Translating the Bible Перевод Библии

General Information Общие сведения

Figuring Out a Bible Translation Граблей из Библии Перевод

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT). Люди иногда удивляются, почему существуют различные "Версии" или "Переводы" из Библии. В конце концов, все многочисленные английском языке Библии версии переведены с того же исходного текста, который по-гречески (NT), и Древний иврит (OT ). Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right? Если не очень умные люди смогут понять, как перевести-то точно правда? Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved? Особенно то, как важно, как в Библии, где многие тысячи людей, которые были причастны?

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Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that. Ну, проблема оказывается немного сложнее, чем это. First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete. Во-первых, многие из источника артефактов, которые мы не закончены. At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared. В какой-то момент в истории, прогноз погоды или вандализма или войны, или просто возраст вызвало некоторые части документов, исчезли. Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way. Далее, даже если существует несколько тысяч существующих (частичное) исходные документы, раз в какое-то время, в одном из этих источников документов (которые фактически писарь-скопированные ранее копии документов), одну букву иногда каким-то образом получает неверную скопирована некоторыми писарь на этом пути. After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error! В конце концов, к моменту, что писарь сделал наш исходный документ примерно тысячу лет тому назад (примерно столько же лет, так как большинство существующих документов, на самом деле являются), о том, что документ представляет собой писарь-копию ранее писарь-копию ранее писарь виде, и т.д. . Все эти книжники были, как тщательно, как людей, которые способны, и большинство из них действительно считают, что они будут высланы в ад, если они еще одного копирования ошибка! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters. Но Библия содержит около 800000 слов и примерно три миллиона символов. Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts. Очень внимательно сопоставить тысяч различных писарь экземпляров, которые все еще существуют, нашли какой-нибудь очень незначительных ошибок при копировании некоторые из существующих экземпляров ранее оригинал рукописи. None of them have changed any significant wording or belief. Никто из них не имеют какого-либо существенного изменили формулировку или убеждений.

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today. В дополнение к этому, фактический путь в Библии используется для записи совершенно другое из того, как мы читаем сегодня. To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go. Чтобы дать вам "вкус" от проблемы, мы представляем Бытие 1 IN ENGLISH здесь, в определенной исторической форматов, работает наш путь назад во времени, как мы идем. Of course, the original source documents were not in English. Конечно, подлинные документы, не были на английском языке. Many (over 5,000) are in Greek. Многие (более 5000 человек) находятся в греческий. Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD). Другие (более 10000) являются Латинской экземпляров этого Vulgate Библии (около 400 н.э.). A lesser number are in a variety of other languages. А меньшее их число в ряде других языков.

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then. Греческое документы имеют особо важное значение, отчасти потому, что была на языке оригинала Нового Завета рукописей, так что не было минимальным возможность ошибок из языка перевода тогда. Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents. Наши мысли ниже, основаны на думать о тех, греческий язык источника документов.


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following: Прежде чем о 1560 AD и Genevan Нового Завета, Библии Писание не делится на стихи. Бытия 1, тогда как (на английском языке) в основном вроде следующего:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. В начале сотворил Бог небо и землю. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. И Земля же была безвидна и пуста, и тьма была на лице глубокую. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. И Дух Божий движущаяся по поверхности вод. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. И сказал Бог: да будет свет, и стал свет. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. И увидел Бог свет, что он хорош, и отделил Бог свет от тьмы. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. И назвал Бог свет днем, а тьму ночью. And the evening and the morning were the first day. И был вечер, и было утро: день. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. И сказал Бог: да будет твердь посреди воды, и да отделяет она воду от воды. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. И создал Бог твердь, и отделил воду, которая под твердью, от воды, которая над твердью, и это было так. And God called the firmament Heaven. И назвал Бог твердь Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. И был вечер, и было утро: день второй. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. И сказал Бог: да произведет вода под небом быть собраны до одного места, и да явится суша, и стало так. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. И назвал Бог сушу землею, а собрание вод назвал морями, и увидел Бог, что это хорошо. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. И сказал Бог: да произведет земля родить трава, на траве приносит семян и плодов дерево приносит плоды по роду их, в котором семя, сам по себе, на земле, и стало так. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. И землю вывел зелень, траву, дающие семя по роду ее, и дерево приносит плод, в котором семя само по себе, по роду их, и увидел Бог, что это хорошо. And the evening and the morning were the third day. И был вечер, и было утро: день третий. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. И сказал Бог: да будет свет на тверди небесной, чтобы разделить день от ночи, и да будут они знаками, и для сезонов, и за те дни, и годы: И да будут они светильниками на тверди небесной, чтобы светить на землю, и стало так. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. И создал Бог два великих огня, тем больше света, для управления днем, и светило меньшее, для управления ночью: он сделал и звезды. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good. И поставил их Бог на тверди небесной, чтобы светить на землю, и управлять днем и ночью, и отделять свет от тьмы: И увидел Бог, что [он] хорошо. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. И был вечер, и было утро: день четвертый. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. И сказал Бог: да произведет вода пресмыкающихся, указанных в изобилии движущиеся существо, что Бог жизни, и птицы да полетят над землею, по тверди небесной. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. И сотворил Бог большие киты, и каждое живое существо, что движется, в котором воды вывел обильно, после их рода, и всякую птицу пернатую по роду ее, и увидел Бог, что это хорошо. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. И благословил их Бог, говоря: плодитесь и размножайтесь, и наполняйте воды в морях, и птицы да размножаются на земле. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. И был вечер, и было утро: день пятый. And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. И сказал Бог: да произведет земля родить живого существа по роду ее, скотов, и гадов, и зверей земных по роду их: и стало так. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. И создал Бог зверей земных по роду их, и скот после их натуре, и всех гадов земных по роду их, и увидел Бог, что это хорошо. And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. И сказал Бог: сотворим человека по нашему изображение, afterour подобию, и пусть они имеют власть над рыбами морскими, и над птицами в воздухе, и над скотом, и над всею землею, и над всеми ползучего гадов на земле. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. И сотворил Бог человека по образу Своему, по образу Божию сотворил его, мужчину и женщину сотворил их. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. И благословил их Бог, и Бог сказал им: плодитесь и размножайтесь, и наполняйте землю, и сломить его, и имеют власть над рыбами морскими, и над птицами в воздухе, и над всяким животным, то, что движется на земле. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. И сказал Бог: вот, Я дал вам всю траву принимая семя, какая есть на свете всей земле, и всякое дерево, у которого плод древесный, уступая семян; вам сие будет в пищу. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. И каждому зверю на земле, и все птицы небесные, и всех гадов на земле, на которой есть жизнь, я дал все зеленые травы для мяса: И стало так. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good. И увидел Бог все, что Он создал, и вот, [он] очень хорошо. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. И был вечер, и было утро: день шестой.


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered. Это довольно легко читать и понимать, хотя и не очень значительно, как в нашей современной библии с стихи разделены и пронумерованы.


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: Ранее, чем о том, что греческая тексты писались без пробелов и разрывов между словами, а не знаки препинания. Так, например, тот же Бытие 1 будет выглядеть весьма отличается от указанного выше:
InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK. ОК. That's still somewhat easy to figure out. Вот еще несколько легко выяснить. But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following: Но еще ранее, в греческой рукописи были написаны без различия верхней и нижней случаев, так что наш пример текст будет отображаться следующим образом:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday

When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives. Когда мы вернемся примерно до девятого века нашей эры этот греческий текст был написан в scriptio континуумов называется MINUSCULE ПИСЬМЕННОЙ или Cursives. This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected. Это был текст, не только unspaced но написано в руки сценарий, где все буквы были подключены. The appearance of our example text would now look more like: Появление в нашем примере текст будет теперь больше похожи:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era. Этот текст могут быть представлены в любом греческий или латинский в эту эпоху. We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script: Мы могли бы, а посмотреть на то, что такого рода ситуация будет похожа на греческом языке, за исключением мы не иметь в своем распоряжении компьютер шрифта, которые могут представлять подключен греческий сценарий:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels! До около 900 АО, в основном все тексты, в большинстве языков, по-видимому, написана с только согласные представлены все без учета какой-либо из гласных! So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!: Так что рассмотреть этот же текст, сначала на английском языке, а затем по-гречески!:

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then? Имейте в виду, что это первое на самом деле на русском языке! Не могли бы вы изучили его и даже читать тогда? Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words. Поскольку вы знаете, большая часть формулировки, можно выделить некоторые знакомые слова. But could you fully understand everything presented here? Но можно полностью понять все представленные здесь? Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording. Выберите случайные пятно в середине этого текста и посмотреть, если вы можете узнать в редакции. Find the part where God Created mankind! Найти ту часть, где Бог Создана человечества! (It is about ten lines up from the end). (Речь идет о десяти строк вверх от конца). THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves. ЧТО это единственная форма библейских текстов, которая была доступна любому, до около 900 н.э., а в целом было доступно лишь церквей, и практически никогда не отдельным лицам, если они не разрешается копировать его сами.

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The same in Greek: То же самое по-гречески:

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This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible. Это только Бытие 1, ничтожную часть Библии. Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error? Представьте, что вы стали Монах отвечает именно для копирования около 300 раз это много текста (вся Библия), в том, что связано (на английском языке) скрипт формат выше, вручную, один символ за раз, ты УВЕРЕН, что весь свой экземпляр будет абсолютно бесплатно даже для одного прав ошибку?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors! Она действительно является выдающимся достижением на многие сотни Скрибес которые скопировать всю Библию, что они взяли astoundingly несколько копирование ошибок! (We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (Мы знаем, что там было несколько, и сейчас мы знаем, где они были, потому что тысячи существующих экземпляров этих Скрибе письменного рукописи были тщательно сравнению, чтобы убедиться, и когда у них какие-либо крошечные различия.

An Experiment В эксперимент

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can. Если вы часть Библии Исследовательская группа или какое-либо другое христианской Малые группы, то почему бы не попробовать скопировать только стороны этого Бытия 1 (а не греческий текст, но сценарий в стиле непрерывного английский текст без гласных), как тщательно, как вы можете. Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy. Затем дать ВАША копию другой член группы для копирования. Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group. Затем, ЧТО копия будет уделено третьему лицу, и так далее, через Группу. Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy. После того как все копируется их источник текст максимально точно, вы бы, наконец, получить обратно окончательный экземпляр. As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original. До тех пор, как все вы проделали идеальную работу, что могут читать друг другу руки и копирования, что окончательный экземпляр должен идти точно, как оригинал. But it will probably have at least a few minor variations. Но она, вероятно, по крайней мере, несколько незначительных изменений. Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear. Даже если каждый из вас copyists знакомы с Бытия рассказ, и, хотя каждый из вас был чрезвычайно осторожны, мелкие ошибки неизбежно будут появляться. Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries. Такой эксперимент, несомненно, увеличивает свое уважение многочисленных анонимных Скрибес том, что копируется в Библии в течение многих веков.

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied. Ситуация с Библией и ее обширных размеров, как он хотел бы вызвали массовые прав ошибки, на протяжении столетий из-за масштаба этой задачи и формат, который в настоящее время копирования. It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts. Это действительно свидетельствует о том, как невероятно осторожны с copyists все, что там было, как несколько (незначительных) ошибок, которые содержатся в нескольких рукописей. Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations. К счастью для нас, существует так много источник рукописей, которые существуют, что некоторые изменения, которые были найдены были проверены все документы, и ученые в настоящее время чрезвычайно уверены в точности современных переводов.

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew. В качестве дополнительного элемента подумать, многие начале Ветхого Завета источник рукописи написаны на иврите. Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels. Перед около 900 н.э., иврит была также написана без гласных. Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless? Можете ли вы представить себе возможности того, что может произойти, если copyists были даже слегка небрежно? By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later. Кстати, это тесно связано с YHWH, имя Аллаха, став Yahowah или Иегова (или Яхве), когда гласные от Адонаи (другое название древнего Бога), были включены в YHWH много веков спустя.

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made. Это обсуждение было представлено так что можно лучше оценить удивительные усилия, предпринимаемые многие copyists из Библии рукописей на протяжении столетий, а также в том, что задача Библии переводчики сталкиваются в обеспечение того, чтобы они имеют абсолютно наиболее точный перевод, который может быть достигнут . It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello ! Это не совсем легко, как в претворении в Буэнос Диас Здравствуйте! (even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!) (несмотря на то, что фраза может в равной степени означать прощание!)

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars). Наконец, мы здесь действительно только рассматривает здесь трудности совершенства копирование (для Скрибес), и в подтверждении факта совершенной точности (по Библии ученые). There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job. Существует еще один уровень сложности в переводчиков работу. Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other. Многие древние слова имеет несколько различных значений, часто очень отличаются друг от друга. We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation . Мы создали отдельное представление мало, чтобы дать вам вкус этот аспект проблемы, на Литерал Переводы.


Also, see: Также см.:
Romanized Bible Text Латинизированной Библии текст
Transliteration of Hebrew Транслитерация иврита
Literal Translation Литерал Перевод
Septuagint and early Manuscripts Septuagint и начале рукописей
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters. А Тщательная Презентация еврейской Бытие 1 текст, который показан на иврите символов.

This subject presentation in the original English language Это при условии представления в первоначальном английском языке


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