Hezbollah

{hez' - bah - lah}

General Information

Hezbollah, or Party of God, is an informal umbrella group of Shiite Muslim militants in Lebanon that advocates the creation of an Islamic republic there. Formed in about 1983, it places Islam above Arab nationalism and has demanded that Westerners leave Lebanon and that Christians there be tried for crimes against Muslims. Hezbollah's more than 5,000 members, subsidized and trained by Iran, are concentrated in the southern slums of Beirut and al - Biqa (Bekaa) Valley; they become martyrs if they sacrifice their lives in what is considered a holy war.

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The organization has no formal structure; its fluid membership includes such shadowy terrorist groups as Islamic Jihad, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine, and the Arab Revolutionary Cells. Hezbollah groups have claimed responsibility for the 1983 bombings of the U S embassy and marine headquarters in Beirut, several hijackings, and the taking of Western and Israeli hostages. In January 1989, after months of armed clashes, Hezbollah signed a peace agreement with the mainstream Lebanese Shiite group, the Syrian backed Amal (Hope).

The 1989 death of Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini and a Syrian brokered Lebanese peace accord led to a decline in Hezbollah's influence in the early 1990s. Hezbollah's tactics and shadowy nature frustrated conventional political, diplomatic, and military strategies and contributed to a U S foreign policy scandal, the Iran Contra Affair. After the Persian Gulf War (1991), in an effort to end its international isolation, the Iranian government persuaded Hezbollah groups to release some hostages.

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Also, see:
Islam, Muhammad
Koran, Qur'an
Pillars of Faith
Abraham
Testament of Abraham
Allah
Hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)
Mutazilah Theology
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)
Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)
Druze
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)
Ahmadi
Ishmael, Ismail
Early Islamic History Outline
Hegira
Averroes
Avicenna
Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone
Ramadan
Sunnites, Sunni
Shiites, Shia
Mecca
Medina
Sahih, al-Bukhari
Sufism
Wahhabism
Abu Bakr
Abbasids
Ayyubids
Umayyads
Fatima
Fatimids (Shia)
Ismailis (Shia)
Mamelukes
Saladin
Seljuks
Aisha
Ali
Lilith
Islamic Calendar
Interactive Muslim Calendar


The individual articles presented here were generally first published in the early 1980s. This subject presentation was first placed on the Internet in May 1997.

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