Baptist Radical Reformation; objected to Infant Baptism; demanded Church-State separation; John Smyth, English Separatist, 1609; Roger Williams, 1638, Providence RI Congrega- tional; each local Church is autonomous Scripture; Southern Baptists interpret the Bible literally Baptism, usually early teen years and afterward, by total immersion; Lord's Supper Worship styles vary from very staid to evang- elistic; much Missionary activity Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco; often a tendency toward a perfect- ionist ethical standard No Creed; the true Church is of believers only, who are all exactly equal, including Clergy Church and State separation, because no authority can stand between any believer and God.
Church
of Christ
(Disciples)
from evangelical Presbyterians in KY (1804) and PA (1809); troubled over Protestant factionalism and decline in religious fervor; organized in 1832 Congrega- tional Scriptures; where Scripture speaks, we speak, where Scripture is silent, we are silent Adult Baptism; Lord's Supper (weekly) tries to avoid any Rite not considered part of the first century Church; some Congreg- ations reject instru- mental music Some tendency toward perfect- ionism; interest in social action programs Simple New Testament Faith; avoids any elabor- ations that are not firmly based on Scripture Extremely tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters; very supportive of advanced education and scholas- ticism
Episco-
palian
Henry VIII separated the English Catholic Church from Rome, 1534, because of political reasons; Protestant Episcopal Church founded in US in 1789. part of the Anglican Communion; Diocesan Bishops elected by Parish represent- atives Scripture, as interpreted by Tradition, especially the 39 Articles (1563); tri-annual convention Infant Baptism; Eucharist; other Sacraments (taken as symbolic, but having real Spiritual effect) very formal, based on the Book of Common Prayer; Services range from austere and simple to extremely liturgical and structured tolerant, even sometimes permissive; moderate involvement in social action programs Scripture; the Apostles, Nicene and Athan- asian Creeds; and the Book of Common Prayer; ranges from Anglo-Catholic to the low Church, with some Calvinist influences Strongly ecumen- ical; holds talks with many branches of Christianity
Jehovah's
Witnesses
Founded in 1870 in PA by Charles Taze Russell; incorporated as Watchtower in 1884; named Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931 Each Witness is considered a Minister; each congregation under a body of Elders; a worldwide governing body in NY The Bible, a slightly different translation from other Bibles Baptism by immersion; annual Lord's Meal ceremony meetings are held in Kingdom Halls and members' homes for study and worship; Very aggressive and extensive door-to-door visits to non-members high moral code; stress on marital fidelity and family values; against all tobacco and blood transfusions God, through Jesus, will soon destroy all wicked- ness; 144,000 faithful will rule in Heaven with Christ, over others on a Paradise Earth Absolute allegiance proclaimed only to God's Kingdom or Heavenly govern- ment by Christ; the Watch- tower is published in 115 languages
Mormons
Latter
Day
Saints
Joseph Smith had a vision in NY in the 1820s; he reported receiving and translating copper and golden plates Theocratic; first presidency (President and two counselors) and 12 apostles preside over worldwide Church; Local Congreg- ations headed by lay priesthood leaders Revelation to a living prophet (the Church President); the Book of Mormon, the Pearl of Great Price, the Bible, and other revelations of Joseph Smith and his successors Baptism at age 8; laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit); Lord's Supper; temple Rites; Baptism for the dead; Marriage for eternity; others Simple Service and Prayers, Hymns, and Sermon; private temple ceremonies are sometimes more elaborate Temper- ance; strict moral code; intense titheing; strong work ethic, with communal self-reliance; intense missionary activity; emphasis on family Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the Eternal Father; Jesus' atonement saves all humans; those who are obedient to God's laws may become gods and reign with Christ in Heaven Mormons believe that theirs is the true Church of Jesus Christ, restored by God through Joseph Smith
Lutheran Martin Luther first attempted to reform the Catholic Church around 1517, but the Pope was displeased; objection to the Catholic doctrine of Salvation by Works and to the Indulgences; break became complete in 1519 varies from congrega- tional to episcopal; in US, regional Synods and Congreg- ational polities is common Scripture along; The Book of Concord (1580), is considered a correct exposition of Scripture; it also contains the three Creeds of Christianity Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, with Christ's true body and blood present in, with and under the bread and the wine relatively simple, formal liturgy with an emphasis on the Sermon generally conserv- ative in personal and social ethics; doctrine of Two Kingdoms (worldly and holy) supports conserv- atism in secular affairs Salvation is by Grace alone, through Faith; which is a core of most Protestant beliefs there are some divisions among ethnic lines; but the primary divisions are between fundamen- talists and liberals
Methodist John Wesley began the momement in 1738, within the Church of England; In US first in Baltimore 1784. Conference and super- intendant system Scripture, as interpreted by tradition, reason and experience Baptism of infants or adults; Lord's Supper (both com- manded); other Rites include Marriage, Ordination; Solemn- ization of personal commit- ments worship styles vary widely, by Church and geography originally pietist and perfect- ionist; always strong interest in social actions no distinctive theol- ogical devel- opment; the 25 Articles (abridged from the Church of England's 39 Articles) are not binding The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 by the combining of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church
Orthodox Began to disagree with the Catholic Church around 500 AD, primarily over the Filioque Clause the Catholic Church added to the Nicene Creed; break became complete in 1054 Synods of Bishops in autonomous Churches elect a Patriarch, Archbishop or Metropolitan, as the head of the Church Scripture, Tradition and the first Seven Ecumenical Councils; Bishops in Council have authority in doctrine and policy Generally Seven Sacraments; infant Baptism and anointing; Eucharist, Ordination, Penance; Marriage; anointing of the sick Very elaborate liturgy, usually in the local language; extremely traditional; the liturgy is the essence of the Orthodox Church; extensive veneration of icons most are tolerant, less so regarding Russian Orthodox; little interest in social action; divorce and remarriage are sometimes permitted; Bishops are celibate; Priests do not need to be Emphasis on Christ's Resur- rection, rather than the Crucifixion; the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father only The Orthodox Church in America was originally under the Patriarch of Moscow; granted autonomy in 1970; Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy
Pente-
costal
Disappointed with loss of religious fervor in Methodist Churches; began in Topeka, KS 1901 and Los Angeles 1906 Originally a movement and not a formal organization; now has a variety of organized forms and also continues as a Movement Scripture, and the leadership of individual Charismatic leaders, and the teachings of the Holy Spirit Spirit Baptism, specifically as demon- strated by Speaking in Tongues, or by Healing ability, or sometimes by Exorcism ability; adult Baptism; Lord's Supper rather loosely-structured Service, with rousing hymns and Sermons, culminating in Spirit Baptism; Members regularly interrupt the Service by outbursts of Tongues usually, emphasis on perfect- ionism; varying degrees of tolerance, sometimes none simple tradit- ional beliefs, usually Protestant, with emphasis on the immediate Presence of God in the Holy Spirit Pente- costals were once confined to lower-class holy-rollers types of Churches; it now has established middle-class congreg- ations; aspects of Pentecos- talism have appeared in mainline Churches
Presby-
terian
came out of 16-cent Calvinist reformation; differed with Lutherans over Sacraments and Church government; John Knox started Scottish Presbyterian Church around 1560 Very structured represent- ational system of Ministers and lay persons (Presbyters) in local, regional and national Synods Scripture Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence very simple and sober Service, with the Sermon central in it traditionally, a tendency toward strictness, with firm Church- and self- discipline; otherwise reasonably tolerant emphasis on the sover- eignty and justice of God; no longer dogmatic; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619) originally, predest- ination was a central belief (where God had pre- ordained Salvation for certain Elect); this is no longer a central element in most Presby- terian Churches
Reformed
Church
traditionally said to have formed from the work of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva; usually Presbyterian in structure Scripture Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence . strongly in favor of education of Church members; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619)
Roman
Catholic
traditionally founded by Jesus, with Peter named first leader; difficult first centuries, until Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity 312; then became the official religion of the Roman Empire Supreme power in one Pope, elected by College of Cardinals; Councils of Bishops advise him on matters of doctrine and policy The Pope (on matters of Faith and morals), and Tradition (expressed in Church Councils and in part contained in Scripture Mass; Seven Sacraments, Baptism, Reconcil- iation, Eucharist, Confirm- ation, Marriage, Ordination, and Unction or the anointing of the sick Rather elaborate and very ritual, centered on the Mass; Rosary recitations; Novenas; etc traditionally extremely strict, but becoming more tolerant in practice; divorce and remarriage not accepted; annulments sometimes granted; celibate clergy, except in Eastern Rite Churches highly elaborated, Salvation by merit (Good Works) gained through Grace; extremely dogmatic; special veneration of the Virgin Mary; veneration of many Saints extremely slow to ever change, except after Vatican II; Mass is now in local languages and no longer in Latin; increasing interest in social action, tolerance and ecumenism
United
Church
of Christ
formed by ecumenical union of Congrega- tionalists, Evangelicals and Reformed in 1957; represents both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions Congrega- tional; a general Synod, represent- ative of all congreg- ations, sets general policy Scripture Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper Usually very simple Services with an emphasis on the Sermon tolerant; moderate social action efforts standard Protestant; Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding the two main Churches that joined in 1957 were already combin- ations of Churches from many parts of Protestant Denomin- ations
Indep- endent Arise from nearly all Denom- inations; either a new combin- ation of two existing Churches' beliefs; or some new and unique approach to Christianity; can sometimes lead to formation of cults Independent Scripture alone Baptism; Lord's Supper, the two Sacraments mentioned in the Bible Quite variable; music and even bands often participate in the Service; many have very unique present- ations of the Service Generally good; often influenced by the personal attitudes of its Minister generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church Extremely variable, generally dependent on the attitude and personality of the Minister; almost no limits seem to exist, and some such Churches are commonly seen as cults
Non-
Denomi-
national
Generally form as Independent Churches, bothered by the divis- iveness of many Churches; attempt to Teach only core Christian beliefs in order to attract and welcome people from all forms of Christ- ianity Independent, usually with attempts to structure as based on Scriptures from the Bible Scripture alone Baptism; Lord's Supper; as being the only Sacraments actually mentioned in the Bible; other Sacraments are all respected, and observed as desired by individuals Quite variable; often like the Service of Indepen- dent Churches above. What Would Jesus Do? (WWJD) generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church; What Would Jesus Do? (WWJD) Non- Denomin- ational Churches rarely have Crosses or Crucifixes displayed anywhere, partly because some possible attendees might have attitudes against icons. A rather simple and central present- ation of the Bible's Christ- ianity