Caliph, Caliphs, Muslim Early History Chart Kalifen, kalifer, muslimska Early History Chart

General Information Allmän information

. .
(Shi'ites, Shi'a) (Shiiter, shia) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah) (Sunni, Sunnites) (Sunni, sunniter)
Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1st Imam) Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1. Imam)
al-Hasan (661-669) (2nd Imam) al-Hasan (661-669) (2. Imam)
al-Husayn (669-680) (3rd Imam) al-Husayn (669-680) (3. Imam)
Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4th Imam) Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4. Imam)
Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5th Imam) Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5. Imam)
Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765) Jafar al-Sadiq (733-765)
(or Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6th Imam) (eller Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6: e imamen)

(Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah) (Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah)
(Sevener Shi'ites) (Sevener shiiter)

Ismail (died before, 760,) Ismail (dog innan, 760,)
(7th imam, last for Ismailis) (7th imam, senast för Ismailis)
or Muhammad , his son eller Muhammad, hans son
(either is considered to still be alive, hiding) (antingen anses fortfarande vara vid liv, gömd)


(Fatimids) (through Ismail) (Fatimiderna) (genom Ismail)

Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909- ) Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909 -)

al-Qa'im al-Qa'im

al-Mansur -972) al-Mansur -972)

Moizz (972- ) Moizz (972 -)

Al-Hakim (3rd Fatimid Caliph) Al-Hakim (3rd Fatimid kalifen)

Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021) Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021)
(6th Fatimid Caliph) (6th Fatimid kalifen)

al-Mustansir ( -1094) al-Mustansir (-1094)

al-Mustali (1094- ) began Musta'liyyah al-Mustali (1094 -) började Musta'liyyah

he killed brother, Nizar , began Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas han dödade bror, Nizar, började Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas

( -1171) (-1171)

(overthrown by Saladin 1171) (störtas av Saladin 1171)

(but endures as the Druzes) (men härdar som Druzes)

Twelver Shi'ites, Imamiyyah Twelver shiiter, Imamiyyah
(Ithna Ashariyya) (Ithna Ashariyya)

Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7th imam) Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7. Imam)
'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8th Imam) 'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8. Imam)
Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9th Imam) Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9. Imam)
'ali al-Hadi (835-868) (10th Imam) 'Ali al-Hadi (835-868) (10. Imam)
al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11th Imam) al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11th Imam)
had student ibn Nusayr (d.868), began Nusayris, Nusayriyyah hade Nusayr student ibn (d.868), började Nusayris, Nusayriyyah
Muhammad al-Mahdi (12th Imam, last) Muhammad al-Mahdi (12th Imam, sista)
(considered to still be alive, hiding) (anses fortfarande vara vid liv, gömd)


(Buwayhids) (Buwayhids)

(945- ) (945 -)

Adid ( -1171) Adid (-1171)

(conquered by Saladin 1171) (erövrades av Saladin 1171)


Ayyubids Ayyubids

Saladin (1171-1193) Saladin (1171-1193)

al-Adil (1193-1218) al-Adil (1193-1218)

al-Kamil (1218-1238) al-Kamil (1218-1238)

( -1249) (-1249)

(conquered by Mamelukes 1249) (erövrades av Mamelukes 1249)


(Babis) (Babis)

(1830- ) (1830 -)

Ali Muhammad Shirazi ( -1850), started Babism Ali Muhammad Shirazi (-1850), började Bábísm

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), started Ba'hai Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), började Ba'hai

. (c. 650 - c.720) Often called the Puritans of Islam, as they demanded purity of conscience as well as body. . (Ca 650 - c.720) kallas ofta puritaner islam, eftersom de krävde renhet av samvete samt organ. They tended to brand everyone who did not agree with them as unbelievers. De tenderade att stämpla alla som inte håller med dem som otrogna. A sub-sect, the Azraqites, believed in such rigid following of the Koran as to massacre large groups of Muslims who had allegedly committed grave sins. En sub-sekt, Azraqites, trodde på så rigida följande i koranen som att massakrera stora grupper av muslimer som påstods ha begått allvarliga synder. Interestingly, Kharijites were very tolerant of non-Muslims. Intressant var Kharijites mycket toleranta mot icke-muslimer. Umayyad Caliphs (661-750) Umayyadiska kaliferna (661-750)

  • Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680) Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680)
    related to Uthman relaterade till Uthman
  • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah (680-683) Yazid I ibn Muawiya (680-683)
  • Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683-684) Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683-684)
  • Marwan I (684-685) Marwan I (684-685)
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705)
  • al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715) al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715)
  • Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717) Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717)
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720) Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720)
  • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724) Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724)
  • Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743)
  • al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744) al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744)
  • Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744) Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744) Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • Marwan II (744-750) Marwan II (744-750)
    (end of Umayyad) (slutet av Umayyad)
    (conquered by Abbasids 750) (erövrades av abbasiderna 750)


Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba Umayyadiska kaliferna i Cordoba
(Spanish Umayyads) (929-1031) (Spanska umayyaderna) (929-1031)

  • Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain, 756-788 Abd ar-Rahman I, flydde till Spanien, 756-788

  • Abd-ar-rahman III , as caliph, 929-961 Abd-ar-Rahman III, som kalifen, 929-961
  • Al-Hakam II , 961-976 Al-Hakam II, 961-976
  • Hisham II , 976-1008 Hisham II, 976-1008
  • civil war (1008-1028) inbördeskriget (1008-1028)
  • Mohammed II , 1008-1009 Mohammed II, 1008-1009
  • Suleiman , 1009-1010 Suleiman, 1009-1010
  • Hisham II , restored, 1010-1012 Hisham II, återställd, 1010-1012
  • Suleiman , restored, 1012-1017 Suleiman, återställd, 1012-1017
  • Abd-ar-rahman IV , 1021-1022 Abd ar-Rahman IV, 1021-1022
  • Abd-ar-rahman V , 1022-1023 Abd ar-Rahman V, 1022-1023
  • Muhammad III , 1023-1024 Muhammad III, 1023-1024
  • Hisham III , 1027-1031 Hisham III, 1027-1031

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad (750-1258) Abbasid kaliferna i Bagdad (750-1258)
descendants of Prophet's uncle Abbas ättlingar till profetens farbror Abbas
Sunnites Sunniter

  • Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754 Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754
  • Al-Mansur 754-775 Al-Mansur 754-775
  • Al-Mahdi 775-785 Al-Mahdi 775-785
  • Al-Hadi 785-786 Al-Hadi 785-786
  • Harun al-Rashid 786-809 Harun al-Rashid 786-809
  • Al-Amin 809-813 Al-Amin 809-813
  • Al-Ma'mun 813-833 Al-Ma'mun 813-833
  • Al-Mu'tasim 833-842 Al-Mu'tasim 833-842
  • Al-Wathiq 842-847 Al-Wathiq 842-847
  • Al-Mutawakkil 847-861 Al-Mutawakkil 847-861
  • Al-Muntasir 861-862 Al-Muntasir 861-862
  • Al-Musta'in 862-866 Al-Musta'in 862-866
  • Al-Mu'tazz 866-869 Al-Mu'tazz 866-869
  • Al-Muhtadi 869-870 Al-Muhtadi 869-870
  • Al-Mu'tamid 870-892 Al-Mu'tamid 870-892
  • Al-Mu'tadid 892-902 Al-Mu'tadid 892-902
  • Al-Muktafi 902-908 Al-Muktafi 902-908
  • ??? ?? (908, one day) (908, en dag)
  • Al-Muqtadir 908-932 Al-Muqtadir 908-932
  • Al-Qahir 932-934 Al-Qahir 932-934
  • Al-Radi 934-940 Al-Radi 934-940
  • Al-Muttaqi 940-944 Al-Muttaqi 940-944
  • Al-Mustakfi 944-946 Al-Mustakfi 944-946
  • (by about 950, very little power) (ca 950, väldigt lite ström)
  • Al-Muti 946-974 Al-Muti 946-974
  • Al-Ta'i 974-991 Al-Ta'i 974-991
  • Al-Qadir 991-1031 Al-Qadir 991-1031
  • Al-Qa'im 1031-1075 Al-Qa'im 1031-1075
  • Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094 Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094
  • Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118 Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118
  • Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135 Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135
  • Al-Rashid 1135-1136 Al-Rashid 1135-1136
  • Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160 Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160
  • Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170 Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170
  • Al-Mustadi 1170-1180 Al-Mustadi 1170-1180
  • An-Nasir 1180-1225 An-Nasir 1180-1225
  • Az-Zahir 1225-1226 Az-Zahir 1225-1226
  • Al-Mustansir 1226-1242 Al-Mustansir 1226-1242
  • Al-Musta'sim 1242-1258 Al-Musta'sim 1242-1258
  • (conquered by Mongols in 1258) (erövrades av mongolerna i 1258)

(Mamelukes) (Mamelukes)

(first Dynasty, Bahri) (1250-1382) (första dynastin, Bahri) (1250-1382)

(second Dynasty, Burji) (1382-1517) (andra Dynasty, Burji) (1382-1517)

[two Caliphs, but just symbolic] [två kalifer, men bara symboliskt]

(defeated by Selim, 1517) (besegras av Selim, 1517)

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From about the 13th century various monarchs throughout the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman sultans, assumed the title caliph indiscriminately without regard to the prescribed requirements of the caliphate. Från omkring den 13: e århundradet olika monarker hela den muslimska världen, särskilt de osmanska sultanerna tog titeln kalifen urskillningslöst utan hänsyn till de föreskrivna kraven i kalifatet. The title held little significance for the Ottoman sultans until their empire began to decline. Titeln hade liten betydelse för den osmanska sultanerna tills deras imperium började avta. In the 19th century, with the advent of Christian powers in the Near East, the sultan began to emphasize his role as caliph in an effort to gain the support of Muslims living outside his realm. I den 19: e århundradet, och med tillkomsten av kristna makt i Främre Orienten började sultanen för att understryka sin roll som kalif i ett försök att vinna stöd från muslimer som bor utanför hans rike. The Ottoman Empire collapsed during World War I (1914-1918). Osmanska riket kollapsade under första världskriget (1914-1918). After the war, Turkish nationalists deposed the sultan, and the caliphate was finally abolished (March 1924) by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Efter kriget, turkiska nationalister avsatte sultanen, och kalifatet var slutligen avskaffades (mars 1924) av den turkiska nationalförsamlingen.


Also, see: Se även:
Islam, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad
Koran, Qur'an Koranen Koranen
Pillars of Faith Pillars of Faith
Abraham Abraham
Testament of Abraham Testament of Abraham
Allah Allah
Hadiths Hadith
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari Uppenbarelse - Hadiths från bokar 1 av al-Bukhari
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari Belief - Hadiths från bokar 2 av al-Bukhari
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari Kunskap - Hadiths från bokar 3 av al-Bukhari
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari Tider av bönerna - Hadiths från bokar 10 av al-Bukhari
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari Förkortning bönerna (På-Taqseer) - Hadiths från bokar 20 av al-Bukhari
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari Pilgrimsfärd (Hajj) - Hadiths från bokar 26 av al-Bukhari
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari Att slåss för orsaka av Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths av bokar 52 av al-Bukhari
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ENHETEN UNIKHETEN av Allah (TAWHEED) - Hadiths av bokar 93 av al-Bukhari
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah skolar teologin (Sunni)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah skolar teologin (Sunni)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah skolar teologin (Sunni)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah skolar teologin (Sunni)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah teologi (Sunni)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah teologi (Sunni)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah teologi
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari teologi, (Shia)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah teologi (Shia)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah teologi (Shia)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) Imamer (Shia)
Druze Druser
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (Shia)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail Ismael Ismail
Early Islamic History Outline Tidig islamisk historia Outline
Hegira Hegira
Averroes Averroes
Avicenna Avicenna
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone Kaaba, Black Stone
Ramadan Ramadan
Sunnites, Sunni Sunniter, Sunni
Shiites, Shia Shiiter, Shia
Mecca Mekka
Medina Medina
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih al-Bukhari
Sufism Sufism
Wahhabism Wahhabism
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr
Abbasids Abbasiderna
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads Umayyaderna
Fatima Fatima
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimiderna (Shia)
Ismailis (Shia) Ismailis (Shia)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin Saladin
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha Aisha
Ali Ali
Lilith Lilith
Islamic Calendar Händelser
Interactive Muslim Calendar Interaktiv muslimska kalendern


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