Council of Ephesus Совет Эфес

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The Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council of the Christian church was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. Совет Эфес (431), третий экуменического совета христианской церкви был значительным для ее догматического постановления о позиции Девы Марии в небесной иерархии, и о характере воплощение Иисуса Христа. It was convened by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II with the approval of Pope Celestine I in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism). Оно было созвано по инициативе Восточной римский император Феодосий II с одобрения Целестин я, чтобы ответить на учение Nestorius, что Мария будет рассматриваться только "мать Христа", а не "мать Бога" (см. Nestorianism). After lengthy debates continuing even after the end of the council, the pope's representative, Cyril of Alexandria, reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all. После продолжительных дебатов продолжается даже после окончания совета, на попе представитель, Кирилл Александрийский, достигнутое соглашение, в котором наименования "мать Бога", официально объявлено на совете, было принято всеми. The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ. Совет также уточнили догму о человеческой и божественной аспекты Иисуса, в настоящее время объявлена в двух отдельных характер, хотя абсолютно едины во Христе.

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In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus. В 449 еще совет, известный в истории как latrocinium или пиратски Синода встретился в Ефесе. It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned (451) at the Council of Chalcedon. Она утвердила Eutyches доктрин, которые впоследствии были осуждены (451) на Халкидонский.

T. Tackett Т. Такетт


Ephesus Эфес

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Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor. Эфес был столицей proconsular Азии, который был в западной части Малой Азии. It was colonized principally from Athens. Она была колонизирована, главным образом, из Афин. In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia." Во времена римлян он несет звание "первая и наибольшая мегаполис Азии". It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (qv), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. Он был уважаемым в храм Дианы (см. в глоссарии), который там был ее главный храм, и для его театра, который был самым крупным в мире, способное вместить в 50000 зрителей. It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky. Он был, как и все древние театры, открытая в небо. Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts. Здесь были выставлены на бои диких зверей, и звери с мужчинами. (Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9). (Comp. 1 Кор. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) многие евреи приняли их пребывания в этом городе, и здесь, семена Евангелия были посеяны сразу же после Пятидесятницы (Деян. 2:9 6; : 9).

At the close of his second missionary journey (about AD 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city. По окончании своего второго миссионерского путешествия (около 51 н.э.), когда Павел возвращался из Греции в Сирии (18:18-21), он впервые побывал в этом городе. He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel. Он по-прежнему, однако, лишь на короткое время, как он ускоряет держать праздник, вероятно, Пятидесятницы, в Иерусалиме, но он оставил Акила и Присцилла за ним вести работу в распространении Евангелия. During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), ie, from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10). Во время своего третьего миссионерского путешествия Павла достиг Эфес из "верхнего берега" (Деян. 19:1), то есть от внутренних частях Малой Азии, и tarried здесь около трех лет, и настолько успешно, и обильные были его труды, что "все они, которые жили в Азии слышали слово Господа Иисуса, как евреи и греки "(19:10). Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes. Вероятно, в этот период семь церквей Апокалипсиса были основаны, а не Павла личный труд, но и миссионеров, которыми он может быть отправлено из Ефесе, а также влияние преобразует возвращаются в свои дома.

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35. По возвращении из поездки, Павел обратился в Милетский, примерно в 30 милях к югу от Ефесе (Деяния 20:15), и отправка за пресвитеров в Ефесе встретиться с ним там, он передал им, что касания прощания, за которое зафиксировано в актах, 20:18-35. Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3). Эфес не раз упоминается почти до закрытия Павла жизни, когда он пишет к Тимофею призывающие его "соблюдать все еще в Ефесе" (1 Тим. 1:3). Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12). Двое из соратников Павла, Трофима и Тихик, вероятно уроженцев Эфес (Деян. 20:4; 21:29; 2 Тим. 4:12). In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18). В своем втором послании к Тимофею, Павел говорит о Onesiphorus, как он служил ему во многих вещей в Ефесе (2 Тим. 1:18). He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there. Он также "было отправлено Тихика в Ефес" (4:12), вероятно, чтобы присутствовать на интересы церкви существует. Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1). Эфес является дважды упоминается в Апокалипсис (1:11; 2:1). The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried. Апостол Иоанн, в соответствии с традицией, в течение многих лет в Эфес, где он умер и был похоронен. A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; ie, "the holy divine." В части сайта этого, как только знаменитые города в настоящее время оккупированных небольшой турецкой деревни, Ayasaluk, которая рассматривается как коррупция из двух греческих слов, hagios theologos; т.е. "святые божественные".

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (Истон Иллюстрированный словарь)


The Council of Ephesus - 431 AD Совет Эфес - 431 н.э.

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Contents Содержание

  1. Introduction Введение
  2. Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved Второе письмо Кирилла к Nestorius - допущенных
  3. Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril - condemned Второе письмо от Nestorius на Кирилла - осудили
  4. Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved Третье письмо Кирилла к Nestorius - допущенных
  5. The judgment against Nestorius Приговор в отношении Nestorius
  6. Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.) Синодикал письмо по поводу высылки из восточных епископов (и др.)
  7. Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431] Определение веру в Никее [6th сессии 22 июля 431]
  8. Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites Определение против нечестивыми Messalians или Euchites
  9. Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations Разрешение: о том, что епископов Кипра, могут сами проводить ordinations
  10. Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch Формула союза между Кирилла и Иоанн Антиохийский
  11. Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace Письмо Кирилла на Иоанна Антиохийского мира
  12. Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon accepting the Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace. Выдержка из Халкидонский принятия Письмо Кирилла на Иоанна Антиохийского мира.

Introduction Введение

Nestorius , who had been condemned in a council at Rome on 11 August 430, asked the emperor Theodosius II to summon this council. Nestorius, которые были осуждены в совете в Риме 11 августа 430, попросил император Феодосий II, чтобы вызвать этот совет. The emperor therefore decided to summon it together with his co-emperor Valentinian III and with the agreement of Pope Celestine I . Theodosius's letter of 19 November 430 requested all those who had been summoned to be present at Ephesus on 7 June 431, the feast of Pentecost. Император решил вызвать его вместе с его одним-император Валентиниан III и с согласия Целестин I. Феодосий в письме от 19 ноября 430 просил всех тех, кто был вызван для присутствия в Ефесе 7 июня 431 года праздник Пятидесятница.

On 22 June, however, 22 июня, однако,

  • before the arrival either of the Roman legates or the eastern bishops led by John of Antioch , до прибытия либо из римских legates или восточных епископов во главе с Джоном Антиохии,
  • Cyril of Alexandria began the council. Кирилл Александрийский начал совет.
  • Nestorius was summoned three times but did not come. Nestorius был вызван в три раза, но не пришла.
  • His teaching was examined and judgment passed upon it, which 197 bishops subscribed at once and others later accepted. Его учение было рассмотрено и вынесенного на него, в котором 197 архиереев подписались сразу и другие позже принято.

    Shortly afterwards John of Antioch and the easterners arrived: they refused communion with Cyril and set up another council. The Roman legates (the bishops Arcadius and Projectus and the priest Philip), on arriving, joined Cyril and confirmed the sentence against Nestorius. Вскоре после Иоанна Антиохийского и easterners прибыли: они отказались общение с Кирилла и создать еще один совет. Римские legates (епископы Аркадиус и Projectus и священник Филипп), по прибытии присоединились Кирилла и подтвердил приговор в отношении Nestorius. Then the council in its fifth session on 17 July excommunicated John and his party. Тогда совет в своей пятой сессии 17 июля excommunicated Джон и его партией.

    The documents of the Cyrilline council , the only one which is ecumenical , are included below and are as follows. Документы на Cyrilline совета, единственный, который является экуменической, включены ниже, и заключается в следующем.

    1. The central dogmatic act of the council is its judgment about whether the second letter of Cyril to Nestorius, or Nestorius's second letter to Cyril, was in conformity with the Nicene creed which was recited at the opening of the council's proceedings. В центральной догматической акт о совете, его суждение о том, второе письмо Кирилла к Nestorius или Nestorius втором письме на имя Кирилла, в соответствии с Никео вероисповедания который читали на открытии совета разбирательств. Both are here printed. И здесь напечатан. Mention is made of Cyril's letter in the definition of Chalcedon. Когда производится Кирилла письмо в определении Халкидон.
    2. The 12 anathemas and the preceding explanatory letter, which had been produced by Cyril and the synod of Alexandria in 430 and sent to Nestorius, were read at Ephesus and included in the proceedings . В 12 anathemas и предыдущих разъяснений письмо, в котором было произведено Кирилла и синода в Александрии в 430 и направлен Nestorius, были зачитаны в Ефесе и включены в процесс.
    3. The decision about Nestorius. Решение о Nestorius.
    4. The letter of the council advising all the bishops, clergy and people about the condemnation of John of Antioch; and some paragraphs dealing with the discipline of the Nestorian party. В письме совета консультирование всех епископов, духовенство и народ об осуждении Иоанна Антиохийского, и некоторые пункты, касающиеся дисциплины из несторианского партии.
    5. A decree on the faith, approved in the sixth session on 22 July, which confirmed the Nicene creed, ordered adherence to that alone and forbade the production of new creeds. А указ о вере, утвержденных в рамках шестой сессии 22 июля, в котором подтвердил Никейский вероисповедания, распорядился о том, что присоединение к одиночку, и запрещает производство новых вероисповеданий.
    6. A definition against the Messalians. А определение против Messalians.
    7. A decree about the autonomy of the church of Cyprus. А указ об автономии церкви Кипра.

    Both councils sent legates to the emperor Theodosius, who approved neither and sent the bishops away. Оба советы отправлено legates к император Феодосий, который утвержден и направлен ни епископы вдали. Nestorius had already been given permission to revisit his monastery at Antioch, and on 25 October 431 Maximianus was ordained patriarch at Constantinople. The decrees of the council were approved by Pope Sixtus III shortly after his own ordination on 31 July 432. Nestorius уже дано разрешение вернуться к монастырю, в Антиохии, и 25 октября 431 Максимианус был рукоположен патриархом в Константинополе. Указы совета были одобрены Сикст III вскоре после его согласования на 31 июля 432.

    The reconciliation between the Cyrilline party and the eastern bishops was not easy. В примирения между Cyrilline партии и восточных епископов было нелегко. In the end, on 23 April 433, Cyril and John of Antioch made peace. В конце концов, 23 апреля 433, Кирилл и Иоанн Антиохийский мир. John's profession of faith was accepted by Cyril and became the doctrinal formula of union. It is included here, together with Cyril's letter in which he at some length praises John's profession and accepts it, adding to it some explanation about his own expressions; this letter is mentioned in the definition of Chalcedon . Иоанна веры было принято Кирилла и стал доктринальные формулы союза. Именно здесь, вместе с Кирилла письмо, в котором он довольно подробно хвалит Иоанна профессии, и принимает его, добавив к нему некоторые разъяснения по поводу своего собственного самовыражения; это письмо упоминается в определении Халкидон. Shortly afterwards, probably in 436, Nestorius was definitely sent into exile by the emperor . Вскоре после этого, вероятно, в 436, Nestorius, несомненно, было отправлено в ссылку на императора.

    The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version. Английский перевод с греческого текста, который является наиболее авторитетной версии.


    Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius Второе письмо Кирилла к Nestorius

    [Declared by the council of Ephesus to be in agreement with Nicaea] [Объявленный в совете Эфес быть в согласии с Никее]

    Cyril sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Nestorius Кирилл посылает приветствие в Господе к наиболее религиозных и reverend собратьев-министр Nestorius

    I understand that there are some who are talking rashly of the reputation in which I hold your reverence, and that this is frequently the case when meetings of people in authority give them an opportunity. Я понимаю, что кое-кто идет поспешно от репутации, в котором я держу ваши почитания, и это часто бывает, когда встречи людей, облеченных властью дать им возможность. I think they hope in this way to delight your ears and so they spread abroad uncontrolled expressions. Я думаю, они надеются таким образом радость уши ваши, и поэтому их распространения за рубежом неконтролируемых выражений. They are people who have suffered no wrong, but have been exposed by me for their own profit, one because he oppressed the blind and the poor, a second because he drew a sword on his mother, a third because he stole someone else's money in collusion with a maidservant and since then has lived with such a reputation as one would hardly wish for one's worst enemy. Это люди, которые пострадали не так, но они были вскрыты меня за свои собственные прибыли, один, потому что он угнетенных слепых, и бедных, второе потому, что он обратил меч на его мать, на третьем, потому что он украл чужой деньги сговоре с рабыни, и с тех пор живет с такой репутацией, как один, вряд ли пожелает для своего худшего врага. For the rest I do not intend to spend more words on this subject in order not to vaunt my own mediocrity above my teacher and master or above the fathers. В остальном я не намерен тратить больше слов на эту тему, с тем чтобы не vaunt моя посредственность выше моего учителя и мастер или выше отцов. For however one may try to live, it is impossible to escape the malice of evil people, whose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness and who will have to defend themselves before the judge of all. Для Однако можно попытаться жить, невозможно уйти от злого умысла злых людей, чей рот полны проклятие, и горечь, и кто будет защищать себя в суде всех.

    But I turn to a subject more fitting to myself and remind you as a brother in Christ always to be very careful about what you say to the people in matters of teaching and of your thought on the faith. Но я перехожу к теме, более подходящее для себя и напомнить вам, как брата во Христе всегда быть очень осторожным, что вы говорите на людей в вопросах преподавания и вашей мысли о вере. You should bear in mind that to scandalise even one of these little ones that believe in Christ lays you open to unendurable wrath. Вы должны иметь в виду, что для scandalise даже одного из этих малышей, которые верят во Христа закладывает вы открыты для unendurable гнева. If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth. Если число тех, кто находится в бедственном положении очень велико, то, безусловно, мы должны использовать все мастерство и ухода для устранения скандалов, и для того, чтобы здоровый слово веры для тех, кто ищет истину. The most effective way to achieve this end will be zealously to occupy ourselves with the words of the holy fathers , to esteem their words, to examine our words to see if we are holding to their faith as it is written, to conform our thoughts to their correct and irreproachable teaching. Наиболее эффективным способом достижения этой цели будет усердно занимать себя со словами святых отцов, на уважение их словам, изучить наши слова, чтобы видеть, насколько мы проводим их веру, как написано, в соответствие наши мысли до их правильное и безупречное преподавания.

    The holy and great synod, therefore, stated that Святые и великого синода, поэтому, заявил, что

  • 1. 1. the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, Единородный Сын, begotten Бога Отца в соответствии с природой, истинного Бога от истинного Бога, свет от света, тот, с помощью которого отец сделал все, сошел, стал олицетворением, стал человеком,
  • 2. suffered, rose on the third day and ascended to heaven . страдали, закрывается на третий день и вознесся на небеса.

  • 1. We too ought to follow these words and these teachings and consider what is meant by saying that the Word from God took flesh and became man. Мы тоже должны следовать эти слова, и эти учения, и подумать над тем, что имеется в виду под словами о том, что Слово от Бога принял плоть, и стал человеком. For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that he was turned into a whole man made of body and soul. Ибо мы не говорим о том, что характер Слово было изменено и стало плотию, ни о том, что он был превращен в целом человек из тела и души. Rather do we claim that the Word in an unspeakable, inconceivable manner united to himself hypostatically flesh enlivened by a rational soul, and so became man and was called son of man, not by God's will alone or good pleasure, nor by the assumption of a person alone. Скорее мы можем утверждать, что Слово в невообразимой, немыслимым образом объединились, чтобы сам hypostatically плоти оживление на рациональной души, и поэтому стал человеком, и открывается сын человеческий, а не Божий будет в одиночку или хороших удовольствие, ни с вступлением в лицо, в одиночку. Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity , and from both arose one Christ, one Son. Скорее действительно два разных характера собраться вместе и образуют единство, и так возник один Христос, один сын. It was not as though the distinctness of the natures was destroyed by the union , but divinity and humanity together made perfect for us one Lord and one Christ, together marvellously and mysteriously combining to form a unity. Это не так, как если бы определенности в сущности был уничтожен профсоюза, но Божества и человечества вместе достигнут идеальный для нас один Господь и один Христос, вместе marvellously и таинственно объединения для формирования единства. So he who existed and was begotten of the Father before all ages is also said to have been begotten according to the flesh of a woman, without the divine nature either beginning to exist in the holy virgin, or needing of itself a second begetting after that from his Father. Поэтому тот, кто существует, и от Отца прежде всех веков также, что были begotten по плоти женщина, без божественной природе либо начинает существовать в святой девы, или нуждаются в самой второй begetting после того, что от Отца. (For it is absurd and stupid to speak of the one who existed before every age and is coeternal with the Father, needing a second beginning so as to exist.) The Word is said to have been begotten according to the flesh, because for us and for our salvation he united what was human to himself hypostatically and came forth from a woman. (Для абсурдно и глупо говорить о тот, кто существовал до любого возраста и coeternal с Отцом, нуждающихся в начале второго тем, чтобы существовать.) Слово, как утверждают, был begotten по плоти, потому что для нас и для нашего спасения объединяет то, что он был прав для себя hypostatically и вышли с женщиной. For he was not first begotten of the holy virgin, a man like us, and then the Word descended upon him; but from the very womb of his mother he was so united and then underwent begetting according to the flesh, making his own the begetting of his own flesh. Ибо он был не первым begotten из священной девственницей, человеком, как мы, а затем и Слово сошел на него, но с самого чрева своей матери он был столь единым, а затем прошли begetting по плоти, что делает его владельцем begetting его собственной плоти.

  • 2. In a similar way we say that he suffered and rose again, not that the Word of God suffered blows or piercing with nails or any other wounds in his own nature (for the divine, being without a body, is incapable of suffering), but because the body which became his own suffered these things, he is said to have suffered them for us. Таким же образом мы говорим о том, что он пострадал, и воскрес, не в том, что Слово Божие пострадали ударов или пирсинг с гвоздями или каких-либо других ранений в его собственной природе (за божественное, будучи без тела, не в состоянии страдания), но потому, что орган, который стал его собственный понесли эти вещи, он сказал, что они являются жертвами их для нас. For he was without suffering, while his body suffered. Ибо он был без страданий, в то время как его тело страдает. Something similar is true of his dying. То же можно сказать и о его смерти. For by nature the Word of God is of itself immortal and incorruptible and life and life-giving, but since on the other hand his own body by God's grace, as the apostle says, tasted death for all, the Word is said to have suffered death for us, not as if he himself had experienced death as far as his own nature was concerned (it would be sheer lunacy to say or to think that), but because, as I have just said, his flesh tasted death. По характеру Слово Божие само по себе бессмертные и неподкупный и жизни и живительным, но, поскольку, с другой стороны, его собственное тело, Божью благодать, как апостол говорит, вкусил смерть для всех, Слово, как утверждается, страдает смерть для нас, а не как если бы он сам был опытный смерти по мере его собственного характера беспокоит (это будет чисто lunacy говорить или думать о том, что), но и потому, что, как я уже сказал, его плоть вкусил смерть. So too, when his flesh was raised to life, we refer to this again as his resurrection, not as though he had fallen into corruption--God forbid--but because his body had been raised again. То же, когда его тело был поднят на жизнь, то мы ссылаемся на этот раз в качестве его воскресении, а не как если бы он упал в коррупции - не дай Бог - а потому, что его труп был поднят вновь.

    So we shall confess one Christ and one Lord. Итак, мы должны признаться, один Христос, и один Господь. We do not adore the man along with the Word, so as to avoid any appearance of division by using the word "with". Мы не обожаю этого человека вместе с Word, с тем чтобы не допустить появления каких-либо разногласий с использованием слова "с". But we adore him as one and the same, because the body is not other than the Word, and takes its seat with him beside the Father, again not as though there were two sons seated together but only one, united with his own flesh. If, however, we reject the hypostatic union as being either impossible or too unlovely for the Word, we fall into the fallacy of speaking of two sons . Но мы обожать его как одно и то же, потому что кузов не имеет, кроме Word, и занимает свое место с ним рядом с отцом, снова, как будто не было двух сыновей сидящих вместе, но только одна, единая с его собственной плоти. Если, однако, мы отвергаем hypostatic профсоюза как либо невозможно, либо слишком unlovely для Word, мы попали в ошибочности выступая двух сыновей. We shall have to distinguish and speak both of the man as honoured with the title of son, and of the Word of God as by nature possessing the name and reality of sonship, each in his own way. Мы должны различать и говорить как человек, как с честью звание сына, и Слово Божие, как по своему характеру, обладающих именем и реальность sonship, каждый по-своему. We ought not, therefore, to split into two sons the one Lord Jesus Christ. Мы не должны, таким образом, разделилась на два сына одного Господа Иисуса Христа. Such a way of presenting a correct account of the faith will be quite unhelpful, even though some do speak of a union of persons. Такой способ представления правильный отчет о вере будет совершенно бесполезным, хотя некоторые делать говорить о союзе лиц. For scripture does not say that the Word united the person of a man to himself, but that he became flesh. В Писании не говорится, что Слово единой личностью человека к самому себе, но и о том, что он стал плотью. The Word's becoming flesh means nothing else than that he partook of flesh and blood like us; he made our body his own, and came forth a man from woman without casting aside his deity, or his generation from God the Father, but rather in his assumption of flesh remaining what he was. Слово становится плотью означает ни что иное, как приняли участие, что он из плоти и крови, как и мы, он сделал наше тело его, и вышли мужчина с женщиной без литья в стороне его божество или его поколения от Бога Отца, но, скорее, в его вступлением плоти остальных, что он был.

    This is the account of the true faith everywhere professed . Это отчет об истинной вере везде во всеуслышание. So shall we find that the holy fathers believed. Так мы видим, что святые отцы считают. So have they dared to call the holy virgin, mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word or his godhead received the origin of their being from the holy virgin, but because there was born from her his holy body rationally ensouled, with which the Word was hypostatically united and is said to have been begotten in the flesh. Так что они осмелились назвать святой девы, мать Бога, а не так, как если бы характер Слово или его godhead получил происхождения их от святых девица, но и потому, что там родился у нее его святые тела рационально вдохновляется, с которых Слово было hypostatically единой и, как утверждается, были begotten во плоти. These things I write out of love in Christ exhorting you as a brother and calling upon you before Christ and the elect angels, to hold and teach these things with us, in order to preserve the peace of the churches and that the priests of God may remain in an unbroken bond of concord and love. Эти вещи я пишу из любви во Христе призывающие вас, как брат и призывая вас перед Христом и избранными Ангелами, чтобы провести и преподавать эти вещи с нами, с тем чтобы сохранить мир в церкви и о том, что священники Божий мая находиться в неразрывной связи согласия и любви.


    Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril Второе письмо от Nestorius для Кирилла

    [condemned by the council of Ephesus] [осуждению со стороны совета Эфес]

    Nestorius sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Cyril. Nestorius посылает приветствие в Господе к наиболее религиозных и reverend собратьев-министра Кирилл. I pass over the insults against us contained in your extraordinary letter. Я переходят на оскорбления против нас, содержащиеся в Вашем письме внеочередной. They will, I think, be cured by my patience and by the answer which events will offer in the course of time. Они, я думаю, будет вылечить моего терпения, а также ответить на события, которые будут предлагать с течением времени. On one matter, however, I cannot be silent, as silence would in that case be very dangerous. В одном вопросе, однако, я не могу быть молчание, молчание, как в этом случае быть очень опасным. On that point, therefore avoiding longwindedness as far as I can, I shall attempt a brief discussion and try to be as free as possible from repelling obscurity and undigestible prolixity. В тот момент, поэтому избежать longwindedness насколько я могу, я буду попытка краткого обсуждения, и постараюсь быть свободными, как это возможно, из отражение неясности и неудобоварим prolixity. I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word. Я начну с мудрые изречения своего почитания, установив их слово в слово. What then are the words in which your remarkable teaching finds expression ? Что же это слова, в которых ваши замечательные преподавания находит выражение?

    "The holy and great synod states that the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, suffered, rose." "Святые и великого синода говорится, что только Сын, begotten Бога Отца в соответствии с природой, истинного Бога от истинного Бога, свет от света, тот, с помощью которого отец сделал все, сошел, стал олицетворением, стал человеком, пострадал, закрывается ".

    These are the words of your reverence and you may recognise them. Эти слова своего почитания, и вы можете признавать их. Now listen to what we say, which takes the form of a brotherly exhortation to piety of the type of which the great apostle Paul gave an example in addressing his beloved Timothy: "Attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. For by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers". Теперь послушайте, что мы говорим, что представляет собой призыв к братской благочестия того типа, которые великий Апостол Павел привел пример в решении его возлюбленная Тимоти: "присутствовать на общественных чтении Писания, в проповеди, к преподаванию. Ибо тем самым вы сохраните так себе и о своих слушателей ". Tell me, what does "attend" mean? Скажите мне, что такое "участие", означают? By reading in a superficial way the tradition of those holy men (you were guilty of a pardonable ignorance), you concluded that they said that the Word who is coeternal with the Father was passible. Читая в поверхностно традиции этих святых мужчин (вы были виновны в простительными невежества), вы пришли к выводу, что они сказали, что Слово, которое coeternal с Отцом passible. Please look more closely at their language and you will find out that that divine choir of fathers never said that the consubstantial godhead was capable of suffering, or that the whole being that was coeternal with the Father was recently born, or that it rose again, seeing that it had itself been the cause of resurrection of the destroyed temple. Пожалуйста, посмотрите более внимательно на их языке, и вы узнаете, что этот божественный хор отцов никогда не говорил о том, что Единосущной godhead способна страдания, или о том, что в целом в том, что было coeternal с отцом был недавно родились, или о том, что он воскрес, видя, что он сам является причиной воскресения из разрушенного храма. If you apply my words as fraternal medicine, I shall set the words of the holy fathers before you and shall free them from the slander against them and through them against the holy scriptures. Если применить мои слова, как братские медицины, то я буду устанавливать слова святых отцов перед вами, и должен освободить их от клеветы в отношении них и через них против священных писаний.

    "I believe", they say, "also in our Lord Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son". "Я верю", они говорят: "Кроме того, в Господа нашего Иисуса Христа, своего Единородного Сына". See how they first lay as foundations "Lord" and "Jesus" and "Christ" and "only begotten" and "Son", the names which belong jointly to the divinity and humanity. Посмотрите, как они впервые заложить фундамент как "Господь" и "Иисус" и "Христос", и "только begotten" и "Сын", имена которых принадлежат совместно с Божества и человечества. Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion. Затем они строят на том, что основа традиции воплощение и воскресение, и страсть. In this way, by prefixing the names which are common to each nature, they intend to avoid separating expressions applicable to sonship and lordship and at the same time escape the danger of destroying the distinctive character of the natures by absorbing them into the one title of "Son". Таким образом, к prefixing имена, которые являются общими для каждого характера, они намерены не допустить разделения выражения, применимые к sonship и lordship и в то же время избежать опасности уничтожения особого характера с натуры путем поглощения их в одно название "Сын". In this Paul was their teacher who, when he remembers the divine becoming man and then wishes to introduce the suffering, first mentions "Christ", which, as I have just said, is the common name of both natures and then adds an expression which is appropriate to both of the natures. В этой Поль был их учитель, который, когда он вспоминает божественную становится человеком, а затем хотел бы представить страдания, сначала говорится о "Христе", который, как я уже сказал, это общее название, так натуры, а затем добавляет выражения, которые целесообразно как с натуры. For what does he say ? За что же он сказал? "Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus who though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped", and so on until, "he became obedient unto death, even death on a cross". "иметь это в виду себя, что за вами во Христе Иисусе, который, хотя он был в форме Бога, не рассчитывать равенства с Богом вещь будет держаться", и так далее до тех пор, пока ", он стал послушным до смерти, даже смерти на кресте ". For when he was about to mention the death, to prevent anyone supposing that God the Word suffered, he says "Christ", which is a title that expresses in one person both the impassible and the passible natures, in order that Christ might be called without impropriety both impassible and passible impassible in godhead, passible in the nature of his body. Ибо, когда он собирался упомянуть о смерти, чтобы предотвратить любое предположить, что Бог Слово страдает, он говорит: "Христос", который представляет собой название, которое выражается в одном лице как impassible и passible характера, с тем, что Христа можно было бы назвать без неуместности как impassible и passible impassible в godhead, passible в характере его тело.

    I could say much on this subject and first of all that those holy fathers, when they discuss the economy, speak not of the generation but of the Son becoming man. Я мог бы многое сказать по этому вопросу, и, прежде всего, что эти святые отцы, когда они обсуждают экономики, говорить не о поколения, но и Сын становится человеком. But I recall the promise of brevity that I made at the beginning and that both restrains my discourse and moves me on to the second subject of your reverence. Но я хотел бы напомнить обещание краткости, что я сделал в начале и в том, что так сдерживает мой дискурс и движется меня ко второй теме вашего почитание. In that I applaud your division of natures into manhood and godhead and their conjunction in one person. В том, что я приветствую Ваше разделение природы на мужское и godhead и их вместе в одном лице. I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering. Я также приветствую Ваше заявление о том, что Бог Слово не нуждаются второго поколения от женщины, и ваши признания, что godhead не способен страдания. Such statements are truly orthodox and equally opposed to the evil opinions of all heretics about the Lord's natures. Такие заявления являются подлинно православным, и в равной степени выступает против зла мнения всех еретиков о Господня натуры. If the remainder was an attempt to introduce some hidden and incomprehensible wisdom to the ears of the readers, it is for your sharpness to decide. Если все остальное было попыткой ввести некоторые скрыты, и непонятно мудрость, чтобы уши читателей, так и для ваших резкость принять решение. In my view these subsequent views seemed to subvert what came first. С моей точки зрения, эти последующие взгляды, как представляется, подрывают то, что пришел первым. They suggested that he who had at the beginning been proclaimed as impassible and incapable of a second generation had somehow become capable of suffering and freshly created, as though what belonged to God the Word by nature had been destroyed by his conjunction with his temple or as though people considered it not enough that the sinless temple, which is inseparable from the divine nature, should have endured birth and death for sinners, or finally as though the Lord's voice was not deserving of credence when it cried out to the Jews: "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.'' He did not say, "Destroy my godhead and in three days it will be raised up." Они высказали мысль о том, что тот, кто был в начале, провозглашено как impassible и непригодность для второго поколения были способны каким-то образом становятся страдания и свежевыжатые создается, как будто то, что принадлежит Богу Слово по своей природе была уничтожена его вместе с его храмом или, как хотя люди сочли недостаточно, что sinless храм, который неотделим от божественной природе, должны иметь пережил рождение и смерть для грешников, и, наконец, как будто Господь голос был не заслуживающих доверие, когда он вскричал к евреям: "Destroy храм сей, и Я в три дня воздвигну его.''Он не говорил, "Destroy моя godhead и в течение трех дней он будет воскресил".

    Again I should like to expand on this but am restrained by the memory of my promise. Опять же я хотел бы более подробно остановиться на этом, но меня удерживаться в памяти свое обещание. I must speak therefore but with brevity. Я должен говорить с этим, но с краткость. Holy scripture, wherever it recalls the Lord's economy, speaks of the birth and suffering not of the godhead but of the humanity of Christ, so that the holy virgin is more accurately termed mother of Christ than mother of God . Священном Писании, где бы оно напоминает о Господе экономики, говорит о рождении и страдания не от godhead, но и человечности Христа, так что святой девы более точно назвать мать Христа, чем мать Бога. Hear these words that the gospels proclaim: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham." Послушайте эти слова, что в Евангелиях провозгласить: "Книга из поколения Иисуса Христа, сына Давида, сына Авраама". It is clear that God the Word was not the son of David. Ясно, что Бог Слово был не сыном Давида. Listen to another witness if you will: "Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called the Christ. " Consider a further piece of evidence: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, she was found to be with child of the holy Spirit." Прослушать другого свидетеля, если вы будете: "Иаков родил Иосифа, мужа Марии, от которой родился Иисус, называемый Христос." Рассмотреть еще одно доказательство: "Теперь рождение Иисуса Христа состоялось в это время . Когда его мать Мария была Обручается Джозеф, она была признана с ребенком "Святаго Духа". But who would ever consider that the godhead of the only begotten was a creature of the Spirit? Но кто бы когда-нибудь задумывались о том, что godhead из только begotten было существо Святого Духа? Why do we need to mention: "the mother of Jesus was there"? Почему мы должны упомянуть: "Матерь Иисуса была там"? And again what of: "with Mary the mother of Jesus"; or "that which is conceived in her is of the holy Spirit"; and "Take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt"; and "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh"? И опять-какие из: "с Мария, мать Иисуса", или ", которая задумана в ее имеет святой Дух" и "Возьмите ребенка и его матери и бежать в Египет", и "в отношении его сын, который родился от семени Давидова по плоти "? Again, scripture says when speaking of his passion: "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh"; and again "Christ died for our sins" and "Christ having suffered in the flesh"; and "This is", not "my godhead", but "my body, broken for you". Опять же, говорит Писание, когда речь идет о его страсть: "Бог отправки Сына Своего в подобии плоти греховной и за грех, то он осудил грех во плоти", и снова "Христос умер за грехи наши" и "Христос с пострадали в плоти ", и" Это ", а не" мой godhead ", но" мое тело, неработающие для вас ".

    Ten thousand other expressions witness to the human race that they should not think that it was the godhead of the Son that was recently killed but the flesh which was joined to the nature of the godhead. Десять тысяч других выражений свидетелем человеческой расе, что они не должны думать о том, что это был godhead от Сына, который был недавно убит, но плоть, которые присоединились к природе в godhead. (Hence also Christ calls himself the lord and son of David: " 'What do you think of the Christ ? Whose son is he ?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' Jesus answered and said to them, 'How is it then that David inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, sit at my right hand"?'". He said this as being indeed son of David according to the flesh, but his Lord according to his godhead.) The body therefore is the temple of the deity of the Son, a temple which is united to it in a high and divine conjunction, so that the divine nature accepts what belongs to the body as its own. (Поэтому Христос называет себя Господу, и сын Давидов: "Что вы думаете о Христос? чей сын он?" Они сказали ему: "сын Давида". Иисус отвечал и сказал им: "Как это то, что Давид воодушевлены духом, призывает Его Господом, говоря: "Господь сказал, Господа моего, сидеть на моей правой рукой "?'". Он сказал это, как действительно сына Давидова по плоти, но его Господи, по его godhead.) Тело поэтому храм в Божество Сына, храм, который объединились, чтобы она в высокой и божественной одновременно, так что божественная природа признает, что относится к телу, как свою собственную. Such a confession is noble and worthy of the gospel traditions. Такое признание является благородной и достойной Евангелия традиций. But to use the expression "accept as its own" as a way of diminishing the properties of the conjoined flesh, birth, suffering and entombment, is a mark of those whose minds are led astray, my brother, by Greek thinking or are sick with the lunacy of Apollinarius and Arius or the other heresies or rather something more serious than these. Но для того, чтобы использовать выражение "принять в качестве своего" в качестве одного из путей снижения свойств в conjoined плоти, рождение, страдания и entombment, является марка тех, чье сознание привело заблуждение, мой брат, в греческой мышления или заболевают в lunacy из Apollinarius и Ариус или другой ереси или, скорее, нечто более серьезное, чем эти.

    For it is necessary for such as are attracted by the name "propriety" to make God the Word share, because of this same propriety, in being fed on milk, in gradual growth, in terror at the time of his passion and in need of angelical assistance. Для это необходимо для тех, которые привлекают название "приличия", чтобы Бог Слово долю, в силу этого же приличия, в том, кормили молоком, в постепенный рост, в террора во время его страсть и нуждается в angelical помощи. I make no mention of circumcision and sacrifice and sweat and hunger, which all belong to the flesh and are adorable as having taken place for our sake. Я не упоминаются обрезание и самопожертвование, и пот, и голод, которые все относятся к плоти и очаровательны, как, имевших место на наших интересах. But it would be false to apply such ideas to the deity and would involve us in just accusation because of our calumny. Но было бы ложным применять такие идеи к божеству, и будет включать в нас только потому, что обвинения в наш клеветой.

    These are the traditions of the holy fathers . Эти традиции святых отцов. These are the precepts of the holy scriptures . Эти заповеди священных писаний. In this way does someone write in a godly way about the divine mercy and power, "Practise these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress''. This is what Paul says to all. The care you take in labouring for those who have been scandalised is well taken and we are grateful to you both for the thought you devote to things divine and for the concern you have even for those who live here. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. In fact the church daily progresses here and through the grace of Christ there is such an increase among the people that those who behold it cry out with the words of the prophet, "The earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the water covers the sea". As for our sovereigns, they are in great joy as the light of doctrine is spread abroad and, to be brief, because of the state of all the heresies that fight against God and of the orthodoxy of the church, one might find that verse fulfilled "The house of Saul grew weaker and weaker and the house of David grew stronger and stronger". Таким образом, какое-либо написать в путь Бога о божественной милости и власти "Практика этих обязанностей, посвятить себя им, чтобы все могли видеть ваши успехи''. Это то, что Павел говорит для всех. Забота Вас принять в трудятся для тех, которые были scandalised хорошо приняты, и мы благодарны Вам за думаю, что Вам посвятить вещей божественных и для вас интерес даже для тех, кто живет здесь. Но вы должны понять, что вы были введены в заблуждение, либо некоторые здесь, которые были смещен священного синода для Манихейство или духовенства ваших собственных убеждений. На самом деле церковь ежедневно продолжается здесь и благодатию Христос есть такое увеличение числа людей, что те, кто вот это взывают со слов от пророка, "земля будет залита с ведома Господа, как вода покрывает море". Что касается наших суверенов, они находятся в большой радости, как в свете доктрины распространения за рубежом, и, быть кратким, поскольку состояние все ереси, что борьба с Богом, а также православных из церкви, то можно обнаружить, что стих выполнены "Дом Саула вырос слабее и слабее, и дом Давида вырос сильнее и сильнее".

    This is our advice from a brother to a brother. Это наши советы от брата к брату. "If anyone is disposed to be contentious", Paul will cry out through us to such a one, "we recognize no other practice, neither do the churches of God". "Если кто-то распоряжается быть спорным", Павел будет взывают через нас такой один ", мы признаем никакой другой практики, и не в церкви Божией". I and those with me greet all the brotherhood with you in Christ. Я и тех, с меня приветствовать всех братства с вами во Христе. May you remain strong and continue praying for us, most honoured and reverent lord. Май вам оставаться сильной и продолжать молиться за нас, большая честь и reverent владыка.


    Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius Третье письмо Кирилла к Nestorius

    [Read at the council of Ephesus and included in the proceedings . [Читать на совете Эфес и включены в процесс. We omit the preface of the letter] Мы опустить предисловия к письму]

    We believe in one God . Мы верим в одного Бога. . .[Nicene Creed] . [Никейский Символ веры]

    Following in all points the confessions of the holy fathers, which they made with the holy Spirit speaking in them , and following the direction of their opinions and going as it were in the royal way, we say that the only-begotten Word of God, who was begotten from the very essence of the Father, true God from true God, the light from the light and the one through whom all things in heaven and earth were made, for our salvation came down and emptying himself he became incarnate and was made man. This means that После всех точек признаниях святых отцов, которые они взяли с Святаго Духа выступая в них, и после направления их мнения и происходит, как бы они были в королевской образом, мы говорим о том, что только-begotten Слово Божие, , который был begotten из самой сути Отца, истинный Бог от истинного Бога, свет от света, и один, через которое все вещи в небеса и земля были сделаны, для нашего спасения сошел, и опорожнения сам он стал олицетворением и было сделано человек. Это означает, что

  • he took flesh from the holy virgin and made it his own, undergoing a birth like ours from her womb and coming forth a man from a woman. он принял плоть от святой девы и сделали свою собственную, переживает рождение, как наша, с ее чреве, и ближайшие далее мужчину от женщины.
  • He did not cast aside what he was, but although he assumed flesh and blood, he remained what he was, God in nature and truth. Он не отбросить то, что он был, но, хотя он вступил в плоть и кровь, он по-прежнему то, что он был Бог в природе и истине.
  • We do not say that his flesh was turned into the nature of the godhead or that the unspeakable Word of God was changed into the nature of the flesh. Мы не говорим, что его тело было преобразовано в характер этого godhead или что неслыханной Слово Божие было изменено на характер плоти. For he (the Word) is unalterable and absolutely unchangeable and remains always the same as the scriptures say. Ибо он (Слово) является неизменной и абсолютно неизменна и остается всегда одной и той же, как говорят священные писания. For although visible as a child and in swaddling cloths, even while he was in the bosom of the virgin that bore him, as God he filled the whole of creation and was fellow ruler with him who begot him. Для хотя видно, как ребенок, и в swaddling тканей, даже когда он находится в лоне девственной, что родила ему, как Богу он наполнил весь создание и соотечественников правителем с ним, кто ему begot. For the divine is without quantity and dimension and cannot be subject to circumscription. Для божественной без количества и размера, и не может быть переоформление.

    We confess the Word to have been made one with the flesh hypostatically , and we adore one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ. Мы признаться Словом, было сделано с hypostatically плоти, и мы обожаю один Сына и Господа Иисуса Христа. We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God in him, as though the two natures were mutually united only through a unity of dignity and authority ; that would be an empty expression and nothing more. Мы не разделяем его на части, и отдельный человек, и Бог в нем, как если бы эти две сущности были едины друг друга только через единство достоинство и авторитет, что было бы пустой слова и ничего больше. Nor do we give the name Christ in one sense to the Word of God and in another to him who was born of woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. As man he was anointed with us, even though he himself gives the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it and not in measure, as the blessed evangelist John says. Мы также не давать имя Христа в каком-то смысле о Слове Бога, и в другом тот, кто родился от женщины, но мы знаем лишь один Христос, Слово от Бога Отца с его собственной плоти. Как человек он был помазан с с нами, даже если он сам дает Духа для тех, кто достоин того, чтобы получить его, и не в меру, как благословил евангелист Иоанн говорит.

    But we do not say that the Word of God dwelt as in an ordinary man born of the holy virgin, in order that Christ may not be thought of as a God-bearing man. Но мы не говорим, что Слово Божие жили, как в обычный человек, родившийся от святой девы, с тем, что Христос не может рассматриваться как Бог-с человеком. For even though "the Word dwelt among us", and it is also said that in Christ dwelt "all the fullness of the godhead bodily", we understand that, having become flesh, the manner of his indwelling is not defined in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints , he was united by nature and not turned into flesh and he made his indwelling in such a way as we may say that the soul of man does in his own body. Ибо, хотя "Слово обитало с нами", и это также говорит о том, что во Христе жили "вся полнота в godhead телесных повреждений", мы понимаем, что, став плоти, то его indwelling не определяется в том же порядке , как он говорит, жить среди святых, он едины по своей природе, а не превратился в плоть, и он выступил со своими indwelling таким образом, мы можем сказать, что душа человека делает в своем собственном теле.

    There is therefore one Christ and Son and Lord, but not with the sort of conjunction that a man might have with God as unity of dignity or authority . Существует поэтому Христа и Сына и Господа, но не с такой связи, что мужчина может иметь с Богом, как единство достоинства или власти. Equality of honour by itself is unable to unite natures. Равенство честь сама по себе не в состоянии объединить натуры. For Peter and John were equal in honour to each other, being both of them apostles and holy disciples, but they were two, not one. Для Петра и Иоанна были равны в честь друг друга, в обоих из них святых апостолов и учеников, но они были два, а не один. Neither do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition for this is not enough for natural union. Мы также не понимаем способа связи является одним из наслоение для этого недостаточно для физических союза. Nor yet is it a question of relative participation , as we ourselves, being united to the Lord, are as it is written in the words of scripture "one spirit with him". Кроме пока это вопрос, относительно участия, как мы сами, будучи едины в Господе, являются, как написано в Писании слова "один дух с ним". Rather do we deprecate the term "conjunction" as being inadequate to express the idea of union. Скорее мы deprecate термин "связи", как недостаточно, чтобы выразить идею союза.

    Nor do we call the Word from God the Father, the God or Lord of Christ. Мы не призываем Слова от Бога Отца, Бога и Господа Христа. To speak in that way would appear to split into two the one Christ and Son and Lord and we might in this way fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself. Говорить в этом случае, как представляется, разделен на две с одной Христа и Сына и Господа, и мы, возможно, таким образом, подпадает под обвинение в богохульстве, в результате чего ему Богом, и Господь сам. For, as we have already said, the Word of God was united hypostatically with the flesh and is God of all and Lord of the universe, but is neither his own slave or master. Ибо, как мы уже говорили, Слово Божие едино hypostatically с плотью, и это Бог всех людей, и Господь вселенной, но не является его собственным рабом или мастером. For it is foolish or rather impious to think or to speak in this way. Ибо глупо или нечестивыми, а думать или говорить таким образом. It is true that he called the Father "God" even though he was himself God by nature and of his being, we are not ignorant of the fact that at the same time as he was God he also became man, and so was subject to God according to the law that is suitable to the nature of manhood . Верно то, что он назвал Отца "Бог", даже если он сам Бог по природе, и его время, мы не знают о том, что в то же время, как он был Богом он также стал человеком, и поэтому подлежит Бог в соответствии с законом о том, что подходит к характеру мужчины. But how should he become God or Lord of himself? Но каким он должен стать Господь Бог или его самого? Consequently as man and as far as it was fitting for him within the limits of his self-emptying it is said that he was subject to God like ourselves. Поэтому, как человек, и насколько она подходит для него в пределах его самостоятельной опорожнения он говорит, что он был предметом Бога, как и мы. So he came to be under the law while at the same time himself speaking the law and being a lawgiver like God. Так пришел он будет в соответствии с законом, хотя в то же время сам выступая законом и является lawgiver как Бог.

    When speaking of Christ we avoid the expression: "I worship him who is carried because of the one who carries him; because of him who is unseen, I worship the one who is seen." Говоря о Христе мы избегали выражения: "Я поклониться ему, кто происходит из-за того, кто несет его, потому что от Него, который незаметно, я поклоняться, кто видел". It is shocking to say in this connexion: "The assumed shares the name of God with him who assumes." Поразительно бы сказать в этой связи: "На себя разделяет имя Аллаха с ним, которые берет на себя". To speak in this way once again divides into two Christs and puts the man separately by himself and God likewise by himself. Говорить таким образом вновь делится на две Кристс и ставит человека в отдельности, и сам Бог же сам. This saying denies openly the union, according to which one is not worshipped alongside the other, nor do both share in the title "God", but Jesus Christ is considered as one, the only begotten Son, honoured with one worship, together with his own flesh. Эта поговорка отрицает открыто профсоюза, в соответствии с которым одна не поклонялись наряду с другими, и не так долю в названии "Бог", но Иисус Христос рассматривается как один, единственный Сын, выполнены с одним отправления культа, а также его собственной плоти.

    We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". And that he might make a way for human nature to return to incorruption by the grace of God, as we have just said, "he tasted death for all" and on the third day he returned to life, having robbed the underworld. Accordingly, even though it is said that "through man came the resurrection of the dead", yet we understand that man to have been the Word which came from God, through whom the power of death was overcome. At the right time he will come as one Son and Lord in the glory of the Father, to judge the world in justice, as it is written.

    We will necessarily add this also. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so. For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so.

    For we do not divide up the words of our Saviour in the gospels among two hypostases or persons . For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union. In the same sort of way a human being, though he be composed of soul and body, is considered to be not dual, but rather one out of two. Therefore, in thinking rightly, we refer both the human and divine expressions to the same person. For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man ? For if he should reject words suitable to him as man, who was it that forced him to become a man like us? Why should he who submitted himself to voluntary self-emptying for our sake, reject expressions that are suitable for such self-emptying? All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word . For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures.

    Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. For he became the "mediator between God and humanity" and the establisher of peace between them, offering himself for an odour of sweetness to the God and Father . Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". For our sake and not for his own he brought forward his own body in the odour of sweetness. Indeed, of what offering or sacrifice for himself would he have been in need, being as God superior to all manner of sin? For though "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God", and so we are prone to disorder and human nature has fallen into the weakness of sin, he is not so and consequently we are behind him in glory. How then can there be any further doubt that the true lamb was sacrificed for us and on our behalf? The suggestion that he offered himself for himself as well as for us is impossible to separate from the charge of impiety . For he never committed a fault at all, nor did he sin in any way. What sort of offering would he need then since there was no sin for which offering might rightly be made?

    When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. For even though the Spirit exists in his own hypostasis and is thought of on his own, as being Spirit and not as Son, even so he is not alien to the Son. He has been called "the Spirit of truth", and Christ is the truth, and the Spirit was poured forth by the Son, as indeed the Son was poured forth from the God and Father. Accordingly the Spirit worked many strange things through the hand of the holy apostles and so glorified him after the ascension of our lord Jesus Christ into heaven. For it was believed that he is God by nature and works through his own Spirit. For this reason also he said: "He (the Spirit) will take what is mine and declare it to you". But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing. Since he is the Spirit of the power and wisdom of the Father, that is the Son, he is himself, evidently, wisdom and power.

    Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". It is for this cause that we say that in his economy he blessed marriage and, when invited, went down to Cana in Galilee with his holy apostles.

    We have been taught to hold these things by

  • the holy apostles and evangelists and by
  • all the divinely inspired scriptures and by the true confession of
  • the blessed fathers .

    To all these your reverence ought to agree and subscribe without any deceit. What is required for your reverence to anathematise we subjoin to this epistle.

    Twelve Anathemas Proposed by Cyril and accepted by the Council of Ephesus

    1. If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God (for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema .

    2. If anyone does not confess that the Word from God the Father has been united by hypostasis with the flesh and is one Christ with his own flesh, and is therefore God and man together, let him be anathema .

    3. If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union, joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power, and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature, let him be anathema .

    4. If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema . If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema .

    5. If anyone dares to say that Christ was a God-bearing man and not rather God in truth, being by nature one Son, even as "the Word became flesh", and is made partaker of blood and flesh precisely like us, let him be anathema .

    6. If anyone says that the Word from God the Father was the God or master of Christ, and does not rather confess the same both God and man, the Word having become flesh, according to the scriptures, let him be anathema .

    7. If anyone says that as man Jesus was activated by the Word of God and was clothed with the glory of the Only-begotten, as a being separate from him, let him be anathema .

    8. If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema . If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema .

    9. If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema . If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema .

    10. The divine scripture says Christ became "the high priest and apostle of our confession"; he offered himself to God the Father in an odour of sweetness for our sake. If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema . If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema .

    11. If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema . If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema .

    12. If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema .


    The judgment against Nestorius

    The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties. We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by

  • the canons and by
  • the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans , to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.

    Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.


    Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.)

    The holy and ecumenical synod, gathered together in Ephesus at the behest of the most pious princes, [sends greeting] to the bishops, priests, deacons and the whole people in every province and city.

    When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number. The leader of this apostasy was John, bishop of Antioch, and their names are as follows: First the same John, bishop of Antioch in Syria, [the names of 33 other eastern bishops follow]

    These men, despite the fact that they were members of the ecclesiastical community, had no licence either to do harm through their priestly dignity or to do good, because some among their number had already been deposed. Their support of the views of Nestorius and Celestius was clearly shown by their refusal to condemn Nestorius together with us. By a common decree the sacred synod has expelled them from ecclesiastical communion and deprived them of the exercise of their priestly office, through which they have been able to harm some and help others.

    Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. He is thereby cast out by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is deprived of all ecclesiastical authority. Instead he is to be subjected to the bishops of his own province and the surrounding metropolitans, provided they be orthodox, even to the extent of being completely deposed from the rank of bishop.

    If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod, are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank. If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod , are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank.

    If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics should apostatise and in private or in public dare to hold the views of Nestorius or Celestius, it is thought right that such should stand deposed by the holy synod.

    Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before. Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before.

    Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated. Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated.


    Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]

    The synod of Nicaea produced this creed: We believe ... [the Nicene Creed follows]

    It seems fitting that all should assent to this holy creed. It is pious and sufficiently helpful for the whole world. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. All those who have a clear and blameless faith will understand, interpret and proclaim it in this way.

    When these documents had been read out, the holy synod decreed the following.

    1. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea.
    2. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised.
    3. In the same way if any should be discovered, whether bishops, clergy or laity, thinking or teaching the views expressed in his statement by the priest Charisius about the incarnation of the only-begotten Son of God or the disgusting, perverted views of Nestorius, which underlie them, these should be subject to the condemnation of this holy and ecumenical synod. A bishop clearly is to be stripped of his bishopric and deposed, a cleric to be deposed from the clergy, and a lay person is to be anathematised, as was said before.


    Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites

    The most pious and religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius came together to us and made a joint enquiry about the so called Messalians or Euchites or Enthusiasts, or whatever name this appalling heresy goes under, who dwell in the region of Pamphylia. We made investigation and the god-fearing and reverent Valerian produced a synodical document concerning these people, which had been drawn up in great Constantinople in the time of Sisinnius of blessed memory. When this had been read out in the presence of all, it was agreed that it had been well made and was correct. We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. But if they decline and do not anathematise, if they are presbyters or deacons or hold any other rank in the church, they are to forfeit their clerical status and grade and communion, and if they are laity let them be anathematised.

    In addition, those who have been condemned are not to be permitted to govern monasteries, lest tares be sown and increase. The vigorous and zealous execution of all these decrees is enjoined upon the reverent bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops throughout the whole province. Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him. Any other production savouring of the like impiety which is found anywhere is to be treated similarly.

    In addition, when they come together, they should commit clearly to writing whatever conduces to the creation of concord, communion and order. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. In this way the disputed questions should through their means be brought to an appropriate solution.


    Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations.

    The holy synod declared:

    The most reverent bishop Rheginus and with him Zenon and Evagrius, revered bishops of the province of Cyprus, have brought forward what is both an innovation against the ecclesiastical customs and the canons of the holy fathers and concerns the freedom of all. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom.

    The same principle will be observed for other dioceses and provinces everywhere . None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors. Any one who has thus seized upon and subjected a province is to restore it, lest the canons of the fathers be transgressed and the arrogance of secular power effect an entry through the cover of priestly office . We must avoid bit by bit destroying the freedom which our lord Jesus Christ the liberator of all people, gave us through his own blood. It is therefore the pleasure of the holy and ecumenical synod to secure intact and inviolate the rights belonging to each province from the first, according to the custom which has been in force from of old. Each metropolitan has the right to take a copy of the proceedings for his own security. If any one produces a version which is at variance with what is here decided, the holy and ecumenical synod unanimously decrees it to be of no avail.


    Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch

    We will state briefly what we are convinced of and profess about

  • the God-bearing virgin and
  • the manner of the incarnation of the only begotten Son of God -- For, as we have just said, that creed is sufficient both for the knowledge of godliness and for the repudiation of all heretical false teaching. We shall speak not presuming to approach the unapproachable; but we confess our own weakness and so shut out those who would reproach us for investigating things beyond the human mind.

    We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be the mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.


    Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace

    Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin, I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin , I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you.

    O fools, whose only competence is in slander! How did you become so perverted in thought and fall into such a sickness of idiocy? For you must surely know that almost all our fight for the faith arose in connexion with our insistence that the holy virgin is the mother of God . But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer? For whom indeed did she bear, if it is untrue that she bore Emmanuel according to the flesh? It is rather they who speak such nonsense against me who deserve to be ridiculed. For the holy prophet Isaiah does not lie when he says, "Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is interpreted God with us". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins".

    But when we say that our lord Jesus Christ came from heaven and above, we do not apply such expressions as "from above" and "from heaven" to his holy flesh. Rather do we follow the divine Paul who clearly proclaimed: "The first man was of the earth, earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven".

    We also recall our Saviour who said: "No one has gone up into heaven except him who came down from heaven, the son of man". Yet he was born, as I have just said, from the holy virgin according to the flesh.

    But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. For there is one lord Jesus Christ, even though we do not ignore the difference of natures, out of which we say that the ineffable union was effected. As for those who say that there was a mixture or confusion or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let your holiness see fit to stop their mouths. For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things. But I am so far from thinking anything of the kind that I think that those are quite mad who suppose that "a shadow of change" is conceivable in connexion with the divine nature of the Word. For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it. Furthermore we all confess that the Word of God is impassible though in his all-wise economy of the mystery he is seen to attribute to himself the sufferings undergone by his own flesh. So the all-wise Peter speaks of "Christ suffering for us in the flesh" and not in the nature of his unspeakable godhead. For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" . For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" .

    Let your holiness be persuaded and let no one else cherish any doubt, that we everywhere follow the opinions of the holy fathers especially those of our blessed and glorious father Athanasius, with whose opinions we differ not in the slightest. I would have added many of their testimonies, proving my opinions from theirs, had I not feared that the length of the letter would be made tedious thereby. We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded. We give neither ourselves nor them the licence to alter any expression there or to change a single syllable, remembering the words: "Remove not the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set".

    For it was not they that spoke, but the Spirit of God the Father, who proceeds from him and who is not distinct from the Son in essence . We are further confirmed in our view by the words of our holy spiritual teachers. For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written: "When they came to Mysia, they tried to go to Bithynia and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame. When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame.

    Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have. Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have.


    Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon

    The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.". The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.".


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

    Ephesus

    Catholic Information

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century BC by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists. Its coinage dates back to 700 BC, the period when the first money was struck. After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100,000 persons. It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100000 persons. Four years later Sulla, again master of the territory, slaughtered at Ephesus all the leaders of the rebellion. From 27 BC till a little after AD 297, Ephesus was the capital of the proconsular province of Asia, a direct dependency of the Roman Senate. Though unimportant politically, it was noted for its extensive commerce. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Ephesus owed its chief renown to its temple of Artemis (Diana), which attracted multitudes of visitors. Its first architect was the Cretan Chersiphron (seventh to sixth century BC) but it was afterwards enlarged. It was situated on the bank of the River Selinus and its precincts had the right of asylum. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. Its construction is said to have lasted 120 years, according to some historians 220. It was over 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and rested upon 128 pillars of about sixty feet in height. It was stripped of its riches by Nero and was finally destroyed by the Goths (AD 262).

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus. Именно благодаря евреям, что христианство впервые было введено в Ефесе. The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12). Первоначально община под руководством Аполлон "(1 Кор 1:12). They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla. Они были учениками святого Иоанна Крестителя, и были преобразованы в Акила и Присцилла. Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles. Пришел Святого Павла, который жил три года в Ефесе создать и организовать новые церкви, он был обыкновение преподавать в школа или лекции-зал на краснобай Tyrannus (Деян. 19:9) и провели там много чудес. Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.). В конце концов он был вынужден выехать, на основании мятежу разжигали в ювелир Димитрия и других лиц бывших votoes для храма Дианы (Деяния 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.). A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35). А чуть позже, по дороге в Иерусалим, он направил для старейшин общины Эфес прийти к Милетский и bade их там трогательный прощальный (Деяния 20:17-35). The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12). Церковь в Ефесе было совершено с его учеником, Санкт Тимоти, уроженец города (1 Тимофею 1, 3; 2 Тим 1, 18; 4:12). The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches. В Послание Св. Павла к Ефесянам не было, возможно, адресованные непосредственно им, он может быть только один циркуляр, письмо, направленное ему несколько церквей. The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists. В пребывания и смерти апостола Святого Иоанна в Ефесе, не упоминается в Новом Завете, но оба свидетельствуют, как в начале второй половины второго века св Irenæus (Adv. Хаер., III, iii, 4) , Polycrates, епископ Эфесский (Еусебиус, исторических. Eccl., V, xxi), Клемент Александрии, в "Acta Джоаннис", а чуть ранее в Санкт Джастин и Montanists. Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle. Византийской традиции всегда демонстрировала в Ефесе могила апостола. Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen. Еще одна традиция, которая может быть надежным, хотя и менее древние, делает Эфес месте смерти Св. Марии Магдалены. On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin. С другой стороны, мнение о том, что Богородица умер там лежит не древние показания, а часто цитируют, но двусмысленный текст Совета Эфес (431), означает лишь, что в то время в Ефесе церковь Богородицы. (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (См. Рамсей в "Expositor", июнь, 1905, а также его "Семь городов Азии".) Мы узнаем, кроме того, из Еусебиус (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv), что три дочери апостола Филиппа Санкт были погребен в Ефесе.

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles. О 110 Санкт Игнатий из Антиохии, получив встречали на Смирна на посланцев церкви Эфес, направил на него один из своих семи известных epistles. During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor. В течение первых трех веков, Эфес был рядом в Антиохию, главный центр христианства в Малой Азии. In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches. В 190 году ее епископа, Санкт Polycrates, состоялся совет рассмотреть пасхальная споры и заявил, что он выступает за Quartodeciman практике, тем не менее в скором времени Ephesian Церкви соответствуют в этой частности, на практике всех других церквей. It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority. Кажется, что шестой канон в Совет Никее (325), подтвердил в Эфес его церковной юрисдикции над всей "епархии", или гражданского территории Малой Азии, то есть в течение одиннадцати церковных провинций, на все мероприятия, второй канон из Совет Константинополя (381) официально признал эту власть. But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus. Но Константинополь был уже претендовать на звание первого среди церквей Востока и пытается аннексировать церквей Фракии, Азии, и Понтуса. To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria. Чтобы противостоять этим посягательств, Эфес бы общим делом в Александрии. We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches. Поэтому мы считаем, епископ Мемнон Эфесский сайдинг с святых Кирилла на третьей Экуменический совет, состоявшихся в Ефесе в 431 в осуждении Nestorianism, а другой епископ, Стивен, поддерживая Dioscorus на так называемых Разбойник Совета (Latrocinium Ephesinum) из 449, , которые утверждены в ересь от Eutyches. But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Но сопротивление Эфес был преодолен на Халкидонский (451), чьи знаменитые двадцать восьмой канон разместили двадцать восемь церковных провинций Понтуса, Азии, Фракии, находящихся под юрисдикцией Патриарха Константинопольского. Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights. Отныне Эфес был, но второй мегаполис в Константинопольский патриархат, как и не все восстановить ее бывший постоянный, несмотря на совете из 474, в котором Павел, Monophysite Патриарх Александрийский восстановить свои древние права. Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops. Египетская влияние несет ответственность за проведение которых Монофизитство, накопленный в Ефесе на шестом веке; знаменитого церковного историка, Джон Азии, в то время один из ее епископов. The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees. В столицу Эфес в те дни правил тридцать шесть suffragan видит. Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage. Юстиниан, которые имитировали Константин зачистки в городе многих произведений искусства украшают собор, построенный там великолепные освящена церковь Св. Иоанна, которая была в скором времени знаменитая местом паломничества.

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs. Эфес был сделан в 655 и 717 со стороны арабов. Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians. Позже он стал столицей тему о Thracesians. During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century. За период Iconoclastic два епископы Эфес пострадали мученичества, Hypatius в 735 и Теофил в девятом веке. In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images. В этом же городе в целом ожесточенное Lachanodracon преданы смерти тридцать восемь монахов из монастыря Pelecete в Вифиния и других сторонников святых образов. In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople. В 899 Лев Мудрый передал реликвии Святой Марии Магдалены в Константинополь. The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John. Город был взят в плен в 1090 и уничтожено сельджукского турки, но и византийцев удалось retaking его и восстановить его на соседних холмах вокруг церкви Св. Иоанна. Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo. Отныне он обычно называется Хагиос Теологос (святой богослов, то есть святого Иоанна Божьего), или в турецкой Ая Solouk (в греки апостола Святого Иоанна является "Богослов"); на французском называется сайт Altelot и итальянцы Альто Luogo. At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins. В начале тринадцатого века ее метрополии, Николас Mesarites, призвана играть важную роль на конференциях между греками и католиков латинского обряда. The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks. Город был снова разграблен со стороны турок в первые годы четырнадцатого столетия, а затем в Каталонии наемники, услуги которых оплачиваются византийцев, и в который раз со стороны турок. The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop. Церковь Святого Иоанна была превращена в мечеть, и в городе правит один турецкий ameer, которые перевозятся на условиях мало торговли с Западом, но она не может больше поддерживать его греческий епископ. A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411. Ряд епископов Латинской регулируют см. от 1318 до 1411. The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters. В руины Эфес был завершен к Тимур-Ленг в 1403 и почти на полтора века, гражданских войн среди своих турецких хозяев. When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks. It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway. The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village. There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held. The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia. Когда на совете Флоренции в 1439 Марк Эфесский (Маркус Eugenicus) показали себя с тем haughty к католиков, он был пастором в жалкое деревне, все, что осталось от великого города, который однажды назвал Плиний alterum люмен Asiae, или второй глаз Азии (Hist. физ., V, xxix; также Apoc., ii, 5; ср. Брокхофф В., "Эфес vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. бис seinem Untergang:, Йена, 1906). Сегодня Ая Solouk в 3000 жителей, все греки. Находится в caza из Коуш Адасси, в вилайета в Aiden или Смирна, около пятидесяти милях от Смирна, на Смирна-Айдин железной дороги. Руины Эфес стоять в болотистую и нездоровым равнине ниже деревни . Есть остатки храма Дианы, театр, с вместимостью 25000 зрителей, стадион, большой спортивный зал, и "Дважды церковь", вероятно, древний собор, один проход из которых была посвящена Богоматери , с другой стороны, Сент-Джон, где советы по 431 и 449 были проведены. греческий митрополит находится на Manissa, древние Магнесии.

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé. Публикация информации Автор С. Vailhé. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. Католическая энциклопедия, Том V. Опубликовано 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Нью-Йорк: Роберт Апплтон компании. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat, 1 мая 1909 года. Remy Lafort, Censor. Реми Лафорт, цензор. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York + Джон М. Фарли, архиепископ Нью-Йорка

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