Translating the BibleTraduzindo a Bíblia sa

General Information Informações gerais

Figuring Out a Bible Translation Descobrir uma Bíblia tradução

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT). As pessoas às vezes perguntam por que razão existem vários "Versões" ou "Ferramentas" da Bíblia. Afinal, todas as muitas Inglês linguagem bíblica Versões são traduzidas a partir da mesma fonte texto, que estava em grego (NT) e Ancient Hebrew (OT ). Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right? Não deve realmente ser pessoas inteligentes capazes de descobrir como traduzir exatamente algo certo? Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved? Especialmente algo tão importante como a Bíblia, onde muitos milhares de pessoas foram envolvidas?

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-siteACREDITO
Religioso
Informações
Fonte
web-site
Our List of 1,000 Religious Subjects Nossa lista de 1000 Assuntos Religiosos
E-mailE-mail
Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that. Bem, o problema gira para fora para ser um pouco mais difícil do que isso. First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete. Em primeiro lugar, muitos dos artefatos fonte que temos são incompletos. At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared. Em algum momento na história, meteorologia ou de vandalismo ou de guerra ou simplesmente idade fez com que algumas partes dos documentos ter desaparecido. Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way. Em seguida, embora existam vários milhares existentes (parcial) fonte documentos, de vez em quando, em um desses documentos fonte (que são, na realidade, escriba-copiado cópias dos documentos anteriores), um único personagem por vezes algum fica mis-copiado por alguns Escriba ao longo do caminho. After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error! Afinal, até o momento em que fez o nosso escriba fonte documento cerca de um milhar de anos atrás (cerca de tão antiga quanto mais documentos existentes são efectivamente), que o documento é um escriba-cópia de um antigo escriba-cópia de um antigo escriba-cópia, etc . Todas desses escribas eram tão cuidadosa como os seres humanos são capazes de, ea maioria deles realmente acreditavam que iriam ser banido para o inferno se fez sequer uma única cópia erro! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters. Mas a Bíblia contém cerca de 800000 palavras e cerca de três milhões de caracteres. Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts. Extremamente cuidadosa comparação entre os milhares de diferentes escriba exemplares que ainda existem alguns que encontrou muito menor copiando erros em alguns dos actuais cópias dos originais manuscritos anteriores. None of them have changed any significant wording or belief. Nenhum deles têm mudado significativamente qualquer formulação ou crença.

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today. Além disso, a própria forma como a Bíblia foi escrita para ser utilizado totalmente diferente da nossa maneira de lê-lo hoje. To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go. Para lhe dar o "sabor" dos problemas, estamos apresentando Genesis 1 EM INGLÊS aqui em alguns formatos histórico, que trabalha a nossa maneira para trás no tempo à medida que vá. Of course, the original source documents were not in English. Naturalmente, a fonte original documentos não estavam em Inglês. Many (over 5,000) are in Greek. Muitos (mais de 5.000) estão em grego. Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD). Outros (mais de 10000) são Latina cópias da Bíblia Vulgate (de cerca de 400 dC). A lesser number are in a variety of other languages. Um menor número estão em uma variedade de outras línguas.

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then. O grego documentos são particularmente importantes, em parte, porque essa era a língua original do Novo Testamento Manuscritos e, por isso era mínima chance de erros de tradução nessa época. Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents. Nossos pensamentos abaixo são baseadas em pensar em língua grega os documentos fonte.


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following: Antes de cerca de 1560 dC e Genevan o Novo Testamento, Bíblia escritura não foi dividida em versos. Genesis 1, então aparecem (em Inglês) basicamente com o seguinte:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. No princípio, criou Deus os céus ea terra. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. Ea terra era sem forma, e vazio; ea escuridão era sobre a face da profundidade. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Eo Espírito de Deus moveu sobre a face das águas. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. E Deus disse, Deixa haver luz: e houve luz. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. E Deus viu a luz, que era bom: Deus e dividiu a luz das trevas. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. E Deus chamou à luz dia, e as trevas chamou Noite. And the evening and the morning were the first day. E à noite e de manhã foram o primeiro dia. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. E Deus disse, Deixa haver um firmamento no meio das águas, e deixar que divide as águas das águas. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. E Deus fez o firmamento, e dividiu as águas que estavam sob o firmamento das águas que estavam acima do firmamento: e era assim. And God called the firmament Heaven. E Deus chamou o firmamento Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. E à noite e de manhã foram o segundo dia. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. E Deus disse, Deixem as águas sob o céu ser congregados vos um lugar, e deixar a terra seca aparecer: e era assim. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. E Deus chamou a terra seca Terra; e os reunindo das águas chamou ele Mares: e Deus viu que era boa. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. E Deus disse, Deixe a terra, brotar relva, a erva produzindo sementes e os frutos árvore rendendo frutos após a sua espécie, cuja semente é em si mesmo, sobre a terra: e era assim. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. Ea terra surgiu relva, ervas e produzindo sementes após a sua espécie, ea árvore rendendo frutos, cuja semente foi em si, depois da sua espécie: e Deus viu que era boa. And the evening and the morning were the third day. E à noite e de manhã foram o terceiro dia. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. E Deus disse, Deixa lá estar luzes no firmamento do céu para dividir o dia da noite; e deixá-los ser para sinais, e para épocas, e para dias e anos: E deixá-los para ser luzes no firmamento de O céu para dar luz sobre a terra: e era assim. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. E Deus fez duas grandes luzes; o maior luz para governar o dia, e à luz menor para governar a noite: ele fez as estrelas também. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good. Deus e defini-las no firmamento do céu para dar luz sobre a terra, E para se pronunciar durante o dia e durante a noite, e para dividir a luz da escuridão: e Deus viu que [era] bom. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. E à noite e de manhã foram o quarto dia. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. E Deus disse, Deixem as águas trazem abundantemente o movimento criatura que vos vida, e galinhas que podem voar acima da terra no firmamento do céu aberto. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. E Deus criou grandes baleias, e cada criatura viva que moveth, que trouxe as águas abundantemente, depois da sua espécie, e todos os alados galinhas após a sua espécie: e Deus viu que era boa. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. E Deus abençoou-os, dizendo: Seja frutífero e multiplicar, e preencher as águas do mar, e deixar aviária multiplicam na terra. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. E à noite e de manhã foram o quinto dia. And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. E Deus disse, Deixe a terra, brotar a criatura viva após a sua espécie, gado, e insidiosa coisa, ea besta da terra após a sua espécie: e era assim. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. E Deus fez a besta da terra após seu tipo, e gado depois da sua espécie, e cada coisa que creepeth sobre a terra depois da sua espécie: e Deus viu que era boa. And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. E Deus disse, Façamos o homem à nossa imagem, afterour semelhança: e deixar que eles tenham o domínio de peixes do mar, e sobre as aves do céu, e sobre o gado, e sobre toda a terra, e sobre todos os insidiosa Coisa que creepeth sobre a terra. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Então Deus criou o homem em sua própria imagem, à imagem de Deus o criou ele; macho e fêmea ele criou-los. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. E Deus abençoou-os e, Deus disse-lhes, Seja frutífero e multiplicar, e reconstituir a terra, e submeter-lo: e tem domínio sobre os peixes do mar, e sobre as aves do céu, e sobre todos os seres vivos que Moveth sobre a terra. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. E Deus disse, então, tenho que lhe cada erva rolamento semente, que está sobre a face de toda a terra, e cada árvore, na qual é o fruto de uma árvore produzindo sementes; para você, será para a carne. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. E para cada besta da terra, e para todas as aves do céu, e para cada coisa que creepeth sobre a terra, onde há vida, tenho dado todas as ervas verdes para a carne: e era assim. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good. E Deus viu cada coisa que ele tinha feito, e, eis [era] muito bom. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. E à noite e de manhã foram o sexto dia.


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered. Isso é muito fácil de ler e compreender, mas não tão grande assim como a nossa moderna Bíblias com versos separados e numerados.


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: Mais cedo do que isso, o grego textos foram escritos sem espaços ou pausas entre as palavras, e sem pontuação. Como exemplo, o mesmo Gênesis 1 ficaria muito diferente do acima:
InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK. That's still somewhat easy to figure out. Isso é ainda um pouco fácil de descobrir. But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following: Mas, ainda há pouco, os manuscritos gregos foram escritos, sem diferenças de maiúsculas e minúsculas, por isso o nosso exemplo texto apareceria como a seguir:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday

When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives. Quando voltar para o sobre o Nono Século dC, este texto grego foi escrito em uma scriptio continua chamado MINUSCULE ESCRITO ou Cursives. This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected. Este tinha o texto escrito, mas não só unspaced num manuscrita script onde todas as letras foram conectados. The appearance of our example text would now look more like: A aparência do nosso exemplo, o texto seria agora mais semelhante ao:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth Eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era. Este texto poderia ter sido apresentado em latim ou grego, quer no que era. We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script: Podemos assim como olhar para o que este tipo de situação teria pareceu, em grego, com excepção, não temos disponível um computador que pode representar fonte ligada grego script:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad Madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels! Antes de cerca de 900 dC, praticamente todos os textos em mais línguas foram aparentemente escritos apenas com as consoantes apresentados, sem nunca gravação qualquer dos vogais! So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!: Por isso, considero este mesmo texto, primeiro em Inglês e depois, em grego!:

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then? Por favor note que este primeiro é realmente em Inglês! Poderia ter estudado ele nem sequer lê-lo de volta depois? Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words. Uma vez que você sabe muito do texto, você pode escolher as palavras certas familiar. But could you fully understand everything presented here? Mas você poderia compreender plenamente tudo aqui apresentado? Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording. Escolha algumas aleatória spot no meio deste texto e veja se você pode descobrir a redacção. Find the part where God Created mankind! Encontre a parte em que Deus criou os humanos! (It is about ten lines up from the end). (Trata-se de cerca de dez linhas a partir do final). THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves. Esta é a única forma de textos bíblicos que estava disponível para qualquer pessoa antes de cerca de 900 dC, e foi geralmente disponível apenas para Igrejas e quase nunca para os indivíduos, a menos que tenham sido autorizadas para copiá-lo eles mesmos.

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd Nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


The same in Greek: O mesmo em grego:

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd Nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible. Este é apenas Genesis 1, uma pequena parte da Bíblia. Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error? Imagine que você fosse um Monk responsável por cerca de 300 vezes precisa copiar este texto muito (toda a Bíblia), em que conectado (Inglês) script formato acima, à mão, um carácter de cada vez, se você SURE que todo o seu exemplar seria Absolutamente livre de um único copista mesmo erro?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors! Ela realmente é uma notável pelas muitas centenas de Scribes que tinha a cópia de toda a Bíblia que fez astoundingly copiando alguns erros! (We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (Sabemos que houve alguns, e sabemos agora que eles foram, porque milhares de cópias existentes desses Scribe escrita Manuscritos foram cuidadosamente comparadas para ver se e quando tinha qualquer pequena diferença.

An Experiment Um Experimento

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can. Se você é parte de uma Bíblia Study Group ou qualquer outro pequeno grupo cristão, por que não tentar entregar cópia apenas este Gênesis 1 (não o texto grego, mas o script estilo contínua Inglês texto sem os vogais) como cuidadosamente como você pode. Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy. Então dê SEU cópia de um outro membro do grupo para copiar. Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group. Então QUE cópia seria entregue a uma terceira pessoa, e assim por diante através do Grupo. Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy. Depois que toda a gente tem copiado suas dada fonte texto tão precisamente quanto possível, que iria finalmente reaver uma última cópia. As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original. Enquanto todos os que tinham feito um trabalho perfeito de ser capaz de ler todos os outros manuscrita e de cópia, que a cópia final deve ler EXACTAMENTE como o original. But it will probably have at least a few minor variations. Mas ele provavelmente terá, pelo menos, algumas pequenas variações. Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear. Mesmo que cada um de vocês copistas estão familiarizados com a história de Gênesis, e apesar de cada um de vocês foi extremamente cuidadoso, pequenos erros são obrigados a comparecer. Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries. Tais uma experiência definitivamente um aumento do respeito pela multidão de anônimos Scribes que copiou a Bíblia ao longo dos séculos.

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied. A situação com a Bíblia e sua ampla dimensão parece que ele teria causado enormes copista erros ao longo dos séculos, devido à dimensão da tarefa e o formato que está sendo copiado. It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts. É realmente um sinal de como extremamente cuidadoso ao copistas todos que estavam ali foram tão poucos (menores) como erros são encontrados em alguns dos manuscritos. Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations. Felizmente para nós, existem tantos fonte manuscritos que existem poucas variações que os que foram encontrados foram verificados em todos os documentos fonte e os académicos são agora muito certo da exactidão das modernas traduções.

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew. Como um elemento adicional para pensar, muitas precoce Antigo Testamento fonte manuscritos são escritos em hebraico. Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels. Antes de cerca de 900 dC, hebraico também foi escrita sem vogais. Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless? Você pode imaginar as possibilidades do que pode acontecer se copistas foram mesmo ligeiramente descuidados? By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later. Aliás, isto está intimamente relacionado com YHWH, o nome de Deus, tornando-se Yahowah ou Jeová (ou Yahweh), quando os vogais de Adonai (outro antigo nome de Deus), foram inseridos no YHWH muitos séculos mais tarde.

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made. Esta discussão tem sido apresentado de modo que você possa apreciar melhor os esforços incríveis avançada por muitos dos copistas da Bíblia Manuscritos longo dos séculos, e também na tarefa que a Bíblia tradutores enfrentam em garantir que eles tenham o absolutamente mais exata tradução que podem ser feitas . It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello ! Não é tão fácil como traduzir em Buenos Dias Olá! (even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!) (Apesar de que a frase poderia igualmente significar adeus!)

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars). Finalmente, temos aqui apenas se realmente considerar aqui as dificuldades de reprodução perfeita (para o Scribes) e em perfeito confirmando a exactidão (por estudiosos da Bíblia). There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job. Existe ainda um outro nível de complicação no tradutores' trabalho. Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other. Muitas palavras antigas tinham vários significados diferentes, frequentemente muito diferentes umas das outras. We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation . Nós criamos uma pequena apresentação separada para vos dar uma ideia do que o aspecto do problema, em Tradução Literal.


Also, see: Também, veja:
Romanized Bible Text Romanized texto bíblico
Transliteration of Hebrew Transliteração do hebraico
Literal Translation Tradução literal
Septuagint and early Manuscripts Septuagint e início Manuscritos
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters. Um Completo Apresentação do judeu Genesis 1 texto que mostra a caracteres hebraicos.

This subject presentation in the original English language Este assunto apresentação do original em língua Inglês


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mailEnviar e-mail uma pergunta ou comentário para nós: E-mail

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at O principal BELIEVE web-page (eo índice de assuntos) está em