Treatises of Cyprian - XII - Book 3

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Translated by the Rev. Ernest Wallis, Phd.

Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional introductionary material and notes provided for the American edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.


Treatise XII

Third Book.

Cyprian to his son Quirinus, [4084] greeting. Of your faith and devotion which you manifest to the Lord God, beloved son, you asked me to gather out for your instruction from the Holy Scriptures some heads bearing upon the religious teaching of our school; [4085] seeking for a succinct course of sacred reading, so that your mind, surrendered to God, might not be wearied with long or numerous volumes of books, but, instructed with a summary of heavenly precepts, might have a wholesome and large compendium for nourishing its memory. And because I owe you a plentiful and loving obedience, I have done what you wished. I have laboured for once, that you might not always labour. [4086] Therefore, as much as my small ability could embrace, I have collected certain precepts of the Lord, and divine teachings, which may be easy and useful to the readers, in that a few things digested into a short space are both quickly read through, and are frequently repeated. I bid you, beloved son, ever heartily farewell.

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Heads. [4087]

1. On the benefit of good works and mercy.

2. In works and alms, even if by smallness of power less be done, that the will itself is enough.

3. That charity and brotherly love must be religiously and stedfastly practised.

4. That we must boast in nothing, since nothing is our own.

5. That humility and quietness is to be maintained in all things.

6. That all good and righteous men suffer more, but ought to endure because they are proved.

7. That we must not grieve the Holy Spirit whom we have received.

8. That anger must be overcome, lest it constrain us to sin.

9. That brethren ought to sustain one another.

10. That we must trust in God only, and in Him we must glory.

11. That he who has attained to faith, having put off the former man, ought to regard only celestial and spiritual things, and to give no heed.to the world which he has already renounced.

12. That we must not swear.

13. That we are not to curse.

14. That we must never murmur, but bless God concerning all things that happen.

15. That men are tried by God for this purpose, that they may be proved.

16. Of the benefit of martyrdom.

17. That what we suffer in this world is of less account than is the reward which is promised.

18. That nothing must be preferred to the love of God and of Christ.

19. That we must not obey our own will, but that of God.

20. That the foundation and strength of hope and faith is fear.

21. That we must not rashly judge of another.

22. That when we have received a wrong, we must remit and forgive it.

23. That evil is not to be returned for evil.

24. That it is impossible to attain to the Father but by Christ.

25. That unless a man have been baptized and born again, he cannot attain to the kingdom of God.

26. That it is of small account to be baptized and to receive the Eucharist, unless one profits by it both in deeds and works.

27. That even a baptized person loses the grace which he has attained, unless he keep innocency.

28. That remission cannot in the Church be granted unto him who has sinned against God.

29. That it was before predicted concerning the hatred of the Name.

30. That what any one has vowed to God, he must quickly pay.

31. That he who does not believe is judged already.

32. Of the benefit of virginity and of continency.

33. That the Father judgeth nothing, but the Son; and the Father is not honoured by him by whom the Son is not honoured.

34. That the believer ought not to live like the Gentiles.

35. That God is patient for this end, that we may repent of our sin and be reformed.

36. That a woman ought not to be adorned in a worldly manner.

37. That the believer ought not to be punished for other offences but for the name he bears only.

38. That the servant of God ought to be innocent, lest he fall into secular punishment.

39. That the example of living is given to us in Christ.

40. That we must not labour boastfully or noisily.

41. That we must not speak foolishly and offensively.

42. That faith is of advantage altogether, and that we can do as much as we believe.

43. That he who truly believes can immediately obtain.

44. That the believers who differ among themselves ought not to refer to a Gentile judge.

45. That hope is of future things, and therefore that faith concerning those things which are promised ought to be patient.

46. That a woman ought to be silent in the church.

47. That it arises from our fault and our desert that we suffer, and do not perceive God's help in everything.

48. That we must not take usury.

49. That even our enemies are to be loved.

50. That the sacrament of the faith must not be profaned.

51. That no one should be uplifted in his doing.

52. That the liberty of believing or of not believing is placed in free choice.

53. That the secrets of God cannot be seen through, and therefore that our faith ought to be simple.

54. That none is without filth and without sin.

55. That we must not please men, but God.

56. That nothing that is done is hidden from God.

57. That the believer is amended and reserved.

58. That no one should be made sad by death, since in living is labour and peril, in dying peace and the certainty of resurrection.

59. Of the idols which the Gentiles think gods.

60. That too great lust of food is not to be desired.

61. That the lust of possessing, and money, are not to be desired.

62. That marriage is not to be contracted with Gentiles.

63. That the sin of fornication is grievous.

64. What are those carnal things which beget death, and what are the spiritual things which lead to life.

65. That all sins are put away in baptism.

66. That the discipline of God is to be observed in Church precepts.

67. That it was foretold that men would despise sound discipline.

68. That we must depart from him who lives irregularly and contrary to discipline.

69. That the kingdom of God is not in the wisdom of the world, nor in eloquence, but in the faith of the cross and in virtue of conversation.

70. That we must obey parents.

71. And that fathers ought not to be bitter against their children.

72. That servants, when they believe, ought the more to be obedient to their fleshly masters.

73. Likewise that masters ought to be more gentle.

74. That every widow that is approved ought to be honoured.

75. That every person ought to have care rather of his own people, and especially of believers.

76. That one who is older must not rashly be accused.

77. That the sinner is to be publicly reproved.

78. That we must not speak with heretics.

79. That innocency asks with confidence, and obtains.

80. That the devil has no power against man unless God have allowed it.

81. That wages be quickly paid to the hireling.

82. That divination must not be used.

83. That a tuft of hair [4088] is not to be worn on the head.

84. That the beard must not be plucked.

85. That we must rise when a bishop or a presbyter comes.

86. That a schism must not be made, even although he who withdraws should remain in one faith and in the same tradition.

87. That believers ought to be simple with prudence.

88. That a brother must not be deceived.

89. That the end of the world comes suddenly.

90. That a wife must not depart from her husband; or if she departs, she must remain unmarried.

91. That every one is tempted so much as he is able to bear.

92. That not everything is to be done which is lawful.

93. That it was foretold that heresies would arise.

94. That the Eucharist is to be received with fear and honour.

95. That we are to live with the good, but to avoid the evil.

96. That we must labour with deeds, not with words.

97.That we must hasten to faith and to attainment. [4089]

98. That the catechumen ought to sin no more.

99. That judgment will be in accordance with the terms, before the law, of equity; after Moses, of the law.

100. That the grace of God ought to be gratuitous.

101. That the Holy Spirit has often appeared in fire.

102. That all good men ought willingly to hear rebuke.

103. That we must abstain from much speaking.

104. That we must not lie.

105. That they are frequently to be corrected who do wrong in domestic service.

106. That when a wrong is received, patience is to be maintained, and that vengeance is to be left to God.

107. That we must not use detraction.

108. That we must not lay snares against our neighbour.

109. That the sick are to be visited.

110. That tale-bearers are accursed.

111. That the sacrifices of evil men are not acceptable.

112. That those are more severely judged who in this world have more power.

113. That widows and orphans ought to be protected.

114. That while one is in the flesh, he ought to make confession.

115. That flattery is pernicious.

116. That God is more loved by him Who has had many sins forgiven in baptism.

117. That there is a strong conflict to be waged against the devil, and that therefore we ought to stand bravely, that we may be able to conquer.

118. Of Antichrist, that he will come as a man.

119. That the yoke of the law was heavy, which is cast off by us; and that the Lord's yoke is light, which is taken up by us.

120. That we are to be urgent in prayers.

Testimonies.

1. Of the benefit of good works and mercy.

In Isaiah: "Cry aloud," saith He, "and spare not; lift up thy voice like a trumpet; tell my people their sins, and the house of Jacob their wickednesses. They seek me from day to day, and desire to know my ways, as a people which did righteousness, and did not forsake the judgment of God. They ask of me now a righteous judgment, and desire to approach to God, saying, What! because we have fasted, and Thou hast not seen: we have humiliated our souls, and Thou hast not known. For in the days of fasting are found your own wills; for either ye torment those who are subjected to you, or ye fast for strifes and judgments, or ye strike your neighbours with fists. For what do you fast unto me, that to-day your voice should be heard in clamour? This fast I have not chosen, save that a man should humble his soul. And if thou shalt bend thy neck like a ring, and spread under thee sackcloth and ashes, neither thus shall it be called an acceptable fast. Not such a fast have I chosen, saith the Lord; but loose every knot of unrighteousness, let go the chokings of impotent engagements. [4090] Send away the harassed into rest, and scatter every unrighteous contract. Break thy bread to the hungry, and bring the houseless poor into thy dwelling. If thou seest the naked, clothe him; and despise not them of thy own seed in thy house. Then shall thy seasonable light break forth, and thy garments shall quickly arise; and righteousness shall go before thee: and the glory of God shall surround thee. Then thou shalt cry out, and God shall hear thee; while thou art yet speaking, He shall say, Here I am." [4091] Concerning this same thing in Job: "I have preserved the needy from the hand of the mighty; and I have helped the orphan, to whom there was no helper. The mouth of the widow blessed me, since I was the eye of the blind; I was also the foot of the lame, and the father of the weak." [4092] Of this same matter in Tobit: "And I said to Tobias, My son, go and bring whatever poor man thou shalt find out of our brethren, who still has God in mind with his whole heart. Bring him hither, and he shall eat my dinner together with me. Behold, I attend thee, my son, until thou come." [4093] Also in the same place: "All the days of thy life, my son, keep God in mind, and transgress not His precepts. Do justice all the days of thy life, and do not walk in the way of unrighteousness; because if thou act truly, there will be respect of thy works. Give alms of thy substance, and turn not thy face from any poor man. So shall it come to pass that the face of God shall not be turned away from thee. Even as thou hast, my son, so do: if thou hast abundant substance, give the more alms therefrom; if thou hast little, communicate even of that little. And do not fear when thou givest alms: thou layest up for thyself a good reward against the day of need; because alms delivereth from death, and does not suffer to go into darkness. Alms is a good office for all who do it in the sight of the most high God." [4094] On this same subject in Solomon in Proverbs: "He that hath pity on the poor lendeth unto the Lord." [4095] Also in the same place: "He that giveth to the poor shall never want; but he who turns away his eye shall be in much penury." [4096] Also in the same place: "Sins are purged away by alms-giving and faith." [4097] Again, in the same place: "If thine enemy hunger, feed him; and if he thirst, give him to drink: for by doing this thou shalt scatter live coals upon his head." [4098] Again, in the same place: "As water extinguishes fire, so alms-giving extinguishes sin." [4099] In the same in Proverbs: "Say not, Go away, and return, to-morrow I will give; when you can do good immediately. For thou knowest not what may happen on the coming day." [4100] Also in the same place: "He who stoppeth his ears that he may not hear the weak, shall himself call upon God, and there shall be none to hear him." [4101] Also in the same place: "He who has his conversation without reproach in righteousness, leaves blessed children." [4102] In the same in Ecclesiasticus: "My son, if thou hast, do good by thyself, and present worthy offerings to God; remember that death delayeth not." [4103] Also in the same place: "Shut up alms in the heart of the poor, and this will entreat for thee from all evil." [4104] Concerning this thing in the thirty-sixth Psalm, that mercy is beneficial also to one's posterity: "I have been young, and I have also grown old; and I have not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging their bread. The whole day he is merciful, and lendeth; and his seed is in blessing." [4105] Of this same thing in the fortieth Psalm: "Blessed is he who considereth over the poor and needy: in the evil day God will deliver him." [4106] Also in the cxith Psalm: "He hath distributed, he hath given to the poor; his righteousness shall remain from generation to generation." [4107] Of this same thing in Hosea: "I desire mercy rather than sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than whole burnt-offerings." [4108] Of this same thing also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be satisfied." [4109] Also in the same place: "Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy." [4110] Also in the same place: "Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not dig through and steal: for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also." [4111] Also in the same place: "The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman seeking goodly pearls: and when he hath found a precious pearl, he went away and sold all that he had, and bought it." [4112] That even a small work is of advantage, also in the same place: "And whoever shall give to drink to one of the least of these a cup of cold water in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, His reward shall not perish." [4113] That alms are to be denied to none, also in the same place: "Give to every one that asketh thee; and from him who would wish to borrow, be not turned away." [4114] Also in the same place: "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. He saith, Which? Jesus saith unto him, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honour thy father and mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. The young man saith unto Him, All these things have I observed: what lack I yet? Jesus saith unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell all that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me." [4115] Also in the same place: "When the Son of man shall come in His majesty, and all the angels with Him, then He shall sit on the throne of His glory: and all nations shall be gathered together before Him; and He shall separate them one from another, even as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats: and He shall place the sheep on the right hand, but the goats on the left hand. Then shall the King say unto them that are on His right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, receive the kingdom prepared for you from the beginning of the world. For I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer Him, and say, Lord, when saw we Thee [4116] a stranger, and took Thee in: naked, and clothed Thee? And when saw we Thee sick, and in prison, and came to Thee? And the King, answering, shall say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it to one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it unto me. Then shall He say unto them who are on His left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, which my Father hath prepared for the devil and his angels: for I was hungry, and ye gave me not to eat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me not to drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: I was naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they also answer, and say, Lord, when saw we Thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto Thee? And He shall answer them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not unto me. And these shall go away into everlasting burning: but the righteous into life eternal." [4117] Concerning this same matter in the Gospel according to Luke: "Sell your possessions, and give alms." [4118] Also in the same place: "He who made that which is within, made that which is without also. But give alms, and, behold, all things are pure unto you." [4119] Also in the same place: "Behold, the half of my substance I give to the poor; and if I have defrauded any one of anything, I restore him fourfold. And Jesus said unto him, that salvation has this day been wrought for this house, since he also is a son of Abraham." [4120] Of this same thing also in the second Epistle to the Corinthians: "Let your abundance supply their want, that their abundance also may be the supplement of your want, that there may be equality: as it is written, He who had much had not excess; and he who had little had no lack." [4121] Also in the same place: "He who soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he who soweth in blessing shall reap also of blessing. But let every one do as he has proposed in his heart: not as if sorrowfully, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver." [4122] Also in the same place: "As it is written, He hath dispersed abroad; he hath given to the poor: his righteousness remaineth for ever." [4123] Likewise in the same place: "Now he who ministereth seed to the sower, shall both supply bread to be eaten, and shall multiply your seed, and shall increase the growth of the fruits of your righteousness: that in all things ye may be made rich." [4124] Also in the same place: "The administration of this service has not only supplied that which is lacking to the saints, but has abounded by much giving of thanks unto God." [4125] Of this same matter in the Epistle of John: "Whoso hath this world's substance, and seeth his brother desiring, and shutteth up his bowels from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him? " [4126] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Luke: "When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor brethren, nor neighbours, nor the rich; lest haply they also invite thee again, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a banquet, call the poor, the weak, the blind, and lame: and thou shalt be blessed; because they have not the means of rewarding thee: but thou I shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the I just." [4127]

2. In works and alms, even if by smallness of power less be done, that the will itself is sufficient.

In the second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "If there be a ready will, it is acceptable according to what a man hath, not according to that which he hath not; nor let there be to others a mitigation, but to you a burdening. [4128]

3. That charity and brotherly affection are to be religiously and stedfastly practised.

In Malachi: "Hath not one God created us? Is there not one Father of us all? Why have ye certainly deserted every one his brother? " [4129] Of this same thing according to John: "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you." [4130] Also in the same place: "This is my commandment, That ye love one another, even as I have loved you. Greater love than this has no man, than that one should lay down his life for his friends." [4131] Also in the same place: "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the sons of God." [4132] Also in the same place: "Verily I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth concerning everything, whatever you shall ask it shall be given you from my Father which is in heaven. For wherever two or three are gathered together in my name, I am with them." [4133] Of this same thing in the first Epistle to the Corinthians: "And I indeed, brethren, could not speak unto you as to spiritual, but as to carnal, as to babes in Christ. I have given you milk for drink, not meat: for while ye were yet little ye were not able to bear it, neither now are ye able. For ye are still carnal: for where there are in you emulation, and strife, and dissensions, are ye not carnal, and walk after man? " [4134] Likewise in the same place: "And if I should have all faith, so that I can remove mountains, but have not charity, I am nothing. And if I should distribute all my goods for food, and if I should deliver up my body to be burned, but have not charity, I avail nothing. Charity is great-souled; charity is kind; charity envieth not; charity dealeth not falsely; is not puffed up; is not irritated; thinketh not evil; rejoiceth not in injustice, but rejoiceth in the truth. It loveth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, beareth all things. Charity shall never fail." [4135] Of this same thing to the Galatians: "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if ye bite and accuse one another, see that ye be not consumed one of another." [4136] Of this same thing in the Epistle of John: "In this appear the children of God and the children of the devil. Whosoever is not righteous is not of God, and he who loveth not his brother. For he who hateth his brother is a murderer; and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him." [4137] Also in the same place: "If any one shall say that he loves God, and hates his brother, he is a liar: for he who loveth not his brother whom he seeth, how can he love God whom he seeth not? " [4138] Of this same thing in the Acts of the Apostles: "But the multitude of them that had believed acted with one soul and mind: nor was there among them any distinction, neither did they esteem as their own anything of the possessions that they had; but all things were common to them." [4139] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: If thou wouldest offer thy gift at the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; leave thou thy gift before the altar, and go; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift at the altar." [4140] Also in the Epistle of John: "God is love l and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him." [4141] Also in the same place: "He who saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is a liar, and walketh in darkness even until now." [4142]

4. That we must boast in nothing, since nothing is our own.

In the Gospel according to John: "No one can receive anything, except it were given him from heaven." [4143] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "For what hast thou that thou hast not received? But if thou hast received it, why boastest thou, as if thou hadst not received it? " [4144] Also in the first of Kings: "Boast not, neither speak lofty things, and let not great speeches proceed out of your mouth, for the Lord is a God of knowledge." [4145] Also in the same place: "The bow of the mighty men has been made weak, and the weak are girt about with strength." [4146] Of this same thing in the Maccabees: "It is just to be subjected to God, and that a mortal should not think things equal to God." [4147] Also in the same place: "And fear not the words of a man that is a sinner, because his glory shall be filth and worms. Today he shall be lifted up, and to-morrow he shall not be found; because he is turned into his earth, and his thought has perished." [4148]

5. That humility and quietness are to be maintained in all things.

In Isaiah: "Thus saith the Lord God, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is the stool of my feet. What seat will ye build for me, or what is the place for my rest? For all those things hath my hand made, and all those things are mine. And upon whom else will I look, except upon the lowly and quiet man, and him that trembleth at my words? " [4149] On this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth." [4150] Of this same thing, too, according to Luke: "He that shall be least among you all, the same shall be great." [4151] Also in the same lace: "Whosoever exalteth himself shall be made low, and whosoever abaseth himself shall be exalted." [4152] Of this same thing to the Romans: "Be not high-minded, but fear; for if God spared not the natural branches, (take heed) lest He also spare not thee." [4153] Of this same thing in the thirty-third Psalm: And He shall save the lowly in spirit." [4154] Also to the Romans: "Render to all what is due: tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour; owe no man anything, except to love another." [4155] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "They love the first place of reclining at feasts, and the chief seat in the synagogues, and salutations in the market, and to be called of men Rabbi. But call not ye Rabbi, for One is your Master." [4156] Also in the Gospel according to John: "The servant is not greater than his lord, nor the apostle greater than He that sent himself. If ye know these things, blessed shall ye be if ye shall do them." [4157] Also in the eighty-first Psalm: "Do justice to the poor and lowly." [4158]

6. That all good and righteous men suffer more, but ought to endure because they are proved.

In Solomon: "The furnace proveth the vessels of the potter, and the trial of tribulation righteous men." [4159] Also in the fiftieth Psalm: "The sacrifice to God is a contrite spirit; a contrite and humbled heart God will not despise." [4160] Also in the thirty-third Psalm: "God is nearest to them that are contrite in heart, and He will save the lowly in spirit." [4161] Also in the same place: "Many are the afflictions of the righteous, but out of them all the Lord will deliver them." [4162] Of this same matter in Job: "Naked came I out of my mother's womb, naked also shall I go under the earth: the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away: as it hath pleased the Lord, so it is done; blessed be the name of the Lord. In all these things which happened to him Job sinned in nothing with his lips in the sight of the Lord." [4163] Concerning this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." [4164] Also according to John: "These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace. But in the world ye shall have affliction; but have confidence, for I have overcome the world." [4165] Concerning this same thing in the second Epistle to the Corinthians: "There was given to me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to buffet me, that I should not be exalted. For which thing I thrice besought the Lord, that it should depart from me. And He said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee; for strength is perfected in weakness." [4166] Concerning this same thing to the Romans: "We glory in hope of the glory of God. And not only so, but we also glory in afflictions: knowing that affliction worketh patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope: and hope does not confound; because the love of God is infused in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, which is given unto us." [4167] On this same subject, according to Matthew: "How broad and spacious is the way which leadeth unto death, and many there are who go in thereby: how straight and narrow is the way that leadeth to life, and few there are that find it!" [4168] Of this same thing in Tobias: "Where are thy righteousnesses? behold what thou sufferest." [4169] Also in the Wisdom of Solomon: "In the places of the wicked the righteous groan; but at their ruin the righteous will abound." [4170]

7. That we must not grieve the Holy Spirit, whom we have received.

Paul the apostle to the Ephesians: "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, in which ye were sealed in the day of redemption. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and indignation, and clamour, and blasphemy, be taken away from you." [4171]

8. That anger must be overcome, lest it constrain us to sin.

In Solomon in the Proverbs: "Better is a patient man than a strong man; for he who restrains his anger is better than he who taketh a city." [4172] Also in the same place: "The imprudent man declareth his anger on the same day, but the crafty man hideth away his dishonour." [4173] Of this same thing to the Ephesians: "Be ye angry, and sin not. Let not the sun set upon your wrath." [4174] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Ye have heard that it was said by the ancients, Thou shalt not kill; and whoever shall kill shall be guilty of the judgment. But I say unto you, That every one who is angry with his brother without cause shall be guilty of the judgment." [4175]

9. That brethren ought to support one another.

To the Galatians: "Each one having others in consideration, lest ye also should be tempted. Bear ye one another's burdens, and so ye shah fulfil the law of Christ." [4176]

10. That we must trust in God only, and in Him we must glory.

In Jeremiah: "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the strong man glory in his strength, nor let the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understands and knows that I am the Lord, who do mercy, and judgment, and righteousness upon the earth, because in them is my pleasure, saith the Lord." [4177] Of the same thing in the fifty-fourth Psalm: "In the Lord have I hoped; I will not fear what man can do unto me." [4178] Also in the same place: "To none but God alone is my soul subjected." [4179] Also in the cxviith Psalm: "I will not fear what man can do unto me; the Lord is my helper." [4180] Also in the same place: "It is good to trust in the Lord rather than to trust in man; it is good to hope in the Lord rather than to hope in princes." [4181] Of this same thing in Daniel: "But Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered and said to king Nebuchadnezzar, O king, there is no need to answer thee concerning this word. For God, whom we serve, is able to deliver us from the furnace of burning fire; and He will deliver us from thine hand, O king. And if not, be it known unto thee that we serve not thy gods, and we adore not the golden image which thou hast set up." [4182] Likewise in Jeremiah: "Cursed is the man who hath hope in man; and blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord, and his hope shall be in God." [4183] Concerning this same thing in Deuteronomy: "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve." [4184] Of this same thing to the Romans: "And they worshipped and served the creature, forsaking the Creator. Wherefore also God gave them up to ignominious passions." [4185] Of this thing also in John: "Greater is He who is in you than he who is in this world." [4186]

11. That he who has attained to trust, having put off the former man, ought to regard only celestial and spiritual things, and to give no heed to the world which he has already renounced.

In Isaiah: "Seek ye the Lord; and when ye have found Him, call upon Him. But when He hath come near unto you, let the wicked forsake his ways, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him be turned unto the Lord, and he shall obtain mercy, because He will plentifully pardon your sins." [4187] Of this same thing in Solomon: "I have seen all the works which are done under the sun; and, lo, all are vanity." [4188] Of this same thing in Exodus: "But thus shall ye eat it; your loins girt, and your shoes on your feet, and your staves in your hands: and ye shall eat it in haste, for it is the Lord's passover." [4189] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewith shall we be clothed? for these things the nations seek after. But your Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. Seek first the kingdom of God, and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you." [4190] Likewise in the same place: "Think not for the morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for itself. Sufficient unto the day is its own evil." [4191] Likewise in the same place: "No one looking back, and putting his hands to the plough, is fit for the kingdom of God." [4192] Also in the same place: "Behold the fowls of the heaven: for they sow not, nor reap, nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are not ye of more value than they? " [4193] Concerning this same thing, according to Luke: "Let your loins be girded, and your lamps burning; and ye like unto men that wait for their lord, when he cometh from the wedding; that, when he cometh and knocketh, they may open to him. Blessed are those servants, whom their lord, when he cometh, shall find watching." [4194] Of this same thing in Matthew: "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests; but the Son of man hath not where He may lay His head." [4195] Also in the same place: "Whoso forsaketh not all that he hath, cannot be my disciple." [4196] Of this same thing in the first to the Corinthians: "Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a great price. Glorify and bear God in your body." [4197] Also in the same place: "The time is limited. It remaineth, therefore, that both they who have wives be as though they have them not, and they who lament as they that lament not, and they that rejoice as they that rejoice not, and they who buy as they that buy not, and they who possess as they who possess not, and they who use this world as they that use it not; for the fashion of this world passeth away." [4198] Also in the same place: "The first man is of the clay of the earth, the second man from heaven. As he is of the clay, such also are they who are of the clay; and as is the heavenly, such also are the heavenly. Even as we have borne the image of him who is of the clay, let us bear His image also who is from heaven." [4199] Of this same matter to the Philippians: "All seek their own, and not those things which are Christ s; whose end is destruction, whose god is their belly, and their glory is to their confusion, who mind earthly things. For our conversation is in heaven, whence also we expect the Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall transform the body of our humiliation conformed to the body of His glory." [4200] Of this very matter to Galatians: "But be it far from me to boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world." [4201] Concerning this same thing to Timothy: "No man that warreth for God bindeth himself with worldly annoyances, that he may please Him to whom he hath approved himself. But and if a man should contend, he will not be crowned unless he fight lawfully." [4202] Of this same thing to the Colossians: "If ye be dead with Christ froth I the elements of the world, why still, as if living in the world, do ye follow vain things? " [4203] Also concerning this same thing: "If ye have risen together with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is sitting on the right hand of God. Give heed to the things that are above, not to those things which are on the earth; for ye are dead, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. But when Christ your life shall appear, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory." [4204] Of this same thing to the Ephesians: Put off the old man of the former conversation, who is corrupted, according to the lusts of deceit. But be ye renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new man, him who according to God is ordained in righteousness, and holiness, and truth." [4205] Of this same thing in the Epistle of Peter: "As strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul; but having a good conversation among the Gentiles, that while they detract from you as if from evildoers, yet, beholding your good works, they may magnify God." [4206] Of this same thing in the Epistle of John: "He who saith he abideth in Christ, ought himself also to walk even as He walked." [4207] Also in the same place: "Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man loveth the world, the love of the Father is not in him. Because everything which is in the world is lust of the flesh, and lust of the eyes, and the ambition of this world, which is not of the Father, but of the lust of this world. And the world shall pass away with its lust. But he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever, even as God abideth for ever." [4208] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new dough, as ye are unleavened. For also Christ our passover is sacrificed. Therefore let us celebrate the feast, not in the old leaven, nor in the leaven of malice and wickedness, but in the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth." [4209]

12. That we must not swear.

In Solomon: "A man that sweareth much shall be filled with iniquity, and the plague shall not depart from his house; and if he swear vainly, he shall not be justified." [4210] Of this same matter, according to Matthew: "(Again, ye have heard that it was said to them of old, Thou shalt not swear falsely, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths.) I say unto you, Swear not at all: (neither by heaven, because it is God's throne; nor by the earth, because it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King; neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.) But let your discourse be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: (for whatever is fuller than these is of evil.") [4211] Of this same thing in Exodus: "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain." [4212]

13. That we must not curse.

In Exodus: "Thou shalt not curse nor speak ill of the ruler of thy people." [4213] Also in the thirty-third Psalm: "Who is the man who desires life, and loveth to see good days? Restrain thy tongue from evil, and thy lips that they speak no guile." [4214] Of this same thing in Leviticus: "And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Bring forth him who hath cursed abroad outside the camp; and all who heard him shall place their hands upon his head, and all the assembly of the children of Israel shall stone him." [4215] Of this same thing in Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians: "Let no evil discourse proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good for the edification of faith, that it may give grace to the hearers." [4216] Of this same thing to the Romans: "Blessing, and not cursing." [4217] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: "He who shall say to his brother, Thou fool! shall be liable to the Gehenna of fire." [4218] Of this same matter, according to the same Matthew: "But I say unto you, That every idle word which men shall speak, they shall give account for it in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned." [4219]

14. That we must never murmur, but bless God concerning all things that happen.

In Job: "Say some word against the Lord, and die. But he, looking upon her, said, Thou speakest as one of the foolish women. If we have received good things from the Lord's hand, why shall we not endure evil things? In all these things which happened unto him, Job sinned not with his lips in the sight of the Lord." [4220] Also in the same place: "Hast thou regarded my servant Job? for there is none like unto him in the earth: a man without complaint: a true worshipper of God, restraining himself from all evil." [4221] Of the same thing in the thirty-third Psalm: "I will bless the Lord at all times: His praise shall ever be in my mouth." [4222] Of this same thing in Numbers: "Let their murmuring cease from me, and they shall not die." [4223] Of this same thing in the Acts of the Apostles: "But about the middle of the night Paul and Silas prayed and gave thanks to God, and the prisoners heard them." [4224] Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians: "But doing all things for love, without murmurings and revilings, [4225] that ye may be without complaint, and spotless sons of God." [4226]

15. That men are tried by God for this purpose, that they may be proved.

In Genesis: "And God, tempted Abraham, and said to him, Take thy only son whom thou lovest, Isaac, and go into the high land, and offer him there as a burnt-offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell thee." [4227] Of this same thing in Deuteronomy: "The Lord your God proveth you, that He may know if ye love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul." [4228] Of this same thing in the Wisdom of Solomon: "Although in the sight of men they suffered torments, their hope is full of immortality; and having been in few things distressed, yet in many things they shall be happily ordered, because God tried them, and found them worthy of Himself. As gold in the furnace He proved them, and as a burnt-offering He received them. And in their time there shall be respect of them; they shall judge the nations, and shall rule over the people; and their Lord shall reign for ever." [4229] Of this same thing in the Maccabees: "Was not Abraham found faithful in temptation, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness? " [4230]

16. Of the benefits of martyrdom.

In the Proverbs of Solomon: "The faithful martyr delivers his soul from evils." [4231] Also in the same place: "Then shall the righteous stand in great boldness against them who have afflicted them, and who took away their labours. When they see them, they shall be disturbed with a horrible fear; and they shall wonder at the suddenness of their unhoped-for salvation, saying among themselves, repenting and groaning with distress of spirit, These are they whom some time we had in derision, and in the likeness of a proverb; we fools counted their life madness, and their end without honour. How are they reckoned among the children of God, and their lot among the saints! Therefore we have wandered from the way of truth, and the light of righteousness has not shined upon us, and the sun has not risen upon us. We have been wearied in the way of iniquity and of perdition, and we have walked through difficult solitudes; but we have not known the way of the Lord. What hath pride profited us? or what hath the boasting of riches brought to us? All these things have passed away as a shadow." [4232] Of this same thing in the cxvth Psalm: "Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints." [4233] Also in the cxxvth Psalm: "They who sow in tears shall reap in joy. Walking they walked, and wept as they cast their seeds; but coming they shall come in joy, raising up their laps." [4234] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to John: "He who loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall find it to life eternal." [4235] Also in the same place: "But when they shall deliver you up, take no thought what ye shall speak; for it is not ye who speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you." [4236] Also in the same place: "The hour shall come, that every one that killeth you shall think he doeth service to God l but they shall do this also because they have not known the Father nor me." [4237] Of this same matter, according to Matthew: "Blessed are they which shall suffer persecution for righteousness sake; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." [4238] Also in the same place: "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear Him which is able to kill the soul and body in Gehenna." [4239] Also in the same place: "Whosoever shall confess me before men, him also will I confess before my Father which is in heaven; but he who shall deny me before men, him also will I deny before my Father which is in heaven. And he that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved." [4240] Of this same thing, according to Luke: "Blessed shall ye be when men shall hate you, and shall separate you (from their company), and shall drive you out, and shall speak evil of your name, as wicked, for the Son of man's sake. Rejoice in that day, and exult; for, lo, your reward is great in heaven." [4241] Also in the same place: "Verily I say unto you, There is no man that leaveth house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for the sake of the kingdom of God, and does not receive seven times as much in this present time, but in the world to come life everlasting." [4242] Of this same thing in the Apocalypse: "And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar of God the souls of them that were slain on account of the word of God and His testimony. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? And unto every one of them were given white robes; and it was said to them, that they should rest still for a short time, until the number of their fellow-servants, and of their brethren, should be fulfilled, and they who shall afterwards be slain, after their example." [4243] Also in the same place: "After these things I saw a great crowd, which no one among them could number, from every nation, and from every tribe, and from every people and tongue, standing before the throne and before the Lamb; and they were clothed with white robes, and palms were in their hands. And they said with a loud voice, Salvation to our God, that sitteth upon the throne, and to the Lamb. And one of the elders answered and said to me, What are these which are clothed with white robes? who are they, and whence have they come? And I said unto him, My lord, thou knowest. And he said unto me, These are they who have come out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple; and He who sitteth upon the throne shall dwell among them. They shall neither hunger nor thirst ever; and neither shall the sun fall upon them, nor shall they suffer any heat: for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shall protect them, and shall lead them to the fountains of the waters of life; and God shall wipe away every tear from their eyes." [4244] Also in the same place: "He who shall overcome I will give him to eat of the tree of life, which as in the paradise of my God." [4245] Also in the same place: "Be thou faithful even unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." [4246] Also in the same place: "Blessed shall they be who shall watch, and shall keep their garments, lest they walk naked, and they see their shame." [4247] Of this same thing, Paul in the second Epistle to Timothy: "I am now offered up, and the time of my assumption is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. There now remains for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me in that day; and not only to me, but to all also who love His appearing." [4248] Of this same thing to the Romans: "We are the sons of God: but if sons and heirs of God, we are also joint-heirs with Christ; if we suffer together, that we may also be magnified together." [4249] Of this same thing in the cxviiith Psalm: "Blessed are they who are undefiled in the way, and walk in the law of the Lord. Blessed are they who search into His testimonies." [4250]

17. That what we suffer in this world is of less account than is the reward which is promised.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "The sufferings of this present time are not worthy of comparison with the glory that is to come after, which shall be revealed in us." [4251] Of this same thing in the Maccabees: "O Lord, who hast the holy knowledge, it is manifest that while I might be delivered from death, I am suffering most cruel pains of body, being beaten with whips; yet in spirit I suffer these things willingly, because of the fear of thine own self." [4252] Also in the same place: "Thou indeed, being powerless, destroyest us out of this present life; but the King of the world shall raise us up who have died for His laws into the eternal resurrection of life." [4253] Also in the same place: "It is better that, given up to death by men, we should expect hope from God to be raised again by Him. For there shall be no resurrection to life for thee." [4254] Also in the same place: "Having power among men, although thou art corruptible, thou doest what thou wilt. But think not that our race is forsaken of God. Sustain, and see how His great power will torment, thee and thy seed." [4255] Also in the same place: Do not err without cause; for we suffer these things on our own accounts, as sinners against our God. But think not thou that thou shalt be unpunished, having undertaken to fight against God." [4256]

18. That nothing is to be preferred to the love of God and Christ.

In Deuteronomy: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." [4257] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "He that loveth father or mother above me, is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son or daughter above me, is not worthy of me; and he that taketh not up his cross and followeth me, is not my disciple." [4258] Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? As it is written, Because for thy sake we are killed all the day long, we are counted as sheep for the slaughter. But in all these things we are more than conquerors for His sake who loved us." [4259]

19. That we are not to obey our own will, but the will of God.

In the Gospel according to John: "I came not down from heaven to do mine own will, but the will of Him that sent me." [4260] Of this same matter, according to Matthew: "Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what Thou wilt." [4261] Also in the daily prayer: "Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth." [4262] Also according to Matthew: "Not every one who saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he who doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven, he shall enter into the kingdom of heaven." [4263] Also according to Luke: "But that servant which knoweth his Lord's will, and obeyed not His will, shall be beaten with many stripes." [4264] In the Epistle of John: "But he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever, even as He Himself also abideth for ever." [4265]

20. That the foundation and strength of hope and faith is fear.

In the cxth Psalm: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." [4266] Of the same thing in the Wisdom of Solomon: "The beginning of wisdom is to fear God." [4267] Also in the Proverbs of the same: "Blessed is the man who reverences all things with fear." [4268] Of the same thing [in Isaiah: "And upon whom else will I look, except upon him that is lowly and peaceful, and that trembleth at my words? " [4269] Of this same thing in Genesis: "And the angel of the Lord called him from heaven, and said unto him, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do anything unto him: for now I know that thou fearest thy God, and hast not spared thy beloved son for my sake." [4270] Also in the second Psalm: "Serve the Lord in fear, and rejoice unto Him in trembling." [4271] Also in Deuteronomy, the word of God to Moses: "Call the people together to me, and let them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they themselves shall live upon the earth." [4272] Also in Jeremiah: "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will perfect upon the house of Israel, and in the house of Judah, a new covenant: not according to the covenant that I had ordered with their fathers in the day when I laid hold of their hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; because they have not abode in my covenant, and I have been unmindful of them, saith the Lord; because this is the covenant which I will ordain for the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will give my law, and will write it in their mind and I will be to them for a God, and they shall be to me for a people. And they shall not teach every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord because all shall know me, from the least even to the greatest of them: because I will be favourable to their iniquities, and their sins I will not remember any more. If the heaven should be lifted up on high, saith the Lord, and if the earth should be made low from beneath, yet I will not cast away the people of Israel, saith the Lord, for all the things which they have done. Behold, I will gather them together from every land in which I have scattered them in anger, and in my fury, and in great indignation; and I will grind them down into that place, and I will leave them in fear; and they shall be to me for a people, and I will be to them for a God: and I will give them another way, and another heart, that they may fear me all their days in prosperity with their children: and I will perfect for them an everlasting covenant, which I will not turn away after them; and I will put my fear into their heart, that they may not depart from me: and I will visit upon them to do them good, and to plant them in their land in faith, and with all the heart, and with all the mind." [4273] Also in the Apocalypse: "And the four and twenty elders which sit on their thrones in the sight (of God), fell upon their faces, and worshipped God, saying, We give Thee thanks, O Lord God omnipotent, which art and which wast; because Thou hast taken Thy great power, and hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and Thy wrath is come, and the time in which it should be judged concerning the dead, and the reward should be given to Thy servants the prophets, and the saints that fear Thy name, small and great; and to disperse those who have corrupted the earth." [4274] Also in the same place: "And I saw another angel flying through the midst of the heaven, having the everlasting Gospel to preach to those who dwell upon the earth, and to all the nations, and tribes, and tongues, and peoples, saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give Him honour, because the hour of His judgment is come; and adore Him who made the heaven, and the earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters." [4275] Also in the same place: "And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire; and the beasts were feeding with His lambs; [4276] and the number of His name a hundred and forty and four, standing upon the sea of glass, having the harps of God; and they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are Thy works, O Lord God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of the nations. Who would not fear Thee, and give honour to Thy name? for Thou only art holy: and because all nations shall come and worship in Thy sight, because Thy righteousnesses have been made manifest." [4277] Also in Daniel: "There was a man dwelling in Babylon whose name was Joachim; and he took a wife by name Susanna, the daughter of Helchias, a very beautiful woman, and one that feared the Lord. And her parents were righteous, and taught their daughter according to the law of Moses." [4278] Moreover, in Daniel: "And we are lowly this day in all the earth because of our sins, and there is not at this time any prince, or prophet, or leader, or burnt-offering, or oblation, or sacrifice, or incense, or place to sacrifice before Thee, and to find mercy from Thee. And yet in the soul and spirit of lowliness let us be accepted as the burnt-offerings of rams and bulls, and as it were many thousands of lambs which are fattest. If our offering may be made in Thy presence this day, their power shall be consumed, for they shall not be ashamed who put their trust in Thee. And now we follow with our whole heart, and we fear and seek Thy face. Give us not over unto reproach, but do with us according to Thy tranquillity, and according to the multitude of Thy mercy deliver us." [4279] Also in the same place: "And the king exceedingly rejoiced, and commanded Daniel to be taken up out of the den of lions; and the lions had done him no hurt, because he trusted and had believed in his God. And the king commanded, and they brought those men who had accused Daniel; and they cast them in the den of lions, and their wives and their children. And before they had reached the pavement of the den they were seized by the lions, and they brake all their bones in pieces. Then Darius the king wrote, To all peoples, tribes, and languages which are in my kingdom, peace be unto you from my face. I decree and ordain that all those who are in my kingdom shall fear and tremble before the most high God whom Daniel serves, because He is the God who liveth and abideth for ever, and His kingdom shall not pass away, and His dominion goeth on for ever; and He alone doeth signs, and prodigies, and marvellous things in the heaven and the earth, who snatched Daniel from the den of lions." [4280] Also in Micah: "Wherewith shall I approach the Lord, and lay hold upon Him? in sacrifices, in burnt-offerings, in calves of a year old? Does the Lord favour and receive me with thousands of fat goats? or shall I give my first-fruits of unrighteousness, the fruit of my belly, the sin of my soul? It is told thee, O man, what is good; or what else the Lord doth require, save that thou shouldst do judgment and justice, and love mercy, and be ready to go with the Lord thy God. The voice of the Lord shall be invoked in the city, and He will save those who fear His name." [4281] Also in Micah: "Feed Thy people with Thy rod, the sheep of Thine inheritance; and pluck up those who dwell separately in the midst of Carmel. They shall prepare Bashan and Gilead according to the days of the age; and according to the days of their going forth from the land of Egypt I will show them wonderful things. The nations shall see, and be confounded at all their might; and they shall place their hand upon their mouth. Their ears shall be deafened, and they shall lick the dust as do serpents. Dragging the earth, they shall be disturbed, and they shall lick the dust: in their end they shall be afraid towards the Lord their God, and they shall fear because of Thee. Who is a God as Thou art, raising up unrighteousness, and passing over impiety? " [4282] And in Nahum: "The mountains were moved at Him, and the hills trembled; and the earth was laid bare before His face, and all who dwell therein. From the face of His anger who shall bear it, and who withstandeth in the fury of His soul? His rage causes the beginnings to flow, and the rocks were melted by Him. The Lord is good to those who sustain Him in the day of affliction, and knoweth those who fear Him." [4283] Also in Haggai: "And Zerubbabel the son of Salathiel, of the tribe of Judah, and Jesus the son of Josedech, the high priest, and all who remained of the people, obeyed the voice of the Lord their God, because the Lord sent him to them, and the people feared from the face of God." [4284] Also in Malachi: "The covenant was with life and peace; and I gave to them the fear to fear me from the face of my name." [4285] Also in the thirty-third Psalm: "Fear the Lord, all ye His saints: for there is no want to them that fear Him." [4286] Also in the eighteenth Psalm: "The fear of the Lord is chaste, abiding for ever." [4287]

21. That we must not rashly judge of another.

In the Gospel according to Luke: "Judge not, that ye be not judged: condemn not, that ye be not condemned." [4288] Of this same subject to the Romans: "Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth. But he shall stand; for God is able to make him stand." [4289] And again: "Wherefore thou art without excuse, O every man that judgest: for in that in which thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou doest the same things which thou judgest. But dost thou hope, who judgest those who do evil, and doest the same, that thou thyself shalt escape the judgment of God" [4290] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians.: "And let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall." [4291] And again: "If any man thinketh that he knoweth anything, he knoweth not yet in what manner he ought to know." [4292]

22. That when we have received a wrong, we must remit and forgive it.

In the Gospel, in the daily prayer: "Forgive us our debts, even as we forgive our debtors." [4293] Also according to Mark: "And when ye stand for prayer, forgive, if ye have ought against any one; that also your Father who is in heaven may forgive you your sins. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive you your sins." [4294] Also in the same place: "In what measure ye mete, in that shall it be measured to you again." [4295]

23. That evil is not to be returned for evil.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "Rendering to no man evil for evil." [4296] Also in the same place: "Not to be overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good." [4297] Of this same thing in the Apocalypse: "And He said unto me, Seal not the words of the prophecy of this book; because now the time is at hand. And let those who persist in hurting, hurt: and let him who is filthy, be filthy still: but let the righteous do still more righteousness: and in like manner, let him that is holy do still more holiness. Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to render to every man according to his deeds." [4298]

24. That it is impossible to attain to the Father but by His Son Jesus Christ.

In the Gospel according to John: "I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me." [4299] Also in the same place: "I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved." [4300]

25. That unless a man have been baptized and born again, he cannot attain unto the kingdom of God.

In the Gospel according to John: "Except a man be born again of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. For that which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit." [4301] Also in the same place: "Unless ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye shall not have life in you." [4302]

26. That it is of small account to be baptized and to receive the Eucharist, unless one profit by it both in deeds and works.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Know ye not, that they which run in a race run indeed all, although one receiveth the prize? So run, that ye may obtain. And those indeed that they may receive a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible." [4303] In the Gospel according to Matthew: "Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut down, and cast into the fire." [4304] Also in the same place: "Many shall say unto me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Thy name, and in Thy name have cast out devils, and in Thy name have done great works? And then shall I say to them, I never knew you; depart from me, ye who work iniquity." [4305] Also in the same place: "Let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven." [4306] Also Paul to the Philippians: "Shine as lights in the world." [4307]

27. That even a baptized person loses the grace that he has attained, unless he keep innocency.

In the Gospel according to John: "Lo, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse thing happen unto thee." [4308] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and the Spirit of God abideth in you? If any one violate the temple of God, him will God destroy." [4309] Of this same thing in the Chronicles: "God is with you, while ye are with Him: if ye forsake Him, He will forsake you." [4310]

28. That remission cannot in the Church be granted unto him who has sinned against God (i.e., the Holy Ghost).

In the Gospel according to Matthew: "Whosoever shall say a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world nor in the world to come." [4311] Also according to Mark: "All sins shall be forgiven, and blasphemies, to the sons of men; but whoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, but he shall be guilty of eternal sin." [4312] Of this same thing in the first book of Kings: "If a man sin by offending against a man, they shall pray the Lord for him; but if a man sin against God, who shall pray for him? " [4313]

29. That it was before predicted, concerning the hatred of the Name,

In the Gospel according to Luke: "And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake." [4314] Also according to John: "If the world hate you, know ye that it first hated me. If ye were of the world, the world would love what would be its own: but because ye are not of the world, and I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word which I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you." [4315] Also in Baruch: [4316] "For the time shall come, and ye shall seek me, both ye and those who shall be after you, to hear the word of wisdom and of understanding; and ye shall not find me. But the nations shall desire to see the wise man, and it shall not happen to them; not because the wisdom of this world shall be wanting, or shall fail to the earth; but neither shall the word of the law be wanting to the world. For wisdom shall be in a few who watch, and are silent and quiet, and who hold converse with one another; because some shall dread them, and shall fear them as evil. But some do not believe the word of the law of the Highest. But some who are amazed in their countenance will not believe; and they also who contradict will believe, and will be contrary to and hindering the spirit of truth. Moreover, others will be wise to the spirit of error, and declaring the edicts, as if of the Highest and the Strong One. Moreover, others are possessors of faith. [4317] Others are mighty and strong in the faith of the Highest, and hateful to the stranger."

30. That what any one has vowed to God, he must quickly repay.

In Solomon: "According as thou hast vowed a vow to God, delay not to pay it." [4318] Concerning this same thing in Deuteronomy: "But if thou hast vowed a vow to the Lord thy God, I thou shalt not delay to pay it: because the Lord thy God inquiring shall seek it of thee; and it shall be for a sin. Thou shalt observe those things that shall go forth out of thy lips, and shalt perform the gift which thou hast spoken with thy mouth." [4319] Of this same matter in the forty-ninth Psalm: "Sacrifice to God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows to the Most High. Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." [4320] Of this same thing in the Acts of the Apostles: "Why hath Satan filled thine heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost, when thy estate was in thine own power? Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God." [4321] Also in Jeremiah: "Cursed is he who doeth the work of God negligently." [4322]

31. That he who does not believe is judged already.

In the Gospel according to John: "He that believeth not is already judged, because he hath not believed in the name of the only [4323] Son of God. And this is the judgment, that light has come into the world, and men have loved darkness rather than light." [4324] Of this also in the first Psalm: "Therefore the ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, nor sinners in the council of the righteous." [4325]

32. Of the benefit of virginity and of continency. [4326]

In Genesis: "Multiplying I will multiply thy sorrows and thy groanings, and in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy turning shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." [4327] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: "All men do not receive the word, but they to whom it is given: for there are some eunuchs who were born so from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who have been constrained by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He who can receive it, let him receive it." [4328] Also according to Luke: "The children of this world beget, and are begotten. But they who have been considered worthy of that world, and the resurrection from the dead, do not marry, nor are married: for neither shall they begin to die: for they are equal to the angels of God, since they are the children of the resurrection. But, that the dead rise again, Moses intimates when he says in the bush, The Lord, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto Him." [4329] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "It is good for a man not to touch a woman. But, on account of fornication, let every man have his own wife, and every woman have her own husband. Let the husband render what is due to the wife, and similarly the wife to the husband. The wife hath not power over her own body, but the husband. And in like manner, the husband hath not power over his own body, but the wife. Defraud not one the other, except by agreement for a time, that ye may have leisure for prayer; and again return to the same point, lest Satan tempt you on account of your incontinency. This I say by way of allowance, not by way of command. But I wish that all men should be even as I am. But every one has his proper gift from God; one in one way, but another in another way." [4330] Also in the same place: "An unmarried man thinks of those things which are the Lord s, in what way he may please God; but he who has contracted marriage thinks of those things that are of this world, in what way he may please his wife. Thus also, both the woman and the unmarried virgin thinketh of those things which are the Lord s, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit; but she that hath married thinks of those things which are of this world, in what way she may please her husband." [4331] Also in Exodus, when the Lord had commanded Moses that he should sanctify the people for the third day, he sanctified them, and added: "Be ye ready, for three days ye shall not approach to women." [4332] Also in the first book of Kings: "And the priest answered to David, and said, There are no profane loaves in my hand, except one sacred loaf. If the young men have been kept back from women, they shall eat." [4333] Also in the Apocalypse: "These are they who have not defiled themselves with women, for they have continued virgins; these are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever He shall go." [4334]

33. That the Father judgeth nothing, but the Son; and that the Father is not glorified by him by whom the Son is not glorified.

In the Gospel according to John: "The Father judgeth nothing, but hath given all judgment unto the Son, that all may honour the Son as they honour the Father. He who honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father who hath sent Him." [4335] Also in the seventy-first Psalm: "O God, give the king Thy judgment, and Thy righteousness to the king's son, to judge Thy people in righteousness." [4336] Also in Genesis: "And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulphur, and fire from heaven from the Lord." [4337]

34. That the believer ought not to live like the Gentile.

In Jeremiah: "Thus saith the Lord, Walk ye not according to the way of the Gentiles." [4338] Of this same thing, that one ought to separate himself from the Gentiles, lest he should be a companion of their sin, and become a partaker of their penalty, in the Apocalypse: "And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Go forth from her, my people, lest thou be partaker of her crimes, and lest thou be stricken with her plagues; because her crimes have reached even to heaven, and the Lord God hath remembered her iniquities. Therefore He hath returned unto her double, and in the cup which she hath mixed double is mingled for her; and in how much she hath glorified herself and possessed of delights, in so much is given unto her both torment and grief. For in her heart she says, I am a queen, and cannot be a widow, nor shah I see sorrow. Therefore in one hour her plagues shall come on her, death, grief, and famine; and she shall be burned with fire, because the Lord God is strong who shall judge her. And the kings of the earth shall weep and lament themselves for her, who have committed fornication with her, and have been conversant in her sins." [4339] Also in Isaiah: "Go forth from the midst of them, ye who bear the vessels of the Lord." [4340]

35. That God is patient for this end, that we may repent of our sin, and be reformed.

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "Say not, I have sinned, and what sorrow hath happened to me? For the Highest is a patient repayer." [4341] Also Paul to the Romans: "Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? But, according to thy hardness and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself wrath in the day of wrath and of revelation of the just judgment of God, who will render to every man according to his deeds." [4342]

36. That a woman ought not to be adorned in a worldly fashion.

In the Apocalypse: "And there came one of the seven angels having vials, and approached me, saying, Come, I will show thee the condemnation of the great whore, who sitteth upon many waters, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication. And I saw a woman who sate upon a beast. And that woman was clothed with a purple and scarlet robe; and she was adorned with gold, and precious stones, and pearls, holding a golden cup in her hand full of curses, and impurity, and fornication of the whole earth." [4343] Also to Timothy: "Let your women be such as adorn themselves with shamefacedness and modesty, not with twisted hair, nor with gold, nor with pearls, or precious garments, but as becometh women professing chastity, with a good conversation." [4344] Of this same thing in the Epistle of Peter to the people at Pontus: "Let there be in a woman not the outward adorning of ornament, or of gold, or of apparel, but the adorning of the heart." [4345] Also in Genesis: "Thamar covered herself with a cloak, and adorned herself; and when Judah beheld her, she appeared to him to be a harlot." [4346]

37. That the believer ought not to be punished for other offences, except for the name he bears.

In the Epistle of Peter to them of Pontus: "Nor let any of you suffer as a thief, or a murderer, or as an evil-doer, or as a minder of other people s business, [4347] but as a Christian. [4348]

38. That the servant of God ought to be innocent, lest he fall into secular punishment.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "Wilt thou not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shall have praise of it." [4349]

39. That there is given to us an example of living in Christ.

In the Epistle of Peter to them of Pontus: "For Christ suffered for us, leaving you an example, that ye may follow His steps; who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth; who, when He was reviled, reviled not again; when He suffered, threatened not, but gave Himself up to him that judgeth unrighteously." [4350] Also Paul to the Philippians: "Who, being appointed in the figure of God, thought it not robbery that He was equal with God; but emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, He was made in the likeness of man, and was found in fashion as a man. He humbled Himself, becoming obedient even unto death, and the death of the cross. For which cause also God hath exalted Him, and hath given Him a name, that it may be above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee should be bowed, of things heavenly, and earthly, and infernal; and that every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in glory of God the Father." [4351] Of this same thing in the Gospel according to John: "If I have washed your feet, being your Master and Lord, ye also ought to wash the feet of others. For I have given you an example, that as I have done, ye also should do to others." [4352]

40. That we must not labour noisily nor boastfully.

In the Gospel according to Matthew: "Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth, that thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall render to thee." [4353] Also in the same place: "When thou doest an alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the streets and in the synagogues, that they may be glorified of men. Verily I say unto you, They have fulfilled their reward." [4354]

41. That we must not speak foolishly and offensively.

In Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians: "Foolish speaking and scurrility, which are not fitting for the occasion, let them not be even named among you." [4355]

42. That faith is of advantage altogether, and that we can do as much as we believe.

In Genesis: "And Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness." [4356] Also in Isaiah: "And if ye do not believe, neither shall ye understand." [4357] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? " [4358] Also in the same place: "If you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain, Pass over from here to that place, and it shall pass over; and nothing shall be impossible unto you." [4359] Also according to Mark: "All things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye shall receive them, and they shall be yours." [4360] Also in the same place: All things are possible to him that believeth." [4361] In Habakkuk: "But the righteous liveth by my faith." [4362] Also in Daniel: "Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, trusting in God, were delivered from the fiery flame."

43. That he who believes can immediately obtain (i.e., pardon and peace).

In the Acts of the Apostles: "Lo, here is water; what is there which hinders me from being baptized? Then said Philip, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest." [4363]

44. That believers who differ among themselves ought not to refer to a Gentile judge. [4364]

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Dares any of you, having a matter against other, to discuss it among the unrighteous, and not among the saints? Know ye not that the saints shall judge this world? " [4365] And again: "Now indeed there is altogether a fault among you, because ye have judgments one against another. Wherefore do ye not rather suffer injury? or wherefore are ye not rather defrauded? But ye do wrong, and defraud, and this your brethren. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not obtain the kingdom of God? " [4366]

45. That hope is of future things, and therefore that our faith concerning those things which are promised ought to be patient.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "We are saved by hope. But hope that is seen is not hope; for what a man seeth, why doth he hope for? But if we hope for what we see not, we hope [4367] for it in patience." [4368]

46. That a woman ought to be silent in the church.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Let women be silent in the church. But if any wish to learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home." [4369] Also to Timothy: "Let a woman learn with silence, in all subjection. But I permit not a woman to teach, nor to be set over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve; and Adam was not seduced, but the woman was seduced." [4370]

47. That it arises from our fault and our desert that we suffer, and do not perceive God's help in everything.

In Hosea: "Hear ye the word of the Lord, ye children of Israel: because judgment is from the Lord against the inhabitants of the earth because there is neither mercy nor truth, nor acknowledgment of God upon the earth; but cursing, and lying, and slaughter, and theft, and adultery is scattered abroad upon the earth: they mingle blood to blood. Therefore the land shall mourn, with all its inhabitants, with the beasts of the field, with the creeping things of the earth, with the birds of heaven; and the fishes of the sea shall fail: so that no man may judge, no man may refute." [4371] Of this same thing in Isaiah: "Is not the Lord's hand strong to save, or has He weighed down His ear that He may not hear? But your sins separate between you and God; and on account of your iniquities He turns away His face from you, lest He should pity. For your hands are polluted with blood, and your fingers with sins; and your lips have spoken wickedness, and your tongue devises unrighteousness. No one speaks true things, neither is judgment true. They trust in vanity, and speak emptiness, who conceive sorrow, and bring forth wickedness." [4372] Also in Zephaniah: "In failing, let it fail from the face of the earth, saith the Lord. Let man fail, and cattle; let the birds of heaven fail, and the fishes of the sea; and I will take away the unrighteous from the face of the earth." [4373]

48. That we must not take usury.

In the thirteenth Psalm: [4374] "He that hath not given his money upon usury, and has not received gifts concerning the innocent. He who doeth these things shall not be moved for ever." [4375] Also in Ezekiel: "But the man who will be righteous, shall not oppress a man, and shall return the pledge of the debtor, and shall not commit rapine, and shall give his bread to the hungry, and shall cover the naked, and shall not give his money for usury.." [4376] Also in Deuteronomy: "Thou shalt not lend to thy brother with usury of money, and with usury of victuals." [4377]

49. That even our enemies must be loved.

In the Gospel according to Luke: "If ye love those who love you, what thank have ye? For even sinners love those who love them." [4378] Also according to Matthew: "Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh His sun to rise upon the good and the evil, and giveth rain upon the righteous and the unrighteous." [4379]

50. That the sacrament of faith must not be profaned.

In Solomon, in the Proverbs: "Say not anything in the ears of a foolish man; lest, when he hears it, he may mock at thy wise words." [4380] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Give not that which is holy to dogs; neither cast ye your pearls before the swine, lest perchance they trample them down with their feet, and turn again and crush you." [4381]

51. That no one should be uplifted in his labour. [4382]

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "Extol not thyself in doing thy work." [4383] Also in the Gospel according to Luke: "Which of you, having a servant ploughing, or a shepherd, says to him when he cometh from the field, Pass forward and recline? But he says to him, Make ready somewhat that I may sup, and gird thyself, and minister to me, until I eat and drink; and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink? Does he thank that servant because he has done what was commanded him? So also ye, when ye shall have done that which is commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done what we had to do." [4384]

52. That the liberty of believing or of not believing is placed in free choice.

In Deuteronomy: "Lo, I have set before thy face life and death, good and evil. Choose for thyself life, that thou mayest live." [4385] Also in Isaiah: "And if ye be willing, and hear me, ye shall eat the good of the land. But if ye be unwilling, and will not hear me, the sword shall consume you. For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things." [4386] Also in the Gospel according to Luke: "The kingdom of God is within you." [4387]

53. That he secrets of God cannot be seen through, and therefore that our faith ought to be simple. [4388]

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "We see now through the glass in an enigma, but then with face to face. Now I know partly; but then I shall know even as also I am known." [4389] Also in Solomon, in Wisdom: "And in simplicity of heart seek Him." [4390] Also in the same: "He who walketh with simplicity, walketh trustfully." [4391] Also in the same: "Seek not things higher than thyself, and look not into things stronger than thyself." [4392] Also in Solomon: "Be not excessively righteous, and do not reason more than is required." [4393] Also in Isaiah: "Woe unto them who are convicted in themselves." [4394] Also in the Maccabees: "Daniel in his simplicity was delivered from the mouth of tile lions." [4395] Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are His judgments, and how unsearchable are His ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord? or who has been His counsellor? or who has first given to Him, and it shall be recompensed to him again? Because from Him, and through Him, and in Him, are all things: to Him be glory for ever and ever." [4396] Also to Timothy: "But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they generate strifes. But the servant of God ought not to strive, but to be gentle towards all men." [4397]

54. That no one is without filth and without sin.

In Job: "For who is pure from filth? Not one; even if his life be of one day on the earth." [4398] Also in the fiftieth Psalm: "Behold, I was conceived in iniquities, and in sins hath my mother conceived me." [4399] Also in the Epistle of John: "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us." [4400]

55. That we must not please men, but God.

In the fifty-second Psalm: "They that please men are confounded, because God hath made them nothing." [4401] Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians: "If I wished to please men, I should not be the servant of Christ." [4402]

56. That nothing that is done is hidden from God.

In the Wisdom of Solomon: "In every place the eyes of God look upon the good and evil." [4403] Also in Jeremiah: "I am a God at hand, and not a God afar off. If a man should be hidden in the secret place, shall I not therefore see him? Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord." [4404] Also in the first of Kings: "Man looketh on the face, but God on the heart." [4405] Also in the Apocalypse: "And all the churches shall know that I am the searcher of the reins and heart; and I will give to every one of you according to his works." [4406] Also in the eighteenth Psalm: "Who understands his faults? Cleanse Thou me from my secret sins, O Lord." [4407] Also in the second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "We must all be manifested before the tribunal of Christ, that every one may bear again the things which belong to his own body, according to what he hath done, whether good or evil." [4408]

57. That the believer is amended and reserved.

In the cxviith Psalm: "The Lord amending hath amended me, and hath not delivered me to death." [4409] Also in the eighty-eighth Psalm: "I will visit their transgressions with a rod, and their sins with scourges. But my mercy will I not scatter away from them." [4410] Also in Malachi: "And He shall sit melting and purifying, as it were, gold and silver; and He shall purify the sons of Levi." [4411] Also in the Gospel: "Thou shalt not go out thence until thou pay the uttermost farthing." [4412]

58. That no one should be made sad by death; since in living is labour and peril, in dying peace and the certainty of resurrection.

In Genesis: "Then said the Lord to Adam, Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of that tree of which alone I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat, cursed shall be the ground in all thy works; in sadness and groaning shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life: thorns and thistles shall it cast forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field in the sweat of thy brow. Thou shall eat thy bread until thou return unto the earth from which also thou wast taken; because earth thou art, and to earth thou shall go." [4413] Also in the same place: "And Enoch pleased God, and was not found afterwards: because God translated him." [4414] And in Isaiah: "All flesh is grass, and all the glory of it as the flower of grass. The grass withered, and the flower hath fallen away; but the word of the Lord abideth for ever." [4415] In Ezekiel: "They say, Our bones are become dry, our hope hath perished: we have expired. Therefore prophesy, and say, Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I open your monuments, and I will bring you forth from your monuments, and I will bring you into the land of Israel; and I will put my Spirit upon you, and ye shall live; and I will place you into your land: and ye shall know that I the Lord have spoken, and will do it, saith the Lord." [4416] Also in the Wisdom of Solomon: "He was taken away, lest wickedness should change his understanding; for his soul was pleasing to God." [4417] Also in the eighty-third Psalm: "How beloved [4418] are thy dwellings, Thou Lord of hosts? My soul desires and hastes to the courts of God." [4419] And in the Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians: "But we would not that you should be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who sleep, that ye sorrow not as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, so also them which have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with Him." [4420] Also in the first Epistle to the Corinthians: "Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened except it have first died." [4421] And again: "Star differeth from star in glory: so also the resurrection. The body is sown in corruption, it rises without corruption; it is sown in ignominy, it rises again in glory; it is sown in weakness, it rises again in power; it is sown an animal body, it rises again a spiritual body." [4422] And again: "For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality. But when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall come to pass the word that is written, Death is absorbed Into striving. Where, O death, is thy sting? Where, O death, is thy striving? " [4423] Also in the Gospel according to John: "Father, I will that those whom Thou hast given me be with me where I shall be, and may see my glory which Thou hast given me before the foundation of the world." [4424] Also according to Luke: "Now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, O Lord, according to the word; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation." [4425] Also according to John: "If ye loved me, ye would rejoice because I go to the Father; for the Father is greater than I." [4426]

59. Of the idols which the Gentiles think to be gods.

In the Wisdom of Solomon: "All the idols of the nations they counted gods, which neither have the use of their eyes for seeing, nor their nostrils to receive breath, nor their ears for hearing, nor the fingers on their hands for handling; but their feet also are slow to walk. For man made them; and he who has borrowed his breath, he fashioned them. But no man will be able to fashion a god like to himself. For since he is mortal, he fashioneth a dead thing with wicked hands. But he himself is better than they whom he worships, since he indeed lived, but they never." [4427] On this same matter: "Neither have they who have regarded the works known who was the artificer, but have thought that either fire, or wind, or the rapid air, or the circle of the stars, or the abundant water, or the sun and moon, were the gods that rule over the world; and if, on account of the beauty of these, they have thought thus, let them know how much more beautiful than these is the Lord; or if they have admired their powers and operations, let them perceive from these very things that He who has established these mighty things is stronger than they." [4428] Also in the cxxxivth Psalm: "The idols of the nations are silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have a mouth, and speak not; they have eyes, and see not; they have ears, and hear not; and neither is there any breath in their mouth. Let them who make them become like unto them, and all those who trust in them." [4429] Also in the ninety-fifth Psalm: "All the gods of the nations are demons, but the Lord made the heavens." [4430] Also in Exodus: "Ye shall not make unto yourselves gods of silver nor of gold." [4431] And again: "Thou shalt not make to thyself an idol, nor the likeness of any thing." [4432] Also in Jeremiah: "Thus saith the Lord, Walk not according to the ways of the heathen; for they fear those things in their own persons, because the lawful things of the heathen are vain. Wood cut out from the forest is made. the work of the carpenter, and melted silver and gold are beautifully arranged: they strengthen them with hammers and nails, and they shall not be moved, for they are fixed. The silver is brought from Tharsis, the gold comes from Moab. All things are the works of the artificers; they will clothe it with blue and purple; lifting them, they will carry them, because they will not go forward. Be not afraid of them, because they do no evil, neither is there good in them. Say thus, The gods that have not made the heaven and the earth perish from the earth, and from under this heaven. The heaven hath trembled at this, and hath shuddered much more vehemently, saith the Lord. These evil things hath my people done. They have forsaken the fountain of living water, and have dug out for themselves worn-out wells, which could not hold water. Thy love hath smitten thee, and thy wickedness shall accuse thee. And know and see that it shall be a bitter thing for thee that thou hast forsaken me, saith the Lord thy God, and thou hast not hoped in me, saith thy Lord. Because of old time thou hast resented my yoke, and hast broken thy bonds, and hast said, I will not serve, but I will go upon every lofty mountain, and upon every high hill, and upon every shady tree: there I will be confounded with fornication. To the wood and to the stone they have said, Thou art my father; and to the stone, Thou hast begotten me: and they turned to me their back, and not their face." [4433] In Isaiah: "The dragon hath fallen or is dissolved; their carved works have become as beasts and cattle. Labouring and hungry, and without strength, ye shall bear them bound upon your neck as a heavy burden." [4434] And again: "Gathered together, they shall not be able to be saved from war; but they themselves have been led captive with thee." [4435] And again: "To whom have ye likened me? See and understand that ye err in your heart, who lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance, bringing it up to the weight. The workmen have made with their hand the things made; and, bowing themselves, they have adored it, and have raised it on their shoulders: and thus they walked. But if they should place them down, they will abide in their place, and will not be moved; and they will not hear those who cry unto them: they will not save them from evils." [4436] Also in Jeremiah: "The Lord, who made heaven and earth, in strength hath ordered the world, in His wisdom hath stretched forth the heaven, and the multitude of the waters in the heaven. He hath brought out the clouds from the end of the earth, the lightnings in the clouds; and He hath brought forth the winds from His treasures. Every man is made foolish by his knowledge, every artificer is confounded by his graven images; because he hath molten a falsehood: there is no breath in them. The works shut up in them are made vain; in the time of their consideration they shall perish." [4437] And in the Apocalypse: "And the sixth angel sounded with his trumpet. And I heard one of the four corners of the golden ark, which is in the presence of God, saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound upon the great river Euphrates. And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to slay the third part of men; and the number of the army of the horsemen was two hundred thousand of thousand: I heard the number of them. And then I saw the horses in the vision, and those that sate upon them, having breastplates of fire, and of hyacinth, and of sulphur: and the heads of the horses (as the heads of lions); and out of their mouth went fire, and smoke, and sulphur. By these three plagues the third part of men was slain, by the fire, and the smoke, and the sulphur which went forth from their mouth, and is in their tails: for their tails were like unto eels; for they had heads, and with them they do mischief. And the rest of the men who were not slain by these plagues, nor repented of the works of the deeds of their hands, that they should not worship demons and idols, that is, images of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood, which can neither see nor walk, repented not also of their, murders." [4438] Also in the same place: "And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and hath received his mark in his forehead or upon his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of His wrath, and shall be punished with fire and sulphur, under the eyes of the holy angels, and under the eyes of the Lamb; and the smoke of their torments shall ascend up for ever and ever." [4439]

60. That too great lust of food is not to be desired.

In Isaiah: "Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. This sin shall not be remitted to you even until ye die." [4440] Also in Exodus: "And the people sate down to eat and drink, and rose up to play." [4441] Paul, in the first to the Corinthians: "Meat commendeth us not to God; neither if we eat shall we abound, nor if we eat not shall we want." [4442] . And again: "When ye come together to eat, wait one for another. If any is hungry, let him eat at home, that ye may not come together for judgment." [4443] Also to the Romans: "The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." [4444] In the Gospel according to John: "I have meat which ye know not of. My meat is, that I should do His will who sent me, and should finish His work." [4445]

61. That the lust of possessing, and money, are not to be sought for.

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver." [4446] Also in Proverbs: "He who holdeth back the corn is cursed among the people; but blessing is on the head of him that communicateth it." [4447] Also in Isaiah: "Woe unto them who join house to house, and lay field to field, that they may take away something from their neighbour. Will ye dwell alone upon the earth? [4448] Also in Zephaniah: "They shall build houses, and shall not dwell in them; and they shall appoint vineyards, and shall not drink the wine of them, because the day of the Lord is near." [4449] Also in the Gospel according to Luke: "For what does it profit a man to make a gain of the whole world, but that he should lose himself? " [4450] And again: "But the Lord said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul is required of thee. Whose, then, shall those things be which thou hast provided? " [4451] And again: "Remember that thou hast received thy good things in this life. and likewise Lazarus evil things. But now he is besought, and thou grievest." [4452] And in the Acts of the Apostles: "But Peter said unto him, Silver and gold indeed I have not; but what I have I give unto you: In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise up and walk. And, taking hold of his right hand, he lifted him up." [4453] Also in the first to Timothy: "We brought nothing into this world, but neither can we take anything away. Therefore, having maintenance and clothing, let us with these be content. But they who will become rich fall into temptation and a snare, and many and hurtful lusts, which drown man in perdition and destruction. For the root of all evils is covetousness, which some coveting, have made shipwreck from the faith, and have plunged themselves in many sorrows." [4454]

62. That marriage is not to be contracted with Gentiles.

In Tobias: "Take a wife from the seed of thy parents, and take not a strange woman who is not of the tribe of thy parents." [4455] Also in Genesis, Abraham sends his servant to take from his seed Rebecca, for his son Isaac. Also in Esdras, it was not sufficient for God when the Jews were laid waste, unless they forsook their foreign wives, with the children also whom they had begotten of them. Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "The woman is bound so long as her husband liveth; but if he die, she is freed to marry whom she will, only in the Lord. But she will be happier if she abide thus." [4456] And again: "Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? Far be it from me. Or know ye not that he who is joined together with an harlot is one body? for two shall be in one flesh. But he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit." [4457] Also in the second to the Corinthians: "Be not joined together with unbelievers. For what participation is there between righteousness and unrighteousness? or what communication hath light with darkness? " [4458] Also concerning Solomon in the third book of Kings: "And foreign wives turned away his heart after their gods." [4459]

63. That the sin of fornication is grievous.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Every sin whatsoever a man doeth is outside the body; but he who committeth fornication sinneth against his own body. Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a great price. Glorify and bear the Lord in your body." [4460]

64. What are those carnal things which beget death, and what are the spiritual things which lead to life.

Paul to the Galatians: "The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: for these are contrary the one to the other, that ye cannot do even those things which ye wish. But the deeds of the flesh are manifest, which are: adulteries, fornications, impurities, filthiness, idolatries, sorceries, murders, hatreds, strifes, emulations, animosities, provocations, hatreds, dissensions, heresies, envyings, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: with respect to which I declare, that they who do such things shall not possess the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is charity, joy, peace, magnanimity, goodness, faith, gentleness, continency, chastity. For they who are Christ's have crucified their flesh, with its vices and lusts." [4461]

65. That all sins are put away in baptism.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Neither fornicators, nor those who serve idols, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor the lusters after mankind, nor thieves, nor cheaters, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor robbers, shall obtain the kingdom of God. And these things indeed ye were: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God." [4462]

66. That the discipline of God is to be observed in Church precepts.

In Jeremiah: "And I will give to you shepherds according to my own heart; and they shall feed the sheep, feeding them with discipline." [4463] Also in Solomon, in the Proverbs: "My son neglect not the discipline of God, nor fail when rebuked by Him. For whom God loveth, He rebuketh." [4464] Also in the second Psalm: "Keep discipline, lest perchance the Lord should be angry, and ye perish from the right way, when His anger shall burn up quickly against you. Blessed are all they who trust in Him." [4465] Also in the forty-ninth Psalm: "But to the sinner saith God, For what dost thou set forth my judgments, and takest my covenant into thy mouth? But thou hatest discipline, and hast cast my words behind thee." [4466] Also in the Wisdom of Solomon: "He who casteth away discipline is miserable." [4467] ]

67. That it was foretold that men should despise sound discipline.

Paul, in the second to Timothy: "There will be a time when they will not endure sound doctrine; but according to their own lusts will heap to themselves teachers itching in hearing, tickling their ears; and shall turn away their hearing indeed from the truth, but they shall be converted unto fables." [4468] ]

68. That we must depart from him who lives irregularly and contrary to discipline.

Paul to the Thessalonians: "But we have commanded you, in the name of Jesus Christ, that ye depart from all brethren who walk disorderly, and not according to the tradition which they have received from us." [4469] Also in the forty-ninth Psalm: "If thou sawest a thief, at once thou rannest with him, and placedst thy portion with the adulterers." [4470] ]

69. That the kingdom of God is not in the wisdom of the world, nor in eloquence, but in the faith of the cross, and in virtue of conversation.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Christ sent me to preach, not in wisdom of discourse, lest the cross of Christ should become of no effect. For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who perish; but to those who are saved it is the power of God. For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will reprove the prudence of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? Since indeed, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe. Because the Jews desire signs, and the Greeks seek for wisdom: but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews indeed a stumbling-block, and to the Gentiles foolishness; but to them that are called, Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God." [4471] And again "Let no man deceive himself. If any man think that he is wise among you, let him become a fool to this world, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, Thou shall rebuke the wise in their own craftiness." [4472] And again: "The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are foolish." [4473]

70. That we must obey parents.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians: "Children, be obedient to your parents: for this is right. Honour thy father and thy mother (which is the first command with promise), that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest be long-lived on the earth." [4474]

71. And that fathers also should not be harsh in respect of their children.

Also in the same place: "And, ye fathers, drive not your children to wrath: but nourish them in the discipline and rebuke of the Lord." [4475]

72. That servants, when they have believed, ought to serve their carnal masters the better.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians: "Servants, obey your fleshly masters with fear and trembling, and ill simplicity of your heart. as to Christ; not serving for the eye, as if you were pleasing men; but as servants of God." [4476]

73. Moreover, that masters should be the more gentle.

Also in the same place: "And, ye masters, do the same things to them, forbearing anger: knowing that both your Master and theirs is in heaven; and there is no choice of persons with Him." [4477]

74. That all widows that are approved are to be held in honour.

In the first Epistle of Paul to Timothy: "Honour widows which are truly widows. But the widow that is wanton, is dead while she liveth." [4478] And again: "But the younger widows pass by: for when they shall be wanton in Christ, they wish to marry; having judgment, because they have cast off their first faith." [4479]

75. That every person ought to have care rather of his own people, and especially of believers.

The apostle in his first Epistle to Timothy: "But if any take not care of his own, and especially of those of his own household, he denies the faith, and is worse than an infidel." [4480] Of this same thing in Isaiah: "If thou shalt see the naked, clothe him; and despise not those who are of the household of thine own seed." [4481] Of which members of the household it is said in the Gospel: "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much rather them of his household!" [4482]

76. That an elder must not be rashly accused.

In the first to Timothy: "Against an eider receive not all accusation." [4483]

77. That the sinner must be publicly reproved.

In the first Epistle of Paul to Timothy: "Rebuke them that sin in the presence of all, that others also may be afraid." [4484]

78. That we must not speak with heretics.

To Titus: "A man that is an heretic, after one rebuke avoid; knowing that one of such sort is perverted, and sinneth, and is by his own self condemned." [4485] Of this same thing in the Epistle of John: "They went out from among us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would doubtless have remained with us." [4486] Also in the second to Timothy: "Their word doth creep as a canker." [4487]

79. That innocency asks with confidence, and obtains.

In the Epistle of John: "If our heart blame us not, we have confidence towards God; and whatever we ask, we shall receive from Him." [4488] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Blessed are they of a pure heart, for they shall see God." [4489] Also in the twenty-third Psalm: "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His holy place? The innocent in hands and of a pure heart." [4490]

80. That the devil has no power against man unless God have allowed it.

In the Gospel according to John: "Jesus said, Thou couldest have no power against me, unless it were given thee from above." [4491] Also in the third of Kings: "And God stirred up Satan against Solomon himself." [4492] Also in Job, first of all God permitted, and then it was allowed to the devil; and in the Gospel, the Lord first permitted, by saying to Judas, "What thou doest, do quickly." [4493] Also in Solomon, in the Proverbs: "The heart of the king is in God's hand." [4494]

81. That wages be quickly paid to the hireling.

In Leviticus: "The wages of thy hireling shall not sleep with thee until the morning." [4495]

82. That divination must not be used.

In Deuteronomy: "Do not use omens nor auguries." [4496]

83. That a tuft of hair is not to be worn on the head.

In Leviticus: "Ye shall not make a tuft from the hair of your head." [4497]

84. That the beard must not be plucked.

"Ye shall not deface the figure of your beard." [4498]

85. That we must rise when a bishop or a presbyter comes.

In Leviticus: "Thou shalt rise up before the face of the elder, and shall honour the person of the presbyter." [4499]

86. That a schism must not be made, even although he who withdraws should remain in one faith, and in the same tradition.

In Ecclesiasticus, in Solomon: "He that cleaveth firewood shall be endangered by it if the iron shall fall off." [4500] Also in Exodus: "In one house shall it be eaten: ye shall not cast forth the flesh abroad out of the house." [4501] Also in the cxxxiid Psalm: "Behold how good and how pleasant a thing it is that brethren should dwell in unity!" [4502] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth." [4503] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "But I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all say the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you; but that ye be all joined together in the same mind and in the same opinion." [4504] Also in the sixty-seventh Psalm: "God, who maketh men to dwell with one mind in a house." [4505]

87. That believers ought to be simple, with prudence.

In the Gospel according to Matthew: "Be ye prudent as serpents, and simple as doves." [4506] And again: "Ye are the salt of the earth. But if the salt have lost his savour, in what shall it be salted? It is good for nothing, but to be cast out abroad, and to be trodden under foot of men." [4507]

88. That a brother must not be deceived.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians: "That a man do not deceive his brother in a matter, because God is the avenger for all these." [4508]

89. That the end of the world comes suddenly.

The apostle says: "The day of the Lord shall so come as a thief in the night. When they shall say, Peace and security, then on them shall come sudden destruction." [4509] Also in the Acts of the Apostles: "No one can know the times or the seasons which the Father has placed in His own power." [4510]

90. That a wife must not depart from her husband; or if she should depart, she must remain unmarried.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "But to them that are married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not be separated from her husband; but if she should depart, that she remain unmarried or be reconciled to her husband: and that the husband should not put away his wife." [4511]

91. That every one is tempted so much as he is able to bear.

In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "No temptation shall take you, except such is human. But God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it." [4512]

92. That not everything is to be done which is lawful.

Paul, in the first Epistle to the Corinthians: "All things are lawful, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful, but all things edify not." [4513]

93. That it was foretold that heresies would arise.

In the first epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Heresies must needs be, in order that they which are approved may be made manifest among you." [4514]

94. That the Eucharist is to be received with fear and honour. [4515]

In Leviticus: "But whatever soul shall eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of salvation, which is the Lord s, and his uncleanness is still upon him, that soul shall perish from his people." [4516] Also in the first to the Corinthians: "Whosoever shall eat the bread or drink the cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord." [4517]

95. That we are to live with the good, but to avoid the evil.

In Solomon, in the Proverbs: "Bring not the impious man into the habitation of the righteous." [4518] Also in the same, in Ecclesiasticus: "Let righteous men be thy guests." [4519] And again: "The faithful friend is a medicine of life and of immortality." [4520] Also in the same place: "Be thou far from the man who has the power to slay, and thou shalt not suspect fear." [4521] Also in the same place, : "Blessed is he who findeth a true friend, and who speaketh righteousness to the listening ear." [4522] Also in the same place: "Hedge thine ears with thorns, and hear not a wicked tongue." [4523] Also in the seventeenth Psalm: "With the righteous Thou shalt be justified; and with the innocent man Thou shalt be innocent; and with the froward man Thou shalt be froward." [4524] Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "Evil communications corrupt good dispositions." [4525]

96. That we must labour not with words, but with deeds.

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "Be not hasty in thy tongue, and in thy deeds useless and remiss." [4526] And Paul, in the first to the Corinthians: "The kingdom of God is not in word, but in power." [4527] Also to the Romans: "Not the hearers of the law are righteous before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified." [4528] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "He who shall do and teach so, shall be called greatest in the kingdom of heaven." [4529] Also in the same place: "Every one who heareth my words, and doeth them, I will liken him to a wise man who built his house upon a rock. The rain descended, the floods came, the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. And every one who heareth my words, and doeth them not, I will liken him to the foolish man, who built his house upon the sand. The rain descended, the floods came, the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and its ruin became great." [4530]

97. That we must hasten to faith and to attainment.

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "Delay not to be converted to God, and do not put off from day to day; for His anger cometh suddenly." [4531]

98. That the catechumen ought now no longer to sin. [4532]

In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: "Let us do evil until the good things come; whose condemnation is just." [4533]

99. That judgment will be according to the times, either of equity before the law, or of law after Moses.

Paul to the Romans: "As many as have sinned without law, shall perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged also by the law." [4534]

100. That the grace of God ought to be without price.

In the Acts of the Apostles: "Thy money be in perdition with thyself, because thou hast thought that the grace of God is possessed by money." [4535] Also in the Gospel: "Freely ye have received, freely give." [4536] Also in the same place: "Ye have made my Father's house a house of merchandise; and ye have made the house of prayer a den of thieves." [4537] Also in Isaiah: "Ye who thirst, go to the water, and as many as have not money: go, and buy, and drink without money." [4538] Also in the Apocalypse: "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to him that thirsteth from the fountain of the water of life freely. He who shall overcome shall possess these things, and their inheritance; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son." [4539]

101. That the Holy Spirit has frequently appeared in fire.

In Exodus: "And the whole of Mount Sinai smoked, because God had come down upon it in fire." [4540] Also in the Acts of the Apostles"And suddenly there was made a sound from heaven, as if a vehement blast were borne along, and it filled the whole of that place in which they were sitting. And there appeared to them cloven tongues as if of fire, which also settled upon each of them; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost." [4541] Also in the sacrifices, whatsoever God accounted accepted, fire descended from heaven, which consumed what was sacrificed. In Exodus: "The angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire from the bush." [4542]

102. That all good men ought willingly to hear rebuke.

In Solomon, in the Proverbs: "He who reproveth a wicked man shall be hated by him. Rebuke a wise man, and he will love you." [4543]

103. That we must abstain from much speaking.

In Solomon: "Out of much speaking thou shall not escape sin; but sparing thy lips, thou shalt be wise." [4544]

104. That we must not lie.

"Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord." [4545]

105. That they are frequently to be corrected who do wrong in domestic duty.

In Solomon: "He who spareth the rod, hateth his son." [4546] And again: "Do not cease from correcting the child." [4547]

106. That when a wrong is received, patience is to be maintained, and vengeance to be left to God.

Say not, I will avenge me of mine enemy; but wait for the Lord, that He may be thy help." [4548] Also elsewhere: "To me belongeth vengeance; I will repay, saith the Lord." [4549] Also in Zephaniah: "Wait on me, saith the Lord, in the day of my rising again to witness; because my judgment is to the congregations of the Gentiles, that I may take kings, and pour out upon them my anger." [4550]

107. That we must not use detraction.

In Solomon, in the Proverbs: "Love not to detract, lest thou be taken away." [4551] Also in the forty-ninth Psalm: "Thou sattest, and spakest against thy brother; and against the son of thy mother thou placedst a stumbling-block." [4552] Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Colossians: [4553] "To speak ill of no man, nor to be litigious." [4554]

108. That we must not lay snares against our neighbour.

In Solomon, in the Proverbs: "He who diggeth a pit for his neighbour, himself shall fall into it." [4555]

109. That the sick are to be visited. [4556]

In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: "Be not slack to visit the sick man; for from these things thou shall be strengthened in love." [4557] Also in the Gospel: "I was sick, and ye visited me; I was in prison, and ye came unto me." [4558]

110. That tale-bearers are accursed.

In Ecclesiasticus, in Solomon: "The talebearer and the double-tongued is accursed; for he will disturb many who have peace." [4559]

111. That the sacrifices of the wicked are not acceptable.

In the same: "The Highest approveth not the gifts of the unrighteous." [4560]

112. That those are more severely judged, who in this world have had more power.

In Solomon: "The hardest judgment shall be made on those who govern. For to a mean man mercy is granted; but the powerful shall suffer torments mightily." [4561] Also in the second Psalm "And now, ye kings, understand; be amended, ye who judge the earth." [4562]

113. That the widow and orphans ought to be protected.

In Solomon: "Be merciful to the orphans as a father, and as a husband to their mother; and thou shalt be the son of the Highest if thou shalt obey." [4563] Also in Exodus: "Ye shall not afflict any widow and orphan. But if ye afflict them, and they cry out and call unto me, I will hear their cryings, and will be angry in mind against you; and I will destroy you with the sword, and your wives shall be widows, and your children orphans." [4564] Also in Isaiah: "Judge for the fatherless, and justify the widow; and come let us reason, saith the Lord." [4565] Also in Job: "have preserved the poor man from the hand of the mighty, and I have helped the fatherless who had no helper: the mouth of the widow hath blessed me." [4566] Also in the sixty-seventh Psalm: "The Father of the orphans, and the Judge of the widows." [4567]

114. That one ought to make confession while he is in the flesh.

In the fifth Psalm: "But in the grave who will confess unto Thee? " [4568] Also in the twenty-ninth Psalm: "Shall the dust make confession to Thee? " [4569] Also elsewhere that confession is to be made: "I would rather have the repentance of the sinner than his death." [4570] Also in Jeremiah: "Thus saith the Lord, Shall not he that falleth arise? or shall not he that is turned away be converted? " [4571]

115. That flattery is pernicious.

In Isaiah: "They who call you blessed, lead you into error, and trouble the paths of your feet." [4572]

116. That God is more loved by him who has had many sins forgiven in baptism.

In the Gospel according to Luke: "To whom much is forgiven, he loveth much; and to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little." [4573]

117. That there is a strong conflict to be waged against the devil, and that therefore we ought to stand bravely, that we may be able to conquer.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians: "Our wrestle is not against flesh and blood, but against the powers and princes of this world, and of this darkness; against the spiritual things of wickedness in the heavenly places. Because of this, put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to resist in the most evil day; that when ye have accomplished all, ye may stand, having your loins girt in the truth of the Gospel, putting on the breastplate of righteousness, and having your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace; in all things taking the shield of faith, in which ye may extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one; and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God." [4574]

118. Also of Antichrist, that he will come as a man.

In Isaiah: "This is the man who arouseth the earth, who disturbeth kings, who maketh the whole earth a desert." [4575] ]

119. That the yoke of the law was heavy, which is cast off by us, and that the Lord's yoke is easy, which is taken up by us.

In the second Psalm: "Wherefore have the heathen been in tumult, and the peoples meditated vain things? The kings of the earth have stood up, and their princes have been gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ. Let us break their bonds asunder, and cast away from us their yoke." [4576] Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: "Come unto me, ye who labour and are burdened, and I will make you to rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me: for I am meek and lowly of heart, [4577] and ye shall find rest for your souls. For my yoke is good, and my burden is light." [4578] Also in the Acts of the Apostles: "It seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to impose upon you no other burden than those things which are of necessity, that you should abstain from idolatries, from shedding of blood, and from fornication. And whatsoever you would not to be done unto you, do not to others." [4579]

120. That we are to be urgent in prayers.

In the Epistle of Paul to the Colossians: "Be instant in prayer, and watch therein." [4580] Also in the first Psalm: "But in the law of the Lord is his will, and in His law will he meditate day and night." [4581]

Elucidations.

I

On the unity of the Church, p. 421.

The epistles have already been elucidated as the best exposition of this Treatise. Little need be added. But, to illustrate the bearings of this Treatise upon the history of Christian unity, we need only refer to the manner in which the subject was treated as soon as the papacy was created by Nicholas I. Thus, he astounded the Greeks by his consummate audacity (a.d. 860) in the matter of the disputed succession in Constantinople. [4582] "It is our will," he says, "that Ignatius should appear before our envoys," etc. He declares it the rule of the Fathers, that, "without the consent of the Roman See and the Roman pontiff, nothing should be decided." Also, he affirms, "The Creator of all things has established the Princedom of the Divine Power, which He granted to His chosen apostles. He has firmly established it on the firm faith of the Prince of the Apostles, that is to say, Peter, to whom he pre-eminently granted the first See," etc. He was now speaking on the strength of the forged Decretals, to which he appeals, and which he succeeded in making law for the West. He thus created the lasting schism with the Easterns, who had never heard the like before his time.

Obviously, therefore, had Cyprian entertained such ideas, his Treatise could never have been written; for it is a masterly exposition of a curious point, viz., the fact that (1) the Apostle Peter received the first grant alone, and yet (2) all the apostles received precisely the same; while (1) Peter had thus a primacy of honour, but (2) in no respect any power or authority over his brethren. On these admitted facts he constructs his theory of unity, expounding by it the actual state of the Church's constitution. Peter's memory he honours, but without any less reverence for all the apostolic Sees, which over and over again he maintains to be of equal authority and sanctity. That the Church was founded on Stephen any more than on the Bishop of Carthage, he never imagines; for it is one thing to allow that a bishop has succeeded an apostle at the place of his last labours, and quite another to assume that therefore such a bishop is virtually the apostle himself. Yet this assumption is the ground of all Roman doctrine on this point. [4583]

Had such been Cyprian's idea, his Treatise on Unity must have proceeded thus: (1) "Our Lord said to Peter only, I will give unto thee the keys; (2) to the rest of the apostles He gave only an inferior and subject authority; (3) to the successor of Peter, therefore, at Rome, all other bishops and churches must be subject; for (4) in this subjection the law of unity consists; and (5) if even all the other apostles were alive to this day, they would be subject to Stephen, as Prince of the Apostles, or would be rebels against Christ."

Compare this Treatise of Cyprian, then, with any authorized Treatise on the subject proceeding from modern Rome, and it will be seen that the two systems are irreconcilable. Thus, in few words, says the Confession [4584] of Pius IV.: "I acknowledge the Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church for the mother and mistress of all churches; and I promise true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar of Jesus Christ." This is the voice of Italy in the ninth century; but Cyprian speaks for Oecumenical Christendom in the third, and the two systems are as contrary as darkness and light.

II

Falsifying of the text, p. 422.

Cyprian

Interpolated

Loquitur Dominus ad Petrum, Ego tibi dico Tu es Petrus, etc. (a)

(a)Et iterum eidem, post ressurectionem suam dicit, Pasce oves meas.

Super unum (b) ædificat ecclesiam.

(b)Super ilium unum et illi pascendas mandat oves suas.

Hoc erant utique et cæteri apostoli quot fuit Petrus, qui consortio præediti et honois et potestatis, sed exordium ab unitate proficisitur, (c) ut (d) Christi ecclesia (e) una monstretur. (f)

(c)Et priQui Ecclesiæ resistitur et resistit, (g) in ecclesia se esse confidit?

(g)Qui cathedram Petri, super quem fundata est ecclesia deserit, etc.

Cyprian is often innocently quoted by Romanist controvertists against the very principles of Cyprian himself, of his life and his writings. This is due to the fact that they have in their hands vitiated and interpolated copies. Thus, take a famous passage as follows:

This is but a specimen of the way in which Cyprian has been "doctored," in order to bring him into a shape capable of being misinterpreted. But you will say where is the proof of such interpolations? The greatly celebrated Benedictine edition reads as the interpolated column does, and who would not credit Baluzius? Now note, Baluzius rejected these interpolations and others; but, dying (a.d. 1718) with his work unfinished, the completion of the task was assigned to a nameless monk, who confesses that he corrupted the work of Baluzius, or rather glories in the exploit. [4585] "Nay, further," he says, "it was necessary to alter not a few things in the notes of Baluzius; and more would have been altered if it could have been done conveniently." Yet the edition came forth, and passes as the genuine work of the erudite Baluzius himself.

An edition of this Treatise, with valuable annotations, appeared (a.d. 1852) from the press of Burlington, N.J., under the very creditable editorship of Professor Hyde, who was soon after called to depart this life. It exhibits the interpolations, and gives a useful catalogue of codices and of editions. Though its typographical execution is imperfect, I know not where so much condensed information on the subject is to be had at so little cost. [4586] I am grateful for the real advantage I derived from it on its first appearance.

III

If ye do not forgive, etc., p. 454.

The Jewish liturgies contained the petitions of the Lord's Prayer essentially; but our divine Lord framed this comprehensive and sublime compend, and gave it to His children for ever, with His own seal upon it in the exceptional petition which imparts to it the impress of His own cross and passion. In the Gospel of St. Matthew [4587] we find our Master commenting on the fifth petition in a very striking manner, as if it were the essence of the whole prayer; and, indeed, it is so, regarded as its evangelical feature, i.e., something added to the law in the spirit of the Atonement. As such, it surprised the apostles; and He who knew their thoughts instantly anticipated their inquiries: "For if ye forgive men," etc.

From the criticism of a very able editorial hand, [4588] I feel it a privilege to insert the following valuable comments:

"The petitions of the Lord's Prayer, as is well known, are to be found for the most part in the Talmud and Jewish liturgies. In the latter we have frequently the phrases, our Father, our King, our Father, Father of mercies, and our Father that art in heaven. The third petition in the Shemone esre is, Let us hallow the Name in the world as it is hallowed in the high heaven. We will hallow Thee, and Thy praise, O God, shall not leave our mouth for ever and ever; since Thou, O God, art a great and holy King. Praised be Thou, O Lord, thou holy God. Thou art holy, and Thy name is holy, and holy men praise Thee everlastingly every day. The ineffable name of God represented all His attributes, and is consequently frequently substituted for Him. The end of the first petition in the Kaddish prayer runs thus: May He extend His kingdom in your days, and in those of the whole house of Israel very soon. In Berakhoth (29 b) we have, What is a short prayer? Rabbi Eliezer said, "Thy will be done in heaven, and peace of heart be unto those who fear Thee on earth." The same tract gives another prayer: The needs of Thy people Israel are many, but its discernment is small. Do Thou, O everlasting One, our God, give to each man what he needs for his support, and what his body wants; but do what seemeth Thee good. In the Mekhilta we read that Rabbi Eliezer of Modin, near Jerusalem, said: Whosoever has enough for the day to eat, and says, What shall I eat to-morrow? is of little faith. This passage seems to illustrate the meaning of the Greek epiousion . The third petition in the Shemone esre runs Forgive us, O our Father, for we have sinned; forgive us, O our King, for we have transgressed: since Thou art He that forgiveth and pardoneth. In reference to this the Midrash Shemoth (par. 31) states, There is no creature who does not owe thanks to the Lord; but He is pitiful and long-suffering, and remitteth old debts. The daily morning prayer of the Jews contains this petition: Lead us not into the power of sin, of transgression and crime, of temptation and shame. Let not passion have dominion over us, and keep us far from wicked men and evil Company. In one of the prayers composed in Aramaic for the rabbis and leading men of the Jewish community, the passage occurs, Defend and deliver them from all evil, and from all evil hap, which may be compared with the petition, Deliver us from evil. The Doxology at the end of the Lord's Prayer has equally Jewish parallels. Thus, one of the daily evening prayers concludes with the words, For Thine is the kingdom; i.e., God alone is ruler of the world. The words the power and the glory seem to come from 1 Chronicles 29:11, which is quoted in the Talmud; and the Mishna Berakhoth (ix. 5) states, In the temple all blessings did not end with "Amen," but with the words "for ever and ever" When the heretics multiplied, however, there was only one world; so the concluding formula became from everlasting to everlasting. "

IV

Lift up your hearts, p. 455.

It is demonstrated by Sir William Palmer that the Sursum Corda is of a date to which no history runneth contrary, and is to be found in all the primitive liturgies of whatever family. For a very early example of its use, I must refer to the Alexandrian liturgy cited by Bunsen; [4589] and, in short, I beg to refer the reader to all the resources of the fourth volume of his Hippolytus. Little as I can approve of the magisterial air with which Dr. Bunsen undertakes to decide all questions, and little as I sympathize with his abnormal religion, which seems to coincide with that of no existing church or sect in the world, I feel grateful for his industry in collecting materials, and am always interested in the ingenuity with which he works them into his theories. Although he possesses some touchstone unknown to the rest of mankind, by which he reaches and utters pontifical decisions as to what is genuine and what is corrupt, I must record my doubts as to many of his facts, and my dissent from most of his inferences. But, unwilling to refer to Anglican authorities on points so much disputed, I cordially turn to the learned Chevalier, and to the treasures he has collected. See the Greek forms on p. 335 of his fourth volume, followed by the preface on p. 336, and the Tersanctus on p. 337: "”€Agios, a”€gios, a”€gios, kurie Sabaƍth k.t.l.

V

To pray and give thanks, p. 457.

Here comes into view that reference of the apostle [4590] to the usages of the primitive assemblies: "How shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks." Though Cyprian omits the final Amen from his express commentary, it is to be noted that our Lord makes it virtually part of this prayer, by His precept (John 16:23, 24), to ask in His name. Now, He makes this word Amen one of His own names [4591] in the Apocalypse; throwing back a new character upon His frequent use of it, especially in St. John's Gospel, and giving it as a sort of appropriation of 2 Corinthians 1:20, when He calls Himself "The Amen, the faithful and true Witness." He thus makes it infinitely dear to Christians. [4592] As in the Jewish usages, [4593] with which the disciples were familiar, it was a matter of course, we may suppose they added Amen in reciting this prayer, but not with their subsequent knowledge that it implies the merits, and claims the mediation, of the Great Intercessor. Revelation 5:8, 8:3, 8:4; John 17:8.

Tertullian [4594] refers to the responsive "Hallelujah" as "enriched prayer," and the Amen usually accompanied this ejaculation.

VI

Its failing estate, p. 458.

Hippolytus [4595] foresaw the democratic age into which the feudal era of iron should pass, corroding in the toes by contact with the miry clay of the despised plebs, "the seed of men." No lasting strength was to be imparted to imperialism by the plebiscite (Daniel 2:43); and the prophet might almost be supposed to have the epoch of dynamite in his sight, as he speaks of the unwillingness of the people to cleave to the effete system of empire. Now, then, if "the failing estate" of the world was apparent in the days of Philip and Decius, how much more in our own! Sixteen human lives span the gulf of time between us and them, for we have many centenarians among us; and with the Lord "a thousand years are as one day." Compare 2 Peter 3:9. And, putting such Scriptures together, is it not clear that "the last time" (i.e., the last of the seven times of the Gentiles) is drawing to its close? The three and a half times of Daniel extend to the convulsive epoch of Mohammed; the second moiety (of the seven) to our own age. See Faber, Sacred Calendar [4596] vol. i. cap. iii. pp. 308, 309, etc.

VII

Peter, upon whom, etc., p. 486.

Launoi, the eminent Gallican, found but seventeen of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church (among whom he reckons "Fathers" down to the twelfth century) who understand St. Peter to be "the rock," and he cites forty of the contrary opinion. [4597] Yet of the "seventeen," most of them speak only rhetorically, and with justifiable freedom. I have often done the same myself, on the principle which the same apostle applies to all Christians: "Ye also as lively stones," [4598] etc. But it is quite noteworthy that the Council of Trent itself momentarily adopts the prevailing patristic and therefore the Catholic interpretation, speaking of the Nicene Creed: [4599] "In quo omnes qui fidem Christi profitentur necessario conveniunt, ac fundamentum firmum et unicum, contra quod portaeinferi nunquam praevalebunt (Matthew 16:18)." Thus, the faith of Peter is confessed the only foundation, in a direct exposition of the text so often quoted with another intent. In spite of all this, the Creed of Pius IV. was enjoined as soon as that council closed; and every member of the late Vatican Council was made to profess the same verbally before any other business was undertaken. Now, even this spurious creed forced them to swear concerning the Holy Scriptures," I will never take and interpret them otherwise than according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers." Obviously, according to this rule, there is no Catholic doctrine on the subject; much less any Catholic teaching to the effect that the modern bishops of Rome are "the rock," as really as St. Peter himself.

VIII

The Eucharist carried in it, p. 488.

The modern usage of the Latin churches is for the priest to put the wafer into the communicant's mouth, an ordinance dating no farther back than a.d. 880. A new doctrine having been forged, and faith in the corporal presence of Christ being forced upon the conscience, a change of ceremonial followed, which indicates the novelty of the idea. Contrast the teaching of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, [4600] informing his catechumens how they should receive, as follows:

"Approaching, therefore, come not with thy wrists extended, or thy fingers open; but make thy left hand a sort of cushion for thy right, which is about to receive the King. And having hollowed thy palm, receive the Body of Christ, saying after it, Amen." "Not discerning the Lord's body," etc., is the language of Scripture; but, had the apostles taught transubstantiation, this could not be said, for everybody can discern the host when it is uplifted. The Lord's Body is therefore discerned by faith, and so taken and received.

IX

Which should be greatest, p. 493.

How differently our Lord must have settled this inquiry had He given the supremacy to one of the Apostles, or had He designed the supremacy of any single pastor to be perpetual in His Church! "Who should be greatest? "ask this question of any Romanist theologian, and he answers, in the words of the Creed of Plus IV., "the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar of Christ." But why was no such answer given by our Lord? And why does St. Peter know nothing of it when he says, "The elders who are among you I exhort, who am also an eider feed the flock of God, taking the oversight not as being lords over God's heritage," etc. So also in the Council of Jerusalem, how humbly he sits under the presidency of James, [4601] and gain how cheerfully he permits the apostles to send him forth, and "give him mission" to Samaria! [4602] St. Paul, moreover, who was "not a whit behind the chiefest of the Apostles," [4603] overrules him, and reforms his judgment. [4604]

If I have forborne in these notes to refer frequently to the Treatise of Bishop Sage, who often elucidates our author in a very learned manner, it is because he is almost wholly a controvertist, and therefore not to my purpose in this work. For his Cyprian, [4605] however, I entertain a sincere respect; and, as it might seem otherwise should I omit all reference to that work, I place its title in the footnote. Profoundly do I feel what another Scottish Doctor [4606] has beautifully said, "It is a loss, even to those that oppose errors and divisions, that they are forced to he busied that way."

X

From the slender twig, my son, thou hast ascended, p. 513.

The text of Cyprian [4607] is: "Catulus leonis Juda, de frutice fill mi ascendisti, recubans obdormisti velut leo, et velut catulus leonis." Now, with this compare the comment of Calmet, citing the Septuagint (ek blastou‘ = e germine), and rendering by metaphrase, "e medio plantarum, sive herbarum germinantium, ascendisti."

Here, then, we have the idea precisely equivalent to Jeremiah 49:19: "Ecce quasi leo ascendet de superbia Jordanis." The lion is recumbent among the sprouting twigs (frutice, or foliage) of the Jordan's banks in the springtime. The swelling of the river, which the melting of snows from Lebanon causes to overflow, rouses the reposing creature; and he goes up into the mountains. But Cyprian had in hand the old African, [4608] which seems to follow the LXX., and St. Jerome's vulgate did not; and this word frutice animates Cyprian's poetic genius. Its spring-tide imagery corresponding with Easter, [4609] he reads into it all the New Testament fulfilment: "Thou layedst down and sleepedst as a lion, and as a lion s whelp but, from the shooting of the first verdure in spring, thou hast gone up on high thou hast ascended." "Quis excitabit illum" is separated from this in the Paris text, and in the Septuagint, which the Old Latin followed, and so I have pointed it, though the Edinburgh reads: "and as a lion s whelp; who shall stir him up? "

XI

Third Book religious teaching of our school, p. 528.

Quirinus, Cyprian's "son" in the Gospel, seems to me to have been a catechumen of the competent class, i.e., preparing for baptism at Easter; or possibly of the higher sort, preparing for the first communion. Many tokens lead me to surmise that he may have been of Jewish birth; and, if so, he was probably baptized Quirinus after Luke 2:2, as St. Paul borrowed his Roman name from Sergius Paulus. [4610] The use of the word secta, here rendered "school," suggests to me that the Vulgate got it (and so our English version) out of the old African Latin in Acts 28:22. If Quirinus was a Hebrew, there is a playful irony in Cyprian's use of the word in expounding the pure morality of "the sect" everywhere spoken against.

Origen's Treatise Against Celsus shows how cunningly the adversaries of the Gospel could assume a Jewish position against it; [4611] and the first two books of that work are designed to establish a perfect harmony between the Old Testament and the New, proving Christ to be the substance and sum of both. Cyprian may have foreseen the perils menacing the Church from the school of Plotinus, already rising, and which soon sent forth the venomous Porphyry. He was but a presbyter when he wrote this excellent defence of the faith; and his earnest pastoral care for his pupil is shown by his addition of a third book, entirely practical. The catechetical system of St. Luke s day [4612] had become a developed feature of the Church (St. Cyril s lectures in the succeeding century show how it was further expanded), and it also illustrates the purity of her moral teaching. Our author harmonizes faith and works, and presents her simple scriptural precepts in marked contrast with the putrid casuistry [4613] which Pascal exposes, and which grew up in the West with the enforcement of auricular confession by Innocent III., a.d. 1215. The theory of transubstantiation was also made a dogma at the same time, and operated, with the other, to the total extinguishment of the primitive discipline and worship. The withholding of the chalice in the Holy Communion followed, a.d. 1415.

XII

Good works and mercy, p. 528.

Clement was able to remind the heathen, half a century before, [4614] that Christ had "already made the universe an ocean of blessings." Here we have the moral canons of Christianity reflecting the Light of the World, and they show us how practically it operated. As I have noted, the first Christian hospital was founded (a.d. 350) by Ephraem Syrus. His example was followed by St. Basil, who also rounded another for lepers. The founding of hostels as refuges for travellers was an institution of the Nicene period. "In the time of Chrysostom," says one not too well disposed towards the Gospel, [4615] "the church of Antioch supported three thousand widows and virgins, besides strangers and sick. Legacies for the poor became common; and it was not infrequent for men and women who desired to live a life of especial sanctity, and especially for priests who attained the episcopacy, as a first act, to bestow their properties in charity. A Christian, it was maintained, should devote at least one-tenth of his profits to the poor. A priest named Thalasius collected blind beggars in an asylum on the banks of the Euphrates. A merchant named Apollinus founded on Mount Nitria a gratuitous dispensary."So here our author's canons enforce (1) works of mercy; (2) almsdeeds; (3) brotherly love; (4) mutual support; (5) forgiveness of injuries; (6) the example of Christ's holy living; (7) forbearance; (8) suppression of idle talk; (9) love of enemies; (10) abhorrence of usury, (11) and avarice, (12) and carnal impurity: also, (13) obedience to parents; (14) parental love; (15) consideration of servants; (16) respect for the aged; (17) moderation, even in use of things lawful; (18) control of the tongue; (19) abstinence from detraction; (20) to visit the sick; (21) care of widows and orphans; (22) not to flatter; (23) to practise the Golden Rule; and (24) to abstain from bloodshed. In short, we have here the outgrowth of the Sermon on the Mount, and of St. Paul s epitome, "Whatsoever things are true," etc. [4616]

XIII

In the thirteenth Psalm, p. 546.

The note says that the Oxford edition gives it as the fourteenth, while in our English Bibles it is the fifteenth. As I find that some of the readers of these works are puzzled by such confusions, I note retrospectively, as well as for future reference, the origin of such apparent blunders.

1. Our English version follows the Hebrew numbering, which is reputed the most accurate. By that a psalm is cited in the New Testament as if the numbering itself were important, and the product of inspired wisdom. [4617]

2. But the Greek Psalter differs from the Hebrew; Psalms 9. and Psalms 10. being made into one, as confessedly their material suggests. The Seventy joined also Psalms 114. and Psalms 115. But they divided Psalms 116., and also Psalms 142.

3. The Vulgate Latin follows the LXX.; and our Ante-Nicene Fathers usually quote the Septuagint, or else the Old Latin, by which the Vulgate was probably governed. In the Vulgate, also, the Hebrew prefaces are often numbered as if they were verses, which is another source of confusion.

4. By the fusion of Psalms 9. and Psalms 10., our Psalms 15. becomes the Psalms 14., and so the Vulgate gives it; and the Oxford translators follow that.

5. But our text says "Psalms 13.," and for this it is not easy to account. The Oxford editors regard it as a mere corruption of the text, and change it accordingly.


Footnotes

[4084] [Whom he had probably baptized. Elucidation XI.] [4085] [Whom he had probably baptized. Elucidation XI.] [4086] [May the American editor of these volumes venture to trust that be has in some degree lightened the labours of those who come after him: "laboravi semel ne tu semper laborares."] [4087] [Six-score precepts to be compared with the heathen maxims and morals with which they so generally conflict. See Elucidation XII.] [4088] "Cirrum in capite non habendum." "Cirrus" means "a tuft of hair," or a curl or lovelock. [But compare Clement, vol. ii. p. 286(and the note, on the chrism), for the more probable meaning.] [4089] Scil. "of baptism," Oxford transl. [4090] "Impotentium commerciorum." [4091] Isa. lviii. 1-9. [4092] Job xxix. 12, 13, 15, 16. [4093] Tob. ii. 2. [4094] Tob. iv. 5-11. [4095] Prov. xix. 17. [4096] Prov. xxviii. 27. [4097] Prov. xvi. 6. [4098] Prov. xxv. 21. [4099] Ecclus. iii. 30. [4100] Prov. iii. 28. [4101] Prov. xxi. 13. [4102] Prov. xx. 7. [4103] Ecclus. xiv. 11. [4104] Ecclus. xxix. 12. [4105] Ps. xxxvii. 25, 26. [4106] Ps. xli. 1. [4107] Ps. cxii. 9. [4108] Hos. vi. 6. [4109] Matt. v. 6. [4110] Matt. v. 7. [4111] Matt. vi. 20, 21. [4112] Matt. xiii. 45, 46. [4113] Matt. x. 42. [4114] Matt. v. 42. [4115] Matt. xix. 17-21. [4116] The Oxford edition inserts here, "an hungered, and fed Thee: thirsty, and gave Thee drink ! when saw we Thee -" [4117] Matt. xxv. 31-46. [4118] Luke xii. 33. [4119] Luke xi. 40, 41. [4120] Luke xix. 8, 9. [4121] 2 Cor. viii. 14, 15. [4122] 2 Cor. ix. 6, 7. [4123] 2 Cor. ix. 9. [4124] 2 Cor. ix. 10, 11. [4125] 2 Cor. ix. 12. [4126] 1 John iii. 17. [4127] Luke xiv. 12-14. [4128] 2 Cor. viii. 12, 13. [4129] Mal. ii. 10. [4130] John xiv. 27. [4131] John xv. 12, 13. [4132] Matt. v. 9. [4133] Matt. xviii. 19, 20. [4134] 1 Cor. iii. 1-3. [4135] 1 Cor. xiii. 2-8. [4136] Gal. v. 14, 15. [4137] 1 John iii. 10, 15. [4138] 1 John iv. 20. [4139] Acts iv. 32. [4140] Matt. v. 23, 24. [I think this harmonizes with Heb. xiii 10.] [4141] 1 John iv. 16. [4142] 1 John ii. 9. [4143] John iii. 27. [4144] 1 Cor. iv. 7. [4145] 1 Sam. ii. 3, 4. [4146] 1 Sam. ii. 3, 4. [4147] 2 Macc. ix. 12. [4148] 1 Macc. ii. 62, 63. [4149] Isa. lxvi. 1, 2. [4150] Matt. v. 5. [4151] Luke ix. 48. [4152] Luke xiv. 11. [4153] Rom. xi. 20, 21. [4154] Ps. xxxiv. 18. [4155] Rom. xiii. 7, 8. [4156] Matt. xxiii. 6-8. [4157] John xiii. 16, 17. [4158] Ps. lxxxii. 3. [4159] Ecclus. xxvii. 5. [4160] Ps. li. 17. [4161] Ps. xxxiv. 18. [4162] Ps. xxxiv. 19. [4163] Job i. 21, 22. [4164] Matt. v. 4. [4165] John xvi. 33. [4166] 2 Cor. xii. 7-9. [4167] Rom. v. 2-5. [4168] Matt. vii. 13, 14. [4169] Tob. ii. 14. [4170] Prov. xxviii. 28. [4171] Eph. iv. 30, 31. [For the sealing, see Acts xix. 6, Heb. vi. 2] [4172] Prov. xvi. 32. [4173] Prov. xii. 16. [4174] Eph. iv. 16. [4175] Matt. v. 21, 22. [4176] Gal. vi. 1, 2. [4177] Jer. ix. 23, 24. [4178] Ps. lvi. 11. [4179] Ps. lxii. 1. [4180] Ps. cxviii. 6. [4181] Ps. cxviii. 8. [4182] Dan. iii. 16-18. [4183] Jer. xvii. 5-7. [4184] Deut. vi. 13. [4185] Rom. i. 25, 26. [4186] 1 John iv. 4. [4187] Isa. lv. 6, 7. [4188] Eccles. i. 14. [4189] Ex. xii. 11. [4190] Matt. vi. 31-33. [4191] Matt. vi. 34. [4192] Luke ix. 62. [4193] Matt. vi. 26. [4194] Luke xii. 35-37. [4195] Matt. viii. 20. [4196] Luke xiv. 33. [4197] 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20. [4198] 1 Cor. vii. 29-31. [4199] 1 Cor. xv. 47-49. [4200] Phil. ii. 21, iii. 19-21. [4201] Gal. vi. 14. [4202] 2 Tim. ii. 4, 5. [4203] Col. ii. 20. [4204] Col. iii. 1-4. [4205] Eph. iv. 22-24. [4206] 2 Pet. ii. 11, 12. [4207] 1 John ii. 6. [4208] 1 John ii. 15-17. [4209] 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. [4210] Ecclus. xxiii. 11. From some ancient text the Oxford edition adds here, "Et si frustra juraverit dupliciter punietur " "and if he swear with no purpose, he shall be punished doubly." [4211] Matt. v. 34-37. All these passages are wanting in the Oxford text; [also in ed. Paris, 1574]. [4212] Ex. xx. 7. [Compare old Paris ed. on this section.] [4213] Ex. xxii. 28. [4214] Ps. xxxiv. 12, 13. [4215] Lev. xxiv. 13, 14. [4216] Eph. iv. 29. [4217] Rom. xii. 14. [4218] Matt. v. 22. [4219] Matt. xii. 36, 37. [4220] Job ii. 9, 10. [4221] Job i. 8. [4222] Ps. xxxiv. 1. [4223] Num. xvii. 10. [4224] Acts xvi. 25. [4225] Reputationibus; possibly "complainings." [4226] Phil. ii. 14, 15. [4227] Gen. xxii. 1, 2. [4228] Deut. xiii. 3. [4229] Wisd. iii. 4-8. [4230] 1 Macc. ii. 52. [4231] Prov. xiv. 25. [4232] Wisd. v. 1-9. [4233] Ps. cxvi. 5. [4234] Ps. cxxvi. 5, 6. [4235] John xii. 25. [4236] Matt. x. 19, 20. [4237] John xvi. 2, 3. [4238] Matt. v. 10. [4239] Matt. x. 28. [4240] Matt. x. 32, 33. [4241] Luke vi. 22, 23. [4242] Luke xviii. 29, 30. [4243] Rev. vi. 9-11. [4244] Rev. vii. 9-17. [4245] Rev. ii. 7. [4246] Rev. ii. 10. [4247] Rev. xvi. 15. [4248] 2 Tim. iv. 6-8. [4249] Rom. viii. 16, 17. [4250] Ps. cxix. 1, 2. [4251] Rom. viii. 18. [4252] 2 Macc. vi. 30. [4253] 2 Macc. vii. 9. [4254] 2 Macc. vii. 14. [4255] 2 Macc. vii. 16, 17. [4256] 2 Macc. vii. 18, 19. [4257] Deut. vi. 5. [4258] Matt. x. 37, 38. [4259] Rom. viii. 35-37. [4260] John vi. 38. [4261] Matt. xxvi. 39. [4262] Matt. vi. 10. [4263] Matt. vii. 21. [4264] Luke xii. 47. [4265] 1 John ii. 17. [4266] Ps. cxi. 10. [Tertull., vol. iii. 264.] [4267] Ecclus. i. 14. [4268] Prov. xxviii. 14. [4269] Isa. lxvi. 2. [4270] Gen. xxii. 11, 12. [4271] Ps. ii. 11. The whole of the remainder of this section, except the two concluding quotations from the Psalms, is wanting in many editions. [4272] Deut. iv. 10. [4273] Jer. xxxi. 31-41. [4274] Rev. xi. 16, 17. [4275] Rev. xiv. 16, 17. [4276] There is considerable departure here from the Apocalyptic text, for which it is not easy to account. [But this is an interesting fact as bearing upon the question of an original African version made from a family of mss.. now extinct.] [4277] Rev. xv, 2-4. [4278] Hist. of Susannah, 1-3. [4279] Song of the Three Children, 14-19. [4280] Dan. vi. 24-28. [4281] Mic. vi. 6-9. [4282] Mic. vii. 14-18. [4283] Nah. i. 5-7. [4284] Hag. i. 12. [4285] Mal. ii. 5. [4286] Ps. xxxiv. 9. [4287] Ps. xix. 9. [4288] Luke vi. 37. [4289] Rom. xiv. 4. [4290] Rom. ii. 1-3. [4291] 1 Cor. x. 12. [4292] 1 Cor. viii. 2. [4293] Matt. vi. 12. [4294] Matt. xi. 25, 26. [4295] Mark iv. 24. [4296] Rom. xii. 17. [4297] Rom. xii. 21. [4298] Rev. xxii. 10-12. [4299] John xiv. 6. [4300] John x. 9. [4301] John iii. 5, 6. [4302] John vi. 53. [4303] 1 Cor. ix. 24, 25. [4304] Matt. iii. 10. [4305] Matt. vii. 22, 23. [4306] Matt. v. 16. [4307] Phil. ii. 15. [4308] John v. 14. [4309] 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. [4310] 2 Chron. xv. 2. [4311] Matt. xii. 32. [4312] Mark iii. 28, 29. [4313] 1 Sam. ii. 25. [i.e, he regards this text as expounded by the preceding words of Christ. Compare 1 John v. 16.] [4314] Luke xxi. 17. [4315] John xv. 18-20. [4316] The whole of this quotation, as it is called, from Baruch, is wanting in all codices but two. It is remarkable, as finding no place in any text of Scripture, nor in any translation, whether Greek or Latin. [4317] Personales fidei. This, like many other expressions in this strange passage, gives no clue to a meaning. [4318] Eccles. v. 4. [4319] Deut. xxiii. 21-23. [4320] Ps. l. 14, 15. [4321] Acts v. 3, 4. [4322] Jer. xlviii. 10. [4323] Unice; but some read unigeniti, "only-begotten." [4324] John iii. 18, 19. [4325] Ps.i 5. [4326] [This section is confined to Scripture, and goes not beyond the word of the Divine Wisdom, as do some of the Fathers.] [4327] Gen. iii. 16. [4328] Matt. xix. 11, 12. [4329] Luke xx. 34-38. [4330] 1 Cor. vii. 1-7. [4331] 1 Cor. vii, 32-34. [4332] Ex. xix. 15. [4333] 1 Sam. xxi. 4. [4334] Rev. xiv. 4. [4335] John v. 22, 23. [4336] Ps. lxxii. 1, 2. [4337] Gen. xix. 24. [4338] Jer. x. 2. [4339] Rev. xviii. 4-9. The Oxford text reads "deliciis" instead of "deiictis," making the last clause, "and have walked in delicacies." [4340] Isa. lii. 11. [4341] Ecclus. v. 4. [4342] Rom. ii. 4-6. [4343] Rev. xvii. 1-4. [4344] 1 Tim. ii. 9, 10. [4345] 1 Pet. iii. 4. [This limitation to "Pontus" is curious.] [4346] Gen. xxxviii. 14, 15. [4347] [Gr. ƍs allotrioepiskopos; a strange expression. This is St. Paul's canon (Greek) of jurisdiction, which he expounds, 2 Cor. x. 13, 14Comp. Gal. ii. 9. Showing, by the way, the limits of Peter's jurisdiction, "measure," or metron tou kanonos. Note 15, p.544, supra.] [4348] 1 Pet. iv. 15, 16. [4349] Rom. xiii. 3. [4350] 1 Pet. ii. 21-23. [4351] Phil. ii. 6-11. [4352] John xiii. 14, 15. [4353] Matt. vi. 3, 4. [4354] Matt. vi. 2. [4355] Eph. v. 4. [4356] Gen. xv. 6. [4357] Isa. vii. 9. [4358] Matt. xiv. 31. [4359] Matt. xvii. 20. [4360] Mark xi. 24. [4361] Mark ix. 22. [4362] Hab. ii. 4. [4363] Acts viii. 36, 37. [4364] [The oath on the Bible in our courts, and other Christian forms, are important in Christian morals, as bearing upon our right to seek redress at the law, while it is Christianlaw.] [4365] 1 Cor. vi. 1, 2. [4366] 1 Cor. vi. 7-9. [4367] Some read" exspectamus," "we wait for it." [4368] Rom. viii. 24, 25. [4369] 1 Cor. xiv. 34, 35. [Women might have spiritual gifts, like the daughters of Philip, Acts xxi. 9; but even such are here forbidden to use them in the public worship of the Church.] [4370] 1 Tim. ii. 11-14. [4371] Hos. iv. 1-4. [4372] Isa. lix. 1-4. [4373] Zeph. i. 2, 3. [4374] The Oxford edition has "the fourteenth." [Elucidation XIII.] [4375] Ps. xv. 6. [4376] Ezek. xviii. 7, 8. [4377] Deut. xxiii. 19. [4378] Luke vi. 32. [4379] Matt. v. 44, 45. [4380] Prov. xxiii. 9. [4381] Matt. vii. 6. [4382] [Hab. i. 16 ; Ps. cxxxi. 1.] [4383] Ecclus. x. 26. [4384] Luke xvii. 7-10. [4385] Deut. xiii. 19. [4386] Isa. i. 19. [4387] Luke xvii. 21. [4388] [The aphoristic force of these "heads" is often striking in the original; e.g., "Dei arcana perspici non posse, et ideo fidem nostram simplicem esse debere."] [4389] 1 Cor. xiii. 12. [4390] Wisd. i. 1. [4391] Prov. x. 9. [4392] Eccles. iii. 21. [4393] Ecclus. vii. 17. [4394] Isa. xxix. 15. [4395] 1 Macc. ii. 6o. [4396] Rom. xi. 33-36. [4397] 2 Tim. ii. 23, 24. [4398] Job xiv. 4, 5. [4399] Ps. li. 5. [4400] 1 John i. 8. [4401] Ps. liii. 5. [4402] Gal. i. 10. [4403] Prov. xv. 3. [4404] Jer. xxiii. 23, 24. [4405] 1 Sam. xvi. 7. [4406] Rev. ii. 23. [4407] Ps. xix. 12. [4408] 2 Cor. v. 10. [4409] Ps. cxviii. 18. [4410] Ps. lxxxix. 32, 33. [4411] Mal. iii. 3. [4412] Matt. v. 26. [4413] Gen. iii. 17-19. [4414] Gen. v. 24. [4415] Isa. xl. 6, 7. [4416] Ezek. xxxvii. 11-14. [4417] Wisd. iv. 11, 14. [4418] Some read "amabiles," "amiable." [4419] Ps. lxxxiv. 1, 2. [4420] 1 Thess. iv. 13, 14. [4421] 1 Cor. xv. 36. [4422] 1 Cor. xv. 41-44. [4423] 1 Cor. xv. 53-55. [4424] John xvii. 24. [4425] Luke ii. 29, 30. [4426] John xiv. 28. [4427] Wisd. xv. 15-17. [4428] Wisd. xiii. 1-4. [4429] Ps. cxxxv. 16-18. [4430] Ps. xcvi. 5. [4431] Ex. xx. 23. [4432] Ex. xx. 4. This section closes bere, according to the Oxford text. The Lespzic edition continues as in the above reading. [4433] Jer. x. 2-5, 9, 11, ii. 12,13, 19, 20, 27. [4434] Isa. xlvi. 1, 2, 5. [4435] Migne refers this to Jer. li. 15-18, but there is nothing corresponding to it in the passage. [4436] Isa. xlvi. 6, 7. [4437] Jer. li. 16-19. [4438] Rev. ix. 1, 13-21. [4439] Rev. xiv. 9-11. [4440] Isa. xxii. 13, 14. [4441] Ex. xxxii. 6. [4442] 1 Cor. viii. 8. [4443] 1 Cor. xi. 33. [4444] Rom. xiv. 17. [4445] John iv. 32, 34. [4446] Eccles. v. 10. [4447] Prov. xi. 26. [4448] Isa. v. 8. [4449] Zeph. i. 13, 14. [4450] Luke ix. 25. [4451] Luke xii. 20. [4452] Luke xvi. 25. [4453] Acts iii. 6. [4454] 1 Tim. vi. 7-10. [4455] Tob. iv. 12. [4456] 1 Cor. vii. 39, 40. [4457] 1 Cor. vi. 15-17. [4458] 2 Cor. vi. 14. [4459] 1 Kings xi. 4. [Surely this principle is important in teaching fathers and mothers how to guard the social relations of children.] [4460] 1 Cor. vi. 18-20 [4461] Gal. v. 17-24. [4462] 1 Cor. vi. 9-11. [4463] Jer. iii. 15. [4464] Prov. iii. 11, 12. [4465] Ps. ii. 12. [4466] Ps. l. 16. [4467] Wisd. iii. 12. [4468] 2 Tim. iv. 3, 4. [4469] 2 Thess. iii. 6. [A very noteworthy safeguard of apostolic ordinances; but mark the charity with which it is softened, 2 Thess. iii. 14, 15. Compare also cap. ii. 15.] [4470] Ps. l. 28. [4471] 1 Cor. i. 17-24. [4472] 1 Cor. iii. 18-20. [4473] Ps. xciii. 11. [4474] Eph. vi. 1-3. [4475] Eph. vi. 4. [4476] Eph. vi. 5, 6. [4477] Eph. vi. 9. [4478] 1 Tim. v. 3, 6. [4479] 1 Tim. v. 11, 12. [4480] 1 Tim. v. 8. [4481] Isa. lviii. 7. [4482] Matt. x. 25. [4483] 1 Tim. v. 19. [4484] 1 Tim. v. 20. [4485] Tit. iii. 10, 11. [4486] John ii. 19. [4487] 2 Tim. ii. 17. [4488] 1 John ii. 21, 22. [4489] Matt. v. 8. [4490] Ps. xxiv. 3, 4. [4491] John xix. 11. [4492] 1 Kings xi. 23. [4493] John xiii. 27. [4494] Prov. xxi. 1. [4495] Lev. xix. 13. [4496] Deut. xviii. 10. [4497] Lev. xix 27. [See p. 530, Supra, the note and reference.] [4498] Lev. xix. 27. [Compare Clement, vol. ii. p. 280, this series.] [4499] Lev. xix. 32. [4500] Eccles. x. 9. [4501] Ex. xii. 4. [4502] Ps. cxxxiii. 1. [4503] Matt. xii. 30. [4504] 1 Cor. i. 10. [4505] Ps. lxviii. 6. [So Vulgate and Anglican Psalter.] [4506] Matt. x. 16. [4507] Matt. v. 13. [4508] 1 Thess. iv. 6. [4509] 1 Thess. v. 2, 3. [4510] Acts i. 7. [4511] 1 Cor. vii. 10, 11. [4512] 1 Cor. x. 13. [4513] 1 Cor. x. 23. [4514] 1 Cor. xi. 19. [4515] [Note, not to be worshipped, but received.] [4516] Lev. vii. 20. [4517] 1 Cor. xi. 27. [4518] Prov. xxiv. 15. [4519] Ecclus. ix. 16. [4520] Ecclus. vi. 16. [4521] Ecclus. ix. 13. [4522] Ecclus. xxv. 9. [4523] Ecclus. xxviii. 24. [4524] Ps. xviii. 25, 26. [4525] 1 Cor. xv. 33. [4526] Ecclus. iv. 29. [4527] 1 Cor. iv. 20. [4528] Rom. ii. 13. [4529] Matt. v. 19. [4530] Matt. vii. 24-27. [4531] Ecclus. v. 7. [4532] [Converts preparing far baptism. Apostolical Constitutions, and Bunsen's Hippolytrus, vol. iii. pp. 3-24.] [4533] Rom. iii. 8. [4534] Rom. ii. 12. [4535] Acts viii. 20. [4536] Matt. x. 8. [4537] Matt. xxi. 13. The latter clause of this quotation is omitted by the Oxford editor. [4538] Isa. 1v. 1. [4539] Rev. xxi. 6, 7. [4540] Ex. xix. 18. [4541] Acts ii. 2-4. [4542] Ex. iii. 2. [4543] Prov. ix. 8. [4544] Prov. x. 19. [4545] Prov. xii. 22. [4546] Prov. xiii. 24. [4547] Prov. xix. 18. [4548] Lev. xix. 18. [4549] Deut. xxxii. 35. [4550] Zeph. iii. 8. [4551] Prov. xx. 13 (LXX.). [4552] Ps. l. 20. [4553] Oxford edition, "to Titus." [4554] Tit. iii. 2. [4555] Prov. xxvi. 27. [4556] [Elucidation XII. See p. 528, supra.] [4557] Ecclus. vii. 39. [4558] Matt. xxv. 36. [4559] Ecclus. xxviii. 15. [4560] Ecclus. xxxiv. 19. [4561] Wisd. vi. 6. [4562] Ps. ii. 10. [4563] Ecclus. iv. 10. [4564] Ex. xxii. 22-24. [4565] Isa. i. 17, 18. [4566] Job xxix. 12, 13. [4567] Ps. lxviii. 5. [4568] Ps. vi. 5. [Here, as often, the grave is represented as enjoying a temporary victory, for the flesh is no longer capable of worship. Not till the whole man is restored comes 1 Cor. xv. 54, 55.] [4569] Ps. xxx. 9. [4570] Ezek. xxxiii. 11. [4571] Jer. viii. 4. [4572] Isa. iii. 12. [4573] Luke vii. 47. [4574] Eph. vi. 12-17. [4575] Isa. xiv. 16. [4576] Ps. ii. 1-3. [4577] In one codex, from this point all the rest is wanting. [4578] Matt. xi. 28-30. [4579] Acts xv. 28, 29. [4580] Col. iv. 2. [4581] Ps. i. 2. The Oxford edition continues; "Likewise in Soloman; Be not hindered from praying ever, and delay not unto death to be justified; for the repayment of the Lord abideth for ever._0 " [In a day when there were few Bibles, and no printed books, no concordances, and no published collections of this sort, reflect on the value of this Treatise to a young believer, and on the labour of his pastor in making it.] [4582] For the Ultramontane side, consult the Histoire de Photius, etc., par M. l Abbe Jager, p. 41, ed. Paris, 1854. For the Greeks, La Papaute Schismatique, etc., par M. l Abbe Guettee (pp. 286, 288, etc.), Paris, 1863. [4583] "Whatever is said in commendation of St. Peter is at once transferred to the occupant of the papacy, as if pasce oues meas had been said to Pius IX." Burgon, Letters from Rome, p. 411, ed. 1862. [4584] Compendium Rutyakus Romani, etc., Baltimori, 1842, p. 195. [4585] Burgon, Letters from Rome, p. 417. [4586] Th. C. Cypriani de Unitate Ecclesiae ad optimorum librorum fidem expressa, cum variis lectionibus, ad notationibus Fellii, Baluzii, etc., instructa. Curante M. F. Hyde, M.A., etc, Burlingtoniae, MDCCCLII. [4587] Cap. vi. 14. [4588] New York Independent, April 25;, 1878. [4589] Hippolytus, vol. iv. p. 161. [4590] 1 Cor. xiv. 16. [4591] Rev. iii. 14. [4592] Note a striking use of it, as a name of Christ, by Commodian, vol. iv. 43, p. 211. [4593] Num. v. 22; Deut. xxvii. 15; 1 Kings i. 36; 2 Chron. xvi. 36; Jer. xxviii. 6; in the Psalms passim. [4594] Vol. iii. cap. xxvii. p. 690, this series. [4595] P. 178. [4596] A most instructive work, though I by no means accept his theories in full. [4597] Guettee, p. 143, ed. New York. [4598] Compare Peshito Syriac, where Cephas is the very word applied to all believers. Ed. Trostii, 1621. [4599] Richter, Canones et Decreta, etc., p. 10, ed. Lipsiae, 1863. [4600] A.D. 348. [4601] Acts xv. 13. [4602] Acts viii. 14. [4603] See Barrow, Works, vol. iii. p. 95, ed New York, 1845. [4604] Gal. ii. 11-14. [4605] The Principles of the Cyprianic Age, etc., A.D. 1695. Reprinted, Edinburgh, 1846. [4606] Leighton, On St. Peter, i. 2, Works, i. p.30, London, 1870. [4607] Ed. Paris, 1574. [4608] Scrivener, Introduction, etc., p. 302, ed. 1874. [4609] Jordan overflows its banks at the time of the passover, Josh. iii. 15, Josh. v. 10, 11. [4610] Acts xiii. 7-9. [4611] Vol. iv. p. 462. [4612] Luke i. 4. Greek. [4613] See that very useful little publication of the S. P. C. K., Dr. Littledale's Plain Reasons against Joining the Church of Rome, pp. 18 and 205. [4614] See vol. ii. p. 202, note 5. [4615] Lecky, History of European Morals, vol. ii. p. 8, ed. New York, 1872. See vol. ii. p. 202, note 5. [4616] Phil. iv. 8. [4617] Acts xiii. 33.
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