Councils of Constantinople Советы Константинополя

General Information Общие сведения

The councils of Constantinople were four ecumenical Councils of the Christian church, held between the 4th and the 9th centuries. Советы Константинополя четыре экуменических советов христианской церкви, которая состоялась между 4 и 9 веков. Constantinople I was called in 381 by Theodosius I, then Roman emperor of the East, primarily to confront ARIANISM, the heresy that had been subdued only temporarily by the First Council of Nicaea (325). Константинополь Я открывается в 381 на Феодосий I, а затем римского императора Востока, в первую очередь противостоять ARIANISM, в ереси, которые были в подчинении только временно на первом Совете Никее (325). More than 150 bishops, all from the Eastern empire, met to reaffirm the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and to depose Maximus, the Arian patriarch of Constantinople. Более 150 епископов, все из восточной империи, собрались, чтобы подтвердить доктрины в Никео веры и свержение "Максимус", то Ариан патриарх Константинопольский. They also condemned Apollinarianism, a position that denied the full humanity of Christ. Они также осудили Apollinarianism, позицию о том, что отказано в полной человечности Христа. The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit as proceeding from God the Father, coequal and consubstantial with him. Совет определил позицию Святого Духа, в Троице; она описывает Святой Дух, как исходя от Бога Отца, и Единосущной coequal с ним. It also confirmed the position of the patriarch of Constantinople as second in dignity only to the bishop of Rome. Он также подтвердил позицию патриарх Константинополя, как второй в достоинстве только епископ Рима.

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Constantinople II was convoked by Justinian I in 553, to condemn the Nestorian writings called the "Three Chapters." Константинополь II был созываться Юстиниан я в 553, для того, чтобы осудить несторианского автор назвал "Три главы". Under the virtual tutelage of the emperor, the council proscribed Nestorianism and reconfirmed the doctrine that Christ's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person. Под опекой виртуального императора, совет запрещенных Nestorianism и подтвердили, что учение Христа две сущности, одного человека и одной божественной, являются абсолютно едины в одном лице. Pope Vigilius at first defended the Three Chapters, but later accepted the council's ruling. Папа Vigilius на первый защищал три главы, однако позднее согласился с решением совета.

Constantinople III was summoned by Constantine IV in 680-81 with the consent of Pope Agatho. Константинополь III был вызван Константин IV в 680-81 с согласия Агафон. It condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Christ has two wills, one human and one divine, but that these are without division or confusion. Он осудил Monothelitism и подтвердила, что Христос имеет две воли, одного человека и одной божественной, но и о том, что они без разделения или путаницы. In addition, it condemned an earlier pope, Honorius I, for supporting that heresy. Кроме того, он осудил ранее попе, Гонорий I, за поддержку этой ереси.

Constantinople IV, meeting in 869-70, made no new dogmatic decisions; instead, it greatly contributed to the growing split between the Eastern and Western churches. Константинопольский IV, собравшиеся в 869-70, сделал никаких новых догматических решений; напротив, он в значительной степени способствовал растущий раскол между Восточной и Западной церкви. The principal action was to depose Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, for usurping his ecclesiastical position. Основные действия заключается в том, чтобы свергнуть Photius, патриарх Константинопольский, для узурпации его церковной позиции. Later, Photius was restored to his see, and he held another council in 879-80. Позже, Photius было возвращено его видеть, и он провел еще один совет 879-80. This latter council, not that of 869, is considered ecumenical by the Orthodox church. Этот последний совет, не в том, что из 869, считаются экуменические со стороны православной церкви.

T. Tackett Т. Такетт


Council of Constantinople Совет Константинополя

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(381)

The gathering in Constantinople of 150 Eastern bishops at the request of the Emperor Theodosius I was later regarded by the Council of Chalcedon (451) as the second great ecumenical council of the church. Сбор в Константинополе в 150 Восточной епископов по просьбе император Феодосий I был позднее мнению Халкидонский (451), как уже второй экуменического совета церкви. Most importantly it marked the end of over fifty years of Arian political and theological dominance in the East and the restoration and pneumatological extension of Nicene orthodoxy. Самое главное это ознаменовало окончание более пятидесяти лет Ариан политического и теологического господство на Востоке и на восстановление и продление pneumatological Никео ортодоксальности.

The path of history from Nicaea to Constantinople is twisted with various political and theological figures and several theological and synodal skirmishes between Arianism and orthodoxy. Путь истории из Никее в Константинополь является витая с различными политическими и теологических деятелей и ряд богословских и синодального столкновения между арианскую ересь и ортодоксальностью. The varied array of heresies that emerged during this period is given in the council's first canon, where they are also anathematized. Разнообразный спектр ереси, которые возникли в течение этого периода приводится в совете первый канон, где они также anathematized. A brief examination of these will set the theological context. Краткий анализ этих установит богословского контекста.

Semi-Arians Полулюкс Арианс

This name was applied to those who tried to steer a middle course between Nicene orthodoxy and Arianism. Это название применяется к тем, кто пытался руководить средний курс между Никео ортодоксальности и арианскую ересь. Too sensitive to Sabellian implications and the biblical absence of the term homoousion to fully embrace Nicaea and recoiling from blatant Arian characterizations of the Son as a creature, they took refuge in the term homoiousion. Очень чувствительны к Sabellian последствий и библейской отсутствие термина homoousion полностью принять Никейский и recoiling с грубым Ариан характеризации Сына, как существо, они укрылись в перспективе homoiousion. By this they taught that the Son was like (homoios) the Father but not necessarily the same in essence. К этому их учили, что Сын был похож (homoios) Отцу, но не обязательно же по существу. This ambiguous position was held by many who were very close to orthodoxy, eg, Cyril of Jerusalem, as well as those who were more of an Arian disposition, eg, Basil of Ancyra. Это двусмысленной позиции состоялась многих, которые были очень близки к ортодоксальности, к примеру, Кирилл Иерусалимский, а также те, кто в большей степени Ариан распоряжения, например, Василия Ancyra. Due to the efforts of Athanasius and Hilary of Poitiers many of this party were reconciled to orthodoxy, especially as more radical Arian positions developed. Благодаря усилиям Афанасия и Хилари Пуатье многие из этой партии были выверены для православных, в особенности, как более радикальные позиции развитых Ариана.

Pneumatomachians

In the post-Nicene period attention was turned to the Holy Spirit and his relation to the discussions on the Father and the Son. В постколониальный период Никео внимание обратились к Святому Духу и его связи с обсуждения Отца и Сына. About 360, Athanasius wrote to correct an Egyptian heresy advocated by the Tropici in which the Spirit was taught to have been created out of nothing. О 360, Афанасия писал исправить египетских ересь выступала на Tropici, в котором Дух учили, были созданы из ничего. Athanasius maintained instead the deity of the Spirit and his homoousia with the Father and the Son. Афанасия сохранить вместо этого божество Духа, и его homoousia с Отцом и Сыном. After this the pneumatomachians (literally "Spirit-fighters") appeared within the homoiousion party. После этого pneumatomachians (буквально "Дух-бойцов"), как в рамках homoiousion партии. Led by Eustathius of Sebaste (after 373), they tried to assert a nondivine, noncreaturely, intermediate status for the Spirit, even after affirming the homoousia of the Son. Возглавляемые Eustathius из Sebaste (после 373), они пытались отстаивать nondivine, noncreaturely, промежуточного статуса Духа, даже после утверждения homoousia от Сына. They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Son. Они были возражения со стороны Cappadocians, который преподается в полном божество и homoousia от Сына. They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Spirit both implicity (as in Basil, On the Holy Spirit) and explicitly (as in Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 31). Они были возражения со стороны Cappadocians, который преподается в полном божество и homoousia Святого Духа как implicity (как в Василия, на Святого Духа), и прямо (как в Григорий Nazianzus, Орацин 31). It is this Cappadocian (and Athanasian) theology which prevailed at the Council of Constantinople. Именно эта Cappadocian (и Athanasian) теологии, которая существовала при Совете Константинополь.

Eunomians or Anomoians Eunomians или Anomoians

Founded by Aetius of Antioch and led by Eunomius of Cyzicus at the time of the council, these held the radical Arian position which refused any compromise with orthodoxy. Основана Aetius Антиохии и возглавляемая Eunomius из Сизикус во время совета, эти проведены радикальные Ариан позиции, которые отказываются любой компромисс с ортодоксальностью. They taught a Neoplatonic hierarchy of three beings which were in essence utterly unlike (anomoios) each other, though possessing relative divinity (thus confirming the charge of polytheism). Они учили один Neoplatonic иерархии трех существ, которые были по сути совершенно в отличие от (anomoios) друг с другом, хотя и обладающие относительной Божества (тем самым подтвердив обвинения в polytheism).

Eudoxians

These held a classical Arian position particularly advocated at the time of the council by the followers of Eudoxius, former bishop of Antioch (358) and Constantinople (360). Они провели классическую Ариан позиции выступает особенно во время совета со стороны последователей Eudoxius, бывшего епископа Антиохийского (358) и Константинопольским (360). He was known for the jest: "The Father is impious (since he worships no one), but the Son is pious (since he worships the Father)." Он был известен за шутку: "Отец имеет нечестивыми (поскольку он поклоняется не один), но Сын является благим (поскольку он поклоняется Отцу)".

Sabellians, Marcellians, and Photinians Sabellians, Marcellians и Photinians

Since the Arians vigorously insisted that the homoousion logically reduced to Sabellianism, it was necessary for the council to repudiate this heresy. Поскольку Арианс решительно настаивали на том, что homoousion логически сводится к Sabellianism необходимо, чтобы совет отказаться от этой ереси. One who actually came close to espousing it was Marcellus of Ancyra, who resisted the Cappadocian Trinitarian development in which three hypostases were distinguished while maintaining one ousia. Один, кто действительно приблизились к проповедующие было Маркел из Ancyra, кто противостоял Cappadocian тринитариев развития, в ходе которого три hypostases отличались сохраняя один ousia. Marcellus preferred to speak of the expansion of an indivisible Monad (God) which resulted in the externalization of the (until then) immanently existing Logos (the Son) at the time of incarnation, with an expected future contraction of the Logos back into the Monad. Маркел предпочитают говорить о расширении неотделимой Монада (Бог), которые привели к внешнее управление (до этого) immanently существующих Логос (Сына) на момент воплощении, в будущем, как ожидается, образовано из Логотипы обратно в Монада . Although he was exonerated of the Sabellian label at Rome (341) and Sardica (343), Constantinople condemned his deviant views. Хотя он и был освобожден из Sabellian ярлык в Риме (341) и Sardica (343), Константинополь осудил его аномального мнения. Photinus of Sirmium, a pupil of Marcellus, developed his teacher's views into an adoptionist Christology and was condemned for the heresy of Paul of Samosata at various councils. Photinus из Срема, ученик Маркел, разработанный его учителем мнения в adoptionist Christology и был осужден за ересь Павла из Samosata на различных советов.

Apollinarians

Constantinople brought a final condemnation on this Christological heresy which originated within the Nicene camp. Константинополь приняли окончательного осуждения по этому Christological ересь, возникшую в Никео лагерь. A former friend of Athanasius, Apollinarius of Laodicea zealously advocated the deity of the Logos and upheld the homoousion. Бывший друг Афанасия, Apollinarius из Laodicea рьяно выступает за божество из Логотипы и отстаивал homoousion. However, in his concern to avoid the dualistic personality of an adoptionistic Christology, he capitulated to the Arian error in which the Logos completely replaced the human soul and mind in the incarnate Christ. Однако, по его озабоченность, чтобы избежать дуалистической личность в adoptionistic Christology, он капитулировала к Ариан ошибка, в которой Логотипы полностью заменены человеческой души и разума в олицетворением Христа. For this deficient humanity he was opposed reluctantly by Athanasius and vigorously by the Cappadocians. Для этого недостаточно человечности, он выступает против неохотно на Афанасия и энергично на Cappadocians.

The theology of the Council of Constantinople is set forth first by the condemnation of these heresies. В теологии Совета Константинополя, изложена сначала осуждение этих ереси. More positively, it was expressed in a published statement of doctrine, a tomos, and the creed of the council. Более положительно, она была выражена в опубликованном заявлении доктрине, tomos, и веры в совете. Unfortunately, the tomos is no longer extant except for what is reflected of it in the letter of the synod of 382. К сожалению, tomos больше не сохранились, за исключением того, что находит отражение в его письме в Синод из 382. The creed is to be found not in the records of Constantinople, but in those of the Council of Chalcedon (451), where a creed attributed to Constantinople (C) was read along with the Nicene Creed (N). C happens to be the creed that is read in churches today under the title the Nicene Creed, but it is more appropriately known as the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. Without recounting the scholarly debates on C, it seems most likely that it was a local form of N, adopted by Constantinople and amended to reflect the council's pneumatology. В вероисповедания должно быть найдено не в отчетах Константинополь, а в тех из Халкидонский (451), где вероисповедания объяснить Константинополь (C) был идти вместе с Никейский символ веры (N). С происходит, как вероисповедания, что читается в церкви сегодня под названием Никейский Символ веры, но это более уместно известное как Niceno-Constantinopolitan веры. Без пересчета на научные дебаты о С, кажется наиболее вероятным, что речь идет о местных форме N, принятой Константинополь и поправки с учетом совета pneumatology. Thus the Council of Constantinople did not see itself as producing a new creed but rather reaffirming and upholding the faith of Nicaea. Таким образом, Совет Константинополя не видит себя как производство новой веры, а подтверждения и укрепления веры в Никее. At Chalcedon, however, concern for the pure form of N led them to distinguish between N and C. На Халкидон, однако, интерес к чистой форме Н заставила их различия между Н и С.

The pneumatological emendation of the Nicene faith followed the example of Basil by limiting itself to biblical words and phrases. В pneumatological emendation в Никео вере последовали примеру Василия, ограничивая себя в библейских слов и фраз. The Spirit is confessed to be the "Lord" and "Life-giver," the one "who with the Father and the Son is together worshiped and together glorified." Дух является признался, что это "Лорд" и "Жизнь-давателя," одно ", которые с Отцом и Сыном вместе поклонялись, и вместе прославляли". The homoousia of the Spirit is not explicitly affirmed here, probably because of a last-minute attempt to reconcile the pneumatomachians. В homoousia от Духа есть прямо не подтвердил, здесь, вероятно, потому, что в последнюю минуту попытки примирить pneumatomachians. However, the homoousion apparently was affirmed in the tomos, since the letter of the synod of 382 summarizes the council's doctrine as faith in the uncreated, consubstantial, and coeternal trinity. Однако, по всей видимости, homoousion было подтверждено в tomos, поскольку письмо в Синод из 382 резюме совет доктрина, как вера в uncreated, Единосущной, и coeternal троица.

Besides the reaffirmation of Nicene orthodoxy, this developed pneumatology, which made possible a full Trinitarian doctrine for the East, was the most important contribution of the Council of Constantinople. Помимо подтверждения Никео ортодоксальности, это развитые pneumatology, которая сделала возможным полное тринитариев доктрины Востока, является наиболее важным вкладом Совета Константинополя.

CA Blaising CA Блайсинг
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Елвелл евангельских Dictionary)

Bibliography Библиография
"Canons of the One Hundred and Fifty Fathers," The Seven Ecumenical Councils, NPNF; HM Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism; JND Kelly, Early Christian Creeds and Early Christian Doctrines; CE Raven, Apollinarianism; R. Seeberg, The Textbook of the History of Doctrines; J. Taylor, "The First Council of Constantinople (381)," Pru 13:47-54, 91-97; WP DuBose, The Ecumenical Councils. "Канонс из Сто и пятьдесят отцов," Семь Вселенских Соборов, NPNF; ТМ Гваткин, исследований арианскую ересь; JND Kelly, раннего христианского Креедс и древней христианской доктрины; СЕ Raven, Apollinarianism; Р. Сиберг, В учебнике по истории от доктрины; J. Тейлор, "Первый Константинопольский собор (381)," Пру 13:47-54, 91-97; РГ DuBose, The Вселенских Соборов.


First Council of Constantinople - 381 AD Во-первых Совета Константинополя - 381 н.э.

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CONTENTS СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

INTRODUCTION ВВЕДЕНИЕ

In the year 380 the emperors Gratian and Theodosius I decided to convoke this council to counter the Arians, and also to judge the case of Maximus the Cynic, bishop of Constantinople. В 380 году императорами Gratian Феодосий, и я решил созвать этот совет по борьбе с Арианс, а также вынести решение по делу о "Максимус" в Cynic, епископ Константинополя. The council met in May of the following year. Совет встречался в мае следующего года. One hundred and fifty bishops took part, all of them eastern Orthodox, since the Pneumatomachi party had left at the start. Сто пятьдесят епископов приняли участие, и все их восточных православных, поскольку Pneumatomachi участник оставил в самом начале.

After Maximus had been condemned, Meletius, bishop of Antioch, appointed Gregory of Nazianzus as the lawful bishop of Constantinople and at first presided over the council. После Максимус был осужден, Мелетий, епископ Антиохии, назначен Григорий Nazianzus как законного епископа Константинополя, и на первый председательствовал в совете. Then on Meletius's sudden death, Gregory took charge of the council up to the arrival of Acholius, who was to table Pope Damasus's demands: namely, that Maximus should be expelled as an interloper, and that the translation of bishops should be avoided. Тогда Мелетий внезапной смерти, Григорий возглавил совет до прибытия Acholius, который должен был стол Дамасий требования: а именно, что "Максимус должен быть исключен в качестве interloper, и о том, что перевод епископов следует избегать. But when Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, arrived he declared Gregory's appointment invalid. Но когда Тимофей, епископ Александрии, прибыл он заявил Грегори назначение недействительными. Gregory resigned the episcopacy and Nectarius, after baptism and consecration, was installed as bishop and presided over the council until its closure. Григорий подал в отставку с episcopacy и Nectarius, после крещения и освящения, был установлен в качестве епископа и председателем совета до его закрытия.

No copy of the council's doctrinal decisions, entitled tomos kai anathematismos engraphos (record of the tome and anathemas), has survived. Нет копию этого совета доктринальных решения, озаглавленный tomos кай anathematismos engraphos (запись в книгу, и anathemas), выжила. So what is presented here is the synodical letter of the synod of Constantinople held in 382, which expounded these doctrinal decisions, as the fathers witness, in summary form: namely, along the lines defined by the council of Nicaea, the consubstantiality and coeternity of the three divine persons against the Sabellians, Anomoeans, Arians and Pneumatomachi, who thought that the divinity was divided into several natures; and the enanthropesis (taking of humanity) of the Word, against those who supposed that the Word had in no way taken a human soul. Так что, представленные здесь, в synodical письмо из синода в Константинополе, состоявшейся в 382, в котором изложены эти концептуальные решения, как отцы свидетеля, в кратком виде: а именно, по аналогии определяется Советом Никее, то consubstantiality и coeternity из трех божественных лиц, в отношении Sabellians, Anomoeans, Арианс и Pneumatomachi, которые считали, что Божество было разделено на несколько характер, и enanthropesis (принимая человечества) в Word, против тех, кто, что Слово было ни в коей мере не приняли человеческой души. All these matters were in close agreement with the tome that Pope Damasus and a Roman council, held probably in 378, had sent to the East. Все эти вопросы были в тесном согласии с книгу, что Дамасий и Роман совета, состоявшейся вероятно, в 378, был направлен на восток.

Scholars find difficulties with the creed attributed to the council of Constantinople. Ученые найти трудности с вероисповедания объяснить совете Константинополя. Some say that the council composed a new creed. Некоторые говорят о том, что совет, в состав новой веры. But no mention is made of this creed by ancient witnesses until the council of Chalcedon; and the council of Constantinople was said simply to have endorsed the faith of Nicaea, with a few additions on the holy Spirit to refute the Pneumatomachian heresy. Но ничего не говорится о настоящей веры древних свидетелей до тех пор, пока совет Халкидон, и совет Константинополя было сказано просто для того, чтобы иметь одобрил веры Никейский, с некоторыми добавлениями на Святаго Духа опровергнуть Pneumatomachian ересь. Moreover, if the latter tradition is accepted, an explanation must be given of why the first two articles of the so-called Constantinopolitan creed differ considerably from the Nicene creed. Кроме того, если последняя традиция принимается, объяснение должно быть, почему первых двух статей о так называемых Constantinopolitan вероисповедания отличаются от Никео вероисповедания.

It was J. Lebon, followed by JND Kelly and AM Ritter, who worked at the solution of this problem. Было J. Лебон, а затем JND Kelly и А. Риттера, который работал на решение этой проблемы. Lebon said that the Nicene creed, especially since it was adapted to use at baptism, had taken on a number of forms. Лебон говорит, что в Никео вероисповедания, в особенности, поскольку она была адаптирована для использования на крещение, взял на себя целый ряд форм. It was one of these which was endorsed at the council of Constantinople and developed by additions concerning the holy Spirit. Он был одним из них, которые были утверждены на совете Константинополя и разработаны дополнения, касающиеся Святаго Духа. All the forms, altered to some extent or other, were described by a common title as "the Nicene faith". Все формы, изменены в определенной степени или другие, были описаны в общей собственности как "Никео веры". Then the council of Chalcedon mentioned the council of Constantinople as the immediate source of one of them, marked it out by a special name "the faith of the 150 fathers", which from that time onwards became its widely known title, and quoted it alongside the original simple form of the Nicene creed. Тогда совет Халкидон упомянул о совете Константинополя, как незамедлительное источником одного из них, отмечены его со специальным именем "веры из 150 отцов", который с этого момента стал широко известен титул, и он вместе с цитируемый первоначальной простой форме в Никео вероисповедания. The Greek text of the Constantinopolitan creed, which is printed below, is taken from the acts of the council of Chalcedon. Греческий текст этого Constantinopolitan вероисповедания, в котором напечатан ниже, взяты из актов Совета Халкидон.

The council of Constantinople enacted four disciplinary canons: against the Arian heresy and its sects (can. 1), on limiting the power of bishops within fixed boundaries (can. 2), on ranking the see of Constantinople second to Rome in honour and dignity (can. 3), on the condemnation of Maximus and his followers (can. 4). Совет Константинополя приняли четыре дисциплинарных канонов: против Ариан ересь, и его разделы (can. 1), на ограничение власти епископов в установленных границах (can. 2), на ранжирования см. Константинополя второе Риме в честь и достоинство (can. 3), на осуждение "Максимус" и его последователей (can. 4). Canons 2-4 were intended to put a stop to aggrandisement on the part of the see of Alexandria. Канонс 2-4 были, чтобы положить конец aggrandisement со стороны Совета см. в Александрии. The two following canons, 5 and 6, were framed at the synod which met in Constantinople in 382. Две следующие канонам, 5 и 6, были рамку на Синод, которые встретились в Константинополе в 382. The 7th canon is an extract from a letter which the church of Constantinople sent to Martyrius of Antioch. В 7th канон приводится выдержка из письма, которое церковь Константинополя направлен Martyrius Антиохии.

The council ended on 9 July 381, and on 30 July of the same year, at the request of the council fathers, the emperor Theodosius ratified its decrees by edict . Совет закончился 9 июля 381, а 30 июля того же года по просьбе Совета отцов, то император Феодосий ратифицировали его указы по указ.

Already from 382 onwards, in the synodical letter of the synod which met at Constantinople, the council of Constantinople was given the title of "ecumenical". Уже с 382 года, в synodical письмо в Синод, которые встретились в Константинополе, совет Константинополя было присвоено звание "экуменической". The word denotes a general and plenary council. Слово обозначает общие и пленарных совета. But the council of Constantinople was criticised and censured by Gregory of Nazianzus. Но совет Константинополя было подвергнуто критике и осуждению на Григорий Nazianzus. In subsequent years it was hardly ever mentioned. В последующие годы она вряд ли когда-либо говорил. In the end it achieved its special status when the council of Chalcedon, at its second session and in its definition of the faith, linked the form of the creed read out at Constantinople with the Nicene form, as being a completely reliable witness of the authentic faith. В конце концов она достигла своего особого статуса, когда совет Халкидон, на его второй сессии, и в нем определение веры, связаны с формой на вероисповедания зачитал на Константинополь с Никео форме, как абсолютно надежных свидетелей из аутентичных веры. The fathers of Chalcedon acknowledged the authority of the canons -- at least as far as the eastern church was concerned -- at their sixteenth session. В отцы Халкидон признал авторитет канонов - по крайней мере в восточной церкви обеспокоена - на их шестнадцатой сессии. The council's dogmatic authority in the western church was made clear by words of Pope Gregory I: "I confess that I accept and venerate the four councils (Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon) in the same way as I do the four books of the holy Gospel...." Совет в догматической власти в западной церкви было ясно словами папы Григория I: "Я признаться, что я принимаю и venerate четырех советов (Никее, Константинополе, Эфес и Халкидон), в то же время, как я делаю четыре книги из святом Евангелии ...."

The bishop of Rome's approval was not extended to the canons, because they were never brought "to the knowledge of the apostolic see''. Dionysius Exiguus knew only of the first four -- the ones to be found in the western collections. Pope Nicholas I wrote of the sixth canon to Emperor Michael III: "It is not found among us, but is said to be in force among you''. Епископ Рима утверждение не распространяется на каноны, потому что они никогда не были доведены ", чтобы знания о апостольской см.''. Дионисий Ексигуус знал только первые четыре - те, которые содержатся в западных коллекций. Папы Николая Я писал о работе шестой канон для императора Михаила III: "Это не найдены среди нас, но, по сообщениям, в силу между вами''.

The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version. Английский перевод с греческого текста, который является наиболее авторитетной версии.

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The exposition of the 150 fathers Экспозиция из 150 отцов

We believe in one God the Father all-powerful, maker of heaven and of earth, and of all things both seen and unseen. Мы верим в одного Бога и Отца всех могущественных, создатель неба и земли, и все, как видел и незаметно. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten from the Father before all the ages, light from light, true God from true God, begotten not made, consubstantial with the Father, through whom all things came to be; for us humans and for our salvation he came down from the heavens and became incarnate from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, became human and was crucified on our behalf under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried and rose up on the third day in accordance with the scriptures; and he went up into the heavens and is seated at the Father's right hand; he is coming again with glory to judge the living and the dead; his kingdom will have no end. И в один Господь Иисус Христос,-только Сын Божий, begotten от Отца прежде всех веков, свет от света, истинного Бога от истинного Бога, begotten не производится, Единосущной с Отцом, через которого все пришли к быть ; для нас людей и для нашего спасения Он сошел с небес и стал олицетворением от Святаго Духа, и девы Марии, стало человека, и был распят от нашего имени в соответствии Понтий Пилат, он страдал и был погребен и воскрес на третий день , в соответствии с писаниями, и он взошел на небо и сидит на отца правую руку, он подходит раз в славе судить живых и мертвых, царство его не будет иметь конца. And in the Spirit, the holy, the lordly and life-giving one, proceeding forth from the Father, co-worshipped and co-glorified with Father and Son, the one who spoke through the prophets; in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church. И в Духа, святой, то барского и живительной один, исходя из указанных Отца, совместное поклонялись и совместно с прославляли Отца, и Сына, тот, кто говорит через пророков, а в один, святой, католической и апостольской церкви. We confess one baptism for the forgiving of sins. Мы признаем одно крещение для прощать грехи. We look forward to a resurrection of the dead and life in the age to come. Мы рассчитываем на воскресение мертвых и жизни в возрасте приехать. Amen. Аминь.

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A letter of the bishops gathered in Constantinople [1] В письме епископы собрались в Константинополе, [1]

To the most honoured lords and most reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Damasus, Ambrose, Britton, Valerian, Acholius, Anemius, Basil, and the rest of the holy bishops who met in the great city of Rome: the sacred synod of orthodox bishops who met in the great city of Constantinople sends greetings in the Lord. Для наиболее честь князей и наиболее reverend братьев и коллег-министров, Дамасус, Амброуз, Britton, Валериан, Acholius, Anemius, Василия, и остальных святых епископов, которые собрались в большой город Рим: священный Синод православных епископов , которые встречались в великом городе Константинополе посылает привет в Господе.

It may well be unnecessary to instruct your reverence by describing the many sufferings that have been brought upon us under Arian domination, as if you did not know already. Вполне может быть, нет необходимости указания вашего почитания, характеризуя многих страданий, которые были на нас под Ариан господства, как если бы вы не знали, уже. Nor do we imagine that your piety considers our affairs so trivial that you need to learn what you must be suffering along with us. Мы не себе, что ваша благочестия считает наши дела так тривиальным, что вам нужно узнать, что вы должны быть страдания вместе с нами. Nor were the storms which beset us such as to escape your notice on grounds of insignificance. Нор были бури, которые сталкиваются с нами такими, чтобы избежать Вашего уведомления по причине незначительности. The period of persecution is still recent and ensures that the memory remains fresh not only among those who have suffered but also among those who have through love made the lot of those who suffered their own. В период преследований еще недавно, и гарантирует, что в памяти остается свежей, не только среди тех, кто пострадал, но среди тех, кто через любовь сделала немало тех, кто страдает их собственный. It was barely yesterday or the day before that some were freed from the bonds of exile and returned to their own churches through a thousand tribulations. Он был едва ли вчера или позавчера, что некоторые из них были освобождены от уз изгнании, и вернулись в свои храмы через тысячу мытарства. The remains of others who died in exile were brought back. Останки других лиц, которые умерли в изгнании, вернулись. Even after their return from exile some experienced a ferment of hatred from the heretics and underwent a more cruel fate in their own land than they did abroad, by being stoned to death by them in the manner of the blessed Stephen. Даже после их возвращения из ссылки некоторые произошло брожение ненависти со стороны еретиков и сопровождалось более жестокой судьбы на своей земле, чем за рубежом, будучи забиты камнями до смерти от них в духе блаженного Стефана. Others were torn to shreds by various tortures and still carry around on their bodies the marks of Christ's wounds and bruises. Другие были вырваны с shreds различные пытки и все еще ношение на их теле следы от Христа раны и синяки. Who could number the financial penalties, the fines imposed on cities, the confiscations of individual property, the plots, the outrages, the imprisonments? Кто может расчислить финансовые санкции, штрафы, введенные в отношении городов, конфискации личного имущества, участков, акты, то заключение в тюрьму? Indeed all our afflictions increased beyond number: perhaps because we were paying the just penalty for our sins; perhaps also because a loving God was disciplining us by means of the great number of our sufferings. Действительно всех наших бед, увеличилось за номер: возможно, потому, что мы платили только наказанием за грехи наши, возможно, также и потому, что любящим Бога к дисциплинарной нас с помощью большого числа наших страданий.

So thanks be to God for this. Так Благодарение Богу за это. He has instructed his own servants through the weight of their afflictions, and in accordance with his numerous mercies he has brought us back again to a place of refreshment The restoration of the churches demanded prolonged attention, much time and hard work from us if the body of the church which had been weak for so long was to be cured completely by gradual treatment and brought back to its original soundness in religion. Он поручил его собственных служащих на основе веса их бед, и в соответствии с его многочисленными милости он вывел нас обратно к месту отдыха Восстановление церкви требовали длительного внимания, много времени и напряженной работы у нас, если тело из церкви, которые были слабыми так долго был быть полностью излечены путем постепенного обращения и вернуться к своей первоначальной прочности в религии. We may seem on the whole to be free from violent persecutions and to be at the moment recovering the churches which have long been in the grip of the heretics. Мы можем, как в целом быть свободным от насилия и преследований быть на момент восстановления церквей, которые уже давно в тисках из еретиков. But in fact we are oppressed by wolves who even after expulsion from the fold go on ravaging the flocks up and down dale, making so bold as to hold rival assemblies, activating popular uprisings and stopping at nothing which might harm the churches. Но в действительности мы преследованиям со стороны волков, которые даже после высылки из раза пойти на опустошает стада вверх и вниз dale, делая столь смелое, как провести соперника в сборе, активизации народных восстаний и остановки на ничто, которые могли бы нанести ущерб церкви. As we have said, this made us take a longer time over our affairs. Как мы уже говорили, это заставило нас занять больше времени над нашими делами.

But now you have shown your brotherly love for us by convoking a synod in Rome, in accordance with God's will, and inviting us to it, by means of a letter from your most God-beloved emperor, as if we were limbs of your very own, so that whereas in the past we were condemned to suffer alone, you should not now reign in isolation from us, given the complete agreement of the emperors in matters of religion. Но теперь вы показали ваши братской любви для нас созыва синода в Риме, в соответствии с Божьей воли, и пригласить нас к ней, путем направления письма из самого Бога-возлюбленного императора, как если бы мы были конечностей вашего очень самостоятельно, так что в то время как в прошлом мы были обречены страдать в одиночку, вы не должны сейчас царят в отрыве от нас, с учетом полного согласия императоров в вопросах религии. Rather, according to the word of the apostle, we should reign along with you'. Скорее, по слову апостола, мы должны царствовать вместе с вами '. So it was our intention that if it were possible we should all leave our churches together and indulge our desires rather than attend to their needs. Так было наше намерение, что, если это возможно, все мы должны оставить наши церкви вместе и склонности наших желаний, а не присутствовать на их потребности. But who will give us wings as of a dove, so we shall fly and come to rest with you? Но кто даст нам крылья, как из голубя, так что мы будем летать и прийти к остальным с вами? This course would leave the churches entirely exposed, just as they are beginning their renewal; and it is completely out of the question for the majority. Это, конечно, могло бы оставить церкви полностью разоблачены, как только они начинают их обновления, и он полностью из этого вопроса для большинства. As a consequence of last year's letter sent by your reverence after the synod of Aquileia to our most God-beloved emperor Theodosius, we came together in Constantinople. Вследствие этого в прошлом году было отправлено письмо на Ваше почитание после синода в Aquileia нашим самым любимым Бог-император Феодосий, мы собрались в Константинополе. We were equipped only for this stay in Constantinople and the bishops who remained in the provinces gave their agreement to this synod alone. Мы были оборудованы только для этого пребывания в Константинополе, и епископы, которые остались в провинциях, дал свое согласие на этот Синод в одиночку. We foresaw no need for a longer absence, nor did we hear of it in advance at all, before we gathered in Constantinople. Мы предвидели никакой необходимости в длительном отсутствии, и не слышим его заранее на все, прежде чем мы собрались в Константинополе. On top of this the tightness of the schedule proposed allowed no opportunity to prepare for a longer absence, nor to brief all the bishops in the provinces who are in communion with us and to get their agreement. На вершине этой герметичности графика, предложенного разрешено нет возможности подготовить в течение более длительного отсутствия, ни кратко все епископы в провинциях, которые находятся в общении с нами и, чтобы получить их согласие. Since these considerations, and many more besides, prevented most of us from coming, we have done the next best thing both to set matters straight and to make your love for us appreciated: we have managed to convince our most venerable and reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Bishops Cyriacus, Eusebius and Priscian to be willing to undertake the wearisome journey to you. Поскольку эти соображения, и многое другое, позволили большинству из нас прийти, мы сделали следующий лучшее, что как устанавливать прямые вопросы и сделать Вашу любовь к нам оценку: мы сумели убедить наших наиболее почтенным и reverend братьев и коллег - министров, епископов Cyriacus, Еусебиус и Priscian быть готовы провести томительную пути к Вам. Through them we wish to show that our intentions are peaceful and have unity as their goal. Через них мы хотели бы показать, что наши намерения являются мирными, и единства в качестве своей цели. We also want to make clear that what we are zealously seeking is sound faith. Мы также хотим дать понять, что то, что мы ревностно стремится является прочной веры.

What we have undergone -- persecutions, afflictions, imperial threats, cruelty from officials, and whatever other trial at the hands of heretics -- we have put up with for the sake of the gospel faith established by the 318 fathers at Nicaea in Bithynia. То, что мы претерпели - гонений, бед, имперских угроз, жестокого обращения с должностными лицами, и любые другие суда на руках еретиков, - мы поставили с во имя Евангелия вере, установленного в 318 отцов в Никее в Вифиния. You, we and all who are not bent on subverting the word of the true faith should give this creed our approval. Вы, мы и все, кто не стремится на подрыв слово истинной веры должны уделять этому кредо нашего утверждения. It is the most ancient and is consistent with our baptism. Это самый древний и согласуется с нашим крещением. It tells us how to believe in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy Spirit: believing also, of course, that the Father, the Son and the holy Spirit have a single Godhead and power and substance, a dignity deserving the same honour and a co-eternal sovereignty, in three most perfect hypostases, or three perfect persons. Он рассказывает нам о том, как верить во имя Отца и Сына и Святаго Духа на: считая также, разумеется, что Отца, и Сына и Святаго Духа есть одно Божество и власть, и вещество, достоинства, заслуживающие то же честь и является одним из вечных суверенитета, в трех наиболее совершенной hypostases, или три идеальный человек. So there is no place for Sabellius's diseased theory in which the hypostases are confused and thus their proper characteristics destroyed. Так что нет места для Sabellius в забое теории, в которых hypostases являются путать, и, таким образом, своими характеристиками уничтожены. Nor may the blasphemy of Eunomians and Arians and Pneumatomachi prevail, with its division of substance or of nature or of Godhead, and its introduction of some nature which was produced subsequently, or was created, or was of a different substance, into the uncreated and consubstantial and co-eternal Trinity. Не может также о богохульстве в Eunomians и Арианс и Pneumatomachi преобладать, с его разделением существа или природы, или Божество, и его введение некоторых характера, которые впоследствии было произведено, или была создана, или имеет другое вещество, в uncreated и Единосущной и совместно вечной Троицы. And we preserve undistorted the accounts of the Lord's taking of humanity, accepting as we do that the economy of his flesh was not soulless nor mindless nor imperfect. И мы сохраним неискаженных счетов Господня принимая человечества, принятии, как мы делаем, что в экономике его тело не было бездушных, ни бессмысленного, ни несовершенны. To sum up, we know that he was before the ages fully God the Word, and that in the last days he became fully man for the sake of our salvation. Подводя итог, мы знаем, что он имел в возрасте полностью Бог Слово, и о том, что в последние дни он стал полностью человеком во имя нашего спасения.

So much, in summary, for the faith which is openly preached by us. Так же, в целом, за веру, который открыто проповедовал нами. You can take even more heart concerning these matters if you think fit to consult the tome that was issued in Antioch by the synod which met there as well as the one issued last year in Constantinople by the ecumenical synod. Вы можете принять еще более сердце, касающихся этих вопросов, если вы считаете целесообразным проконсультироваться с книгу, который был опубликован в Антиохии в Синод, которые встретились там, а той, опубликованном в прошлом году в Константинополе в экуменическом синода. In these documents we confessed the faith in broader terms and we have issued a written condemnation of the heresies which have recently erupted. В этих документах мы признались веру в более широком плане, и мы опубликовали письмо осуждение в ереси, которые в последнее время возникли.

With regard to particular forms of administration in the churches, ancient custom, as you know, has been in force, along with the regulation of the saintly fathers at Nicaea, that in each province those of the province, and with them-should the former so desire -- their neighbours, should conduct ordinations as need might arise. Что касается конкретных форм управления в церкви, древние обычаи, как вы знаете, был в силе, а также регулирования деятельности свят отцов в Никее, что в каждой провинции те из провинции, и с ними-должны бывшей такое желание - их соседей, следует провести ordinations как необходимость может возникнуть. Accordingly, as you are aware, the rest of the churches are administered, and the priests [= bishops] of the most prominent churches have been appointed, by us. Исходя из этого, как вы знаете, на остальной части находятся в ведении Церкви, и священники [= епископов] из наиболее известных храмов были назначены к нам. Hence at the ecumenical council by common agreement and in the presence of the most God-beloved emperor Theodosius and all the clergy, and with the approval of the whole city, we have ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Nectarius as bishop of the church newly set up, as one might say, in Constantinople -- a church which by God's mercy we just recently snatched from the blasphemy of the heretics as from the lion's jaws. Поэтому на экуменического совета по обоюдному согласию и в присутствии наиболее Бог-возлюбленный император Феодосий и все духовенство, и с одобрения весь город, мы рукоположен наиболее почтенным и Бог-возлюбленный Nectarius как епископ церкви вновь созданы, как можно было бы сказать, в Константинополе - церковь, которая по милости Божией, мы только недавно отнятые от богохульства из еретиков, как из львиной челюсти. Over the most ancient and truly apostolic church at Antioch in Syria, where first the precious name of "Christians" came into use, the provincial bishops and those of the diocese of the East came together and canonically ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Flavian as bishop with the consent of the whole church, as though it would give the man due honour with a single voice. За наиболее древних и поистине апостольской церкви в Антиохии в Сирии, где в первую очередь драгоценных название "христиане", вступила в использовании, провинциальных епископов, а также епархии Востока собрались вместе и канонически рукоположенного наиболее почтенным и Бог-возлюбленный Флавиан как епископ с согласия всей церкви, как будто это даст человеку из-за честь с единым голосом. The synod as a whole also accepted that this ordination was legal. Синод в целом согласились с тем, что это согласование было законным. We wish to inform you that the most venerable and God-beloved Cyril is bishop of the church in Jerusalem, the mother of all the churches. Мы хотели бы проинформировать Вас о том, что наиболее почтенным и Бог-возлюбленный Кирилла является епископом церкви в Иерусалиме, мать всех церквей. He was canonically ordained some time ago by those of the province and at various times he has valiantly combated the Arians. Он был канонически рукоположенного некоторое время назад те, в провинции и в разное время он мужественно бороться с Арианс.

We exhort your reverence to join us in rejoicing at what we have legally and canonically enacted. Мы призываем Ваше почитание присоединиться к нам в радости на то, что мы юридически и канонически принят. Let spiritual love link us together, and let the fear of the Lord suppress all human prejudice and put the building up of the churches before individual attachment or favour. Пусть духовной любви связывают нас вместе, и пусть страх перед Господом пресекать все людские предрассудки и ставится создание церкви до отдельных приложений или за. In this way, with the account of the faith agreed between us and with christian love established among us, we shall cease to declare what was condemned by the apostles, "I belong to Paul, I to Apollo, I to Cephas"; but we shall all be seen to belong to Christ, who has not been divided up among us; and with God's good favour, we shall keep the body of the church undivided, and shall come before the judgment-seat of the Lord with confidence. Таким образом, с учетом веры согласовано между нами, и с христианской любовью, установившихся среди нас, то мы должны прекратить объявить, что была осуждена на апостолов, "Я принадлежу к Пол, я к" Аполлон ", я на Кифа", но мы будем рассматривать принадлежать Христу, кто не был поделен между нами, и с Божьей доброй пользу, мы должны держать тело церкви неразделенной, и вступают до вынесения судебного решения-место пребывания Господа с уверенностью.

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CANONS CANONS

1 1

The profession of faith of the holy fathers who gathered in Nicaea in Bithynia is not to be abrogated, but it is to remain in force. Профессия вера святых отцов, которые собрались в Никее в Вифиния не будет отменен, но он остается в силе. Every heresy is to be anathematised and in particular that of the Eunomians or Anomoeans, that of the Arians or Eudoxians, that of the Semi-Arians or Pneumatomachi, that of the Sabellians that of the Marcellians, that of the Photinians and that of the Apollinarians. Каждый ересь состоит в том, чтобы быть anathematised и, в частности, что из Eunomians или Anomoeans, что из Арианс или Eudoxians, что из полуфинала-Арианс или Pneumatomachi, что из Sabellians, что из Marcellians, что из Photinians и что из Apollinarians .

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2 2

Diocesan bishops are not to intrude in churches beyond their own boundaries nor are they to confuse the churches: but in accordance with the canons, the bishop of Alexandria is to administer affairs in Egypt only; the bishops of the East are to manage the East alone (whilst safeguarding the privileges granted to the church of the Antiochenes in the Nicene canons); and the bishops of the Asian diocese are to manage only Asian affairs; and those in Pontus only the affairs of Pontus; and those in Thrace only Thracian affairs. Епархиальных епископов, не вмешиваться в церкви за пределами их собственных границ, ни они путать церквей, но, в соответствии с канонами, епископ Александрии заключается в том, чтобы управлять делами в Египте только епископы из Востоке, чтобы управлять в одиночку Востоке (при сохранении привилегий, предоставленных церкви в Antiochenes в Никео канонов), а также епископы из азиатских епархии должны управлять только в азиатских делах, и те из них, понтийских только дела Понтуса, и те во Фракии только фракийских дела. Unless invited bishops are not to go outside their diocese to perform an ordination or any other ecclesiastical business. Если не приглашены епископы, не выходить за их епархии для проведения координации или каких-либо других церковных бизнеса. If the letter of the canon about dioceses is kept, it is clear that the provincial synod will manage affairs in each province, as was decreed at Nicaea. Если письмо из канона о епархии хранится, ясно, что провинциальные Синод будет управлять делами в каждой провинции, как это было объявлено в Никее. But the churches of God among barbarian peoples must be administered in accordance with the custom in force at the time of the fathers. Но церкви Божией среди варварских народов должно быть осуществлено в соответствии с обычай, который действовал во время родов.

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3 3

Because it is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honour after the bishop of Rome. Потому, что это новый Рим, епископ Константинополя состоит в том, чтобы пользоваться привилегиями чести после епископа Рима.

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4 4

Regarding Maximus the Cynic and the disorder which surrounded him in Constantinople: he never became, nor is he, a bishop; nor are those ordained by him clerics of any rank whatsoever. Что касается "Максимус" в Cynic и беспорядков, которые окружили его в Константинополь: он так и не стал, и не он, епископ, ни те рукоположенные им духовных лиц любого ранга какого. Everything that was done both to him and by him is to be held invalid. Все, что было сделано как для него, и ему должен быть признан недействительным.

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5 5

Regarding the Tome [2] of the Westerns: we have also recognised those in Antioch who confess a single Godhead of Father and Son and holy Spirit. Что касается Томе [2] с Вестернс: мы также были признаны те, кто в Антиохии признаться единое Божество Отца и Сына и Святаго Духа.

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6 6

There are many who are bent on confusing and overturning the good order of the church and so fabricate, out of hatred and a wish to slander, certain accusations against orthodox bishops in charge of churches. Есть многие, кто стремится к путанице и опрокидывания хорошие порядок церкви и т.д. изготовить из ненависти и желание клевету, некоторые обвинения против православных епископов за церквей. Their intention is none other than to blacken priests' reputations and to stir up trouble among peace- loving laity. Их намерение состоит ни в чем ином, кроме как священники очернить репутацию, и для разжигания проблемы между миролюбивыми мирян. For this reason the sacred synod of bishops assembled at Constantinople has decided not to admit accusers without prior examination, and not to allow everyone to bring accusations against church administrators -- but with- out excluding everyone. По этой причине священные Синод епископов собравшимися в Константинополе принял решение не допускать обвинителей, без предварительного изучения, а не для того, чтобы все довести обвинения в адрес церковной администрации, - но с исключением из всех. So if someone brings a private (that is a personal) complaint against the bishop on the grounds that he has been defrauded or in some other way unjustly dealt with by him, in the case of this kind of accusation neither the character nor the religion of the accuser will be subject to examination. Так что, если кто-то приносит частных (что является личным) жалобу против епископа по той причине, что он был мошенничества или каким-либо иным образом незаконно занимаются его словам, в случае подобного рода обвинения ни характера, ни религия обвинителя будут подлежать проверке. It is wholly essential both that the bishop should have a clear conscience and that the one who alleges that he has been wronged, whatever his religion may be, should get justice. Это абсолютно необходимо как о том, что епископ должен иметь четкую совести и о том, что тот, кто утверждает, что оно было несправедливости, независимо от его вероисповедания может быть, надо справедливости.

But if the charge brought against the bishop is of an ecclesiastical kind, then the characters of those making it should be examined, in the first place to stop heretics bringing charges against orthodox bishops in matters of an ecclesiastical kind. Но если обвинения епископ носит церковного характера, то персонажей те из них, которые он должен быть рассмотрен в первую очередь, чтобы остановить еретиков выдвижения обвинений против православных епископов в вопросах о церковной рода. (We define "heretics" as those who have been previously banned from the church and also those later anathematised by ourselves: and in addition those who claim to confess a faith that is sound, but who have seceded and hold assemblies in rivalry with the bishops who are in communion with us.) In the second place, persons previously condemned and expelled from the church for whatever reason, or those excommunicated either from the clerical or lay rank, are not to be permitted to accuse a bishop until they have first purged their own crime. (Мы определяем "еретиков", как те, кто был ранее исключен из церкви, а также тех, позже anathematised сами, и в дополнение тех, которые утверждают, признаться, одна вера, что это звук, но кто отделилась и проведение собраний в соперничество с епископами , которые находятся в общении с нами.) Во-вторых, лица, ранее осуждены и изгнаны из церкви по той или иной причине, или тех, excommunicated либо из канцелярских или заложить ранга, не допускается, чтобы обвинить епископа до тех пор, пока они первые продуваться свои собственные преступления. Similarly, those who are already accused are not permitted to accuse a bishop or other clerics until they have proved their own innocence of the crimes with which they are charged. Кроме того, те, кто уже обвиняемого, не допускается, чтобы обвинить епископа или других священнослужителей до тех пор, пока они доказали свою собственную невиновность в совершении преступлений, с которым они обвиняются. But if persons who are neither heretics nor excommunicates, nor such as have been previously condemned or accused of some transgression or other, claim that they have some ecclesiastical charge to make against the bishop, the sacred synod commands that such persons should first lay the accusations before all the bishops of the province and prove before them the crimes committed by the bishop in the case. Но если лиц, которые не являются ни еретиков, ни excommunicates, и не такие, как были ранее осуждены или обвиняемых в совершении преступления или некоторые другие, утверждают, что они имеют некоторые церковные обвинения сделать против епископа, священный Синод команды, что такие лица должны сначала заложить обвинения , прежде чем все епископы провинции, и доказать, прежде чем им преступлений, совершенных епископом по делу. If it emerges that the bishops of the province are not able to correct the crimes laid at the bishop's door, then a higher synod of the bishops of that diocese, convoked to hear this case, must be approached, and the accusers are not to lay their accusations before it until they have given a written promise to submit to equal penalties should they be found guilty of making false accusations against the accused bishop, when the matter is investigated. Если она возникнет, что епископы провинции, не в состоянии исправить преступления заложен на епископа в дверь, а затем высшее Синод епископов в этой епархии, вызваны услышать этом случае нужно подходить, и обвинители не заложить их обвинения, прежде чем он до тех пор, пока они дали письменное обещание представить равные наказания, если они будут признаны виновными в ложных обвинений против обвиняемого епископа, когда этот вопрос изучается.

If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church. If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church.

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7

Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians-these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians- these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. They are first sealed or anointed with holy chrism on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth and ears. As we seal them we say: "Seal of the gift of the holy Spirit". But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures; and then we baptise them. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures ; and then we baptise them.

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FOOTNOTES ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
  1. Namely the synod of Constantinople in 382
  2. This tome has not survived; it probably defended Paul of Antioch

Translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner Норман П. Тэннер

Second Council of Constantinople - 553 AD

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Introduction

The emperor Justinian and Pope Vigilius decided to summon this council after the latter withdrew his "Judgment" condemning the "Three Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas. This "Judgment" had been issued on 11 April 548 but the bishops of the west and especially of Africa unanimously opposed it. The council was summoned by Justinian to Constantinople, although Vigilius would have preferred to convene it in Sicily or Italy so that western bishops might be present. It assembled on 5 May 553 in the great hall attached to Hagia Sophia cathedral.

Since the Roman pontiff refused to take part in the council, because Justinian had summoned bishops in equal numbers from each of the five patriarchal sees, so that there would be many more eastern than western bishops present, Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, presided. The decrees of the council were signed by 160 bishops, of whom 8 were Africans.

On 14 May 553 Pope Vigilius issued his "Constitution", which was signed by 16 bishops (9 from Italy, 2 from Africa, 2 from Illyricum and 3 from Asia Minor). This rejected sixty propositions of Theodore of Mopsuestia, but spared his personal memory and refused to condemn either Theodoret or Ibas since, on the testimony of the council of Chalcedon, all suspicion of heresy against them had been removed. Nevertheless, the council council in its 8th session on 2 June 553 again condemned the "Three Chapters" , for the same reasons as Justinian had done so, in a judgment which concludes with 14 anathemas .

After carefully considering the matter for six months, Vigilius ,weighing up the persecutions of Justinian against his clergy and having sent a letter to Eutychius of Constantinople, approved the council , thus changing his mind "after the example of Augustine". Furthermore he anathematized Theodore and condemned his writings and those of Theodoret and Ibas . On 23 February 554, in a second "Constitution", he tried to reconcile the recent condemnation with what had been decreed at the council of Chalcedon.

The council did not debate ecclesiastical discipline nor did it issue disciplinary canons. Our edition does not include the text of the anathemas against Origen since recent studies have shown that these anathemas cannot be attributed to this council.

For the 14 anathemas (pp. 114-122) the translation is from the Greek text, since this is the more authoritative version.


Sentence against the "Three Chapters"

Our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, as we are told in the parable in the gospel, gives talents to each one according to his ability, and at the proper time asks for an account of what has been done by each one. If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? It is clear to all believers that when a problem about the faith comes up it is not only the heretical person who is condemned but also the person who is in a position to correct the heresy of others and fails to do so. To those of us to whom the task has been given of governing the church of the Lord, there comes a fear of the condemnation which threatens those who neglect to do the Lord's work. We hurry to take care of the good seed of faith protecting it from the weeds of heresy which have been planted by the enemy. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Our observations prompted us to correct what was happening. We assembled in this imperial city, summoned here by the will of God and the command of the most religious emperor.

The most religious Vigilius happened to be present in this imperial city and took part in all the criticisms against the three chapters. He had frequently condemned them by word of mouth and in his writings. Later he gave a written agreement to take part in our council and to study with us the three chapters so that we could all issue an appropriate definition of the true faith. The most pious emperor, prompted by what was acceptable to us, encouraged a meeting between Vigilius and ourselves because it is proper that the priesthood should impose a common conclusion to matters of common concern. Consequently we asked his reverence to carry out his written undertakings. It did not seem right that the scandal over these three chapters should continue and that the church of God should be further disturbed. In order to persuade him, we reminded him of the great example left us by the apostles and of the traditions of the fathers. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures.

In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity. In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity.

The holy fathers, who have gathered at intervals in the four holy councils, have followed the examples of antiquity. They dealt with heresies and current problems by debate in common, since it was established as certain that when the disputed question is set out by each side in communal discussions, the light of truth drives out the shadows of lying.

The truth cannot be made clear in any other way when there are debates about questions of faith, since everyone requires the assistance of his neighbour. As Solomon says in his proverbs: A brother who helps a brother shall be exalted like a strong city; he shall be as strong as a well-established kingdom. Again in Ecclesiastes he says: Two are better than one, for they have a good reward for their toil. And the Lord himself says: Amen I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Vigilius was frequently invited by us all, and most distinguished judges were sent to him by the most pious emperor. Eventually he promised to give judgment personally on the three chapters. When we heard this promise, we remembered the warning of the Apostle that each of us shall give an account of himself to God. We were afraid of the condemnation which threatens those who scandalize one of the least important, and of the much more serious one which threatens those who scandalize so very christian an emperor, the people and all the churches. We also remembered what was said by God to Paul: Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not be silent; for I am with you, and nobody shall be able to harm you. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. We confessed that we believe, protect and preach to the holy churches that confession of faith which was set out at greater length by the 318 holy fathers who met in council at Nicaea and handed down the holy doctrine or creed. The 150 who met in council at Constantinople also set out the same faith and made a confession of it and explained it. The 200 holy fathers who met in the first council of Ephesus agreed to the same faith. We follow also the definitions of the 630 who met in council at Chalcedon, regarding the same faith which they both followed and preached. We confessed that we held to be condemned and anathematized all those who had been previously condemned and anathematized by the catholic church and by the aforesaid four councils. When we had made this confession in this way, we made a start on the examination of the three chapters. First, we considered Theodore of Mopsuestia. When all the blasphemies in his works were exposed, we were astonished at God's patience, that the tongue and mind which had formed such blasphemies were not straightaway burned up by divine fire. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. All of us, angered by the blasphemies against God, burst into attacks and anathemas against Theodore, during and after the reading, as if he had been living and present there. We said: Lord, be favourable to us; not even the demons themselves have dared to speak such things against you.

O his intolerable tongue! O the wickedness of the man ! O the proud hand he raised against his creator! This disgraceful man, who had made a promise to understand the scriptures, did not remember the words of the prophet Hosea: Woe to them, for they have strayed from me! They have become notorious because of their impiety towards me. They spoke evil things about me, and after they had considered them, they spoke even worse things against me. They will fall into a trap because of the depravity of their tongues. Their contempt will be turned inwards on themselves, because they have broken my covenant and acted impiously against my law. The impious Theodore deserves to come under these curses. He dismissed the prophecies about Christ and he vilified, as far as he could, the great mystery of the arrangements that have been made for our salvation. In many ways he tried to demonstrate that the divine word was nothing but fables composed for the amusement of the gentiles. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. This refers to their teachings which are full of darkness and quite separate from the light.

Why ought we to add anything more? Anyone who wishes can consult the volumes of the heretical Theodore or the heretical chapters from his heretical books which have been included in our acts. Anyone can see his unbelievable folly and the disgraceful utterances made by him. We fear to continue and to rehearse again those shameful things. The writings of the holy fathers against him were also read out to us. We heard what had been written against his folly which was more than all the other heretics, and the historical records and imperial laws which set out his heresy from its beginning. Despite all this, those who defended his heresy, delighting in the insults offered by him to his creator, declared that it was improper to anathematize him after his death. Although we were aware of the ecclesiastical tradition concerning heretics, that they are anathematized even after death, we deemed it necessary to go into this matter as well and it can be found in the acts how several heretics were anathematized after they were dead. In many ways it has become clear to us that those who put forward this argument have no concern for God's judgments, nor for the pronouncements of the apostles, nor for the traditions of the fathers. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only -begotten Son of God. And about that claim of the Apostle: Even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed. As we said earlier, I repeat once more: If anyone preaches to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed.

Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Are they unaware, or rather pretending to be unaware, that to be judged anathematized is just the same as to be separated from God? The heretic, even though he has not been condemned formally by any individual, in reality brings anathema on himself, having cut himself off from the way of truth by his heresy. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned .

It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover, several letters of Augustine of sacred memory, who was particularly outstanding among the African bishops, were read in which he indicates that it is correct to condemn heretics even after their death. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. These followers have willfully misunderstood what the holy fathers wrote, even though it was true and appropriate; they have quoted these writings, dissembling excuses for their own iniquities. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. The fathers indicate their intention in this matter despite the conciliatory forms used: Theodore was to be anathematized. This has been very clearly shown to be the case by us in our acts from the works of Cyril and Proclus of blessed memory in respect of the condemnation of Theodore and his heresy. This conciliatory attitude is also to be found in the holy scriptures. The apostle Paul employed this tactic at the start of his ministry when he was dealing with those who had been Jews; he circumcised Timothy so that by this conciliation and concession he might lead them to perfection. Afterwards, however, he ruled against circumcision, writing on the subject to the Galatians: Now I Paul say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you. We found that the defenders of Theodore have done exactly what the heretics were accustomed to do. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. The passages which they quoted made the truth absolutely clear once the omitted sections were put back in their proper place. The falsehoods were quite apparent when the true writings were collated. In this matter those who issued these empty statements are those who, in the words of scripture, rely on lies, they make empty pleas; they conceive mischief and bring forth iniquity, they weave the spider's web.

After we had investigated in this way Theodore and his heresy, we took the trouble to quote and include in our acts a few of Theodoret's heretical writings against true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus. We also included some of Theodoret's writings on the side of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius so that it would be made clear, to the satisfaction of anyone reading our acts, that these opinions had been properly rejected and anathematized.

Thirdly, the letter which is alleged to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian was brought under scrutiny and we discovered that it too ought to be officially read out. When the letter was read out, its heretical character was immediately apparent to everyone. Until this time there had been some dispute as to whether the aforesaid three chapters ought to be condemned and anathematized. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon, it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon , it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. It was demonstrated in our acts that Ibas was previously accused of the same heresy which is contained in this letter. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. When Ibas was later found to be blameworthy, he was deposed from the episcopate. This being the state of affairs, how could anyone be so bold as to allege that that heretical letter was accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon or that the holy council of Chalcedon agreed with it in its entirety? So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon, on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon , on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. We gathered from these authorities that nothing which has been written by anyone ought to be accepted unless it has been shown conclusively that it is in accord with the true faith of the holy fathers. Therefore we broke off from our deliberations so as to reiterate in a formal declaration the definition of faith which was promulgated by the holy council of Chalcedon. We compared what was written in the letter with this official statement. When this comparison was made, it was quite apparent that the contents of the letter were quite contradictory to those of the definition of faith. The definition was in accord with the unique, permanent faith set out by the 318 holy fathers, and by the 150, and by those who gathered for the first council at Ephesus. The heretical letter, on the other hand, included the blasphemies of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and even gave support to them and describes them as doctors, while it condemns the holy fathers as heretics. We make it quite clear to everyone that we do not intend to omit what the fathers had to say in the first and second investigations, which are adduced by the supporters of Theodore and Nestorius in support of their case. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. This was the view not only of the two bishops whose interventions some have tried to misapply but also of the other religious bishops of that holy council. They also acted thus in the case of Theodoret and insisted that he anathematize those opinions about which he was accused. If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? We are rightly told: What partnership has righteousness with iniquity? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? What participation has the temple of God with idols?

Now that we have given the details of what our council has achieved, we repeat our formal confession that we accept the four holy synods, that is, of Nicaea, of Constantinople, the first of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon. Our teaching is and has been all that they have defined concerning the one faith. We consider those who do not respect these things as foreign to the catholic church. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Additionally, we anathematize the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written to Mari the Persian. This letter denies that God the Word was made incarnate of the ever virgin Mary, the holy mother of God, and that he was made man. It also condemns as a heretic Cyril of holy memory, who taught the truth, and suggests that he held the same opinions as Apollinarius. The letter condemns the first synod of Ephesus for deposing Nestorius without proper process and investigation. It calls the twelve chapters of holy Cyril heretical and contrary to the orthodox faith, while it supports Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and writings. Consequently we anathematize the aforesaid three chapters, that is, the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia along with his detestable writings, and the heretical writings of Theodoret, and the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon.

These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. So we declare to them: Behold all you who kindle a fire, who set brands alight! Walk by the light of your fire, and by the brands which you have kindled! Since we are under command to encourage the people with orthodox teaching and to speak to the heart of Jerusalem, that is the church of God, we very properly hurry to sow in righteousness and to reap the fruit of life. In doing this we are lighting for ourselves the lamp of knowledge from the scriptures and the teachings of the fathers. It has therefore seemed necessary to us to sum up in certain statements both our declarations of the truth and our condemnations of heretics and their heretical teachings.

Anathemas against the "Three Chapters"

  1. If anyone will not confess that the Father, Son and holy Spirit have one nature or substance, that they have one power and authority, that there is a consubstantial Trinity, one Deity to be adored in three subsistences or persons: let him be anathema . There is only one God and Father, from whom all things come, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and one holy Spirit, in whom all things are.

  2. If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema . If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema .

  3. If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema .

  4. If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . The notion of "union" can be understood in many different ways. The supporters of the wickedness of Apollinarius and Eutyches have asserted that the union is produced by a confusing of the uniting elements, as they advocate the disappearance of the elements that unite. Those who follow Theodore and Nestorius, rejoicing in the division, have brought in a union which is only by affection. The holy church of God, rejecting the wickedness of both sorts of heresy, states her belief in a union between the Word of God and human flesh which is by synthesis, that is by a union of subsistence. In the mystery of Christ the union of synthesis not only conserves without confusing the elements that come together but also allows no division.

  5. If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . There has been no addition of person or subsistence to the holy Trinity even after one of its members, God the Word, becoming human flesh.

  6. If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema .

  7. If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh, but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema . If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh , but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema .

  8. If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was, and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was , and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. So there is only one Christ, God and man, the same being consubstantial with the Father in respect of his divinity, and also consubstantial with us in respect of our humanity. Both those who divide or split up the mystery of the divine dispensation of Christ and those who introduce into that mystery some confusion are equally rejected and anathematized by the church of God.

  9. If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema . If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema .

  10. If anyone does not confess his belief that our lord Jesus Christ, who was crucified in his human flesh, is truly God and the Lord of glory and one of the members of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema .

  11. If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema . If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema .

  12. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. Furthermore this heretical Theodore claimed that the union of God the Word to Christ is rather like that which, according to the teaching of the Apostle, is between a man and his wife: The two shall become one. Among innumerable other blasphemies he dared to allege that, when after his resurrection the Lord breathed on his disciples and said, Receive the holy Spirit, he was not truly giving them the holy Spirit, but he breathed on them only as a sign. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema . If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema .

  13. If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema .

  14. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema .

Such then are the assertions we confess. We have received them from

  1. holy Scripture, from
  2. the teaching of the holy fathers, and from
  3. the definitions about the one and the same faith made by the aforesaid four holy synods.
Moreover, condemnation has been passed by us against the heretics and their impiety, and also against those who have justified or shall justify the so-called "Three Chapters", and against those who have persisted or will persist in their own error. If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema . If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema .


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Введение и перевод взят из Постановления Вселенских Соборов изд. Norman P. Tanner Норман П. Тэннер

Third Council of Constantinople - 680 - 681 AD Третий Константинопольский собор - 680 - 681 н.э.

Advanced Information Расширенный информации

Contents Содержание

Exposition of faith Экспозиция веры

INTRODUCTION ВВЕДЕНИЕ

To make an end of the Monothelite controversy , Emperor Constantine IV asked Pope Donus in 678 to send twelve bishops and four western Greek monastic superiors to represent the pope at an assembly of eastern and western theologians. Pope Agatho , who meanwhile had succeeded Donus, ordered consultation in the west on this important matter. Чтобы положить конец из Monothelite противоречий, император Константин IV спрашивает Домн в 678 отправить двенадцать епископов и четырех западных греческого монашеского начальства представлять Папу Римского в комбинации из восточных и западных богословов. Агафон, который пока удалось Donus заказал консультации на Западе по этому важному вопросу. Around Easter 680 a synod in Rome of 125 Italian bishops, with Pope Agatho presiding, assessed the replies of the regional synods of the west and composed a profession of faith in which Monothelitism was condemned . Около Пасхи 680 один синода в Риме в 125 итальянских епископов, с Агафон председатель, начисленных ответы региональных synods на западном и состоит профессия веры, в которой Monothelitism был осужден. Legates of the pope took this profession to Constantinople, arriving at the beginning of September 680. Легатес от Папы Римского приняли эту профессию в Константинополь, прилет в начале сентября 680.

On 10 September 680 the emperor issued an edict to Patriarch George of Constantinople, ordering a council of bishops to be convoked. 10 сентября 680 императора издали указ, чтобы Джордж Патриарх Константинопольский, заказ совета епископов, которые будут вызваны. The council assembled on 7 November in the hall of the imperial palace in Constantinople. На совет собрались 7 ноября в зале императорского дворца в Константинополе. It immediately called itself an ecumenical council. Он немедленно призвал себе экуменического совета. There were 18 sessions, at the first eleven of which the emperor presided. Были 18 сессий, на первом одиннадцать из которых император председательствовал.

In the 8th session, on 7 March 681, the council adopted the teaching of Pope Agatho in condemnation of Monothelitism . В 8 сессии, 7 марта 681, Совет принял преподавания Агафон в осуждении Monothelitism. Patriarch Macarius of Antioch was one of the few who refused his assent; he was deposed in the 12th session. Патриарх Макарий Антиохийский был одним из немногих, кто отказался утвердить его, он был смещен в 12 сессии.

The doctrinal conclusions of the council were defined in the 17th session and promulgated in the 18th and last session on 16 September 681. The acts of the council, signed both by 174 fathers and finally by the emperor himself, were sent to Pope Leo II , who had succeeded Agatho, and he, when he had approved them, ordered them to be translated into Latin and to be signed by all the bishops of the west. В теоретических выводов совета были определены в 17 сессии и обнародованные в 18 и последней сессии 16 сентября 681. Акты Совета, подписанный обеими 174 отцов, и, наконец, самого императора, были направлены Лев II, , которые удалось Агато, и он, когда он одобрил их, приказали им быть переведены на латинский и должен быть подписан всеми епископами Запада. Constantine IV, however, promulgated the decrees of the council in all parts of the empire by imperial edict. Константин IV, однако, приняли постановления о совете во всех частях империи к имперской указ. The council did not debate church discipline and did not establish any disciplinary cannons. Совет не прения церковной дисциплины, и не устанавливают каких-либо дисциплинарных пушек.


Exposition of faith Экспозиция веры

The only Son and Word of God the Father, who became a man like us in all things but sin, Christ our true God, proclaimed clearly in the words of the gospel; I am the light of the world; anyone who follows me shall not walk in darkness but shall have the light of life, and again, My peace I leave to you, my peace I give you. Единственный Сын и Слово Бога Отца, который стал человеком, как и мы во всех вещах, но грех, Христос наш истинный Бог, провозглашенный четко сказано в Евангелии, я свет миру; никому, кто следит мне не ходить во тьме, но будет иметь свет жизни, и вновь, Мой мир я оставляю вам, мой мир Я даю вам. Our most mild emperor, champion of right belief and adversary of wrong belief, guided in godly wisdom by this teaching of peace spoken by God, has brought together this holy and universal assembly of ours and set at one the whole judgment of the church. Наша самая мягкая императора, борцом за права и убеждений противника неправильных убеждений, руководствуется в Бога мудрости по этому учению мира говорят Богу, собрались этом святом и всеобщее собрание, и наша, установленных на одной из целом решение церкви.

Wherefore this holy and universal synod of ours , driving afar the error of impiety which endured for some time even till the present, following without deviation in a straight path after the holy and accepted fathers, has piously accorded in all things with the five holy and universal synods : that is to say, with Посему этом святом и всеобщего синода от нашей, движущей издалека погрешности impiety который пережил в течение некоторого времени, даже до настоящего времени следующие без отклонений в прямой путь после того, святые отцы, и принято, имеет свято внимание во всех вещах с пяти святых и универсальный synods: то есть, с

  1. the synod of 318 holy fathers who gathered at Nicaea against the madman Arius, and в Синод из 318 святых отцов, которые собрались в Никее против Ариус сумасшедшим, и
  2. that which followed it at Constantinople of 150 God-led men against Macedonius, opponent of the Spirit, and the impious Apollinarius; similarly too, with , которые следуют ей на Константинополь в 150 Бог под руководством мужчин против Macedonius, противником Духа, и нечестивыми Apollinarius; аналогичным также с
  3. the first at Ephesus of 200 godly men brought together against Nestorius, who thought as the Jews and первый в Ефесе в 200 Бога мужчины собрались против Nestorius, которые считали, как и евреи
  4. that at Chalcedon of 630 God-inspired fathers against Eutyches and Dioscorus, hateful to God; also, in addition to these, with , что на Халкидон в 630 Бог-вдохновили отцов против Eutyches и Dioscorus, ненависти к Богу, а также, в дополнение к этим, с
  5. the fifth holy synod, the latest of them, which was gathered here against Theodore of Mopsuestia, Origen, Didymus and Evagrius , and the writings of Theodoret against the twelve chapters of the renowned Cyril, and the letter said to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian. пятого священного синода, в последней из них, что собрались здесь, против Теодора из Mopsuestia, Ориген, Дидимус и Эвагрий, и в трудах Theodoret против двенадцати глав знаменитого Кирилла, и письма, якобы написанные на Ибас Марий Персидского.
Reaffirming the divine tenets of piety in all respects unaltered, and banishing the profane teachings of impiety, this holy and universal synod of ours has also, in its turn, under God's inspiration , set its seal on the creed which was made out by the 318 fathers and confirmed again with godly prudence by the 150 and which the other holy synods too accepted gladly and ratified for the elimination of all soul-corrupting heresy Подтверждая божественные принципы благочестия во всех отношениях неизменным, и депортации в светских учение impiety, это святое и всеобщего синода наша также, в свою очередь, в рамках Божьего вдохновения, установить ее на печать вероисповедания который был выставленных 318 отцов и вновь подтвердил, Бога с осторожностью к 150 и которую другие святые synods слишком охотно приняли и ратифицировали для ликвидации всех душа-коррумпируя ересь

We believe in one God ...[Creed of Nicaea and of Constantinople 1] Мы верим в одного Бога ... [Символ веры Никейский и Константинопольский 1]

The holy and universal synod said: Святые и всеобщего синода сказал:

This pious and orthodox creed of the divine favour was enough for a complete knowledge of the orthodox faith and a complete assurance therein. Это благочестивые и православного вероисповедания в пользу божественной было достаточно для полного знания о православной вере и полную уверенность в нем. But since from the first, the contriver of evil did not rest, finding an accomplice in the serpent and through him bringing upon human nature the poisoned dart of death, so too now he has found instruments suited to his own purpose--namely Theodore, who was bishop of Pharan, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul Paul and Peter, who were bishops of this imperial city, and further Honorius, who was pope of elder Rome, Cyrus, who held the see of Alexandria, and Macarius, who was recently bishop of Antioch, and his disciple Stephen -- and has not been idle in raising through them obstacles of error against the full body of the church sowing with novel speech among the orthodox people the heresy of a single will and a single principle of action in the two natures of the one member of the holy Trinity Christ our true God, a heresy in harmony with the evil belief, ruinous to the mind, of the impious Apollinarius, Severus and Themistius , and one intent on removing the perfection of the becoming man of the same one lord Jesus Christ our God, through a certain guileful device, leading from there to the blasphemous conclusion that his rationally animate flesh is without a will and a principle of action. Но, поскольку из первых, contriver зла не отдых, найти сообщника в змея, и через него чего на человеческую природу зараженную dart смерти, так и сейчас он нашел документов подходит к его собственной цели - именно Теодор , который был епископом Pharan, Сергия, Пиррхус, Пол Павла и Петра, которые были епископы этого имперского города, и дальнейшее Гонорий, который был папа старшего Рим, Кира, который занимал этот см. Александрийский и Макарий, который недавно был епископ Антиохии, и его ученик, Стивен, - и не было простоя в повышении их через препятствия, ошибки против полного свода церкви посев с новыми речи среди православных людей в ересь от одной воли и единого принципа действий в две сущности из одного члена святой Троицы Христа наш истинный Бог, одна ересь в гармонии со злом убеждений, разорительной для ума, в нечестивыми Apollinarius, Север и Themistius, и одного намерения по устранению совершенствовании этой становится человеком тот же господин Иисус Христос, Бог наш, через определенное guileful устройство, в результате чего оттуда в богохульных выводу, что его рационально живой плоти, без воли и принцип действия.

Therefore Christ our God has stirred up the faithful emperor, the new David, finding in him a man after his own heart, who, as the scripture says, did not allow his eyes sleep or his eyelids drowsing until through this holy assembly of ours, brought together by God, he found the perfect proclamation of right belief; for according to the God-spoken saying, Where there are two or three gathered in my name, there am I in their midst. Поэтому Христос, Бог наш, имеет разжигали верных императору, новый Давид, найти в нем человека после его собственного сердца, которые, как говорит Писание, не позволили ему глаза сна или его веки drowsing до тех пор, пока с помощью этого священного сборка наша, сблизит Бога, то он нашел идеальный провозглашение права веры, ибо в соответствии с Богом говорят говоря, где есть два или три собрались во имя Мое, там Я посреди их.

This same holy and universal synod, here present, faithfully accepts and welcomes with open hands the report of Agatho , most holy and most blessed pope of elder Rome, that came to our most reverend and most faithful emperor Constantine, which rejected by name those who proclaimed and taught, as has been already explained, one will and one principle of action in the incarnate dispensation of Christ our true God; and likewise it approves as well the other synodal report to his God-taught serenity, from the synod of 125 bishops dear to God meeting under the same most holy pope, as according with the holy synod at Chalcedon and with the Tome of the all-holy and most blessed Leo, pope of the same elder Rome, which was sent to Flavian, who is among the saints, and which that synod called a pillar of right belief, and furthermore with the synodal letters written by the blessed Cyril against the impious Nestorius and to the bishops of the east. Это же святое и всеобщего синода, присутствующих здесь, честно признает и приветствует с распростертыми руками доклад Агато, самых священных и самых благословил папа Римский с пожилыми, которые пришли на наши самые reverend и большинство верующих императора Константина, в котором отвергается имя тех, кто провозгласила и учил, как уже говорилось, одной из них и один принцип действия в олицетворением сил Христа нашего истинного Бога, и также она утверждает, а другой синодального доклад своего Бога-учит спокойствию, от синода в 125 епископов дорогой к Богу заседание по этому же самых святых Папу Римского, а в соответствии со святой Синод в Халкидон и с Томе из всех святых, и большинство благословил Лео, папа того же старшего Рим, который был направлен Флавиан, который является одним из святых, и о том, что Синод призвал оплотом правых убеждений, и, кроме того, с синодального письма, написанные на благословил Кирилла против нечестивыми Nestorius и к епископам востока.

Following the five holy and universal synods and the holy and accepted fathers, and defining in unison, it professes our lord Jesus Christ our true God, one of the holy Trinity, which is of one same being and is the source of life, to be perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, of a rational soul and a body; consubstantial with the Father as regards his divinity, and the same consubstantial with us as regards his humanity, like us in all respects except for sin; begotten before the ages from the Father as regards his divinity, and in the last days the same for us and for our salvation from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, who is properly and truly called mother of God, as regards his humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no separation, no division; at no point was the difference between the natures taken away through the union, but rather the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single subsistent being [in unam personam et in unam subsistentiam concurrente]; he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, Word of God, lord Jesus Christ, just as the prophets taught from the beginning about him, and as Jesus the Christ himself instructed us, and as the creed of the holy fathers handed it down to us. После пяти святых и всеобщего synods и святых отцов и приниматься, и определить в унисон, то professes нашего Господа Иисуса Христа нашего истинного Бога, один из святых Троицы, который является одной же время, и является источником жизни, который должен быть совершенным в Божестве и совершенный в человечество, то же поистине Богом и подлинно человеком, о рациональной души и тела; Единосущной с отцом в том, что касается его богословия, и тот же Единосущной с нами в том, что касается его человечности, как и мы во всех отношениях, за исключением за грех; begotten до возрасте от Отца в том, что касается его богословия, а в последние дни то же самое для нас и для нашего спасения от Святаго Духа, и девы Марии, который является надлежащим и действительно призвал мать Бога, в отношении его человечности; одного и того же Христа, Сына, Господа, только-begotten, признал в две сущности, которые проходят не путаницы, никаких изменений, ни разделения, ни разделения; никогда не было разницы между натуры забрали через профсоюз, но , а имущества, так характер сохранился и поставляется вместе в единый subsistent время [в unam лица и в unam subsistentiam concurrente]; он не раздвигаются или разделить на два лица, но одно и то же только-Сын, Слово Бог, господин Иисуса Христа, так же, как пророки учили с самого начала о нем, и как Иисус Христос сам дал нам, и, как кредо святых отцов передал его нам.

And we proclaim equally two natural volitions or wills in him and two natural principles of action which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, in accordance with the teaching of the holy fathers. И мы объявить не менее двух природных volitions или завещания в Нем и две природные принципы действий, которые проходят не разделения, никаких изменений, ни раздела, ни путаницы, в соответствии с учением святых отцов. And the two natural wills not in opposition, as the impious heretics said, far from it, but his human will following, and not resisting or struggling, rather in fact subject to his divine and all powerful will. И две природные воли, не в оппозиции, как нечестивыми еретиков сказал, далеко от него, но его человеческой воли после, а не сопротивления или борьбы, а на самом деле с учетом его божественным, и все мощные воли. For the will of the flesh had to be moved, and yet to be subjected to the divine will, according to the most wise Athanasius. По воле плоти, пришлось перенести, и еще может быть подвергнут божественной воли, согласно самым мудрым Афанасия. For just as his flesh is said to be and is flesh of the Word of God, so too the natural will of his flesh is said to and does belong to the Word of God, just as he says himself: I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of the Father who sent me, calling his own will that of his flesh, since his flesh too became his own. Для точно так же, как его тело, по сообщениям, и есть плоть от Слова Божьего, так и природной воли его плоти, что и вовсе принадлежат Слово Божие, так же, как он сам говорит: Я сошел с небес , а не мои собственные волю, но волю Отца, который послал меня, назвав его собственной воли, что его тело, так как его тело тоже стала его собственной. For in the same way that his all holy and blameless animate flesh was not destroyed in being made divine but remained in its own limit and category, so his human will as well was not destroyed by being made divine, but rather was preserved, according to the theologian Gregory, who says: "For his willing, when he is considered as saviour, is not in opposition to God, being made divine in its entirety." По таким же образом, что его все святые и непорочен живой плоти не был разрушен в божественное время, но остается в своей собственной ограничения и категории, так что его человеческой воли, а не был уничтожен, достигнутый божественным, а, скорее, была сохранена, в соответствии с на теолога Грегори, который говорит: "Со своей готовности, когда он рассматривается как спасителя, не в оппозиции к Богу, будучи достигнут божественного во всей его полноте." And we hold there to be two natural principles of action in the same Jesus Christ our lord and true God, which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, that is, a divine principle of action and a human principle of action, according to the godly-speaking Leo, who says most clearly: "For each form does in a communion with the other that activity which it possesses as its own, the Word working that which is the Word's and the body accomplishing the things that are the body's". И мы придерживаемся того, чтобы два физических принципов действий в одной и той же Иисуса Христа нашего Господа и истинного Бога, в котором проходят не разделения, ни изменить, ни раздела, ни путаницы, то есть божественного принципа действия и человеческим принцип действия , в зависимости от Бога-выступая Лео, который заявляет, наиболее четко: "Для каждой формы делает в общении с другими, что деятельность которой он обладает, как свою собственную, Слово работает, что это Слово и тело выполнить то, что организма ". For of course we will not grant the existence of only a single natural principle of action of both God and creature, lest we raise what is made to the level of divine being, or indeed reduce what is most specifically proper to the divine nature to a level befitting creatures for we acknowledge that the miracles and the sufferings are of one and the same according to one or the other of the two natures out of which he is and in which he has his being, as the admirable Cyril said. Для конечно мы не будем предоставлять наличие только одного природного принцип действия как Бог и творение, чтобы не поднять то, что делается на уровне божественной личности, или даже сократить, что наиболее конкретно собственно божественной природе до уровня, соответствующего существ мы признаем, что чудеса и страдания имеют один и тот же в соответствии с той или иной из двух природы, из которых он является, и в которых он имеет свое время, как восхищения говорит Кирилл. Therefore, protecting on all sides the "no confusion" and "no division", we announce the whole in these brief words: Believing our lord Jesus Christ, even after his incarnation, to be one of the holy Trinity and our true God, we say that he has two natures [naturas] shining forth in his one subsistence [subsistentia] in which he demonstrated the miracles and the sufferings throughout his entire providential dwelling here, not in appearance but in truth, the difference of the natures being made known in the same one subsistence in that each nature wills and performs the things that are proper to it in a communion with the other; then in accord with this reasoning we hold that two natural wills and principles of action meet in correspondence for the salvation of the human race. Таким образом, защита со всех сторон "нет путаницы", и "нет разделения", мы объявляем о целом в этих кратких слов: считая нашего Господа Иисуса Христа, даже после его воплощении, как один из священных Троицы, и наш истинный Бог, мы сказать, что он имеет две сущности [naturas] ярким говорится в его одна прожиточного [subsistentia], в которой он продемонстрировал чудеса и страдания во всей его providential жилья здесь, а не на внешний вид, но на самом деле, разница в сущности время были известны в одной и той же натурального в том, что каждый характер завещания и выполняет то, что собственно его в общении с другими, то в соответствии с этой аргументации мы считаем, что две природных воли и принципы деятельности встретиться в корреспонденции для спасения жизни людей гонки.

So now that these points have been formulated by us with all precision in every respect and with all care, we definitely state that it is not allowable for anyone to produce another faith , that is, to write or to compose or to consider or to teach others; those who dare to compose another faith, or to support or to teach or to hand on another creed to those who wish to turn to knowledge of the truth, whether from Hellenism or Judaism or indeed from any heresy whatsoever, or to introduce novelty of speech, that is, invention of terms, so as to overturn what has now been defined by us, such persons, if they are bishops or clerics, are deprived of their episcopacy or clerical rank, and if they are monks or layfolk they are excommunicated. Так что теперь, что эти вопросы были сформулированы нами со всеми точность во всех отношениях и со всеми ухода, то мы определенно заявить, что она не является допустимой для кого производить другой веры, то есть писать или составлять, или рассмотреть или учить другие, а те, кто осмеливается написать другую веру, или для поддержки или учить или рукой другого вероисповедания для тех, кто хотел бы остановиться на знание истины, независимо от того, из эллинизма и иудаизма и даже от каких-либо ереси какой-либо представить новинку слова, то есть изобретение терминов, с тем чтобы отменить то, что уже было определено нами, таких лиц, если они епископы или священнослужители, лишенные episcopacy или канцелярской ранга, и, если они монахи или layfolk они excommunicated.


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Введение и перевод взят из Постановления Вселенских Соборов изд. Norman P. Tanner Норман П. Тэннер

Fourth Council of Constantinople - 869 - 870 AD Четвертый совет Константинополь - 869 - 870 н.э.

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