Mark xiv. 14; also Matt. xxvi. 45, where the term "sinners" is used for "heathen").はりつけの物語を開始して、古いバージョンの主任司祭と知っていることだけがscribes構成サンヘドリン死刑囚の死とイエスを渡した上をローマには、人の嘲笑、 scourged 、および討ち取りました(マークXの33 ;マットです。 XXの。十七〜十九;伴奏。マーク14 。 14 ;もマットです。 26 。 45 、どこの任期"罪人"が使用される"異教徒"を参照) 。 Later on (see Mark viii. 31; Matt. xvi. 21; Luke ix. 22), the reference to the Romans as the crucifiers has been altogether omitted, while in Mark ix.後で上(マークVIIIを参照してください。 31 ;マットです。 16 。 21 ;ルーク9 。 22 )は、ローマ人へのリファレンスをcrucifiersとして完全に省略されて、中にはマーク9世です。 31, Matt. 31日、マットです。 xvii. 17 。 22, Luke ix. 22日、ルーク9 。 44 the general term "men" is used instead. 44の全般にわたる"男性"の代わりに使用されています。 With the older version tallies the story according to which the cause of his condemnation by the Sanhedrin was Jesus' hostility toward the Temple (Mark xiv. 58; Matt. xxvi. 61; comp. Mark xi. 15-18, xiii. 2, xv. 29, and parallels; comp. also John ii. 19; see Wellhausen, Commentary to Mark, 1903, pp. 131-133), a crime termed "pashaṭ yado ba-zebul" (he stretched out his hand against the Temple; Acts vi. 13; Tos. Sanh. xiii.; RH 17a; comp. Yer. Sanh. vi. 23c-"pashaṭ yado be-iḳḳar").古いバージョンでは、得票の話によると、彼の非難される原因サンヘドリンはイエスの敵意を持っている寺( 14マークです。 58 ;マットです。 26 。 61 ;伴奏。 xiマークです。 15-18 、 13世です。 2 、 15 。 29 、および類似点;伴奏です。ジョン2世もいる。 19 ;参照してくださいヴェルハウゼン、解説をマーク、 1903 、 pp 。一三一から一三三まで)は、犯罪的な" pashaṭ - yado打率zebul " (彼は彼の手を伸ばして反対の寺;行為viのです。 13 ;のTOSです。 sanh 。 13 。 ; rh 17a ;伴奏。 yer 。 sanh 。 viのです。 23c - " pashaṭ yado - iḳḳarれる"といいます。 ) It was at a later time and in contradiction to facts showing their friendly attitude (Luke xiii. 31) that the Pharisees were represented as having conspired against the life of Jesus, either with the Herodians or high priests (Mark iii. 6, xii. 13; Matt. xvi. 6, 11; xxii. 15-16; but comp. Luke xx. 19, where the Pharisees are not mentioned, and Matt. xxvii. 62; John vii, 32, 45; xi. 47; xviii. 3) or without them (Matt. xii. 14 [comp. vi. 7], xvi. 11; Luke xi. 53, xii. 1).それは、後で事実とは矛盾して友好的な態度を表示している(ルカによる福音書13 。 31 )は、 pharisees陰謀を企てていたとして表されたイエスキリストの生涯は、どちらかとherodiansまたは高プリースト(マークⅢ 。 6 、 12世です。 13 ;マットです。 16 。 6 、 11 ; 22 。十五〜十六;しかし伴奏。ルークXXのです。 19 、どこではないpharisees触れたように、そしてマットです。 27 。 62 ;ジョン7 、 32 、 45 ; xi 。 47 ; 18 。 3 )またはなしにかれら( 12世matt. 。 14 [伴奏。 viのです。 7 ]は、 16世です。 11 ;ルークxi 。 53 、 12世です。 1 )です。 Accordingly, the charges singled out to account for his persecution by the Pharisees were violation of the Sabbath (Mark ii. 23-iii. 6, et al.) and the claim of being the son of God (Mark xiv. 61-64, et al.).したがいまして、白羽の矢が立つの料金を説明するために迫害された彼のpharisees違反していた安息日(マークⅡ 。 23 - Ⅲ 。 6 、らです。 )クレームれていると、神の御子( 14マークです。六一〜六四、らです。 ) 。

Again, in the original version the Jewish multitudes side with Jesus to the very last (Luke xx. 19, xxiii. 27; Mark xii. 12); later on, both Herod, thepersecutor whom Jesus called "that fox" (Luke xiii. 32), and Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect (Luke xiii. 1, xix. 1), are transformed into friends and protectors of Jesus (Luke xxiii. 8, 15; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 4; Matt. xxvii. 17-25; John xviii. 38; xix. 4, 6, 12, 16), and the Jews described as his real crucifiers (Mark xv. 13-14; Matt. xxvii. 22-23; John xix. 12; Acts iv. 10); nay, more, the Jews become synonyms for fiends and bloodthirsty tyrants (John vii. 1, 13; viii. 44; x. 31; et al.).繰り返しますが、元のバージョンでは、ユダヤ人の数多くの面で非常にイエスキリストを最後に(ルークXXのです。 19 、 23 。 27 ;マーク12世です。 12 ) ;後には、両方のヘロデは、イエスキリストと呼ばれるthepersecutor誰"とキツネ" (ルカによる福音書13 。 32 ) 、およびpontius pilate 、ローマ知事( 13世ルークです。 1 、 19 。 1 ) 、友人や保護者に変身させられるイエス(ルカによる福音書23 。 8 、 15 ;マーク15 。 14 ;ルーク23 。 4 ;マットです。二十七。一七〜二五;ジョン18 。 38 ; 19 。 4 、 6 、 12 、 16 )は、ユダヤ人といわれて、彼の本当のcrucifiers ( 15マークです。 13-14 ;マットです。 27 。二十二から二十三まで;ジョン19 。 12 ;静脈行為です。 10 ) ;いや、こちらは、ユダヤ人のためになるfiends類義語や血に飢えたtyrants (ヨハネ7世です。 1 、 13 ; viii 。 44 ; Xの31 ;らです。 ) 。

For and Against the Law.のための法律に違反しています。

The same irreconcilable differences are found in the sayings attributed to Jesus concerning the Jews and the Law.同じ相いれないの違いに起因するものが見つかったイエスに関することわざは、ユダヤ人と定められています。 According to the older version (Matt. v. 17-19; Luke xvi. 17), he declared that he had not come to destroy but to fulfil-that is, to practise-the Law.によると、以前のバージョン( matt.対17から19 ;ルーク16 。 17 ) 、彼は来ていないと公言していたが破棄することを約束には、同法の練習をします。 In fact, he urged the sacrifice of the sin-offering for the leper (Mark i. 43, and parallels).事実、彼の罪を犠牲にするよう求めたのハンセン病患者に提供するために(マークi. 43 、および類似点) 。 It was the abuses of the Law and the hypocrisy of the Pharisees that he rebuked in scathing language (Matt. xxiii.; Mark vii. 11; Luke xi. 42-43; comp. similar denunciations of Pharisaic hypocrisy in Soṭah 22b, Yer. Ber. ix. 14b, Ab. RN xxxvii.), while demanding a higher standard of righteousness of his disciples (Matt. v. 20, 37, 48).それは、この法律の乱用として彼を叱責pharisees偽善では、痛烈な言語( 23 matt. 。 ;マーク7 。 11 ;ルークxi 。四二から四三まで;伴奏。 pharisaic偽善で似たようのない非難のsoṭah 22b 、 yer 。 ber 。 9 。 14b 、 ABのです。 37ラドン娘。 )は、高い基準を要求しながら、彼の弟子義( matt.対20 、 37 、 48 ) 。 He expressly stated that he had been "sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and found it "not meet to take the children's bread and cast it to the dogs" (that is, to the heathen), enjoining even his disciples to go not to the Gentiles, but to the lost sheep of Israel (Matt. x. 5-6, xv. 24-27).彼に明示的に記載されていた"失われた羊を送ったが、かれは、イスラエルの家"を発見すること"を満たしていない子供たちのパンを取ると、犬にキャストして" (つまり、異教徒に) 、彼でさえenjoining弟子にしていないgentiles行くが、しかし、イスラエルの失われた羊( matt. Xの5-6は、 15です。二十四から二十七まで) 。 He shows special love for a daughter of Abraham and a son of Abraham (Luke xix. 9).彼は特別な愛情を示し、アブラハムの娘と息子のアブラハム(ルカによる福音書19 。 9 ) 。 His name, Jesus (Joshua), is interpreted "he who shall save his people [from their sins]" (Matt. i. 21, ii. 6), and those whom he has healed "glorify the God of Israel" (Matt. xv. 31).彼の名前は、イエスキリスト(ジョシュア) 、解釈は、 "彼は自分の民を救う者は、 [から自分の罪] " ( matt. i. 21 、 Ⅱ 。 6 ) 、およびそれらの心に適うが治癒した"とイスラエルの神を賛美する" (マット。 15 。 31 ) 。

On the other hand, he is declared to be the hope of "the Gentiles" (Matt. xii. 21; comp. "Savior of the world" of John iv. 42), and he becomes the exponent of the Pauline ideas that the old must give way to the new (Mark ii. 21-22; Luke v. 36-38; comp. 39); that the gospel should "be preached unto all nations" (Mark xiii. 10; Matt. xxiv. 14); nay, more-that the Kingdom of God be taken away from the Jews and given to another nation (Matt. viii. 11-12; xxi. 43).その一方で、彼は宣言して、希望の" gentiles " ( 12世matt. 。 21 ;伴奏です。 "救い主の世界"のジョン4世です。 42 ) 、そして彼のアイデアになるのは、指数は、ポーリーン古い、新しい道を譲る必要があります(マークⅡ 。二一〜二二;ルーク対三十六から三十八まで;伴奏。 39 ) ;は、ゴスペルばならない"と説教で、かれのすべての国" ( 13世マークです。 10 ;マットです。 xxiv 。 14 ) ;いや、こちらには、神の王国に連れ去らからのユダヤ人と他の国に与えられた( viii matt. 。 11-12 ; 21 。 43 ) 。

Unhistorical Character of the Gospels.キャラクターは、歴史的でないgospels 。

As a matter of fact, the discrepancies in the records extend over all parts of the Four Gospels and invalidate the claim of historicity advanced for Mark or for any other of the gospels.実際問題としては、レコードの延長上の差異は、 4つのすべての部分を無効とするとの主張gospels史実をマーク、またはその他の詳細は、 gospels 。 For instance, it is very singular that the only possible date for the crucifixion is found in the late fourth gospel (John xviii. 28), according to which it took place on Friday, the eve of Passover, and not on Passover, as Mark xiv.例えば、それは非常に特異なことでのみ可能なことが判明した日付をはりつけ後半に4番目の福音書(ヨハネ18 。 28 )は、それによると、同国で行われた、ペサハの前夜、ペサハとしていない、としてマーク14 。 12, Matt. 12日、マットです。 xxvi. 26 。 17, and Luke xxii. 17 、 22とルーク。 7 have it. 7ている。 True, a trace of the correct date has been discovered in Mark xiv.真は、トレースは、正しい日付が発見されて14マークです。 1 (see Wellhausen on the passage); but then the Last Supper can no longer be the paschal feast, as John xiii. 1 (ヴェルハウゼンして通路を参照してください) ;ところが、その後、最後の晩餐にはもはや、復活祭のごちそうとしてヨハネ13世です。 2 has no reference at all to it. 2リファレンスではないことをすべてしている。 So Jesus is reported to have defended his claim to the Messiahship by proving (from Ps. cx. 1) that the Messiah need not be a son of David (Mark xii. 35-37), while the all-knowing demons of the possessed call him "Jesus, son of David" (Mark x. 47).だから、イエスは彼の主張を擁護したと報じられて立証されたのmessiahship (よりしまう。にcx 。 1 )にする必要はないが、救世主の息子であるデビッド(マーク12世です。三五から三七まで) 、中には、鬼にして全知で保有彼に電話する"イエスは、息子のデビッド" (マークXの47 ) 。 Here, too, John's gospel is more consistent.ここでは、あまりにも、ヨハネの福音書は、より多くの一貫です。 It knows nothing of the Davidic descent of Jesus; on the contrary, his legitimacy of birth is disputed (John viii. 48), while stress is laid upon the view that Jesus is the son of God.何もないことを知って、イエスキリストの子孫davidic ;とは逆に、彼の誕生は、係争中の正当性(ジョンviii 。 48 )が、ストレスは、との見方をレイアウトには、神の御子イエスです。 The genealogies in Matthew (i. 1-17) and Luke (iii. 23-28), while conflicting with each other, are late attempts at establishing his Davidic descent, actually disproving the claim of his supernatural origin (Matt. i. 18; Luke ii. 5). genealogiesで、マシュー( i. 1月17日)とルーク( iii.二十三から二十八)が、お互いに相反して、彼は、終盤の確立を試みますdavidic下り坂では、実際に彼の超自然的起源disprovingのクレーム( 18 i. matt. ;ルークⅡ 。 5 ) 。 The claim that Jesus was "Christ the son of God" all the gospels endeavor to establish.イエスの主張は"神の御子キリスト"を確立しようとする努力のすべてのgospels 。

Most incompatible with the Jewish mode of thinking and speaking is the story, in Matt.ほとんどの互換性がないと言えば、ユダヤ人の思考様式は、その物語は、マットです。 i. 18-23 (with which Luke i. 27, 34, ii. 5, and iii. 23 were afterward harmonized), of his conception by the virgin from the Holy Ghost ("Ruaḥ" = "Spirit," being feminine both in Hebrew and Aramaic).十八から二十三まで(ルークとどのi. 27 、 34 、 Ⅱ 。 5 、およびiii 。 23調和された後)は、彼の処女懐胎されるから、聖霊( " ruaḥ " = "スピリット"が、ヘブライ語の両方が女性らしいとアラム語) 。 The older view was that Jesus became the son of God through the descent of the Holy Ghost at the moment of his rebirth by baptism, when the heavenly "bat ḳol" spoke to him, "Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Acts xiii. 33; comp. Mark i. 11; Luke iii. 22; see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 88, 103), and the Holy Ghost lifted him to the "ḥayyot" of the heavenly throne, even above the angels (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. iv. 11).古い表示していたが、神の御子イエスキリストを通して、聖霊の降下の瞬間に再生された彼の洗礼は、天国のとき、 "バットḳol "スポークをしてしまったら、 "なた私の息子は、この日は私ひとり子なんじ" ( 13世行為です。 33 ;伴奏。マークi. 11 ;ルークⅢ 。 22 ;参照してくださいジャスティンは、 " dialogus付きでtryphone 、 " § § 88 、 103 ) 、そして彼には聖霊の解除" ḥayyot "は、天の玉座でも、上記の天使( comp.マークi. 13 ;マットです。 4 。 11 ) 。

Mythical as is this story at the beginning of Mark, it is but the reflex of the older tale of his transfiguration, representing him as having been lifted to a high mountain, where he was enveloped in a cloud, together with Moses and Elijah (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42), while the heavenly voice said, "This is my beloved son" (Mark ix. 2-9, and parallels).神話上の話としては、このマークの初めに、それは過去の話しかし、彼の反射の変容は、彼が代表を解除され、高い山は、彼がどこにある雲に包まれて、ムーサーと一緒エリヤ(伴奏。ターグ。 yer 。を例です。 12世です。 42 )は、天の声によるとしながら、 "これは私の最愛の息子" (マーク9世です。 2-9 、および類似点) 。 Probably this was originally applied to the "resurrection" (comp. Acts i. 9-10; Wellhausen on Mark ix. 2-9).おそらくこれは、もともとに適用される"復活" ( comp.行為i. 9-10 ;ヴェルハウゼン9世マークしている。 2-9 ) 。 Not the living but the departed Jesus became the son of God.しかし、故人のない生活になった神の御子イエスです。 As such, he was first seen by Peter and the other apostles in Galilee, six days after his death (Mark xvi. 7; comp. ib. ix. 2 and John xxi. 1-29, which is the continuation of Mark xvi. 8).このように、彼は最初に見られると、他の使徒ペテロがガリラヤは、 6日後に彼の死( 16マークです。 7 ;伴奏。 ib 。 9 。 2とジョン21 。 1月29日、これは16世の継続をマークした。 8 ) 。 The story of Peter having recognized him as "Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matt. xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20), is accordingly as mythical as is the beginning of the story, according to which he had foretold to his disciples his crucifixion and his resurrection on the third day in fulfilment of the Scripture (comp. Hosea vi. 1-2)-a story discredited by the very attitude of these disciples (Mark xvi. 8; Luke xxiv. 21; John xx. 9).彼の物語が、ピーターが認められたとして"キリストは、神の息子オブザリビング" ( 16世matt. 。 16 ;マークVIII 。 29 ;ルーク9 。 20 ) 、したがってとしては、神話の物語としては、初めによると、彼は彼の弟子が彼の前から予報をはりつけと彼の復活して3日目で達成典( comp.ホセア書viのです。 1-2 )の話を信用されるこれらの非常に態度弟子( 16マークです。 8 ;ルークxxiv 。 21 ;ジョンXXのです。 9 ) 。

It is superfluous to say that the story of the feeding of the five thousand (Mark vi. 30-46; recorded also in John vi. 1-15) is legendary, as well as its counterpart, the story of the feeding of the four thousand recorded in Mark viii.余計なことを言うことは、摂食の物語は、 5000 ( viのマークです。三十から四十六まで;録音でも、ジョンviのです。 1-15 )は、伝説的なだけでなく、その見返りに、 4つの物語は、摂食マークVIII 1000に記録されています。 1-9. 1-9 。 So is the story of Jesus' apparition on the water (Mark vi. 47-56; Matt. xiv. 24-36; John vi. 16-21)-probably originally a Galilean fishermen's tale referring to the time after the death of Jesus-given a different version in Mark iv.これは、イエスキリストの物語'幻影は、水( viのマークです。四十七〜五十六;マットです。 14 。 24〜36 ;ジョンviのです。 16から21まで) -おそらくもともと漁師の話を参考に、ガリレイの死の後、イエスキリストの時間-与えられたマーク静脈内で、別のバージョンです。 35-41, and parallels.三五から四一まで、および類似点です。 The stories of the centurion's servant (Luke vii. 1-10), of the nobleman's son (John iv. 46-50), and of the raising of Jairus' daughter (Mark v. 21-43) have many features showing their common origin in tradition (see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Mattheus," 1904, p. 36); but while the last-mentionedhas preserved its Judæo-Christian character, the other two are anti-Jewish in conception.その物語は、百人隊長の使用人(ルカによる福音書第VII 。 1-10 )は、貴族の息子(ジョン4世です。 46〜50 ) 、およびその調達のjairus '娘(対二一から四三マーク)を表示している共通の特徴がたくさんある伝統の起源(ヴェルハウゼンを参照して、 " das evangelium mattheus 、 " 1904 、 p. 36 ) ;しかし、その中に、最後に保存さjudæo -キリスト教mentionedhasキャラクターは、残りの2つは反ユダヤ主義の概念です。 The story of the anointment of Jesus in the house of Simon the leper (Mark xiv. 3-9; Matt. xxvi. 6-13; recorded also in John xii. 3) is identical with the one told of the sinner (Magdalene?) in the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke vii. 36-50), the name = "Simon the Essene" having been misread = "the leper" (as Chajes, "Markus-Studien," p. 74, suggests).塗油は、イエスキリストの物語が、家の中で、ハンセン病患者のサイモン(マーク14 。 3-9 ;マットです。 26 。 6月13日;ヨハネ12世も記録されます。 3 )が言ったのと同じで、 1つの罪人(モードリンですか? )家の中で、パリサイ人のシモン(ルカによる福音書第VII 。三十六から五十)は、その名= "シモンのessene "を読み違える=続けてきた"と、ハンセン病患者" (チェイジュスとしては、 "マルクス- studien 、 " p. 74 、暗示) 。

Altogether, the story of Jesus was built up upon Bible passages, which Mark, who writes for non-Jewish readers, omits in most cases, just as he omits the debate with Satan.また、イエスキリストの物語が、聖書に組み立てられた通路は、これを突破し、非ユダヤ人の読者のための書き込みは、ほとんどの場合は省略さと同様に、彼は悪魔との論議を省略します。 Only in i. i.のみ 2, xiv. 2 、 14 。 27, 49, xv. 27 、 49 、 15 。 28 does he refer to the Scripture, while in i. 28日は啓典を参照して彼は、在任中i. 11 and ix. 11日と9世です。 7 reference to Ps. 7リファレンスはPSです。 ii. Ⅱ 。 7, and in viii. 7 、そして、 viii 。 31 reference to Hosea vi. viのリファレンスをホセア書31 。 1-2, are indirectly made. 1-2は、前には、間接的です。 In Matthew the statement "This is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord" is repeated in various forms (i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17, 23; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xxi. 4; xxii. 31; xxvi. 54, 56; xxvii. 9, 35); also in the latter but much older part of John (xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9, 32; xix. 24, 36), as well as in Luke (i. 20; iv. 21; xx. 37; xxi. 22).マシューの声明で、 "これは来て渡す、それが果たされるかもしれないが、主に話される"とはさまざまな形で繰り返される( i. 22 ; Ⅱ 。 5 、 15 、 17 、 23 ; Ⅲ 。 3 ;静脈です。 14 ; viii 。 17 ; 12世です。 17 ; 13世です。 14 、 35 、 21 。 4 ; 22 。 31 ;二十六。 54 、 56 、 27 。 9 、 35 ) ;比べればずっと以前にも、後者の部分ジョン( 38 xii. ; 13世です。 18 ; 15 。 25 ; 17 。 12 ; 18 。 9 、 32 、 19 。 24 、 36 )だけでなく、ルーク( i. 20 ;静脈です。 21 ; XXのです。 37 ; 21 。 22 ) 。 In most cases the Messianic, or alleged Messianic, passages suggested the story, rather than the story suggesting the passages.ほとんどの場合、救世主、または疑惑の救世主は、通路提案した物語では、その物語というより、通路を示唆した。

The Sayings of Jesus.イエスキリストの言葉です。

The sayings of Jesus were collected and grouped together by several writers before they were embodied in the first and third gospels; and they were circulated in many forms afterward as "Logia" ("Oracular Sayings of Christ").イエスキリストの言葉にまとめられたが収集されたいくつかの作家と彼らが具体化する前に、第1 、第3 gospels ;そしてその後、いろいろな形で流通していたとして" logionの複数形" ( "キリストの神託のことわざ"を参照) 。 This accounts for the repetition and dislocation of many of them.このアカウントでは、かれらの多くは繰り返しや脱臼。 As they were handed down originally in the Aramaic language, traces of which are still preserved in Mark (iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 34; xv. 34), they were often misread; as, for instance, in Luke iv.伝承されていたのは、もともとアラム語言語では、まだ保存されているの痕跡マーク( iii. 17 ;対41 ;第VII 。 34 ; 15 。 34 )は、かれらはしばしば読み違える;としては、例えば、ルーク4世。 26: "armalita" (widow) for "aramaita" (heathen; see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Lucæ," 1904, p. 10); or Matt. 26 : " armalita " (未亡人)は" aramaita " (異教徒;参照してくださいヴェルハウゼン、 " das evangelium lucæ 、 " 1904 、 p. 10 ) ;またはマットです。 vii.第VII 。 6: "ḳudsha" (holy thing) for "ḳodosha" (ring, parallel to pearls); or Matt. 6 : " ḳudsha " (聖なるもの)を" ḳodosha " (リングは、平行して真珠) ;またはマットです。 viii. viii 。 22, where the original reading was "Sheboḳ li-bene mata de-yikberun yat metehon" (= "Let the men of the town bury their dead"; see Credner, "Einleitung ins Neue Testament," 1836, i. 75). 22日は、どこに、元の読書は"李sheboḳ -ベネマタデ- yikberun yat metehon " ( = "男たちの町に埋葬させてから、自分の死" ;参照してくださいクレドナー、 "ノイエテスタメントeinleitungアドインは、 " 1836勇75 )です。

Misunderstood Passages.通路誤解されています。

Often the "Logia" were misunderstood by the translator, as in the case of the expressions "'ayin ṭob" and "'ayin ra'" (= "a good [friendly], unbegrudging eye" and "a malevolent, begrudging eye" (Matt. vi. 22-23; Luke xi. 34-36). Similarly, the fourfold meaning of "barnasha" ("son of man," "man," "I," and "the Messiah") was misunderstood by the first three evangelists (see Man, Son of). So with the words (Luke xvii. 20-21), "The kingdom of God cometh not by calculation" (comp. the rabbinical "cursed be the calculators of the end" ["meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim"], Sanh. 97b), "but suddenly, imperceptibly it is with you" (comp. "The Messiah comes when the thought of him is absent" ["be-ḥesseaḥ ha-da'at"], Sanh. 97a). The "heathen" of Matt. vi. 7 (comp. Ber. 24b, xviii. 17) seems to be a mistranslation of the term "'amme ha-araẓot" (the ignorant class of men).しばしば、 " logionの複数形"と誤解されるが、翻訳者は、例としては、これらの表現は" ' ṭobガイン"と" 'ガインラー' " ( = "良い[フレンドリー] 、 unbegrudging眼"と"悪意のある、 begrudging眼" ( viのmatt. 。二十二〜二十三;ルークxi 。 34-36 ) 。同様に、 4重の意味" barnasha " ( "息子の男" 、 "男" 、 "私は、 "や"救世主" )が誤解される最初の3つの伝道者(参照してください男で、息子である) 。だからして、ワード( 17ルーク。二〇 〜二一)は、 "神の王国が到来していない計算" ( comp.のラビ"の最後の電卓呪われる" [ " meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim " ] 、 sanh 。 97b )は、 "しかし、突然、いつの間にかそれは、あなた" ( comp. "の救世主が不在のときには、彼の思想" [ " ḥesseaḥれる-ハ- da'at " ] 、 sanh 。 97a ) 。 "異教徒"のマットです。 viのです。 7 ( comp. ber 。 24b 、 18 。 17 )誤訳があると思われる用語" ' ammeハ- araẓot " (男性の無知クラス) 。

Misunderstanding of the term "be-ḥad le-shabba tinyana" (on the first of the second week after Passover), preserved only in Luke vi.誤解の期間"に- ḥadル-シャバtinyana " ( 2番目は、最初の1週間後のペサハ)は、 viのルークにのみ保存されます。 1, caused the confusion of the law concerning the new produce of the year (Lev. xxiii. 11-14) with the Sabbath law (see Jew. Encyc. vii. 168, sv Jesus). 1 、混乱を引き起こしたのは、新しい生産に関する法律オブザイヤー( 23 lev. 。 11月14日)で、安息日の法則(ユダヤ人を参照してください。 encyc 。第VII 。 168 、イエスsv ) 。 In the one case Jesus, referring to David, defended his disciples, who in their hunger plucked the new corn in the field and ate it without waiting for the offering upon the altar; in the other case he himself disregarded the Sabbath law in view of the "pikkuaḥ nefesh" (peril of life), a case in which the Rabbis admitted the suspension of the law, upon the principle, "The Sabbath is given over to you ["the son of man"], and not you to the Sabbath" (see Mek., Wayaḳhel, 1; Chwolson, "Das Letzte Passahmahl," 1892, pp. 59-67, 91-92).イエス様は、 1つのケースは、デビッド参照して、守って、弟子は、彼らの空腹の人に摘まれた新しいフィールドとは、トウモロコシを食べたことなしに提供するのを待って祭壇;は、他のケースは彼自身の見解を無視し、安息日の法則" pikkuaḥ nefesh " (生命の危険を覚悟)は、事件で、ラビの懸濁液は、法の趣旨を認め、その上での原則は、 "安息日には、与えられた以上の場合[ "男の息子" ] 、としていない場合安息日" ( mekを参照してください。 、 wayaḳhel 、 1 ; chwolson 、 " das letzte passahmahl 、 " 1892 、 pp 。五十九から六十七、九一から九二まで) 。

Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have been literally taken over from the Didache; others were Pharisaic teachings well known in the rabbinical schools, as has been shown by Lightfoot ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1684), Shöttgen ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1737), Nork ("Rabbinische Quellen und Parallelen zu Neutestamentlichen Schriften," 1839), Zipser ("The Sermon on the Mount," 1852), Wünsche ("Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien," 1878), and others.ことわざに起因するものの多くは、イエスキリストが新約聖書から引き継いで、文字通り; pharisaicの教えでよく知られていた他のラビの学校では、ライトフットとして示されてきた( " horæ hebraicæ et talmudicæ 、 " 1684 ) 、 shöttgen ( " horæ hebraicæ et talmudicæ 、 " 1737年) 、 nork ( " rabbinische quellenウントparallelen zu neutestamentlichen schriften 、 " 1839 ) 、 zipser ( "山上の垂訓は、 " 1852 ) 、 wünsche ( " beiträgeツアerläuterungデアノイエevangelien 、 " 1878 ) 、および他。 It has been pointed out by Schreiner ("Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 27-29) that while Jesus' sayings are simply assertions without support of Scripture, the Rabbis show that they were derived from Scripture and thereby establish their claim to priority.それを指摘されてシュライナー( "ダイの催し物スポンサjüngsten urtheile das judenthum 、 " 1902 、 pp 。 27-29 )している間、イエス'ことわざは、単純な主張を支持せずに啓典は、律法学者によると、啓典とかれらはそれから派生した確立彼らの主張を優先課題です。 Thus, the injunction to pray for the offender (Matt. v. 44) is derived (Tos. B. Ḳ. ix. 29) from the example of Abraham and Job (Gen. xx. 17; Job xlii. 8, 10); the idea of heavenly treasures (Matt. vi. 20) is derived from Deut.したがって、差し止め命令を祈願するため、犯罪者( matt.対44 )は、派生( tos. Bのḳ 。 9 。 29 )の例から、アブラハムと仕事(大将XXのです。 17 ;ジョブ42 。 8 、 10 ) ;という考え天上宝物( matt. viのです。 20 )はdeutから派生した。 xxxii. 32 。 34, in connection with Isa. 34歳のISAに関連している。 iii. Ⅲ 。 10 and Ps. 10およびPS 。 xxxi. 31 。 20 (AV 19; Sifre, Deut. 324; comp. Tosef., Peah, iv. 8); the deprecation of lengthy prayers (Matt. vi. 7-8), from Ex. 20 (動静19 ;シフレー、 deut 。 324 ;伴奏。 tosef 。 、 peah 、 4世です。 8 ) ;の非難の長い祈り( viのmatt. 。 7-8 ) 、元からです。 xv. 15 。 21 and Num. 21とNUM件です。 xii. 12世です。 13 (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 3; Sifre, Num. 105; comp. Ber. 39a). 13 ( mek. 、 beshallaḥ 、 3 ;シフレー、 NUM件です。 105 ;伴奏。 ber 。 39a ) 。 So also with the sentence, "Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay" (Matt. v. 37, RV), which is derived from Lev.今でも、判決は、 "あなたの演説に、いや、いや、いや、いや" ( matt.対37 、右心室)は、レフから派生した。 xix. 19 。 36 (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, viii. 7; BM 49a; comp. Tos. Soṭah vii. 2; Giṭ. 35a; Num. R. xxii.); and the condemnation of the lustful look (Matt. v. 28), from Deut. 36 ( sifra 、 ḳedoshim 、 viii 。 7 ;バミューダ諸島49a ;伴奏。のTOSです。 soṭah第VII 。 2 ; giṭ 。 35a ; NUM件です。共和党22です。 ) ;との非難のどん欲な表情( matt.対28 )は、よりdeut 。 xxiii. 23 。 9 ('Ab. Zarah 20a) and Job xxxi. 9 ( ' ABのです。 zarah 20a )とジョブ31 。 (Midr., Yalḳuṭ, to the passage). ( midr. 、 yalḳuṭ 、通過して) 。

When in his dispute with the Sadducees concerning resurrection Jesus cites the passage, "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," to prove that the Patriarchs shall come to life again, because "God is the God of the living, not of the dead," the argument fails to convince the believer in Scripture; but when Gamaliel refers the Sadducees to Deut.そのとき彼のsadduceesに関する紛争を引き合いに出して、イエスキリストの復活の通路は、 "私は、神のアブラハムは、アイザック、とジェイコブは、 " patriarchsことを証明することは、再び息を吹き返すので、 "神は、生ける神のではなく、オブザデッドは、 "失敗した場合、引数の信奉者を説得する啓典; sadduceesしかし、そのときにdeutガマリエルを指します。 xi. xi 。 21, or Ex. 21 、または例です。 vi. viのです。 4, ". . . the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them," the argument is logical and convincing: "The dead can not receive, but they shall live again to receive the land" (Sanh. 90b). 4 、 " 。 。 。その土地で、お客様の祖先の主swearの過去をあたえることが、かれは、 "この議論は、説得力の論理: "ザデッド受け取ることはできませんが、かれらはその土地を受け取る再び生きる" ( sanh. 90b ) 。 The originality, then, is with the Rabbis.その独創性、それから、ラビはしている。 In like manner the beautiful story of the widow's two mites (Mark xii. 42-44) betrays its midrashic origin in the words, "she has given all her living," which are an allusion to the Biblical phrase "we-nefesh ki taḳrib" (Lev. ii. 1), interpreted in Lev.同じように、美しい未亡人の物語は、 2つのダニ( 12世マークです。 42-44 ) betrays midrashic起源は、その言葉は、 "与えられた彼女は彼女の生活のすべては、 "これは、聖書の句を暗示して"我々 nefesh起- taḳrib " ( lev. 2世です。 1 ) 、レフと解釈されます。 R. iii.共和党Ⅲ 。 as signifying,"The gift of the poor who includes his or her very life in the gift counts for more before God than the hecatombs of Agrippa the king."意味としては、 "贈り物は、貧しい人々が含まれて彼または彼女たちの人生は、非常に詳細な贈り物を数えますhecatombsよりも、神の前で、王アグリッパ"と述べた。 So the strange words of Jesus in regard to the adulteress: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John viii. 7), are possibly merely an echo of the rabbinical saying, "Only when the husband is without sin will the ordeal of the wife suspected of adultery prove effective" (Sifre, Num. 21, based upon Num. v. 31).奇妙なので、イエスキリストの言葉と関連し、姦婦: "彼はあなたなしで罪のうち、最初に石を投げるせなさい彼女" (ジョンviii 。 7 ) 、エコーは、単なる可能性のラビと言って、 "ときのみ罪がなく、夫は妻の試練は、効果的な立証姦通の疑いがある" (シフレー、 NUM件。 21 、 NUM件に基づいています。対31 ) 。 Expressions such as "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out," and "if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off" (Matt. v. 29-30), are explained by similar rabbinical utterances (Niddah 13b).表現のような"もし、なたなたの右目の気分を害さないよう、摘むことから、 "と"もし、なたなたの右手の気分を害さないよう、切り離さなければ" ( matt.対二九から三〇まで)は、ラビが説明された同様の発言( niddah 13b ) 。 For other instances of New Testament sayings derived from Scripture see Jew.新約聖書の他のインスタンス典ことわざから派生したユダヤ人を参照してください。 Encyc. encyc 。 iv. 4 。 588-592, sv五百八十八から五百九十二、 sv

Didascalia. didascalia 。

The "sayings" attributed to Jesus may be divided, according to form and contents, into (1) Ethical Teachings, (2) Parables, (3) Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances, (4) Essene Polemics. "ことわざ"イエスキリストに起因するものかもしれない分かれて、フォームによると、内容は、 ( 1 )倫理的な教えには、例( 2 ) 、 ( 3 )終末論的発言(メシア) 、 ( 4 ) essene論争術です。

The "Sayings." "ことわざ"と述べた。

1. 1 。 Ethical Teachings: These were grouped together in the Sermon on the Mount as if to form the program of the new dispensation (Matt. v. 1-vii. 27; in less elaborate form in Luke vi. 20-49), but are partly found, in varying order, elsewhere (Mark ix. 43-47, x. 11, xi. 25; Matt. xviii. 8-9; Luke xi. 2-4, 9-13, 34-36; xii. 22-31, 33-34).倫理的な教え:これらのまとめとしては、山上の垂訓している場合、プログラムは、新しいフォームを分け与え( matt.対1 -第VII 。 27 ;はあまり手の込んだ形でviのルーク。 20〜49 )が、部分的には見つかりました、さまざまな注文には、別の場所( 9マークです。 43から47 、 Xの11日、 xi 。 25 ;マットです。 18 。 8-9 ;ルークxi 。 2-4 、 9月13日、三四から三六まで; 12世です。 22 - 31日、 33から34まで) 。 The main characteristic of these teachings is not, as Matthew puts it, antagonism to the Law, but what the Rabbis term "li-fenim mi-shurat ha-din"-"a withdrawing within the line of the Law" (B. Ḳ. 101a) as behooves the esoteric circle of the pious; in other words, their main ethical characteristic is Hasidean (comp. B. Ḳ. 30a; BM 83a, with reference to Prov. ii. 20; see Essenes).主な特徴は、これらの教えではない、としてマシュー曰く、拮抗して同法が、どのような用語のラビ"李美shurat - fenimハ-ディン" -"引性内の行の法則" ( Bのḳ 。 101a ) behoofの複数の難解なサークルとしては、信心深い;言い換えれば、彼らの主な特徴は、倫理的なhasidean ( comp. Bのḳ 。 30 Aだ;バミューダ諸島83a 、地方を参照してください。 Ⅱ 。 20 ;エッセネ派を参照してください) 。 Hasidean views similar to those contained in Matt. hasidean景色に似たものをマットに含まれています。 vi. viのです。 25-34 are voiced also (Ḳid. iv. 14; Tos. Ḳid. v. 15; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayissa'u, 2-4).二十五から三十四アール声も( 4世ḳid. 。 14 ;のTOSです。 ḳid 。対15 ; mek 。 、 beshallaḥ 、 wayissa'u 、 2-4 ) 。

2. 2 。 Parables: The parables follow the rabbinical "meshalim," illustrative of some ethical truth, either in the form of similitudes, like the rabbinical "Mashal le-mah ha-dabar domeh" ("A similitude: To what may this be likened? To a man," etc.; see Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb."; Parables), or in the form of a longer narrative.例:下記の例のラビ" meshalim 、 "いくつかの倫理的な真理の実例は、いずれかの形で比喩は、ラビのような"と馬海泳mashalル-ハ- dabar domeh " ( "に似ている:この可能性をどのように似て?に一人の男は、 "等;参照してくださいレビー氏は、 " neuhebr 。 wörterb 。 " ;例) 、またはという形で、長い物語です。 The former kind is found in Mark iii.前者はマークIIIのようなことが判明した。 23, iv. 23日、 4世です。 1-9 (the parable of the sower), 26-32, and xii. 1-9 (比喩の種をまく人) 、二六〜三二、および12世です。 1-12; the latter is especially developed in Luke xv.-xvi. 1-12 ;後者は、特に開発されたルークxv. - 16 。 and xix.そして19 。 11-28 (the parables of the lost sheep, the lost piece of silver, the prodigal son, the unrighteous steward, and the ten talents), and in Matt. 11月28日(この例は、失われた羊、失われた一つの銀は、放蕩息子は、よこしまなスチュワードは、才能と、 10 ) 、そしてマットです。 xxv. 25 。 1-30 (the parables of the wise and foolish virgins, and of the unprofitable servant). 1月30日(この例では、賢明な愚かなvirgins 、および不採算の使用人) 。 Some of these parables have their parallels among the sayings of first-century rabbis, and it may, therefore, justly be claimed that they originated among these.これらのいくつかの例でも類似のことわざのうち、第1世紀のラビ、そしてそれが、したがって、公正に主張して彼らの間でこれらの発祥です。 Compare, for instance, the parable of the wise and foolish guests of the king told by R. Johanan b.比較は、例えば、比喩のゲストにして英明でられると愚かさは、キング氏は共和党johanan Bに Zakkai with reference to the Messianic banquet, in commenting upon Isa.救世主パーティzakkaiを参照して、コメントするのISAです。 lxv. 65 。 13 and Eccl. 13とeccl 。 ix. 9 。 8 (Shab. 153a). 8 ( shab. 153a ) 。 The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark iv. 11, 34; Matt. xiii. 1-52, especially 35 and 39).これらの意味についての簡単な例は、しかし、失われてしまった後、子供たちは、謎を取らされるallegories 、特に救世主に期待をほのめかした際には、それについては安全に人前で話すではない、と仮定の終わり悪魔の王国(ローマ;伴奏。マーク4世です。 11 、 34 ;マットです。 13 。 1-52 、特に35及び第39条) 。 Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark xiii. 28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23).こうして"の比喩は、イチジクの木" ( 13世マークです。 28 ;ヴェルハウゼンを参照して、誰が損失を説明すること)は実際には"シンボル"は、救世主の出現によると、ミドラーシュ(共和党cant. Ⅱ 。 13 ) 、しかし、伝道者は、もはや理解され、どちらかまたはアレゴリーとして救世主の印として、成功か失敗かは、物語の中では、いまいましくイチジクの木( xiマークです。 13-14 、二十から二十三) 。

3. 3 。 Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances: For the most part, these are taken over from Jewish apocalypses and embodied in the gospels as discourses of Jesus (Matt. xxiv.-xxv. 31-45; comp. Midr. Teh. Ps. cxviii. 17; Mark xiii. 7-23; Luke xiii. 24-30, xvii. 22-35, xxi. 7-36).終末論(救世主)の発言:の大部分は、これらを引き継いでからは、ユダヤ人と具体化apocalypsesディスコースとしては、イエスキリストgospels ( matt. xxiv. - 25 。 31から45 ;伴奏。 midr 。のです。しまう。 cxviii 。 17 ;マーク13世です。 7月23日;ルーク13世です。二十四から三十まで、 17 。 22から35 、 21 。 7から36まで) 。

4. 4 。 Essene Polemics: These are directed chiefly against (a) Herodian high priests (Mark xi. 27-xii. 27, xiii. 1-2; Luke xi. 47-xii. 8) and are encountered also in rabbinical records (Tos. Men. xiii. 21-22), and against (b) Pharisaic hypocrisy (Matt. xxiii., et al.); the latter also have their parallels in rabbinical writings (Ab. RN xxxvii.; Soṭah 22; Pesiḳ. R. xxii.: "Thou shalt not utter the name of the Lord in vain; that is, Thou shalt not wear phylacteries and long fringes [ẓiẓit] while at the same time thou art bent upon sin"). essene論争術:これらは主に対する監督( xi ) herodian高いプリースト(マークです。 27 - 12世です。 27 、 13 。 1-2 ;ルークxi 。 47 - 12世です。 8 )が発生したとの記録もラビ( tos.男性。 13 。 21から22 ) 、および( b )に反対するpharisaic偽善( 23 matt. 。 、らです。 ) ;彼らの類似点もあるが、後者の記述ラビ( 37 ab.ラドン娘。 ; soṭah 22 ; pesiḳ 。共和党22 。 : "なたは、主の名前は全く無駄な;それは、なたはない身に着けると長い縞phylacteries [ ẓiẓit ]なたながらそれと同時に曲がって罪"を参照) 。 See Pharisees. phariseesを参照してください。

Matthew:マシュー:

Characteristics of the Gospels.特性のgospels 。

The gospel of Matthew stands nearest to Jewish life and the Jewish mode of thinking.マタイによる福音書は、最寄りのスタンドにユダヤ人のユダヤ人の生活や思考様式です。 It was written for Judæo-Christians and made ample use of an Aramaic original. judæo用に書かれていたのは、キリスト教徒とアラム語を使用する前に十分なオリジナルです。 This is evidenced by the terms: "kingdom of heaven," found exclusively in Matthew, a translation of the Hebrew "malkut shamayim" (= "kingdom of God"); "your heavenly Father," or, "your Father in the heavens" (v. 16, vi. 14, et al.); "son of David" for "the Messiah" (ix. 27, et al.; comp. the rabbinical "ben David"); "the holy city" (iv. 5, xxvii. 53) and "the city of the great King" (v. 35) for "Jeru salem"; "God of Israel" (xv. 31); the oft-repeated phrase "that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet"; the retention of Judæo-Christian conceptions (v. 17, x. 6, xv. 24); the genealogy of Jesus, based upon specific haggadic views concerning Tamar, Ruth, and Bath-sheba, so drawn as to make the assumption of his Messianic character plausible (i. 1-16); and the assignment of the twelve seats of judgment on the Judgment Day to the Twelve Apostles in representation of the twelve tribes of Israel (xix. 28; Luke xxii. 30).これが証明される条件: "天国は、 "排他的にはマシューが見つかりました、ヘブライ語に翻訳した" malkut shamayim " ( = "神の王国" ) ; "として天国の父"や"あなたのお父さんは、天" (対16 、 viのです。 14 、らです。 ) ; "の息子であるデビッド"を"救世主" ( ix. 27 、ら。 ;伴奏。のラビ"のデビッドベン" ) ; "聖地" ( 4 。 5 、 27 。 53 )と"偉大な王の街" (対35 )は" jeruセーラム" ; "イスラエルの神様" ( xv. 31 ) ;は何度も繰り返されたフレーズ"それが果たされるかもしれないは、話されていたのを、主の預言者" ; judæo -キリスト教の概念を保持(対17 、 Xの6 、 15 。 24 ) ;イエスの系譜に基づき、特定の意見を聴取するhaggadicタマル、ルース、および浴-シーバは、これを前提として描かれた彼の救世主キャラクターもっともらしい( i. 1-16 ) ;と、審判の割り当ては、 12議席を判断して、 12日に12使徒の部族では、イスラエルの表現( 19 。 28 ;ルーク22 。 30 ) 。 It has embodied Jewish apocalyptic material, in ch.具体化することは、ユダヤ教の黙示録的な材料は、チャンネルです。 xxiv.-xxv., more extensively than have the other gospels; and in the Sermon on the Mount (v.-vii.) it shows a certain familiarity with rabbinical phraseology. xxiv. - 25 。 、より広範囲に比べて、他のgospels ;とは、山上の垂訓(対- 7です。 )ことを示して、特定の用語で言えばラビ精通している。

On the other hand, it manifests a spirit of intense hostility to the Jews in the crucifixion story, to a greater degree than do the other gospels (xxvii. 25).その半面、 Manifestsをすることは、ユダヤ人の精神は、激しい敵意をはりつけ物語では、より高い学位を行うよりも、他のgospels ( xxvii. 25 ) 。 In fact, its late composition is shown by its artificial systematization of the whole story of Jesus: There are seven beatitudes in v. 3-10 (verse 5 is a quotation), and accordingly seven "woes" in xxiii.実際、その組成が示され、後半には、全体の体系人工イエスキリストの物語: beatitudes中には7対3-10 ( 5詩は、引用) 、およびそれに応じて七つの"苦境"が23 。 13-32 (Luke vi. 21-26 has five beatitudes and four "woes"); seven parables in xiii.一三から三二( viのルーク。二一から二六までは5人と4つのbeatitudes "災難" ) ;七例で13世です。 1-52 (comp. the four in Mark iv. 1-34), and the twice-seven generations for each of the three periods of the genealogy of Jesus (i. 1-17).一〜五十二( comp. 4世の4つのマークです。 1〜34 )は、 2回と7つの世代のそれぞれのための3つのピリオドでは、イエスの系譜( i. 1月17日) 。 All the miraculous cures narratedin Mark are enlarged upon both as to the number of the persons cured and as to their incidents, so as to adjust them to the Messianic claim (xi. 5; comp. Luke vii. 22; Isa. xxxv. 5; Pesiḳ. R. 42). narratedinマークのすべての奇跡的な治療法としては、両方の拡大をする人の数が治るとして事件としては、それらを調整するために、救世主としてのクレーム( xi. 5 ;伴奏。ルカによる福音書第VII 。 22 ;のISAです。 35 。 5 ; pesiḳ 。共和党42 ) 。 Somewhat artificial, and in contrast to such genuine legends as those in Luke, are the birth-stories in ch.やや人工は、このような本物の伝説とは対照的には、これらのルークは、出生の話では、チャンネルです。 ii., woven together from Num. Ⅱ 。 、織NUM件から一緒です。 xxiv. xxiv 。 17 (referred to the Messiah), Micah v. 1, Isa. 17 (救世主言及して) 、ミカ対1 、のISAです。 lx. 60 。 6, and from Moses' childhood story, to which that of Jesus formed a parallel, just as the Law of Mount Sinai was paralleled in the Sermon on the Mount. 6 、そしてよりモーゼの子供のころの物語では、イエスキリストを結成して、パラレルと同様に、この法律のマウントサイナイでは、山上の垂訓並行しています。

Significant is the reference to the established (Judæo-Christian) Church under Peter (xvi. 18; comp. "Petra" ["the rock"] Abraham as foundation of the world [Yalḳ. i. 243; Levy, lc, sv ]), to the secession of which from the Jewish state the story of Peter and the fish seems to allude (xvii. 24-27).重要なのは、リファレンスを設立( judæo -キリスト教の)教会の下にピーター( xvi. 18 ;伴奏です。 "ペトラ" [ "ザロック" ]アブラハムとしては、世界基金[ yalḳ 。私243 ;レビー氏は、セントルシア、 sv ] )は、これを国家分裂の状態からのユダヤ人の物語が、ピーターと、魚のようにほのめかす( xvii.二四〜二七) 。 On the other hand, the Trinitarian formula (xxviii. 19) and the way the Jews are spoken of (xxviii. 15; so throughout John) betray a very late final composition.その半面、三位一体説を信奉するフォーミュラ( xxviii. 19 )と話されるのは、ユダヤ人の道( xxviii. 15 ;だからを通してジョン)最終的な組成を裏切る、非常に遅れている。 But there are other late additions (v. 10, 11, 14; x. 16-39).しかし、後半には他にもあります追加(対10 、 11 、 14 ; Xの十六から三十九) 。

Mark:マーク:

The gospel of Mark is written in the Pauline spirit, for pagans.福音のマークは、ポーリーンの精神で書かれ、多神教徒です。 Being, however, the oldest attempt at presenting the story of Jesus in full, it shows greater simplicity and better historical and geographical knowledge than the rest.が、しかし、最古の試みで、イエスキリストの物語が、完全な提示は、シンプルさと高いことを示して歴史的、地理的知識よりも良いの残りです。 It intentionally omits the term "the Law" ("Nomos"; comp. xii. 28 with Matt. xxii. 36), although it preserves the "Shema'" omitted in Matthew; it omits also Biblical quotations, only a few of which have been allowed to remain (i. 1, iv. 12, ix. 48), and expressions offensive to pagans.という言葉を省略することを故意に"この法律" ( "ノモス" ;伴奏。 12世です。 28マットしている。 22 。 36 )は、それを維持するにもかかわらず" shema ' "を省略しマシュー;聖書の引用も省略することは、これだけの数認められてきたまま( i. 1 、 4世です。 12 、 9世です。 48 )は、多神教徒として不快感を表現します。 Characteristic is the addition of the words "a house of prayer for all the nations" (xi. 17; comp. Matt. xxi. 13 and Luke xix. 46).特徴は、ほかの言葉で"すべての国々のための祈りの家" ( xi. 17 ;伴奏。マットです。 21 。 13 、ルーク19 。 46 ) 。 The Aramaic terms used by Jesus in his exorcisms (v. 41, vii. 34) seem to have been retained purposely.イエスキリストのアラム語で使用される用語彼exorcisms (対41 、第VII 。 34 )を持つように見える故意に留保されています。

Luke:ルーク:

Historical Character.歴史上の人物です。

The gospel of Luke is confessedly (i. 1) a compilation from older sources.ルカによる福音書は、明白に( i. 1 )古いソースからコンパイルする。 It contains genuine legends about the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus as they were current in Essene circles.正規の伝説が含まれてジョンの誕生については、イエスキリストの洗礼者とされていたessene現在で回っている。 The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor (iv. 14; vi. 20, 24-26) has the stamp of greater historical truthfulness.ジョンザバプティストの全体像を担う人としてイエスと貧しい人々への吉報を伝え( iv. 14 ; viのです。 20 、 24-26 )は、歴史的な誠実さが滲み出て、大きい。 Here more than in the other gospels is Jesus represented as the friend of sinners (vii. 37-50; xv. 11-32; xviii. 10-14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43) and of the poor (xvi. 19-31).ここgospels以上で、他の友人は、イエスキリストの罪人として表さ( vii. 37から50 ; 15 。一一から三二; 18 。 10月14日; 19 。 1-10 ; 23 。三十九〜四十三)とは、貧しい人々 ( xvi. 19から31まで) 。 Especial interest is shown in the women in Jesus' company (viii. 2-3; xxiii. 55; xxiv. 10).特に女性の関心が示されているイエスの会社( viii. 2-3 ; 23 。 55 ; xxiv 。 10 ) 。

The story of the good Samaritan (x. 25-37), possibly, was told differently in the original version (see Brotherly Love; Jesus of Nazareth). The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp. xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii. The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp . xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii. 30, where only the twelve tribes of Israel are spoken of as being judged in the future kingdom of Jesus. Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52). Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52).

John:

The gospel of John is the work of a Christian of the second century, who endeavors to construe a history of Jesus upon the basis of a belief in his supernatural existence. To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.). To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.). All his discourses reiterate the same idea: God's fatherhood is understood only through the recognition of Jesus as His son (vi. 29, 46; xiv. 2; xv. 8-10, 26; et al.). The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus. The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus. All the miracles performed by Jesus assume in John a symbolical character (vi. 26, and frequently). The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1-17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ. The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1- 17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ. In the preface, in place of the genealogies in Luke and Matthew, a heavenly pedigree is given him (i. 1-18), written by one who desired to represent his advent as a new Creation.

The Older Traditions.

On closer observation, however, there is discernible in this gospel a substratum which points to an older tradition. Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition. Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition. In fact, the historic chapters in the latter part of the gospel, which represent Jesus with all the pathos of human suffering, differ altogether in character from those, in the earlier part, that represent the superhuman Jesus. The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source. The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source. A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356). A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13 ) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356). There are, besides, genuine popular legends which can scarcely be the invention of an Alexandrian metaphysician (comp. ii. 1-11; v. 2-12). The last chapter certainly emanated from another source. Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew. Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew.

The Acts of the Apostles:

The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting-point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv. The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting- point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv. 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work. Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work. The growth of the Church is given in round numbers. Beginning with 120 members under the leadership of Peter, chief of the Twelve Apostles (i. 15-26)-Matthew having taken the place of Judas, the relation of whose end here differs from that in Matt. xxvii. 3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3,000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1-2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to). 3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1- 2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to). This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," §§ 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.). This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," § § 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.).

The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37, v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts. The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37 , v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts. The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a). The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a). It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5, xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52). It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5 , xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52). Like the gospel according to Luke, the Acts of the Apostles is a compilation. The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned (viii. 1). The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned ( viii. 1).

Peter and Paul.

Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39). Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39). Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26). Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26). By visions, and by the imparting of the Holy Spirit through Ananias, Saul, the persecutor of the Christians, is transformed into Paul, "the chosen vessel" to spread the new faith among both Jews and Gentiles. First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22, 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45). First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22 , 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45).

Finally, Peter is described as having been won over by a special vision to the Pauline view disregarding the dietary laws (xi. 1-18). The whole story is intended to reconcile the wide differences existing between Peter's and Paul's teachings and to bridge over the gulf between the Judæo-Christian sect under the leadership of James and the Pauline church. From this point of view the origin of the name of "Christian" in the community of Antioch can be explained, Barnabas being ranked above Paul, and the Antioch church being represented as an offshoot of the Jerusalem church. Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii.). Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii. ) 。

Spirit of Jewish Proselytism in Christianity.

However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism. However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism. The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26, 43; xviii. 7). The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26 , 43; xviii. 7). They won the heathen chiefly by miraculous cures, which even caused their own deification (xiv. 8-13; xxviii. 6), but encountered fierce opposition from the Jews (xiii., xiv.-xvii., et al.). Three great journeys by Paul are reported. The first, through Cyprus and Asia Minor, culminated, according to Acts xv. 1-31, in the establishment of the fundamental rule laid down by the church of Jerusalem for the admission of proselytes. For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.

After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii. 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit. After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii . 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit. He went to Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia to preach the Gospel, but avoided Asia and Mysia (xvi. 6-xxii. 14). In Philippi he founded the first church in Europe, owing his success (according to xvi. 14-40) chiefly to miracles and winning especially women for the Gospel (xvii. 4, 12). The climax of his second trip was his address, delivered at the Areopagus, to the men of Athens. With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34). With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34). The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria. The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria.

Paul the Miracle-Worker.

In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii. 1-17). In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii . 1-17). In Ephesus he met Apollos of Alexandria, a follower of John the Baptist, and he succeeded-so the story goes-in persuading him and his eleven disciples to identify their "Way of God" with his own. By the laying on of his hands he communicated the Holy Spirit to them, so that, like the converts at the Pentecost miracle, they "spake with tongues and prophesied" (xviii. 18-xix. 7.). His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50,000 pieces of silver." His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50000 pieces of silver." The idol-traders of Diana of the Ephesians created a riot because idols were no longer bought by the people, owing to Paul's preaching, and the consequence was that he was compelled to leave the city with his companions (xix. 8-41).

Paul's third journey had Rome for its goal. He first traveled through Asia Minor and Greece, again warning the people against the Gnostic heresies; there were "wolves in sheep's clothing" that would do great harm to the faith. Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church. Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church. Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple, he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people. Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple , he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people. Summoned before the Roman captain, he related the history of his life, so stating his belief in the resurrection as to please the Pharisees but provoke the Sadducees (xxi.-xxiii. 9).

Paul before Felix.

Before the prefect Felix in Cæsarea, Paul was charged with having made insurrectionary speeches in various countries and with having profaned the Temple (xxiii. 10-xxiv. 6). In answer to this charge he points out that he had all along been collecting money for the Temple treasury and had himself brought sacrifices there, and that he is only being arraigned for his belief in the resurrection (xxiv. 10-21). The prefect, known as a Jew-hater of the worst type, is deeply impressed by Paul's plea for the Christian faith; but his greed induces him to hand Paul over as prisoner to his successor Festus (xxiv. 24-27). Paul recounts the history of his life before Agrippa, the King of Judea, who is so impressed as to exclaim, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (xxvi. 1-28). But because Paul desired, as a Roman citizen, to be judged by the emperor himself, he was sent to Rome (xxv. 11, xxvi. 32). The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii.). The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii .). Other miracles performed by him on the ship caused the people to regard him as a god. As in Asia Minor, he won the people of Italy by his wonderful cures. The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1-31). The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1 -31).

The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16). The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16). The greater part is written with the ostensible purpose of reconciling Paul's acts with the views of the Judæo-Christian Church. The miracle tales, however, appear to be drawn from popular tradition and to have been committed to writing, possibly at an early date.

For the Jewish investigator the Acts of the Apostles is of twofold interest. It shows how the propagandic work of the Jews extended over the entire Greek and Roman world, Jewish proselytism having paved the way for Paul as well as his followers to win the pagan world. In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire. In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire. The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church. The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church. These appealed to the masses and made converts in large numbers. In this respect the Acts of the Apostles is the logical sequence of the gospels.

See, for the Pauline epistles, Saul of Tarsus; for the Petrine epistles, Simon Cephas; for the Apocalypse of John and the epistles ascribed to John, Revelation; for the gospels in the Talmud, Gilyonim. See also James, General Epistle of.ECK

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Kaufmann Kohler
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.



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