Great Schism Великий раскол

General Information Общая информация

The term Great Schism is used to refer to two major events in the history of Christianity: the division between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches, and the period (1378 - 1417) during which the Western church had first two, and later three, lines of popes. Термин Великий раскол используется для обозначения двух важнейших событий в истории христианства: разделение между Восточной (православной) и западной (римской) церкви, а период (1378 - 1417) в ходе которого Западная церковь была первым двум, , а затем три линии папы.

Eastern Schism Восточная раскол

The schism between the Eastern and Western churches is traditionally dated to 1054, although the precise point at which the split became a fixed and lasting reality is difficult to determine. Раскол между Восточной и Западной Церквей традиционно приурочено к 1054 году, хотя точная точка, в которой раскол стал фиксированным и прочного реальности трудно определить. Many causes contributed to the growing misunderstanding and alienation between the two groups. Много причин способствовало росту непонимания и отчуждения между этими двумя группами. Partly these were differences of philosophical understanding, liturgical usage, language, and custom, but political rivalries and divisions were also involved. Отчасти эти различия философского понимания, литургическое использование, язык и обычаи, но и политическое соперничество и подразделений были также вовлечены. Occasions of friction, hostility, and open division on doctrinal questions as well as matters of discipline and daily practice had occurred long before 1054 - for example, the Photian schism of the 9th century. Случаев трения, враждебность и открытое деление на доктринальные вопросы, а также вопросы дисциплины и повседневной практике имели место задолго до 1054 - например, раскол Photian 9-го века.

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In the West the Latin church and especially the papacy took on many activities and powers in default of other authority, but this action was often regarded as usurpation by the East, where a different relationship existed between emperor and church. На Западе латинской церкви и особенно папства взял на многие виды деятельности и полномочия при отсутствии иного органа, но это действие было часто рассматривается как узурпация Востока, где другие отношения существовали между императором и церковью. The heated disputes over such matters as the ecclesiastical calendar, the use of leavened or unleavened bread, or additions to the Creed (notably the filioque clause) reached a climax in 1054, when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other. Жаркие споры по таким вопросам, как церковный календарь, использование квасного или пресного хлеба, или дополнения к Символу веры (в частности филиокве пункта) достигло кульминации в 1054 году, когда Папа Лев IX и патриарх Михаил Керуларий отлучили друг друга. Technically, only a few people were affected by this action, but the tone had been set and the direction fixed. Технически, только несколько человек пострадали от этой акции, но тон был установлен и направление зафиксировано.

Later attempts to reunite the churches foundered on local feeling, and mutual hatred grew through selfish acts on both sides during some parts of the Crusades; the low point was the sacking of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade. Последующие попытки воссоединения церквей провалилась по местному чувства и взаимную ненависть выросла эгоистичной через актов по обе стороны во время некоторых частей крестовых походов; нижняя точка была увольнения Константинополя в 1204 году во время Четвертого крестового похода. The schism continues to the present, but recently serious attempts at mutual understanding have offered the hope of reconciliation. Раскол продолжается до настоящего времени, но в последнее время серьезные попытки взаимопонимания предложили надежду на примирение.

Western Schism Западные раскол

The Western Schism began in the events after the death of Pope Gregory XI in March 1378. Западные раскол начался в событиях после смерти папы Григория XI марта 1378. The people of Rome were determined not to allow the papacy - which had been absent at Avignon for 70 years and dominated by French influence - to leave Rome upon the election of the new pope. Народ Рима были полны решимости не позволить папства, - которые отсутствовали в Авиньоне в течение 70 лет и преобладает французское влияние - покинуть Рим после избрания нового папы. The result was a loud and controversial conclave with cries for a Roman or at least an Italian pope. В результате был громкий и спорные конклава с криками для римского или, по крайней мере итальянские папы. The man chosen, Urban VI, was not a cardinal, but he had served in the curia. Человек, избранный, Урбана VI, не был кардиналом, но он служил в курии.

Soon the cardinals realized the mistake that they had made in electing Urban. Вскоре кардиналы поняли ошибку, которую они сделали в выборах городского. He disdained the advice of others, could be ruthless if opposed or questioned, and was committed to reform through an extreme reduction of the powers of the cardinals, who for decades had been almost corulers with the popes in Avignon. Он пренебрегал советами других, может быть безжалостным, если против или сомнение, и было совершено по реформированию через радикальное сокращение полномочий кардиналов, которые в течение десятилетий были почти corulers с пап в Авиньоне. The result of this clash was tragedy for the church. В результате этого столкновения был трагедия для церкви.

Led by the French, the majority of cardinals gradually withdrew from the papal court. Под руководством французского, большинство кардиналов постепенно отошел от папского двора. They met at Anagni and declared Urban's election null and void because, they alleged, their votes had been made under pressure and fear for their lives. Они встретились в Ананьи и объявил выборы нулевой городского и недействительными, поскольку они утверждали, их голоса были сделаны под давлением и страхом за свою жизнь. They then elected one of their own as Pope Clement VII. Затем они избрали одну из своих собственных, как папа Климент VII. For the next three decades the church was divided along national, political, and religious lines between the papal claimants - the Roman line of Urban VI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, and Gregory XII, and the Avignon line of Clement VII and Benedict XIII - until, after various proposals and repeated failures, the cardinals from both obediences abandoned their claimants out of despair of getting any cooperation from them toward unity. В течение следующих трех десятилетий церковь была разделена по национальным, политическим и религиозным линиям между папским заявителей - римская линия городского VI, Бонифаций IX, Иннокентий VII и Григорий XII, и линия Авиньоне Климент VII и Бенедикта XIII - до тех пор, после того, как различные предложения и неоднократные неудачи, кардиналы из обоих послушаний отказались от своих заявителей от отчаяния получение любого сотрудничества с ними к единству.

The Conciliar Epoch, which led eventually to the healing of the schism, began in 1409 when the cardinals called the Council of Pisa. Соборное эпохи, что привело в конечном итоге к исцелению раскола, начался в 1409 году, когда кардиналы называется Совет Пизы. The council deposed both Gregory XII and Benedict XIII and then elected a third claimant, Alexander V (to be succeeded shortly afterward by the medieval John XXIII). Совет свергнут и Григория XII и Бенедикта XIII, а затем избран Третий заявитель, Александр V (будет вскоре удалось средневековых Иоанн XXIII). The Pisan claimants received the support of most of Latin Christendom, but the schism continued until the Council of Constance (1414 - 18) removed all three claimants and elected the one pope accepted by just about all - Martin V - on Nov. 11, 1417. Pisan заявители получили поддержку большинства христианского латыни, но раскол продолжался до собора в Констанце (1414 - 18) удалены все три претендента и избрали одного папу приняты почти все - Мартин V - на 11 ноября 1417 . At the Council of Basel (1431 - 49) another schism occurred with the election of "Antipope" Felix V. He abdicated, however, in 1449. На Базельском соборе (1431 - 49) другая произошел раскол с выборов "Antipope" Феликс V. Он отрекся от престола, однако, в 1449 году.

Thomas E Morrissey Томас E Morrissey

Bibliography Библиография
CH Dawson, The Dividing of Christendom (1971); F Dvornik, The Photian Schism (1948); EF Jacob, Essays in the Conciliar Epoch (1963); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism (1955); JH Smith, The Great Schism (1970); RN Swanson, Universities, Academies, and the Great Schism (1979); W Ullmann, The Origins of the Great Schism (1972). CH Доусон, разделение христианского (1971); F Дворник, раскол Photian (1948); EF Иакова, Очерки по Соборное Эпоха (1963); S Runciman, Восточная раскол (1955), Дж. Смит, Великий раскол ( 1970); RN Swanson, университетов, академий, и Великий раскол (1979); W Ульман, Происхождение Великий раскол (1972).


The Great Schism Великий раскол

Advanced Information Расширенный информации

(1054) (1054)

The first permanent severing of the Christian community. Первый постоянный разрыв христианской общины. Its beginnings lay in the division of the Roman Empire at the end of the third century. Его начало лежит в разделении Римской империи в конце третьего века. Thereafter, the Greek (Eastern) and Latin (Western) sections of the Roman world were administered separately. После этого, греческий (Восточная) и Латинская (западной) части света римской вводили отдельно. Their cultural and economic differences intensified. Их культурные и экономические различия усиливаются. When the political institutions of the Latin empire collapsed in the fifth century, the Greek empire, centered in Constantinople, continued to flourish. Когда политические институты Латинской империи рухнули в пятом веке греческая империя с центром в Константинополе, продолжает процветать.

The sustaining institution during this period was the Christian church. Поддержание учреждения в этот период была христианская церковь. Its theology dominated all forms of though in both the united East and the disintegrating West. Его теология доминировала во всех формах, хотя и в Соединенных Востока и Запада распадается. Important issues, even worldly ones, were transposed into theological questions. Важные вопросы, даже те, мирской, были перенесены в богословских вопросах.

Two fundamental differences between the Latin Catholic and Greek Orthodox traditions developed during the early Middle Ages. Два фундаментальных различий между латинской католической и греческой православной традиции разработаны в течение раннего средневековья. The first was the Petrine Doctrine, absolute in the West, resisted in the East. Первая была петровская доктрины, абсолютно на Западе, сопротивление на Востоке. And the second was a Western addition to the Nicene Creed which provoked the filioque controversy. А второй был Западной дополнение к Никейский символ веры который спровоцировал филиокве споры. Other divisive issues such as the celibacy of the priesthood, use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, episcopal control over the sacrament of confirmation, and priestly beards and monkish tonsures were the source of conflict but not schism. Другие спорные вопросы, такие как целибат духовенства, использование пресного хлеба в Евхаристии, епископский контроль над таинство конфирмации, и священнических и монашеских бороды пострижениками были источником конфликта, но не раскол.

Of all the institutions that the medieval Christian empire shared, the political was the first to collapse. Из всех учреждений, что средневековая христианская империя общей, политической был первым к краху. In the West during the fifth century imperial authority fell before invading barbarian kings. На Западе в течение пятого века царская власть упала до вторжения варварских королей. Increasingly the Roman patriarch, the pope, filled the power vacuum left by retreating politicians. Все чаще патриарха римского, папы, заполненные вакуумом власти оставленные отступающими политиков. The lines between secular and ecclestical authority were hopelessly blurred. Границы между светской и ecclestical власти были безнадежно размыты. On the other hand, in Constantinople, where imperial power was still strong, Christian emperors continued to preside over an integrated Christian society. С другой стороны, в Константинополе, где императорская власть была еще сильна, христианские императоры продолжали председательствовать на интегрированное общество христианское. As heirs of Constantine, Byzantine emperors dominated the administration of church and state in the style still known as caesaropapism. В качестве наследников Константина, византийские императоры доминировали в администрации государства и церкви в стиле сих пор известен как цезаропапизма.

Theology in the East was speculative, with important decisions submitted to a collegial - concilliar system in which all the patriarchs, the bishops of Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Rome, played an important role. Богословие на Востоке было спекулятивным, с важными решениями, представленные на коллегиальной - concilliar система, в которой все патриархи, епископы Константинополя, Антиохии, Александрии, Иерусалима и Рима, сыграла важную роль. It was fully acknowledged that the bishop of Rome had pride of place and certain rights of review over the other four. Он был полностью признал, что епископ Рима был почетное место и определенные права на обжалование в течение четырех других. As early as the pontificate of Leo I (440 - 61), however, Roman patriarchs demanded more power. Уже в понтификата Льва I (440 - 61), однако, римские патриархи потребовал большей мощности. Matters were made more difficult by the rise of Islam and new barbarian attacks in the seventh and eighth centuries. Вопросы были сделаны более трудным возникновения ислама и новых варварских нападений в седьмом и восьмом веках. The West became even more isolated, and when contacts between Rome and Constantinople were resumed the gulf between East and West had widened. Запад стал еще более изолированной, и, когда контакты между Римом и Константинополем были возобновлены пропасть между Востоком и Западом были расширены.

The filioque controversy seems to have originated in sixth century Visigothic Spain where the Arian heresy was endemic. Филиокве споры, кажется, возник в шестом веке вестготов Испании, где арианской ереси были эндемичными. The Arians claimed that the first and second persons of the Trinity were not coeternal and equal. Ариане утверждали, что первое и второе лица Троицы не было coeternal и равны. In an effort to enforce traditional theology, Spanish churchmen added a phrase to the Nicene Creed, "ex Patre Filioque," which amended the old form to state that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Son as well as from the Father. В целях соблюдения традиционного богословия, испанские церковники добавил фразу, чтобы Никейский Символ веры ", бывший патре Filioque", который внес изменения в старой форме заявить, что Святой Дух исходит от Сына, а также от Отца. However, it had been agreed in the fourth century that no change in the wording of the creed, except by conciliar consent, was possible. Тем не менее, было решено в четвертом веке, что никаких изменений в формулировку веры, кроме соборного согласия, было возможно. To the theologically sophisticated East, the filioque phrase seemed to challenge not only the universal creed, but also the official doctrine of the Trinity. Для теологически сложных Востоке, филиокве фраза, казалось, бросают вызов не только универсальный символ веры, но и официальную доктрину о Троице. When the issue was raised during the reign of Charlemagne (768 - 814), the papacy seemed to agree. Когда этот вопрос был поднят во время правления Карла Великого (768 - 814), папство, казалось, согласитесь. Pope Leo III, while approving the spirit of the filioque, warned against any alteration in the wording of the creed. Папа Лев III, в то время как утверждение духа филиокве, предостерег против любых изменений в формулировке кредо.

It was the fusion of the filioque controversy with the rise of papal power that created the great crisis of 1054. Это было слияние филиокве полемику с ростом папской власти, который создал великий кризис 1054 года. The "reform" papacy of the eleventh century established itself on the right of the pope, as apostolic heir of Peter, to absolute power over all Christian people and institutions. "Реформа" папства одиннадцатого века утвердилась на право папы, как апостольское наследник Петра, к абсолютной власти над всем христианским народом и учреждений. Such claims had been rejected by the early church councils. Такие претензии были отвергнуты в начале церковные соборы. To Eastern patriarchs Christ's charge to Peter in Matt. Для заряда восточных патриархов Христа к Петру в Евангелии от Матфея. 16:18 - 19 was shared by all the apostles and their spiritual heirs, the bishops. 16:18 - 19 был общим для всех апостолов и их духовные наследники, епископы. In 1054 Pope Leo IX (1048 - 54) sent a delegation headed by Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida to discuss the problems between the papacy and Constantinople. В 1054 году папа Лев IX (1048 - 54) направила делегацию возглавлял кардинал Гумберт Сильва Кандида, чтобы обсудить проблемы в отношениях между папством и Константинополя. Disaster followed. Бедствий последовало. The Patriarch of Constantinople. Патриарх Константинопольский. Michael Cerularius, rejected both papal claims and the filioque. Михаил Керуларий, отклонил оба папских претензий и филиокве. The Western legates accused Constantinople of having altered the Nicene Creed. Западные легатов обвиняют в том, Константинопольский изменил Никейский Символ веры. In the end, Cardinal Humbert deposited a Bull of Excommunication against Michael Cerularius on the altar of the Hagia Sophia, and the Great Schism was official. В конце концов, кардинал Гумберт хранение отлучительной против Майкла Керуларий на алтарь собора Святой Софии, и Великий раскол был официальным.

Thereafter, efforts were made at reunion. После этого были предприняты усилия по воссоединению. As the Muslim Turks advanced on the Byzantine Empire in the high Middle Ages, Eastern Christians were in desperate need of relief from their Western brethren. Как турки-мусульмане двинулись на Византию в высоком средневековье, восточные христиане были отчаянно нуждаются в помощи от своих западных собратьев. However, all such hopes ceased when, in 1204, an army of crusading knights from the West sacked Constantinople. Однако все эти надежды прекратились, когда в 1204 году армия крестоносцев рыцари с Запада уволен Константинополе. Eastern Christians never recovered from this outrage. Восточные христиане и не оправился от этого безобразия. In recent years effort to reconcile the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches have failed. В последние годы усилия, чтобы примирить римско-католической и греческой православной церкви не удалось. In 1965, Pope Paul VI lifted the ban of excommunication against Michael Cerularius. В 1965 году папа Павел VI отменил запрет отлучения от Michael Керуларий. However, the problem of papal rule has been rendered more difficult by nineteenth century Roman declarations of papal infallibility. Тем не менее, проблема папской правило было затрудняется девятнадцатого века римской декларации о папской непогрешимости. The wording of the creed has not been settled. Формулировка вероисповедания не был урегулирован.

CT Marshall CT Marshall
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell Евангелической словарь)

Bibliography Библиография
F Dvornik, Byzantium and the Roman Primacy; J Pelikan, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600 - 1700); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism; P Sherrad, The Greek East and the Latin West; T Ware, The Orthodox Church. F Дворник, Византии и Римской Primacy; J Пеликан, Дух восточного христианского (600 - 1700); S Runciman, Восточная раскол, Р Sherrad, греческим Востоком и латинским Западом, T Ware, православной церкви.


The "Eastern Church" "Восточные Церкви"

Advanced Information - Catholic Perspective Расширенный информации - католическая перспектива

(Editor's Note: The linked article from the Catholic Encyclopedia does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Catholic Church and against the Orthodox Church and all other Churches, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present both the Catholic and Orthodox perspectives. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, even though both sides' presentations are very biased.) Eastern Church (Примечание редактора: связанные статьи из Католической энциклопедии не соответствуют обычным стандартам, которые верят наборы для вошли статьи, тон статьи существенно смещены в сторону католической церкви и против Православной Церкви и других Церквей, которые, как правило, устранить. его из рассмотрения. Тем не менее, Великий раскол был и остается таким большим событием в истории христианского мира, что мы сочли необходимым представить как католической и православной точки зрения. Наша надежда заключается в предоставлении читателю, чтобы иметь возможность читать и размышлять обе стороны этого важного вопроса, хотя презентаций обеих сторон очень предвзято.) Восточной Церкви


The Great Schism of the Ecumenical Church Великий раскол Вселенской Церкви

Advanced Information - Orthodox Perspective Расширенный информация - Православный взгляд

(Editor's Note: The following article does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Orthodox Church and against the Catholic Church, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present the Orthodox perspective. As we understand it, any actual scholarly Orthodox works on this subject have never been yet translated into English. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, which will hopefully soon be resolved by the two Churches.) (Примечание редактора: Данная статья не соответствует обычным стандартам, которые верят наборы для вошли статьи, тон статьи существенно смещены в сторону Православной Церкви и против католической церкви, которая, как правило, исключить его из рассмотрения Тем не менее, Великий.. Раскол был и остается таким большим событием в истории христианского мира, что мы сочли необходимым представить православной точки зрения. Насколько мы понимаем, любые фактические научные православной работ на эту тему никогда не была еще переведена на английский язык. Наша надежда заключается в позволяют читателю быть в состоянии прочитать и обдумать обе стороны этого важного вопроса, который, мы надеемся, скоро быть решена двумя Церквами.)

Unity of the Churches Единство Церкви

The movement toward the unity of the Christian Churches today demands a knowledge of the beliefs of others as well as of one's own beliefs, in order to provide a climate for unity through a better understanding of each other's faith. Движение к единству христианских церквей сегодня требует знаний о верованиях других, а также из собственных убеждений, в целях обеспечения условий для единства через лучшее понимание друг друга верой. A blind acceptance of the teachings and beliefs of any Church with which unity is sought, or an indifference toward one's own beliefs and teaching will not be a solid basis for unity among the Christian Churches. Слепое принятие учений и верований любой Церкви, с которой единство искали, или безразличие к собственным убеждениям и обучение не будет прочной основой для единства между христианскими Церквами.

A Christian interested in the unity of the Churches should oppose both bigotry and indifference. Христианская заинтересован в единстве Церкви должны противостоять как фанатизм и безразличие. He ought to study his own faith and the beliefs of others in the past and in the present with humbleness and sympathy; to invoke the grace of God to guide his understanding of both views; to distinguish between divine truths for salvation and the customs and practices of his Church and of the various other Churches. Он должен изучать свою веру и убеждения других в прошлом, и в настоящем со смирением и сочувствием; ссылаться на благодать Божию, чтобы направить его понимание и взгляды; провести различие между божественной истины для спасения и обычаев и практики, Своей Церкви и различных других Церквей.

If a unity is sought between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, it is indispensable that the reasons and causes for separation between these Churches be carefully studied in the light of the circumstances and personalities of the time when the separation took place. Если единство стремились между Восточной Православной Церковью и Римско-Католической Церкви, необходимо, что причины и причин для разделения между этими Церквами быть тщательно изучены в свете обстоятельств и личностей того времени, когда разделение имело место.

When the Church was One and Undivided, proclaiming the same beliefs and having the same type of administration, the Eastern branch protested against the Western because of the latter's innovations, which were foreign to the beliefs and practices set forth by the Seven Ecumenical Synods of the first eight centuries. Когда Церковь была единой и неделимой, провозглашая те же убеждения и того же типа управления, филиал Восточно протестовали против западного, потому что инновации последних, которые были чужды убеждений и практик, установленных Семи Вселенских Соборов в Первые восемь веков. The claim of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, which later resulted in the proclaiming of his infallibility, is considered the main cause of separation of the Western branch from the Eastern. Иск о примате Римского епископа, который впоследствии привел к провозгласив своей непогрешимости, считается основной причиной разделения западного ответвления от Восточного.

A concise study of the events and incidents of this separation - called the Great Schism - is presented in the following pages in order to furnish facts necessary for a better understanding and eventual answer for the unity of these Churches in the future. Краткое изучение событий и инцидентов такого разделения - называется Великий раскол - представлена ​​на следующих страницах для того, чтобы представить факты, необходимые для лучшего понимания и возможного ответа на единство этих Церквей в будущем. Innovations formulated by the Roman Catholic Church after the Schism are innumerated. Инновации сформулирован Римско-католической церкви после раскола которые innumerated.

The Real Motives of the Great Schism Реальные мотивы Великий раскол

The Early Period of the Church Ранний период Церкви

Although the Bishops of the undivided Church were (and are) equal to each other in the administration of the liturgical rites and the teaching, they began to differ in rank according to the valuation of the places where their Sees were located. Несмотря на то, епископы неразделенной Церкви были (и остаются) равны друг другу в администрации литургических обрядов и учении, они стали отличаться по рангу в соответствии с оценкой мест, где их видит находились. Rome, Alexandria and Antioch were prominent cities, Metropolis, in those days. Рима, Александрии и Антиохии были видные городов, Metropolis, в те дни. Their Bishops were Metropolitans, and the Bishop of Rome was given the honorary precedence only because Rome was then the political capital of the world. Их епископы были митрополиты, а епископ Рима было присвоено почетное преимущество только потому, что Рим был тогда политической столицей мира. Later, the Bishops of the capitals of all political Provinces were called Archbishops. Позже епископы столицах всех провинций политической называли архиепископов. When the Emperor moved his Seat from Rome to Constantinople, the Archbishop of latter was given equal reverence with that of Rome "because Constantinople was the 'King's city' "; later in 587, the honorary title of "Ecumenical" was bestowed on him, too. Когда император переехал свою резиденцию из Рима в Константинополь, архиепископ последнего было дано равное почтение с этим Рима ", потому что Константинополь был« Короля город ", а позже в 587, почетный титул" Вселенского "был даровал ему, тоже. By 451 the Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem were called Patriarchs, of whom only two remained free after the inroads of the Moslems (7th century): that of Rome in the West, and Constantinople in the East, both equal in rank and reverence. К 451 году епископы Рима, Константинополя, Александрии, Антиохии и Иерусалима были названы патриархов, из которых только двое остались свободными после нашествия мусульман (7 век): что из Рима на Западе, и Константинополя на Востоке, как равные в звании и почтением. Later, the attempted abolishment of the equal rank status of both Seats was the main cause of the Great Separation. Позже, попытка отмены равный статус звания и места было главной причиной Великой разделения.

The Claims Of The Bishops Of Rome As reivindicações dos bispos de Roma

The Bishop of Rome, even today in the 20th century, insists that he has a primacy of jurisdiction over all Churches, including the Patriarchs of the East. O Bispo de Roma, ainda hoje, no século 20, insiste que ele tem um primado de jurisdição sobre todas as Igrejas, incluindo os Patriarcas do Oriente. He claims they should be subject to him since "he is not only Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch of the West but also the Vicar of Christ on Earth, the successor of St. Peter, and the Supreme Pontiff". Ele alega que devem ser sujeitos a ele, já que "ele não é apenas o Bispo de Roma eo Patriarca do Ocidente, mas também o Vigário de Cristo na Terra, sucessor de São Pedro, e do Sumo Pontífice". Pope Pius XII in 1955 called upon the "Uniat" Church to use its utmost to bring the Orthodox Churches to the "fold". O Papa Pio XII, em 1955, chamado o "Uniata" Igreja de usar o máximo possível para trazer as Igrejas ortodoxas para a "dobra". The Eastern Orthodox is told that it would not be necessary to change any of the teachings or customs of the Orthodox Church but to submit himself under the Pope's jurisdiction; that is, to lose every right of freedom and independence. O Ortodoxa Oriental é dito que não seria necessário alterar qualquer dos ensinamentos ou costumes da Igreja Ortodoxa, mas de apresentar-se sob a jurisdição do Papa, ou seja, a perder todo o direito de liberdade e independência. In other words, unconditional surrender under the Pope's yoke is asked. Em outras palavras, a rendição incondicional sob o jugo do Papa é perguntado. But the principles of the democratic government of the Eastern Orthodox Church is its very foundation. Mas os princípios do governo democrático da Igreja Ortodoxa é a sua própria fundação. The "Conscience of the Church" is its supreme authority and the infallible guidance to proclaim the truth of Salvation, as was the case for centuries for the Western Church, too. A "consciência da Igreja" é a sua autoridade suprema e infalível a orientação para proclamar a verdade da salvação, como foi o caso durante séculos para a Igreja do Ocidente, também. The question as to the supremacy of the Pope was the main cause of the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches. A questão quanto à supremacia do Papa foi a principal causa da separação das Igrejas do Oriente e do Ocidente. Is it a true claim? É uma afirmação verdadeira? How and when did the Popes start to claim such authority? Como e quando os Papas começam a reclamar essa autoridade?

The Development Of The Pope's Claims To Supremacy O desenvolvimento de sinistros do Papa a Supremacia

The roots of the claim of supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over the political and ecclesiastical leaders are to be found in the traditions of pagan Rome here the Emperor was the supreme Pontiff. As raízes da alegação da supremacia do Bispo de Roma sobre os líderes políticos e eclesiásticos encontram-se nas tradições da Roma pagã aqui o Imperador foi o Sumo Pontífice.

Millions of early Christians were persecuted and slaughtered because they refused to worship the Emperor as God. Milhões de cristãos foram perseguidos e mortos porque eles se recusaram a adorar o imperador como Deus. Their precious sacrifice did not destroy the super-throne; it was used merely to replace the pagan Emperor with the Christian Pope. Seu precioso sacrifício não destruir o trono de super-, que foi usado apenas para substituir o Imperador pagão com o Papa cristão.

Thus, with that background, some of the bishops of Rome invented and manufactured fictitious theories of the pope's "divine right" to govern the affairs of State as well as of the Church. Assim, com esse pano de fundo, alguns dos bispos de Roma inventado e fabricado teorias fictícios de "direito divino" do papa para governar os assuntos de Estado, bem como da Igreja. The claims thereby divided the Church, which by nature and principle was meant to be One; the bishops waged wars, created inquisitions, forced on the West the Great Protest, and finally, developed theories as to infallibility, and all of these in the name of God! Os créditos assim dividido a Igreja, que por natureza e princípio era para ser um, os bispos travaram guerras, inquisições criados, forçados ao Ocidente o grande protesto e, finalmente, desenvolveu teorias como a infalibilidade, e todos eles em nome de Deus!

These fictitious theories, which were destined to be accepted as true for some centuries, though later recognized distinctly as the most cleverly manufactured falsehoods are three: The Pseudo-Clementines, the Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees, and the Pseudo-Constantine Donation. Essas teorias fictícias, que foram destinadas a serem aceitas como verdadeiras por alguns séculos, embora mais tarde reconhecido distintamente como as falsidades mais habilmente fabricados são três: A Pseudo-Clementinas, o Pseudo-Isidorian decretos, ea doação Pseudo-Constantino.

The Pseudo-Clementine Writings Os Escritos Pseudo-Clementina

The Attempt To Elevate Peter And The Seat Of Rome To Supremacy. A tentativa de elevar Peter E a sede de Roma à supremacia.

The Pseudo-Clementine writings are false "Homilies" (discourses) falsely attributed to the Bishop of Rome Clement (93-101), which attempted to restate the life of Apostle Peter. Os escritos Pseudo-Clementina são falsas "Sermões" (discursos) falsamente atribuídos ao Bispo de Roma Clemente (93-101), que tentou reafirmar a vida do Apóstolo Pedro. The purpose was one: the elevation of Peter over the other Apostles, especially Apostle Paul, and the elevation of the Seat of Rome over any other Bishop's Seat "Peter", it was claimed, "who was the most able of all (the others)' was called to illuminate the West, the darkest place of the Universe." O objetivo era um só: a elevação de Pedro sobre os outros Apóstolos, especialmente Apóstolo Paulo, e da elevação da Sede de Roma sobre Assento qualquer outro Bispo de "Peter", afirmou-se ", que era o mais capaz de todos (os outros ) 'foi chamado para iluminar o Ocidente, o lugar mais escuro do Universo. "

The "Homilies" were written to fit the misleading interpretation of Matthew 16:18,19, that "You art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church ... and I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven ". Os "Sermões" foram escritos para se ajustar à interpretação de Mateus 16:18,19 enganosa, que "Tu és Pedro, e sobre esta pedra edificarei a minha igreja ... e eu te darei as chaves do reino dos céus" . It is misleading because the word "rock" does not refer to Peter, but to the faith that "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" (v. 16). É enganoso porque a palavra "rock" não se refere a Pedro, mas a fé que "Tu és o Cristo, o Filho do Deus vivo" (v. 16). There is not one sign of the primacy of Peter over the other Apostles mentioned in the Bible, and if a primacy was intended, a decision of such importance and magnitude certainly would have been mentioned in the Bible in unambiguous language. Não é um sinal do primado de Pedro sobre os outros Apóstolos mencionados na Bíblia, e se a primazia foi destinado, uma decisão de tal importância e magnitude certamente teria sido mencionado na Bíblia em linguagem inequívoca. In many cases the opposite is true; Paul wrote to Galatians, "I withstood him, (Peter) to the face, because he was to be blamed" (2:11); besides, it is well known that Peter thrice denied Christ. Em muitos casos, o oposto é verdadeiro; Paulo escreveu aos Gálatas: "Eu lhe resistiram, (Peter) para o rosto, porque ele era o culpado" (2:11); além disso, é sabido que Pedro negou Cristo três vezes. Peter did not found the Church of Rome; he actually remained in Antioch for many years before reaching Rome. Pedro não se encontrou na Igreja de Roma, ele realmente permaneceu em Antioquia por muitos anos antes de chegar a Roma. To say that as Christ reigns in Heaven, Peter and his successors, the popes, govern the Earth, is a statement alien to the spirit of the Gospel and the understanding of the early Church. Para dizer que, como Cristo reina no Céu, Pedro e seus sucessores, os papas, governar a Terra, é um alienígena declaração para o espírito do Evangelho e da compreensão da Igreja primitiva. Christ was and is the cornerstone and the Head of the Church, consisting of all members of His Body. Cristo era e é a pedra angular ea Cabeça da Igreja, composta de todos os membros do Seu Corpo. (cf. Col.1:24). (Cf. Col.1: 24).

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees And The Pseudo-Constantian Donation A Pseudo-Isidorian decretos ea doação Pseudo-Constantian

The Attempt To Legitimatize the Papacy. A tentativa de legitimar o Papado.

These Decrees are a collection, arranged in the 9th century, consisting of canons of synods as well as the Pope's false decrees, which were added later. Estes decretos são uma coleção, organizado no século 9, constituídos por cânones dos sínodos, bem como falso o Papa decretos, que foram acrescentados posteriormente. For these decrees it is said that "No other illegitimacy in the history of the world was made with such cleverness, and no other forgery has such results", as a great historian wrote. Para esses decretos é dito que "Nenhum outro ilegitimidade na história do mundo foi feito com essa habilidade, e não tem outra falsificação, tais resultados", como escreveu um grande historiador. The illegitimacy lies in the skilled counterfeiting of canonical sources in such a way that the supremacy of the Pope was its concrete results. A ilegitimidade reside na qualificados falsificação de fontes canônicas, de tal forma que a supremacia do Papa foi seus resultados concretos. The Priesthood, they concluded, is above political authority; and the head of the Priesthood is the Pope; the Pope then is the "Head of the Universe" ( caput totius orbis ). O Sacerdócio, eles concluíram, está acima da autoridade política, e da cabeça do Sacerdócio é o Papa, o Papa é a "Cabeça do Universo" (caput totius orbis). This "conclusion" was supported by another clever forgery that Constantine the Great left to the Pope the political power of his position in Rome as a Donation to him! Esta "conclusão", foi apoiado por outra falsificação inteligente que Constantino esquerda, o Grande ao Papa o poder político de sua posição em Roma como uma doação para ele!

These highly skilled pieces of forgery only awaited a master to enforce them - Pope Nicholas I. Pope Nicholas I (858-867), a strong-willed personality, called them "ancient monuments" and imposed them upon the bishops and political authorities of the West. Estas peças altamente qualificados de falsificação só aguardava um mestre para aplicá-los - o Papa Nicolau I. Papa Nicolau I (858-867), uma personalidade de temperamento forte, chamou-os "monumentos antigos" e impôs-lhes sobre os bispos e as autoridades políticas da Ocidente. It was said of him that "Nicholas made himself Emperor of all the world." Foi dito a ele que "Nicholas fez-se imperador de todo o mundo." After the period of ill fame of the popes and clergy these forgeries became the official rules for the new reform and moral uprightness of the clergy. Após o período de má fama dos papas e sacerdotes estas falsificações se tornaram as regras oficiais para a nova reforma e retidão moral do clero. Thus the Pseudo-Isidorian decrees had prevailed and established the "primacy" of the Pope. Assim, o Pseudo-Isidorian decretos havia prevalecido e estabeleceu o "primado" do Papa. Historians as well as Catholic scholars recognize that these "Decrees" have been proven as forgeries; but nevertheless they were used as the foundation for the supremacy of the Pope. Historiadores, bem como estudiosos católicos reconhecem que esses "decretos" foram comprovadas como falsificações, mas mesmo assim eles foram usados ​​como base para a supremacia do Papa. How long will the popes themselves continue to believe in the strength of their house without a solid foundation? Quanto tempo os papas-se continuar a acreditar na força de sua casa sem uma base sólida? The popes continue attempting to conquer all churches and especially the Eastern Orthodox Church by using a new instrument: the Uniat Church. Os papas continuar tentando conquistar todas as igrejas e, especialmente, da Igreja Ortodoxa Oriental, utilizando um novo instrumento: a Igreja Uniata. "Return back to the fold" is a plea which is heard time and again. "Volte para a tampa" é um fundamento que se ouviu uma e outra vez. Possibly it results from a religious inferiority complex as far as the trust and historical facts are concerned. Possivelmente ele resulta de um complexo de inferioridade religiosa, tanto quanto a confiança e fatos históricos estão em causa. The Eastern Church is "the pillar and bulwark of the truth " which has been preserved by it "everywhere, anytime" against the undue claims or encroachments by the See of the West. A Igreja Oriental é "a coluna e sustentáculo da verdade", que foi preservado por ele "em todos os lugares, a qualquer hora" contra os créditos indevidos ou por invasões Veja do Ocidente. The "fold" is where the "truth" is taught; where the One only Shepherd is recognized as its Head, Jesus Christ. A "tampa" é onde a "verdade" é ensinada, onde o único Pastor é reconhecido como seu chefe, Jesus Cristo. To that "fold" the Western Church is called to join by abolishing the "innovations" and the pretext of supremacy of the Pope at the expense of the "fold". Para que a "dobra" a Igreja ocidental é chamado para se juntar ao abolir as "inovações" ea pretexto da supremacia do Papa à custa da "dobra".

Actual Events that led to the Schism Eventos reais que levaram ao Cisma

Synopsis Of The Events Of The Great Schism Sinopse dos eventos de O Grande Cisma

Four separations between the Eastern and Western parts of the Undivided Church took place without an official statement of schism, and they lasted from 15 to 50 years until the churches resumed their union again. Quatro separações entre as partes oriental e ocidental da Igreja indivisa ocorreu sem uma declaração oficial do cisma, e que durou de 15 a 50 anos até que as igrejas retomaram a união novamente. The great and last schism resulted from a chain of events between the Western and Eastern parts of the Church which lasted for approximately two hundred years (863-1054). O grande cisma e último resultou de uma cadeia de eventos entre as partes oriental e ocidental da Igreja, que durou cerca de 200 anos (863-1054). At the beginning and the end there were some acts of excommunications on both sides. No início e no final houve alguns actos de excomunhões de ambos os lados. During this period of silence, indifference and hatred dominated both sides, ruining the last fortress of the Union. Durante este período de silêncio, a indiferença eo ódio dominou ambas as partes, arruinando a última fortaleza da União Europeia.

The Election Of Patriarch Of Constantinople Photius A eleição do Patriarca de Constantinopla Photius

Photius, a prominent layman, the chief Secretary of State, whose "virtue, wisdom and competence were universally acknowledged", was appointed and elected (875) as Patriarch of Constantinople straight from the rank of layman, replacing Patriarch Ignatius. Photius, um leigo de destaque, o secretário-chefe de Estado, cuja "sabedoria, virtude e competência foram reconhecidos universalmente", foi nomeado e eleito (875) como Patriarca de Constantinopla em linha reta do posto de leigo, substituindo Patriarca Inácio. Pope Nicholas, seeing a favorable opportunity for interfering in Eastern affairs, appointed himself as judge over two conflicting parties by his own authority and rejected the election of Photius. Papa Nicolau, vendo uma oportunidade favorável para interferir nos assuntos do Oriente, designou a si mesmo como juiz durante duas partes em conflito por sua própria autoridade e rejeitou a eleição de Photius. He asserted on the one hand that Photius had been made Patriarch without his approval, an unprecedented claim, and on the other hand that he had been raised within a single week from a mere layman, to the rank of Archbishop. Ele afirmou, por um lado, que Photius Patriarca tinha sido feita sem a sua aprovação, uma reivindicação sem precedentes, e por outro lado, que ele tinha sido levantada no prazo de uma semana a partir de um mero leigo, para o posto de arcebispo. Of course, Pope Nicholas had no right to interfere in such an affair; therefore, the election was valid, as was the case with Ambrose, a bishop of Milan, and many other laymen who had been raised to high rank in the Church. Naturalmente, o Papa Nicolau não tinha o direito de interferir em tal caso, portanto, a eleição foi válida, como foi o caso com Ambrósio, bispo de Milão, e muitos outros leigos, que tinham sido levantadas ao alto posto na Igreja.

Synod Repudiates Pope's Claim Sínodo repudia reivindicação Papa

Four years later, in 861, at a Synod in Constantinople both parties, Photians and Ignatians, decided in favor of Photius in the presence of the Pope's delegates. Quatro anos depois, em 861, no Sínodo de Constantinopla ambas as partes, e Photians Ignatians, decidiu em favor de Photius na presença de delegados do Papa. Pope Nicholas, who was furious because the Eastern Church did not submit slavishly to his arbitrary demands, convened a Synod of his own in Rome in 863 and "excommunicated" Photius, the Patriarch of Constantinople. Papa Nicolau, que estava furioso porque a Igreja Oriental não apresentou servilmente a sua exigência arbitrária, convocou um Sínodo de sua autoria, em Roma, em 863 e "excomungado" Photius, o Patriarca de Constantinopla. The Church ignored this additional provocation. A Igreja ignorou essa provocação adicional.

Photius' Encyclical Against The Pope's Innovations Photius 'Encíclica contra Inovações do Papa

Pope Nicholas, by the same arbitrary authority, attempted to detach the young Church of Bulgaria, which was founded by the Church of Constantinople and by Photius himself, from its allegiance to its Mother Church. Papa Nicolau, pela mesma autoridade arbitrária, tentaram separar os jovens da Igreja da Bulgária, que foi fundada pela Igreja de Constantinopla e Photius por si próprio, de sua fidelidade a sua Igreja Matriz. Because of this anti-canonical activity of Pope Nicholas, Photius sent out in 867 his famous encyclical to the Patriarchs of the East accusing the Pope: Devido a esta actividade anti-canônica do Papa Nicolau, Photius enviado em 867 sua famosa encíclica aos Patriarcas do Oriente, acusando o Papa:

  1. of inserting into the Creed the word " filoque ", meaning that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but "and from the Son" as well; de inserir no Credo a palavra "filoque", o que significa que o Espírito Santo procede não só do Pai, mas "e do Filho", bem como,
  2. for intervening in the newly founded Church of Bulgaria by repeating the sacrament of Chrismation, to the Bulgarian Christians on the pretext that they had previously been baptized by married priests from Constantinople; para intervir na recém-fundada Igreja da Bulgária, repetindo o sacramento da Crisma, para os cristãos búlgaros, sob o pretexto de que eles já haviam sido batizados por padres casados ​​de Constantinopla;
  3. for dominating the churches of the West; and para dominar as igrejas do Ocidente e
  4. for interfering in disputes outside his own jurisdiction. de interferir nas disputas fora de sua própria jurisdição.

Photius Dethroned And Later Vindicated Photius Dethroned e mais tarde Vindicated

Pope Adrian II, possessed by the same pride and ambition as his predecessor, exploited a psychological moment in Eastern affairs to achieve what Pope Nicholas could not. Papa Adriano II, possuído pelo mesmo orgulho e ambição como o seu antecessor, explorada em um momento psicológico em assuntos do Oriente para alcançar o que o Papa Nicolau não podia. Emperor Basil, who was refused Holy Communion by Photius because he murdered his foster father, Emperor Michael, in 867 deposed Photius from his throne and brought back Ignatius. Imperador Basílio, que foi recusada pela Santa Comunhão Photius porque ele assassinou seu pai adotivo, o Imperador Michael, em 867 deposto Photius de seu trono e trouxe de volta Inácio. Pope Adrian II took advantage of this situation and demanded from Basil the condemnation of Photius, the common enemy. Papa Adriano II aproveitou a situação e exigiu de Basil a condenação de Photius, o inimigo comum. Emperor Basil convened a synod in 869, and by coersion brought the bishops to condemn Photius. Imperador Basílio convocou um sínodo em 869, e por coerção levou os bispos a condenar Photius. Adrian's delegates and Basil forcibly and falsely obtained the acknowledgment that the Pope is the "supreme and absolute head of all the Churches, superior even to ecumenical synods". Delegados de Adrian e manjericão à força e falsamente obtido o reconhecimento de que o Papa é o "chefe supremo e absoluto de todas as Igrejas, superior até mesmo para os sínodos ecumênicos". This so-called eighth ecumenical synod (by the Western Church) has never been recognized by the Eastern Church, but after 10 years it was unanimously denounced by a great Synod in Constantinople, in 879, by Ignatians as well as Photians. Este assim chamado sínodo ecumênico oitavo (pela Igreja Ocidental) nunca foi reconhecida pela Igreja do Oriente, mas depois de 10 anos, foi denunciado por unanimidade por um grande Sínodo em Constantinopla, em 879, por Ignatians bem como Photians. This synod acknowledged the full justification of Photius and his manly stand against the Roman despotism. Este sínodo reconheceu a plena justificação de Photius e sua posição másculo contra o despotismo romano. Photius is considered the unmovable rock against which all the heavy waves of slavery and domination have been broken. Photius é considerado a pedra irremovível contra o qual todas as ondas pesadas de dominação e escravidão foram quebrados. The Church thanks the Lord, its Head, for the inspiration of this great man by "whom the Eastern Church has managed to preserve intact both faith and freedom". A Igreja, graças ao Senhor, seu chefe, para a inspiração deste grande homem "por quem a Igreja Oriental conseguiu preservar a fé intactas e liberdade".

Period Of Cold Silence (879-1054) Período de silêncio Fria (879-1054)

Nevertheless, no official schism was pronounced by either Church until 1054. No entanto, nenhum cisma oficial foi pronunciada por uma Igreja até 1054. During this period of approximately two hundred years a chill of silence prevailed. Durante este período de aproximadamente 200 anos um frio de silêncio prevaleceu. Six generations were not sufficient to expel this evil element from the Church. Seis gerações não foram suficientes para expulsar este mal elemento da Igreja. The arbitrariness of human administration dominated fellowship and love, which are considered the substance and fruit of Christ's divine work and message. A arbitrariedade da administração humana dominada companheirismo e amor, que são considerados a substância e os frutos do trabalho divino de Cristo ea mensagem.

The Final Break (1054) The Final Break (1054)

The seal of separation which was placed on paper in 1054, dividing the Church into East and West, was brought to a head by an innocent act by the Patriarch Michael Cerularius. O selo de separação que foi colocado no papel em 1054, dividindo a Igreja em Leste e Oeste, foi trazido a uma cabeça por um acto inocente pelo Patriarca Miguel Cerulário. He wrote a letter to Bishop John of Trania in Italy enumerating the innovations which had been introduced by the Roman Church, and he begged him to give this letter a wide hearing in order that the truth might prevail. Ele escreveu uma carta ao bispo João de Trania na Itália enumerando as inovações que foram introduzidas pela Igreja de Roma, e ele pediu-lhe para dar a esta carta uma vasta audiência a fim de que a verdade pudesse prevalecer. This act apparently witnesses the fact that the Patriarch did not accept any sort of schism yet. Esse ato aparentemente testemunhas do fato de que o patriarca não aceita qualquer tipo de dissidência ainda. Pope Leo IX sent a sharp reply, severely rebuking the author of the letter. Papa Leão IX enviou uma resposta afiada, repreender severamente o autor da carta.

The Emperor of Constantinople, Constantine Monomathus, facing a threat of his political interest in Italy, had need of the Pope's help, and he sent a conciliatory reply asking him to send delegates to restore friendly relations. O imperador de Constantinopla, Constantino Monomathus, enfrenta uma ameaça de seu interesse político na Itália, tinha necessidade de ajuda do Papa, e ele enviou uma resposta conciliatória pedindo-lhe para enviar delegados para restabelecer relações amigáveis. The Pope sent Cardinal Humbert with a different mission, which he fully executed. O Papa enviou o Cardeal Humberto com uma missão diferente, que ele plenamente executado. Humbert did not meet the Emperor or the Patriarch, but he laid on the altar of the Church of Saint Sophia in Constantinople a bull of excommunication against the Eastern Church, attempting to stigmatize it as "the repository of all the heresies of the past", and then hastily disappeared. Humbert não atender o Imperador ou o Patriarca, mas ele colocou sobre o altar da Igreja de Santa Sofia, em Constantinopla uma bula de excomunhão contra a Igreja Oriental, a tentativa de estigmatizá-lo como "o repositório de todas as heresias do passado", e, em seguida, às pressas desapareceu. The Patriarch in turn drew up a sentence of excommunication against the Western Church, signed jointly by the other Patriarchs. O Patriarca, por sua vez, elabora uma sentença de excomunhão contra a Igreja Ocidental, assinado conjuntamente pelos outros Patriarcas. And thus the black seal kept closed the gates of the bridges between East and West. E assim, o selo preto mantidos fechados os portões das pontes entre o Oriente eo Ocidente.

The Main Cause Of Separation A principal causa da separação

The ambition of the Popes (as we respectfully call the Bishops of Rome) was to subordinate the Eastern Church under their supremacy. A ambição dos Papas (como é chamada respeitosamente os Bispos de Roma) foi subordinar a Igreja Oriental, sob a sua supremacia. The See of Rome was ancient and apostolic. A Sé de Roma foi a antiga e apostólica. Its bishops could, without any more interference from the Emperor, exercise a kind of political authority, too. Seus bispos poderiam, sem qualquer interferência mais do Imperador, exercer uma espécie de autoridade política, também. They began very early to appear as a court of appeal, in the West, to which all problems should be submitted for solution. Eles começaram muito cedo para aparecer como um tribunal de apelação, no Ocidente, a que todos os problemas devem ser apresentados para solução. They found a pretext for their intrusion in the domestic quarrels at Constantinople during the 9th century in order to invade and dominate the entire Eastern Church. Eles encontraram um pretexto para a sua intrusão nas querelas internas em Constantinopla durante o século 9, a fim de invadir e dominar a Igreja Oriental inteira.

A Catholic scholar states that: Um estudioso católico afirma que:

"... the Papacy, from and after the ninth century, attempted to impose, in the name of God, upon the universal Church a yoke unknown to the first eight centuries". "... O papado, e depois a partir do século IX, tentou impor, em nome de Deus, sobre a Igreja universal um jugo desconhecido para os primeiros oito séculos".

The same attempt is in process today with the letter issued (1955) by Pope Pius XII, urging the Uniates to convert the Orthodox people and bring them under the Pope's rule. A mesma tentativa está em processo hoje com a carta emitida (1955) pelo Papa Pio XII, instando as uniatas converter as pessoas ortodoxas e trazê-los sob o domínio do Papa.

Reunion Sought Reunião Procurada

The Crusades and Forced "Reunion" As Cruzadas e Forçado "Reunion"

Later, the Crusaders from the West forced the Greek Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem to abandon their Sees and for sixty years imposed their cruel government on Constantinople (1204-1261), pillaging its resources and causing its eventual downfall. Mais tarde, os cruzados do Ocidente obrigou o grego Patriarcas de Antioquia e Jerusalém, a abandonar a sua Vê e de 60 anos impôs seu governo cruel em Constantinopla (1204-1261), pilhagem de seus recursos e causando sua eventual queda. An effort at "reunion" was really an attempt to enslave the Eastern Church at the Pseudo-Synod of Ferrara-Florence (1438) where the representatives of the Eastern Church, by force, signed a statement of reunion. Um esforço de "reunião" foi realmente uma tentativa de escravizar a Igreja Oriental, o Sínodo Pseudo-de Ferrara-Florença (1438), onde os representantes da Igreja Oriental, pela força, assinaram uma declaração de reencontro. Although it was proclaimed on July 6, 1439, it was never approved by the Church as a whole and was later denounced by a synod in Constantinople in 1451. Apesar de ter sido proclamada em 6 de julho de 1439, que nunca foi aprovada pela Igreja como um todo e mais tarde foi denunciado por um sínodo em Constantinopla, em 1451. Orthodoxy has suffered more from the Christian West than from the Moslem East. Ortodoxia tem sofrido mais do Ocidente cristão do que do Oriente muçulmano. The downfall of Constantinople in 1453 put a tragic end to any effort at reunion. A queda de Constantinopla em 1453 pôs um fim trágico a qualquer esforço de reencontro.

The Possibility Of Reunion And The Honorary Position Of The Pope A possibilidade de reunião ea posição honorário do Papa

For approximately one thousand years the Eastern and Western Churches were united, without at least any open attempt of one to subordinate the other. Durante cerca de mil anos as Igrejas Orientais e Ocidentais estavam unidos, sem ao menos qualquer tentativa aberta de um a subordinar o outro. The Eastern Church never has raised such a demand. A Igreja Oriental nunca tenha levantado tal demanda. It has always respected the Holy See of Rome and its Bishop, who was considered to be "the first among equals". Ele sempre respeitou a Santa Sé de Roma e seu Bispo, que foi considerado "o primeiro entre iguais". He abolished this brotherly relation with the other leaders of the Church and separated himself and the Western Church from the Eastern. Ele aboliu esta relação fraterna com os outros líderes da Igreja e separou-se ea Igreja ocidental da oriental. The Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the claim of the Pope and his attempt at supremacy because for hundreds of years the undivided Church never considered such a claim. A Igreja Ortodoxa não aceitou a alegação do Papa e sua tentativa de supremacia, porque há centenas de anos, a Igreja indivisa nunca considerou tal afirmação. There is hope and a possibility of reunion. Há esperança e uma possibilidade de reencontro. It depends upon the Leaders rather than the people of both Churches and especially upon the Holy Father of Rome. Ele depende dos líderes e não as pessoas de ambas as Igrejas e, especialmente, sobre o Santo Padre de Roma. The Separation took place in 1054 not because of a false dogma as was the case with heretics. A separação ocorreu não em 1054 por causa de um falso dogma como foi o caso com os hereges. Both Sees and Churches exist up till today. Ambos Vê e Igrejas existem até hoje. That which has made the situation more difficult after the separation is that besides the stronger ambition of the Popes for their supremacy, the Western Church has created a new type of government and many "innovations" and dogmas, some of which can be considered as local customs. O que torna a situação mais difícil depois da separação é que além da forte ambição dos Papas para a sua supremacia, a Igreja ocidental criou um novo tipo de governo e muitos "inovações" e dogmas, alguns dos quais podem ser considerados como locais costumes. Both Churches should accept the principles of affiliation and the Truths of faith which the one undivided Church knew in the first thousand years of our Lord. Ambas as Igrejas devem aceitar os princípios de filiação e as verdades da fé que a Igreja conhecia um indiviso nos primeiros mil anos de nosso Senhor.


The Innovations As Inovações

Although the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church are closer to the beliefs of the Orthodox Church than are those of any other churches, it is necessary to list a few of the innovations added by the Roman Church after the separation of the Western from the Eastern Church. Embora as crenças da Igreja Católica Romana estão mais próximos das crenças da Igreja Ortodoxa que são as de quaisquer outras igrejas, é necessário listar algumas das inovações acrescentado pela Igreja de Roma após a separação da parte ocidental da Igreja Oriental . Also, it is necessary to mention that the attitude of the Western section of the One Church, even before the Schism, was not free from arbitrariness. Além disso, é necessário mencionar que a atitude da parte ocidental da Igreja Una, mesmo antes do Cisma, não foi livre de arbitrariedades. The Western branch tended to centralize administrative power, a characteristic inherited from the early Roman political tendencies toward a totalitarian government. O ramo ocidental tende a centralizar o poder administrativo, uma característica herdada dos primeiros romanos tendências políticas em direção a um governo totalitário. Following is the list of innovations. Segue a lista de inovações.

Primacy Primazia

The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the Pope, who is called the Vicar of Christ (a title of the Roman pontiff dating from the 8th century) expresses his claim to universal jurisdiction and implies that the other bishops are not equal to him, but subordinate to him as his representatives - a claim that is foreign to the ancient Church. A suprema jurisdição episcopal do Papa, que é chamado o Vigário de Cristo (um título do pontífice romano datado do século 8) expressa sua pretensão à jurisdição universal e implica que os outros bispos não são iguais a ele, mas subordinado a ele como seus representantes - uma reivindicação que é estranho à Igreja antiga.

Infallibility Infalibilidade

In 1870 the Roman Catholic Church, at the Vatican Council, declared that infallibility (the inability to err in teaching the revealed truth) was attached to the definition of the Pope in matters of faith and morals, apart from the consent of the Church. Em 1870, a Igreja Católica Romana, no Vaticano, declarou que a infalibilidade (a incapacidade de errar em ensinar a verdade revelada) foi anexada à definição do Papa em matéria de fé e moral, além do consentimento da Igreja. The Vatican Council declared: O Concílio Vaticano II declarou:

"Jesus Christ has three existences. His personal existence, which Arius denied; His mystical existence in the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, which Calvin denied; and His other existence, which completes the first two and through which He lives constantly, namely His authority in the person of His Vicar on Earth. The Council, maintaining this third existence, assures the world that it possesses Jesus Christ." "Jesus Cristo tem três existências Sua existência pessoal, que negou Arius;. Sua existência mística no sacramento da Eucaristia, que negou Calvin, e outros Sua existência, que completou as duas primeiras e através do qual Ele vive constantemente, ou seja, a Sua autoridade na pessoa de seu Vigário na Terra. O Conselho, mantendo esta terceira existência, assegura ao mundo que possui Jesus Cristo. "

Herein, the Synods were abolished. Aqui, os sínodos foram abolidas.

The Procession of the Holy Spirit A Procissão do Espírito Santo

The insertion of the phrase filoque , meaning "and the son", in the eighth article of the Nicene Creed, to read that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but also from the Son as well, perverts the theological teaching of the Gospel and the Undivided Church (John 15,26; Acts 2,33). A inserção do filoque frase, que significa "e do filho", no artigo oitavo do Credo de Nicéia, ao ler que o Espírito Santo procede não só do Pai, mas também do Filho, bem como, perverte o ensino teológico do Evangelho e da Igreja indivisa (João 15,26; Atos 2,33).

Purgatory and indulgences Purgatório e indulgências

Purgatory is an intermediate state where souls are made clean for paradise by expiatory suffering, according to the Roman Church. Purgatório é um estado intermediário onde as almas são feitas para limpar o paraíso pelo sofrimento expiatório, de acordo com a Igreja Romana. It is a place or state for penitent souls departing this life cleansed from venial sins and temporal punishment due to remitted mortal sins. É um lugar ou estado de alma penitente partem esta vida limpa de pecados veniais e pena temporal devida aos pecados mortais remetidos. In the Roman Church, indulgences are a remission by those authorized of the temporary punishment still due to sin after sacramental absolution either in this world or in purgatory. Na Igreja Romana, indulgências são a remissão por pessoas autorizadas da punição temporária ainda devido ao pecado após a absolvição sacramental, seja neste mundo ou no purgatório.

The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary A Imaculada Conceição da Virgem Maria

In 1854 a council of the Vatican pronounced the new teaching that the Virgin Mary was born without original sin, a statement not found either in the Holy Scriptures or in Sacrad Tradition. Em 1854, um concílio do Vaticano declarou que o novo ensino que a Virgem Maria nasceu sem pecado original, não uma declaração encontrados tanto nas Sagradas Escrituras ou na Tradição Sacrad. (The Undivided Church taught and teaches the virgin birth of Jesus Christ only) The Orthodox Church honors highly the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos, the unique personality chosen by God to serve the highest mission toward the salvation of mankind in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. (Undivided A Igreja ensinou e ensina o nascimento virginal de Jesus Cristo somente) As honras Igreja Ortodoxa altamente a Virgem Maria como a Theotokos, a personalidade única escolhida por Deus para servir a mais alta missão para a salvação da humanidade na encarnação de Jesus Cristo.

Assumption of the Virgin Mary Assunção da Virgem Maria

The assumption (bodily ascension) of the Virgin Mary was pronounced as a dogma in 1952 by the Pope of the Rome Church. A suposição (corporais ascensão) da Virgem Maria foi declarada como dogma em 1952 pelo Papa da Igreja de Roma. This belief is not found in the Scriptures nor is it found in the Sacred Tradition. Essa crença não é encontrado nas Escrituras nem é encontrado na Sagrada Tradição.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: that date might actually be 1950.) (NOTA DO EDITOR:. Essa data pode realmente ser 1950)

Baptism Batismo

Baptism, which originally was an immersion of the body of the faithful in the water, was replaced during the 14th century in the Roman Church by sprinkling. Batismo, que originalmente era uma imersão do corpo dos fiéis na água, foi substituído durante o século 14 na Igreja Romana por aspersão.

Invocation Invocação

The invocation, or epiklesis , which is a prayer offered at the time of the change of the Holy Gifts (bread and wine), is omitted by the Roman Church, which uses only the scriptural words, "Take, eat ..." A invocação, ou epiklesis, que é uma oração oferecida no momento da mudança dos Santos Dons (pão e vinho), é omitida pela Igreja Romana, que usa apenas as palavras bíblicas: "Tomai, comei ..." and "Drink ye all of it ..." e "Bebei dele todos que ..."

Unleavened Bread Pão ázimo

Unleavened bread is used by the Roman Church instead of leavened bread, which was the tradition of the Undivided Church. Pão ázimo é usado pela Igreja romana em vez de pão levedado, que era a tradição da Igreja indivisa.

Holy Communion Comunhão

Holy Communion in the Roman Church is given to the layman only from the sanctified bread and not from the sanctified wine, which now is restricted to the clergy. Comunhão na igreja romana é dada apenas para os leigos do pão santificado e não do vinho santificado, que agora está restrito ao clero.

Holy Unction Santa Unção

Holy Unction is offered as last rites to the sick, an innovation of the eleventh century. Santa Unção é oferecido como extrema unção aos doentes, uma inovação do século XI.

Divorce Divórcio

Divorce is not granted to the faithful in the Roman Church, which the Undivided Church issued. O divórcio não é concedido para os fiéis na Igreja romana, que a Igreja Undivided emitidos.

Clergy's Marital Status Estado clero civil

Marriage of the clergy is prohibited, a restriction imposed in the later centuries against the decision of the First Ecumenical Synod (325 AD). Casamento do clero é proibida, uma restrição imposta nos séculos posteriores, contra a decisão do Primeiro Sínodo Ecumênico (325 dC).


HOPE FOR "UNITY OF FAITH" ESPERANÇA PARA "unidade da fé"

An historic event of great magnitude took place on Jan. 5, 1964, when Patriarch Athenagoras I and Pope Paul VI met in Jerusalem. Um acontecimento histórico de grande magnitude ocorreu em 5 de janeiro de 1964, quando o Patriarca Atenágoras I eo Papa Paulo VI se encontrou em Jerusalém. Their "embrace of peace" and declaration of reconciliation was the first official act by the two churches since the Schism in 1054. Seu "abraço de paz" declaração e da reconciliação foi o primeiro ato oficial pelas duas igrejas desde o Cisma de 1054. Then in 1965 both churches lifted the anathemas and excommunications placed against one another in 1054. Então, em 1965, as duas igrejas levantou os anátemas e excomunhões colocados um contra o outro em 1054. These great events however have not changed the actual status of each church, for the Schism still remains. Estes grandes eventos no entanto, não mudaram o status real de cada igreja, para o Cisma ainda permanece. In addition, the unprecedented journeys of the Patriarch and the Pope to one another's See were the result of the lifting of historical obstacles. Além disso, as viagens sem precedentes do Patriarca eo Papa a um outro de Veja foram o resultado do levantamento dos obstáculos históricos. This has led to dialogue between the two churches for the first time in 900 years. Isso levou a um diálogo entre as duas igrejas, pela primeira vez em 900 anos. These historical events are hopeful signs to resolving the problems of the Great Schism. Estes eventos históricos são sinais de esperança para resolver os problemas do Grande Cisma.

Hope For Unity Of The Christian Churches Esperança para unidade das igrejas cristãs

Pure Faith is a living faith for all the members of the Mystical Body of Christ. A fé é uma fé pura vida de todos os membros do Corpo Místico de Cristo. It is not the Faith of the technical theologian nor of the narrow minded faithful. Não é a fé do teólogo técnico nem dos fiéis estreita. The Christian Faith does not require knowledge of geometry as was the case with Plato's philosophy. A fé cristã não exige conhecimentos de geometria como foi o caso com a filosofia de Platão. The theologian who is supposed to be more versed in the Divine Revelation is not a teacher of his original theories but rather an instructor of Truths, which have already been revealed and can be accepted by all people on faith. O teólogo que é suposto ser mais versados ​​na Revelação Divina não é um professor de suas teorias originais, mas sim um instrutor de Verdades, que já foi revelado e pode ser aceite por todas as pessoas de fé.

The Christian faith is not a theory or erudition but a living element working in every sincere Christian. A fé cristã não é uma teoria ou erudição, mas um elemento vivo que trabalham em cada cristão sincero. The technical theological controversies are only for the "pleasure of knowledge" of a very few people, but not for the members of the Mystical Body of Christ. As controvérsias teológicas técnicas são apenas para o "prazer do conhecimento" de algumas poucas pessoas, mas não para os membros do Corpo Místico de Cristo. They are rather the personal presuppositions of learned men, who have become entangled in the net they have woven, from which they Cannot set themselves free. Eles são sim os pressupostos pessoais de homens sábios, que se tornaram embaraçados na rede que teceram, a partir do qual eles não podem se libertar. Some technical theologians and others with a talented and dynamic personality, on occasions of strong disagreement or in an assumption of a new movement, have separated themselves or led their followers out of the Mystical Body of Christ, the Undivided and Ecumenical Church. Alguns teólogos e outros técnicos com uma personalidade talentosa e dinâmica, em ocasiões de forte desacordo ou em uma suposição de um novo movimento, se separaram ou levou seus seguidores para fora do Corpo Místico de Cristo, a Igreja indivisa e Ecumênico.

Their followers have never understood the, deep theological arguments involved; they never have followed such a leader with a sound conviction of keeping the venerable Faith intact. Seus seguidores que nunca entendeu as, profundos argumentos teológicos envolvidos, pois eles nunca têm seguido um líder com uma sólida convicção de manter intacto o venerável fé. They have followed him because of human motives and superficial justifications. Eles seguiram por causa de motivos humanos e justificativas superficiais. Neither the leaders nor the followers have stood united in the very Mystical Body of Christ to fight, if necessary, for the restoration of any faulty direction or corruption of the other fellow members of the one Body. Nem os dirigentes, nem os seguidores estiveram unidos no Corpo Místico de Cristo muito de lutar, se necessário, para a restauração de qualquer defeito na direção ou a corrupção dos membros outros colegas do Corpo. Instead they left and are disunited, constituting what they believe to be a "new" faith. Em vez disso, são desunidos e esquerda, constituindo o que eles acreditam ser uma "nova" fé. But from such new groups others have left also for a more "pure" faith, and so on. Mas a partir de tais grupos de novos outros têm deixado também para uma maior fé "pura", e assim por diante.

All the churches of Christ today first must return to the Truths of the Undivided Church, the Ecumenical Church, with humbleness and repentance to restore the pure faith - "the unity of faith"; without a rigid conformity as far as customs and rites are concerned. Todas as igrejas de Cristo hoje primeiro deve retornar para as verdades da Igreja indivisa, a Igreja Ecumênica, com humildade e arrependimento para restaurar a fé pura - "a unidade da fé", sem uma conformidade rígida na medida em que costumes e ritos estão preocupados .

The first five centuries of the Christian era was the period during which the foundation of the Church was established by the blood of its martyrs and the teaching and works of its great Fathers. Os cinco primeiros séculos da era cristã, foi o período durante o qual a fundação da Igreja foi estabelecida pelo sangue de seus mártires e os ensinamentos e obras de suas grandes Padres. By the end of the 10th century the separation of the One Church took place because of the human weakness of the Church leaders in the administration and customs rather than from its disagreement over the redemptive Truths of the Church. Até o final do século 10 a separação da Igreja teve lugar por causa da fraqueza humana dos líderes da Igreja na administração e costumes, e não de seu desacordo sobre o redentor Verdades da Igreja. By the end of the 15th century the movement began against the discrepancies of the current leaders of the Western Church, but it went far beyond the anticipations of its leaders. Até o final do século 15, o movimento começou contra as discrepâncias dos líderes atuais da Igreja ocidental, mas foi muito além das antecipações dos seus dirigentes. Can we hope that at least by the close of the 20th century we will complete the Hegelian trilogy of synthesis, ie the unity of all churches? Podemos esperar que pelo menos até o final do século 20, vamos completar a trilogia hegeliana de síntese, ou seja, a unidade de todas as igrejas? For the Church of Christ was meant to be one: Para a Igreja de Cristo era para ser um:

"There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of us all, who is above all and in all" (Eph. 4:5-6). "Há um só corpo e um só Espírito, como também fostes chamados a uma só esperança da vossa vocação, um só Senhor, uma só fé, um só batismo, um só Deus e Pai de todos, que está acima de tudo e em todos" ( Ef. 4:5-6).

We pray and we hope. Nós oramos e esperamos.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America Arquidiocese Ortodoxa Grega da América

(Editor's Note: Other branches of the Orthodox Church hold differing views on many of these issues. In some cases, they even consider the date of the Great Schism to not be 1054 AD but 1204 AD when the Catholic Crusades sacked Constantinople.) (Nota do Editor: Outros ramos da Igreja Ortodoxa têm opiniões diferentes sobre muitas destas questões Em alguns casos, eles ainda consideram a data do Grande Cisma de não ser 1054, mas 1204 dC, quando os católicos Cruzadas saqueou Constantinopla.).



This subject presentation in the original English language Это при условии представления в первоначальном английском языке


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at Основная ВЕРИТ веб-странице (и индекс к темам) находится на