Hippolytus - Refutation of All Heresies - Book IV
Translated by the Rev. J. H. Macmahon, M.a.
Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and
first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional
introductionary material and notes provided for the American
edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.
Chapter I. System of the Astrologers; Sidereal Influence; Configuration of
But in each zodiacal sign they call limits of the stars those in which each
of the stars, from any one quarter to another, can exert the greatest amount
of influence; in regard of which there is among them, according to their
writings, no mere casual divergency of opinion. But they say that the stars
are attended as if by satellites when they are in the midst of other stars,
in continuity with the signs of the Zodiac; as if, when any particular star
may have occupied the first portions of the same sign of the Zodiac, and
another the last, and another those portions in the middle, that which is in
the middle is said to be guarded by those holding the portions at the
extremities. And they are said to look upon one another, and to be in
conjunction with one another, as if appearing in a triangular or
quadrangular figure. They assume, therefore, the figure of a triangle, and
look upon one another, which have an intervening distance  extending
for three zodiacal signs; and they assume the figure of a square those which
have an interval extending for two signs. But as the underlying parts
sympathize with the head, and the head with the underlying parts,  so
also things terrestrial with superlunar objects.  But there is of these
a certain difference and want of sympathy, so that they do not involve one
and the same point of juncture.
Chapter II. Doctrines Concerning Aeons; The Chaldean Astrology; Heresy
Derivable from It.
Employing these (as analogies), Euphrates the Peratic, and Acembes  the
Carystian, and the rest of the crowd of these (speculators), imposing names
different from the doctrine of the truth, speak of a sedition of Aeons, and
of a revolt of good powers over to evil (ones), and of the concord of good
with wicked (Aeons), calling them Toparchai and Proastioi, and very many
other names. But the entire of this heresy, as attempted by them, I shall
explain and refute when we come to treat of the subject of these (Aeons).
But now, lest any one suppose the opinions propounded by the Chaldeans
respecting astrological doctrine to be trustworthy and secure, we shall not
hesitate to furnish a brief refutation respecting these, establishing that
the futile art is calculated both to deceive and blind the soul indulging in
vain expectations, rather than to profit it. And we urge our case with
these, not according to any experience of the art, but from knowledge based
on practical principles. Those who have cultivated the art, becoming
disciples of the Chaldeans, and communicating mysteries as if strange and
astonishing to men, having changed the names (merely), have from this source
concocted their heresy. But since, estimating the astrological art as a
powerful one, and availing themselves of the testimonies adduced by its
patrons, they wish to gain reliance for their own attempted conclusions, we
shall at present, as it has seemed expedient, prove the astrological art to
be untenable, as our intention next is to invalidate also the Peratic
system, as a branch growing out of an unstable root.
Chapter III. The Horoscope the Foundation of Astrology; Indiscoverability of
the Horoscope; Therefore the Futility of the Chaldean Art.
The originating principle,  and, as it were, foundation, of the entire
art, is fixing  the horoscope.  For from this are derived the rest
of the cardinal points, as well as the declinations and ascensions, the
triangles and squares, and the configurations of the stars in accordance
with these; and from all these the predictions are taken. Whence, if the
horoscope be removed, it necessarily follows that neither any celestial
object is recognisable in the meridian, or at the horizon, or in the point
of the heavens opposite the meridian; but if these be not comprehended, the
entire system of the Chaldeans vanishes along with (them). But that the sign
of the horoscope is indiscoverable by them, we may show by a variety of
arguments. For in order that this (horoscope) may be found, it is first
requisite that the (time of) birth of the person falling under inspection
should be firmly fixed; and secondly, that the horoscope which is to signify
this should be infallible; and thirdly, that the ascension  of the
zodiacal sign should be observed with accuracy. For from  (the moment)
of birth  the ascension of the zodiacal sign rising in the heaven
should be closely watched,  since the Chaldeans, determining (from
this) the horoscope, frame the configuration of the stars in accordance with
the ascension (of the sign); and they, term this disposition, in accordance
with which they devise their predictions. But neither is it possible to take
the birth of persons, falling under consideration, as I shall explain, nor
is the horoscope infallible, nor is the rising zodiacal sign apprehended
How it is, then, that the system of the Chaldeans  is unstable, let
us now declare. Having, then, previously marked it out for investigation,
they draw the birth of persons falling under consideration from,
unquestionably, the depositing of the seed, and (from) conception or from
parturition. And if one will attempt to take (the horoscope) from
conception, the accurate account of this is incomprehensible, the time
(occupied) passing quickly, and naturally (so). For we are not able to say
whether conception takes place upon the transference  of the seed or
not. For this can happen even as quick as thought, just also as leaven, when
put into heated jars, immediately is reduced to a glutinous state. But
conception can also (take place) after a lapse of duration. For there being
an interval from the mouth of the womb to the fundament, where physicians
 say conceptions take place, it is altogether the nature of the seed
deposited to occupy some time in traversing  this interval. The
Chaldeans, therefore, being ignorant of the quantity of duration to a
nicety, never will comprehend the (moment of) conception; the seed at one
time being injected straight forward, and falling at one spot upon actual
parts of the womb well disposed for conception, and at another time dropping
into it dispersedly, and being collected into one place by uterine energies.
Now, while these matters are unknown, (namely), as to when the first takes
place, and when the second, and how much time is spent in that particular
conception, and how much in this; while, I say, ignorance on these points
prevails on the part of these (astrologers), an accurate comprehension of
conception is put out of the question.  And if, as some natural
philosophers have asserted, the seed, remaining stationary first, and
undergoing alteration in the womb, then enters the (womb s) opened
blood-vessels, as the seeds of the earth  sink into the ground; from
this it will follow, that those who are not acquainted with the quantity of
time occupied by the change, will not be aware of the precise moment of
conception either. And, moreover, as women  differ from one another
in the other parts of the body, both as regards energy and in other
respects, so also (it is reasonable to suppose that they differ from one
another) in respect of energy of womb, some conceiving quicker, and others
slower. And this is not strange, since also women, when themselves compared
with themselves, at times are observed having a strong disposition towards
conception, but at times with no such tendency. And when this is so, it is
impossible to say with accuracy when the deposited seed coalesces, in order
that from this time the Chaldeans may fix the horoscope of the birth.
Chapter IV. Impossibility of Fixing the Horoscope; Failure of an Attempt to
Do This at the Period of Birth.
For this reason it is impossible to fix the horoscope from the (period of)
conception. But neither can this be done from (that of) birth. For, in the
first place, there exists the difficulty as to when it can be declared that
there is a birth; whether it is when the foetus begins to incline towards
the orifice,  or when it may project a little, or when it may be
borne to the ground. Neither is it in each of these cases possible to
comprehend the precise moment of parturition,  or to define the time.
For also on account of disposition of soul, and on account of suitableness
of body, and on account of choice of the parts, and on account of experience
in the midwife, and other endless causes, the time is not the same at which
the foetus inclines towards the orifice, when the membranes are ruptured, or
when it projects a little, or is deposited on the ground; but the period is
different in the case of different individuals. And when the Chaldeans are
not able definitely and accurately to calculate this, they will fail, as
they ought, to determine the period of emergence.
That, then, the Chaldeans profess to be acquainted with the horoscope at the
periods of birth,  but in reality do not know it, is evident from
these considerations. But that neither is their horoscope infallible, it is
easy to conclude. For when they allege that the person sitting beside the
woman in travail at the time of parturition gives, by striking a metallic
rim, a sign to the Chaldean, who from an elevated place is contemplating the
stars, and he, looking towards heaven, marks down the rising zodiacal sign;
in the first place, we shall prove to them, that when parturition happens
indefinitely, as we have shown a little before, neither is it easy 
to signify this (birth) by striking the metallic rim. However, grant that
the birth is comprehensible, yet neither is it possible to signify this at
the exact time; for as the noise of the metallic plate is capable of being
divided by a longer time and one protracted, in reference to perception, it
happens that the sound is carried to the height (with proportionate delay).
And the following proof may be observed in the case of those felling timber
at a distance. For a sufficiently long time after the descent of the axe,
the sound of the stroke is heard, so that it takes a longer time to reach
the listener. And for this reason, therefore, it is not possible for the
Chaldeans accurately to take the time of the rising zodiacal sign, and
consequently the time when one can make the horoscope with truth. And not
only does more time seem to elapse after parturition, when he who is sitting
beside the woman in labour strikes the metallic plate, and next after the
sound reaches the listener, that is, the person who has gone up to the
elevated position; but also, while he is glancing around and looking to
ascertain in which of the zodiacal signs is the moon, and in which appears
each of the rest of the stars, it necessarily follows that there is a
different position in regard of the stars, the motion  of the pole
whiffing them on with incalculable velocity, before what is seen in the
heavens  is carefully adjusted to the moment when the person is born.
Chapter V. Another Method of Fixing the Horoscope at Birth; Equally Futile;
Use of the Clepsydra in Astrology; The Predictions of the Chaldeans Not
In this way, the art practised by the Chaldeans will be shown to be
unstable. Should any one, however, allege that, by questions put to him who
inquires from the Chaldeans,  the birth can be ascertained, not even
by this plan is it possible to arrive at the precise period. For if,
supposing any such attention on their part in reference to their art to be
on record, even these do not attain as we have proved unto accuracy either,
how, we ask, can an unsophisticated individual comprehend precisely the time
of parturition, in order that the Chaldean acquiring the requisite
information from this person may set  the horoscope correctly? But
neither from the appearance of the horizon will the rising star seem the
same everywhere; but in one place its declination will be supposed to be the
horoscope, and in another the ascension (will be thought) the horoscope,
according as the places come into view, being either lower or higher.
Wherefore, also, from this quarter an accurate prediction will not appear,
since many may be born throughout the entire world at the same hour, each
from a different direction observing the stars.
But the supposed comprehension (of the period of parturition) by means of
clepsydras  is likewise futile. For the contents of the jar will not
flow out in the same time when it is full as when it is half empty; yet,
according to their own account, the pole itself by a single impulse is
whiffed along at an equable velocity. If, however, evading the argument,
 they should affirm that they do not take the time precisely, but as it
happens in any particular latitude,  they will be refuted almost by
the sidereal influences themselves. For those who have been born at the same
time do not spend the same life, but some, for example, have been made
kings, and others have grown old in fetters. There has been born none equal,
at all events to Alexander the Macedonian, though many were brought forth
along with him throughout the earth; (and) none equal to the philosopher
Plato. Wherefore the Chaldean, examining the time of the birth in any
particular latitude, will not be able to say accurately, whether a person
born at this time will be prosperous. Many, I take it, born at this time,
have been unfortunate, so that the similarity according to dispositions is
Having, then, by different reasons and various methods, refuted the
ineffectual mode of examination adopted by the Chaldeans, neither shall we
omit this, namely, to show that their predictions will eventuate in
inexplicable difficulties. For if, as the mathematicians assert, it is
necessary that one born under the barb of Sagittarius arrow should meet
with a violent death, how was it that so many myriads of the Barbarians that
fought with the Greeks at Marathon or Salamis  were simultaneously
slaughtered? For unquestionably there was not the same horoscope in the
case, at all events, of them all. And again, it is said that one born under
the urn of Aquarius will suffer shipwreck: (yet) how is it that so many
 of the Greeks that returned from Troy were overwhelmed in the deep
around the indented shores of Euboea? For it is incredible that all, distant
from one another by a long interval of duration, should have been born under
the urn of Aquarius. For it is not reasonable to say, that frequently, for
one whose fate it was to be destroyed in the sea, all who were with him in
the same vessel should perish. For why should the doom of this man subdue
the (destinies) of all? Nay, but why, on account of one for whom it was
allotted to die on land, should not all be preserved?
Chapter VI. Zodiacal Influence; Origin of Sidereal Names.
But since also they frame an account concerning the action of the zodiacal
signs, to which they say the creatures that are procreated are
assimilated,  neither shall we omit this: as, for instance, that one
born in Leo will be brave; and that one born in Virgo will have long
straight hair,  be of a fair complexion, childless, modest. These
statements, however, and others similar to them, are rather deserving of
laughter than serious consideration. For, according to them, it is possible
for no Aethiopian to be born in Virgo; otherwise he would allow that such a
one is white, with long straight hair and the rest. But I am rather of
opinion,  that the ancients imposed the names of received animals
upon certain specified stars, for the purpose of knowing them better, not
from any similarity of nature; for what have the seven stars, distant one
from another, in common with a bear, or the five stars with the head of a
dragon? in regard of which Aratus  says:
"But two his temples, and two his eyes, and one beneath
Reaches the end of the huge monster's law."
Chapter VII. Practical Absurdity of the Chaldaic Art; Development of the
In this manner also, that these points are not deserving so much labour, is
evident to those who prefer to think correctly, and do not attend to the
bombast of the Chaldeans, who consign monarchs to utter obscurity, by
perfecting cowardice  in them, and rouse private individuals to dare
great exploits. But if any one, surrendering himself to evil, is guilty of
delinquency, he who has been thus deceived does not become a teacher to all
whom the Chaldeans are disposed to mislead by their mistakes. (Far from it);
(these astrologers) impel the minds (of their dupes, as they would have
them), into endless perturbation, (when) they affirm that a configuration of
the same stars could not return to a similar position, otherwise than by the
renewal of the Great Year, through a space of seven thousand seven hundred
and seventy and seven years.  How then, I ask, will human observation
for one birth be able to harmonize with so many ages; and this not once,
(but oftentimes, when a destruction of the world, as some have stated, would
intercept the progress of this Great Year; or a terrestrial convulsion,
though partial, would utterly break the continuity of the historical
tradition)?  The Chaldaic art must necessarily be refuted by a
greater number of arguments, although we have been reminding (our readers)
of it on account of other circumstances, not peculiarly on account of the
Since, however, we have determined to omit none of the opinions advanced by
Gentile philosophers, on account of the notorious knavery of the heretics,
let us see what they also say who have attempted to propound doctrines
concerning magnitudes, who, observing the fruitless labour of the majority
(of speculators), where each after a different fashion coined his own
falsehoods and attained celebrity, have ventured to make some greater
assertion, in order that they might be highly magnified by those who
mightily extol their contemptible lies. These suppose the existence of
circles, and measures, and triangles, and squares, both in twofold and
threefold array. Their argumentation, however, in regard of this matter, is
extensive, yet it is not necessary in reference to the subject which we have
taken in hand.
Chapter VIII. Prodigies of the Astrologers; System of the Astronomers;
Chaldean Doctrine of Circles; Distances of the Heavenly Bodies.
I reckon it then sufficient to declare the prodigies  detailed by
these men. Wherefore, employing condensed accounts of what they affirm, I
shall turn my attention to the other points (that remain to be considered).
Now they make the following statements.  The Creator communicated
pre-eminent power to the orbital motion of the identical and similar
(circle), for He permitted the revolution of it to be one and indivisible;
but after dividing this internally into six parts, (and thus having formed)
seven unequal circles, according to each interval of a twofold and threefold
dimension, He commanded, since there were three of each, that the circles
should travel in orbits contrary to one another, three indeed (out of the
aggregate of seven) being whirled along with equal velocity, and four of
them with a speed dissimilar to each other and to the remaining three, yet
(all) according to a definite principle. For he affirms that the mastery was
communicated to the orbital motion of the same (circle), not only since it
embraces the motion of the other, that, is, the erratic stars, but because
also it possesses so great mastery, that is, so great power, that even it
leads round, along with itself, by a peculiar strength of its own, those
heavenly bodies that is, the erratic stars that are whirled along in
contrary directions from west to east, and, in like manner, from east to
And he asserts that this motion was allowed to be one and indivisible, in
the first place, inasmuch as the revolutions of all the fixed stars were
accomplished in equal periods of time, and were not distinguished according
to greater or less portions of duration. In the next place, they all present
the same phase as that which belongs to the outermost motion; whereas the
erratic stars have been distributed into greater and varying periods for the
accomplishment of their movements, and into unequal distances from earth.
And he asserts that the motion in six parts of the other has been
distributed probably into seven circles. For as many as are sections of each
(circle) I allude to monads of the sections  become segments; for
example, if the division be by one section, there will be two segments; if
by two, three segments; and so, if anything be cut into six parts, there
will be seven segments. And he says that the distances of these are
alternately arranged both in double and triple order, there being three of
each, a principle which, he has attempted to prove, holds good of the
composition of the soul likewise, as depending upon the seven numbers. For
among them there are from the monad three double (numbers), viz., 2, 4, 8,
and three triple ones, viz., 3, 9, 27. But the diameter of Earth is 80, 108
stadii; and the perimeter of Earth, 250, 543 stadii; and the distance also
from the surface of the Earth to the lunar circle, Aristarchus the Samian
computes at 8, 000, 178 stadii, but Apollonius 5, 000, 000, whereas
Archimedes computes  it at 5, 544, 1300. And from the lunar to solar
circle, (according to the last authority,) are 50, 262, 065 stadii; and from
this to the circle of Venus, 20, 272, 065 stadii; and from this to the
circle of Mercury, 50, 817, 165 stadii; and from this to the circle of Mars,
40, 541, 108 stadii; and from this to the circle of Jupiter, 20, 275, 065
stadii; and from this to the circle of Saturn, 40, 372, 065 stadii; and from
this to the Zodiac and the furthest periphery, 20, 082, 005 stadii. 
Chapter IX. Further Astronomic Calculations.
The mutual distances of the circles and spheres, and the depths, are
rendered by Archimedes. He takes the perimeter of the Zodiac at 447, 310,
000 stadii; so that it follows that a straight line from the centre of the
Earth to the most outward superficies would be the sixth of the aforesaid
number, but that the line from the surface of the Earth on which we tread to
the Zodiac would be a sixth of the aforesaid number, less by four myriads of
stadii, which is the distance from the centre of the Earth to its surface.
And from the circle of Saturn to the Earth he says the distance is 2, 226,
912, 711 stadii; and from the circle of Jupiter to Earth, 502, 770, 646
stadii; and from the circle of Mars to Earth, 132, 418, 581. From the Sun to
Earth, 121, 604, 454; and from Mercury to the Earth, 526, 882, 259; and from
Venus to Earth, 50, 815, 160.
Chapter X. Theory of Stellar Motion and Distance in Accordance with Harmony.
Concerning the Moon, however, a statement has been previously made. The
distances and profundities of the spheres Archimedes thus renders; but a
different declaration regarding them has been made by Hipparchus; and a
different one still by Apollonius the mathematician. It is sufficient,
however, for us, following the Platonic opinion, to suppose twofold and
threefold distances from one another of the erratic stars; for the doctrine
is thus preserved of the composition of the universe out of harmony, on
concordant principles  in keeping with these distances. The numbers,
however, advanced by Archimedes,  and the accounts rendered by the
rest concerning the distances, if they be not on principles of
symphony, that is, the double and triple (distances) spoken of by Plato, but
are discovered independent of harmonies, would not preserve the doctrine of
the formation of the universe according to harmony. For it is neither
credible nor possible that the distances of these should be both contrary to
some reasonable plan, and independent of harmonious and proportional
principles, except perhaps only the Moon, on account of wanings and the
shadow of the Earth, in regard also of the distance of which alone that is,
the lunar (planet) from earth one may trust Archimedes. It will, however, be
easy for those who, according to the Platonic dogma itself, adopt this
distance to comprehend by numerical calculation (intervals) according to
what is double and triple, as Plato requires, and the rest of the distances.
If, then, according to Archimedes, the Moon is distant from the surface of
the Earth 5, 544, 130 stadii, by increasing these numbers double and triple,
(it will be) easy to find also the distances of the rest, as if subtracting
one part of the number of stadii which the Moon is distant from the Earth.
But because the rest of the numbers those alleged by Archimedes concerning
the distance of the erratic stars are not based on principles of concord, it
is easy to understand that is, for those who attend to the matter how the
numbers are mutually related, and on what principles they depend. That,
however, they should not be in harmony and symphony I mean those that are
parts of the world which consists according to harmony this is impossible.
Since, therefore, the first number which the Moon is distant from the earth
is 5, 544, 130, the second number which the Sun is distant from the Moon
being 50, 272, 065, subsists by a greater computation than ninefold. But the
higher number in reference to this, being 20, 272, 065, is (comprised) in a
greater computation than half. The number, however, superior to this, which
is 50, 817, 165, is contained in a greater computation than half. But the
number superior to this, which is 40, 541, 108, is contained in a less
computation than two-fifths. But the number superior to this, which is 20,
275, 065, is contained in a greater computation than half. The final number,
however, which is 40, 372, 065, is comprised in a less computation than
Chapter XI. Theory of the Size of the Heavenly Bodies in Accordance with
These (numerical) relations, therefore, the greater than ninefold, and less
than half, and greater than double, and less than two-fifths, and greater
than half, and less than double, are beyond all symphonies, from which not
any proportionate or harmonic system could be produced. But the whole world,
and the parts of it, are in all respects similarly framed in conformity with
proportion and harmony. The proportionate and harmonic relations, however,
are preserved as we have previously stated by double and triple intervals.
If, therefore, we consider Archimedes reliable in the case of only the first
distance, that from the Moon to the Earth, it is easy also to find the rest
(of the intervals), by multiplying (them) by double and treble. Let then the
distance, according to Archimedes, from Earth to Moon be 5, 544, 130 stadii;
there will therefore be the double number of this of stadiiwhich the Sun is
distant from the Moon, viz. 11, 088, 260. But the Sun is distant from the
Earth 16, 632, 390 stadii; and Venus is likewise distant from the Sun 16,
632, 390 stadii, but from the Earth 33, 264, 780 stadii; and Mercury is
distant from Venus 22, 176, 520 stadii, but from Earth 55, 441, 300 stadii;
and Mars is distant from Mercury 49, 897, 170 stadii, and from Earth 105,
338, 470 stadii; and Jupiter is distant from Mars 44, 353, 040 stadii, but
from Earth 149, 691, 510 stadii; Saturn is distant from Jupiter 149, 691,
510 stadii, but from Earth 299, 383, 020 stadii.
Chapter XII. Waste of Mental Energy in the Systems of the Astrologers.
Who will not feel astonishment at the exertion of so much deep thought with
so much toil? This Ptolemy, however a careful investigator of these
matters does not seem to me to be useless; but only this grieves (one), that
being recently born, he could not be of service to the sons of the giants,
who, being ignorant of these measures, and supposing that the heights of
heaven were near, endeavoured in vain to construct a tower. And so, if at
that time he were present to explain to them these measures, they would not
have made the daring attempt ineffectually. But if any one profess not to
have confidence in this (astronomer's calculations), let him by measuring be
persuaded (of their accuracy); for in reference to those incredulous on the
point, one cannot have a more manifest proof than this. O, pride of
vain-toiling soul, and incredible belief, that Ptolemy should be considered
pre-eminently wise among those who have cultivated similar wisdom!
Chapter XIII. Mention of the Heretic Colarbasus; Alliance Between Heresy and
the Pythagorean Philosophy.
Certain, adhering partly to these, as if having propounded great
conclusions, and supposed things worthy of reason, have framed enormous and
endless heresies; and one of these is Colarbasus,  who attempts to
explain religion by measures and numbers. And others there are (who act) in
like manner, whose tenets we shall explain when we commence to speak of what
concerns those who give heed to Pythagorean calculation as possible; and
uttering vain prophecies, hastily assume  as secure the philosophy by
numbers and elements. Now certain (speculators), appropriating 
similar reasonings from these, deceive unsophisticated individuals, alleging
themselves endued with foresight;  sometimes, after uttering many
predictions, happening on a single fulfilment, and not abashed by many
failures, but making their boast in this one. Neither shall I pass over the
witless philosophy of these men; but, after explaining it, I shall prove
that those who attempt to form a system of religion out of these (aforesaid
elements), are disciples of a school  weak and full of knavery.
Chapter XIV. System of the Arithmeticians; Predictions Through Calculations;
Numerical Roots; Transference of These Doctrines to Letters; Examples in
Particular Names; Different Methods of Calculation; Prescience Possible by
Those, then, who suppose that they prophesy by means of calculations and
numbers,  and elements and names, constitute the origin of their
attempted system to be as follows. They affirm that there is a root of each
of the numbers; in the case of thousands, so many monads as there are
thousands: for example, the root of six thousand, six monads; of seven
thousand, seven monads; of eight thousand, eight monads; and in the case of
the rest, in like manner, according to the same (proportion). And in the
case of hundreds, as many hundreds as there are, so many monads are the root
of them: for instance, of seven hundred there are seven hundreds; the root
of these is seven monads: of six hundred, six hundreds; the root of these,
six monads. And it is similar respecting decades: for of eighty (the root
is) eight monads; and of sixty, six monads; of forty, four monads; of ten,
one monad. And in the case of monads, the monads themselves are a root: for
instance, of nine, nine; of eight, eight; of seven, seven. In this way,
also, ought we therefore to act in the case of the elements (of words), for
each letter has been arranged according to a certain number: for instance,
the letter n according to fifty monads; but of fifty monads five is the
root, and the root of the letter n is (therefore) five. Grant that from some
name we take certain roots of it. For instance, (from) the name Agamemnon,
there is of the a, one monad; and of the g, three monads; and of the other
a, one monad; of the m, four monads; of the e, five monads; of the m, four
monads; of the n, five monads; of the (long) o, eight monads; of the n, five
monads; which, brought together into one series, will be 1, 3, 1, 4, 5, 4,
5, 8, 5; and these added together make up 36 monads. Again, they take the
roots of these, and they become three in the case of the number thirty, but
actually six in the case of the number six. The three and the six, then,
added together, constitute nine; but the root of nine is nine: therefore the
name Agamemnon terminates in the root nine.
Let us do the same with another name Hector. The name (H)ector has five
letters e, and k, and t, and o, and r. The roots of these are 5, 2, 3, 8, 1;
and these added together make up 19 monads. Again, of the ten the root is
one; and of the nine, nine; which added together make up ten: the root of
ten is a monad. The name Hector, therefore, when made the subject of
computation, has formed a root, namely a monad. It would, however, be
easier  to conduct the calculation thus: Divide the ascertained roots
from the letters as now in the case of the name Hector we have found
nineteen monads into nine, and treat what remains over as roots. For
example, if I divide 19 into 9, the remainder is 1, for 9 times 2 are 18,
and there is a remaining monad: for if I subtract 18 from 19, there is a
remaining monad; so that the root of the name Hector will be a monad. Again,
of the name Patroclus these numbers are roots: 8, 1, 3, 1, 7, 2, 3, 7, 2;
added together, they make up 34 monads. And of these the remainder is 7
monads: of the 30, 3; and of the 4, 4. Seven monads, therefore, are the root
of the name Patroclus.
Those, then, that conduct their calculations according to the rule of the
number nine,  take the ninth part of the aggregate number of roots,
and define what is left over as the sum of the roots. They, on the other
hand, (who conduct their calculations) according to the rule of the number
seven, take the seventh (part of the aggregate number of roots); for
example, in the case of the name Patroclus, the aggregate in the matter of
roots is 34 monads. This divided into seven parts makes four, which
(multiplied into each other) are 28. There are six remaining monads; (so
that a person using this method) says, according to the rule of the number
seven, that six monads are the root of the name Patroclus. If, however, it
be 43, (six) taken seven times,  he says, are 42, for seven times six
are 42, and one is the remainder. A monad, therefore, is the root of the
number 43, according to the rule of the number seven. But one ought to
observe if the assumed number, when divided, has no remainder; for example,
if from any name, after having added together the roots, I find, to give an
instance, 36 monads. But the number 36 divided into nine makes exactly 4
enneads; for nine times 4 are 36, and nothing is over. It is evident, then,
that the actual root is 9. And again, dividing the number forty-five, we
find nine  and nothing over for nine times five are forty-five, and
nothing remains; (wherefore) in the case of such they assert the root itself
to be nine. And as regards the number seven, the case is similar: if, for
example we divide 28 into 7, we have nothing over; for seven times four are
28, and nothing remains; (wherefore) they say that seven is the root. But
when one computes names, and finds the same letter occurring twice, he
calculates it once; for instance, the name Patroclus has the pa twice,
 and the o twice: they therefore calculate the a once and the o once.
According to this, then, the roots will be 8, 1, 3, 1, 7, 2, 3, 2, and added
together they make 27 monads; and the root of the name will be, according to
the rule of the number nine, nine itself, but according to the rule of the
number seven, six.
In like manner, (the name) Sarpedon, when made the subject of calculation,
produces as a root, according to the rule of the number nine, two monads.
Patroclus, however, produces nine monads; Patroclus gains the victory. For
when one number is uneven, but the other even, the uneven number, if it is
larger, prevails. But again, when there is an even number, eight, and five
an uneven number, the eight prevails, for it is larger. If, however, there
were two numbers, for example, both of them even, or both of them odd, the
smaller prevails. But how does (the name) Sarpedon, according to the rule of
the number nine, make two monads, since the letter (long) o is omitted? For
when there may be in a name the letter (long) o and (long) e, they leave out
the (long) o, using one letter, because they say both are equipollent; and
the same must not be computed twice over, as has been above declared. Again,
(the name) Ajax makes four monads; (but the name) Hector, according to the
rule of the ninth number, makes one monad. And the tetrad is even, whereas
the monad odd. And in the case of such, we say, the greater prevails Ajax
gains the victory. Again, Alexander and Menelaus (may be adduced as
examples). Alexander has a proper name (Paris). But Paris, according to the
rule of the number nine, makes four monads; and Menelaus, according to the
rule of the number nine, makes nine monads. The nine, however, conquer the
four (monads): for it has been declared, when the one number is odd and the
other even, the greater prevails; but when both are even or both odd, the
less (prevails). Again, Amycus and Polydeuces (may be adduced as examples).
Amycus, according to the rule of the number nine, makes two monads, and
Polydeuces, however, seven: Polydeuces gains the victory. Ajax and Ulysses
contended at the funeral games. Ajax, according to the rule of the number
nine, makes four monads; Ulysses, according to the rule of the number nine,
(makes) eight.  Is there, then, not any annexed, and (is there) not a
proper name for Ulysses?  for he has gained the victory. According to
the numbers, no doubt, Ajax is victorious, but history hands down the name
of Ulysses as the conqueror, Achilles and Hector (may be adduced as
examples). Achilles, according to the rule of the number nine, makes four
monads; Hector one: Achilles gains the victory. Again, Achilles and
Asteropaeus (are instances). Achilles makes four monads, Asteropaeus three:
Achilles conquers. Again, Menelaus and Euphorbus (may be adduced as
examples). Menelaus has nine monads, Euphorbus eight: Menelaus gains the
Some, however, according to the rule of the number seven, employ the vowels
only, but others distinguish by themselves the vowels, and by themselves the
semi-vowels, and by themselves the mutes; and, having formed three orders,
they take the roots by themselves of the vowels, and by themselves of the
semi-vowels, and by themselves of the mutes, and they compare each apart.
Others, however, do not employ even these customary numbers, but different
ones: for instance, as an example, they no not wish to allow that the letter
p has as a root 8 monads, but 5, and that the (letter) x (si) has as a root
four monads; and turning in every direction, they discover nothing sound.
When, however, they contend about the second (letter), from each name they
take away the first letter; but when they contend about the third (letter),
they take away two letters of each name, and calculating the rest, compare
Chapter XV. Quibbles of the Numerical Theorists; The Art of the
Frontispicists (Physiognomy); Connection of This Art with Astrology; Type of
Those Born Under Aries.
I think that there has been clearly expounded the mind of arithmeticians,
who, by means of numbers and of names, suppose that they interpret life. Now
I perceive that these, enjoying leisure, and being trained in calculation,
have been desirous that, through the art  delivered to them from
childhood, they, acquiring celebrity, should be styled prophets. And they,
measuring the letters up (and) down, have wandered into trifling. For if
they fail, they say, in putting forward the difficulty, Perhaps this name
was not a family one, but imposed, as also lighting in the instance they
argue in the case of (the names) Ulysses and Ajax. Who, taking occasion from
this astonishing philosophy, and desirous of being styled "Heresiarch," will
not be extolled?
But since, also, there is another more profound art among the all-wise
speculators of the Greeks to whom heretical individuals boast that they
attach themselves as disciples, on account of their employing the opinions
of these (ancient philosophers) in reference to the doctrines tempted (to be
established) by themselves, as shall a little afterwards be proved; but this
is an art of divination, by examination of the forehead  or rather, I
should say, it is madness: yet we shall not be silent as regards this
(system) There are some who ascribe to the stars figures that mould the
ideas  and dispositions of men, assigning the reason of this to
births (that have taken place) under particular stars; they thus express
themselves: Those who  are born under Aries will be of the following
kind: long head, red hair, contracted eyebrows, pointed forehead, eyes grey
and lively,  drawn cheeks, long-nosed, expanded nostrils, thin lips,
tapering chin, wide mouth. These, he says, will partake of the following
nature: cautious, subtle, perspicuous,  prudent, indulgent, gentle,
over-anxious, persons of secret resolves fitted for every undertaking,
prevailing more by prudence than strength, deriders for the time being,
scholars, trustworthy, contentious, quarrellers in a fray, concupiscent,
inflamed with unnatural lust, reflective, estranged  from their own
homes, giving dissatisfaction in everything, accusers, like madmen in their
cups, scorners, year by year losing something  serviceable in
friendship through goodness; they, in the majority of cases, end their days
in a foreign land.
Chapter XVI. Type of Those Born Under Taurus.
Those, however, who are born in Taurus will be of the following description:
round head, thick hair, broad forehead, square eyes, and large black
eyebrows; in a white man, thin veins, sanguine, long eyelids, coarse huge
ears, round mouths, thick nose, round nostrils, thick lips, strong in the
upper parts, formed straight from the legs.  The same are by nature
pleasing, reflective, of a goodly disposition, devout, just, uncouth,
complaisant, labourers from twelve years, quarrelsome, dull. The stomach of
these is small, they are quickly filled, forming many designs, prudent,
niggardly towards themselves, liberal towards others, beneficent, of a
slow  body: they are partly sorrowful, heedless as regards
friendship, useful on account of mind, unfortunate.
Chapter XVII. Type of Those Born Under Gemini.
Those who are born in Gemini will be of the following description: red
countenance, size not very large, evenly proportioned limbs,  black
eyes as if anointed with oil, cheeks turned down,  and large mouth,
contracted eyebrows; they conquer all things, they retain whatever
possessions they acquire,  they are extremely rich, penurious,
niggardly of what is peculiarly their own, profuse in the pleasures of
women,  equitable, musical, liars. And the same by nature are
learned, reflective, inquisitive, arriving at their own decisions,
concupiscent, sparing of what belongs to themselves, liberal, quiet,
prudent, crafty, they form many designs, calculators, accusers, importunate,
not prosperous, they are beloved by the fair sex, merchants; as regards
friendship, not to any considerable extent useful.
Chapter XVIII. Type of Those Born Under Cancer.
Those born in Cancer are of the following description: size not large, hair
like a dog, of a reddish colour, small mouth, round head, pointed forehead,
grey eyes, sufficiently beautiful, limbs somewhat varying. The same by
nature are wicked, crafty, proficients in plans, insatiable, stingy,
ungracious, illiberal, useless, forgetful; they neither restore what is
another s, nor do they ask back what is their own;  as regards
Chapter XIX. Type of Those Born Under Leo.
Those born in Leo are of the following description: round head, reddish
hair, huge wrinkled forehead, coarse ears, large development of neck, partly
bald, red complexion, grey eyes, large jaws, coarse mouth, gross in the
upper parts,  huge breast, the under limbs tapering. The same are by
nature persons who allow nothing to interfere with their own decision,
pleasing themselves, irascible, passionate, scorners, obstinate, forming no
design, not loquacious,  indolent, making an improper use of leisure,
familiar,  wholly abandoned to pleasures of women, adulterers,
immodest, in faith untrue, importunate, daring, penurious, spoliators,
remarkable; as regards fellowship, useful; as regards friendship, 
Chapter XX. Type of Those Born Under Virgo.
Those born in Virgo are of the following description: fair appearance, eyes
not large, fascinating, dark, compact  eyebrows, cheerful, swimmers;
they are, however, slight in frame,  beautiful in aspect, with hair
prettily adjusted, large forehead, prominent nose. The same by nature are
docile, moderate, intelligent, sportive, rational, slow to speak, forming
many plans; in regard of a favour, importunate;  gladly observing
everything; and well-disposed pupils, they master whatever they learn;
moderate, scorners, victims of unnatural lusts, companionable, of a noble
soul, despisers, careless in practical matters, attending to instruction,
more honourable in what concerns others than what relates to themselves; as
regards friendship, useful.
Chapter XXI. Type of Those Born Under Libra.
Those born in Libra will be of the following description: hair thin,
drooping, reddish and longish, forehead pointed (and) wrinkled, fair compact
eyebrows, beautiful eyes, dark pupils, long thin ears, head inclined, wide
mouth. The same by nature are intelligent, God-fearing, communicative to one
another,  traders, toilers, not retaining gain, liars, not of an
amiable disposition, in business or principle true, free-spoken, beneficent,
illiterate, deceivers, friendly, careless, (to whom it is not profitable to
do any act of injustice);  they are scorners, scoffers, satirical,
 illustrious, listeners, and nothing succeeds with these; as regards
Chapter XXII. Type of Those Born Under Scorpio.
Those born in Scorpio are of the following description: a maidenish
countenance, comely, pungent, blackish hair, well-shaped eyes, forehead not
broad, and sharp nostril, small contracted ears, wrinkled foreheads, narrow
eyebrows, drawn cheeks. The same by nature are crafty, sedulous, liars,
communicating their particular designs to no one, of a deceitful spirit,
wicked, scorners, victims to adultery, well-grown, docile; as regards
Chapter XXIII. Type of Those Born Under Sagittarius.
Those born in Sagittarius will be of the following description: great
length, square forehead. profuse eyebrows, indicative of strength,
well-arranged projection of hair, reddish (in complexion). The same by
nature are gracious, as educated persons, simple, beneficent; given to
unnatural lusts, companionable, toil-worn, lovers, beloved, jovial in their
cups, clean, passionate, careless, wicked; as regards friendship, useless;
scorners, with noble souls, insolent, crafty; for fellowship, useful.
Chapter XXIV. Type of Those Born Under Capricorn.
Those born in Capricorn will be of the following description: reddish body,
projection of greyish hair, round mouth,  eyes as of an eagle,
contracted brows, open forehead, somewhat bald, in the upper parts of the
body endued with more strength. The same by nature are philosophic,
scorners, and scoffers at the existing state of things, passionate, persons
that can make concessions, honourable, beneficent, lovers of the practice of
music, passionate in their cups, mirthful, familiar, talkative, given to
unnatural lusts, genial, amiable, quarrelsome lovers, for fellowship well
Chapter XXV. Type of Those Born Under Aquarius.
Those born in Aquarius will be of the following description: square in size,
of a diminutive body; sharp, small, fierce eyes; imperious, ungenial,
severe, readily making acquisitions, for friendship and fellowship well
disposed; moreover, for maritime  enterprises they make voyages, and
perish. The same by nature are taciturn, modest, sociable, adulterers,
penurious, practised in business,  tumultuous, pure, well-disposed,
honourable, large eyebrows; frequently they are born in the midst of
trifling events, but (in after life) follow a different pursuit; though they
may have shown kindness to any one, still no one returns them thanks.
Chapter XXVI. Type of Those Born Under Pisces.
Those born in Pisces will be of the following description: of moderate
dimensions, pointed forehead like fishes, shaggy hair, frequently they
become soon grey. The same by nature are of exalted soul, simple,
passionate, penurious, talkative; in the first period of life they will be
drowsy; they are desirous of managing business by themselves, of high
repute, venturesome, emulous, accusers, changing their locality, lovers,
dancers; for friendship, useful.
Chapter XXVII. Futility of This Theory of Stellar Influence.
Since, therefore, we have explained the astonishing wisdom of these men, and
have not concealed their overwrought art of divination by means of
contemplation, neither shall I be silent as regards (undertakings) in the
case of which those that are deceived act foolishly. For, comparing the
forms and dispositions of men with names of stars, how impotent their system
is! For we know that those originally conversant with such investigations
have called the stars by names given in reference to propriety of
signification and facility for future recognition. For what similarity is
there of these (heavenly bodies) with the likeness of animals, or what
community of nature as regards conduct and energy (is there ill the two
cases), that one should allege that a person born in Leo should be
irascible, and one born in Virgo moderate, or one born in Cancer wicked, but
that those born in
Chapter XXVIII.  System of the Magicians; Incantations of Demons;
Secret Magical Rites.
And (the sorcerer), taking (a paper), directs the inquirer  to
write down with water whatever questions he may desire to have asked from
the demons. Then, folding up the paper, and delivering it to the attendant,
he sends him away to commit it to the flames, that the ascending smoke may
waft the letters to demons. While, however, the attendant is executing this
order, (the sorcerer) first removes equal portions of the paper, and on some
more parts of it he pretends that demons write in Hebrew characters. Then
burning an incense of the Egyptian magicians, termed Cyphi, he takes these
(portions of paper) away, and places them near the incense. But (that paper)
which the inquirer happens to have written (upon), having placed on the
coals, he has burned. Then (the sorcerer), appearing to be borne away under
divine influence, (and) hurrying into a corner (of the house), utters a loud
and harsh cry, and unintelligible to all, and orders all those present to
enter, crying out (at the same time), and invoking Phryn, or some other
demon. But after passing into the house, and when those that were present
stood side by side, the sorcerer, flinging the attendant upon a bed, 
utters to him several words, partly in the Greek, and partly, as it were,
the Hebrew language, (embodying) the customary incantations employed by the
magicians. (The attendant), however, goes away  to make the inquiry.
And within (the house), into a vessel full of water (the sorcerer) infusing
copperas mixture, and melting the drug, having with it sprinkled the paper
that forsooth had (the characters upon it) obliterated, he forces the latent
and concealed letters to come once more into light; and by these he
ascertains what the inquirer has written down. And if one write with
copperas mixture likewise, and having ground a gall nut, use its vapour as a
fumigator, the concealed letters would become plain. And if one write with
milk, (and) then scorch the paper, and scraping it, sprinkle and rub (what
is thus scraped off) upon the letters traced with the milk, these will
become plain. And urine likewise, and sauce of brine, and juice of
euphorbia, and of a fig, produce a similar result. But when (the sorcerer)
has ascertained the question in this mode, he makes provision for the manner
in which be ought to give the reply. And next he orders those that are
present to enter, holding laurel branches and shaking them, and uttering
cries, and invoking the demon Phryn. For also it becomes these to invoke
him;  and it is worthy that they make this request from demons, which
they do not wish of themselves to put forward, having lost their minds. The
confused noise, however, and the tumult, prevent them directing attention to
those things which it is supposed (the sorcerer) does in secret. But what
these are, the present is a fair opportunity for us to declare.
Considerable darkness, then, prevails. For the (sorcerer) affirms that it is
impossible for mortal nature to behold divine things, for that to hold
converse (with these mysteries) is sufficient. Making, however, the
attendant lie down (upon the couch), head foremost, and placing by each side
two of those little tablets, upon which had been inscribed in, forsooth,
Hebrew characters, as it were names of demons, he says that (a demon) will
deposit the rest in their ears. But this (statement) is requisite, in order
that some instrument may be placed beside the ears of the attendant, by
which it is possible that he signify everything which he chooses. First,
however, he produces a sound that the (attendant) youth may be terrified;
and secondly, he makes a humming noise; then, thirdly, he speaks 
through the instrument what he wishes the youth to say, and remains in
expectation of the issue of the affair; next, he makes those present remain
still, and directs the (attendant) to signify, what he has heard from the
demons. But the instrument that is placed beside his ears is a natural
instrument, viz., the windpipe of long-necked cranes, or storks, or swans.
And if none of these is at hand, there are also some different artificial
instruments (employed); for certain pipes of brass, ten in number, (and)
fitting into one another, terminating in a narrow point, are adapted (for
the purpose), and through these is spoken into the ear whatsoever the
(magician) wishes. And the youth hearing these (words) with terror as
uttered by demons, when ordered, speaks them out. If any one, however,
putting around a stick a moist hide, and having dried it and drawn it
together, close it up, and by removing the rod fashion the hide into the
form of a pipe, he attains a similar end. Should any of these, however, be
not at hand, he takes a book, and, opening it inside, stretches it out as
far as he think requisite, (and thus) achieves the same result.
But if he knows beforehand that one is present who is about to ask a
question, he is the more ready for all (contingencies). If, however, he may
also previously ascertain the question, he writes (it) with the drug, and,
as being prepared, he is considered  more skilful, on account of
having clearly written out what is (about) being asked. If, however, he is
ignorant of the question, he forms conjectures, and puts forth something
capable of a doubtful and varied interpretation, in order that the oracular
response, being originally unintelligible, may serve for numerous purposes,
and in the issue of events the prediction may be considered correspondent
with what actually occurs. Next, having filled a vessel with water, he puts
down (into it) the paper, as if uninscribed, at the same time infusing along
with it copperas mixture. For in this way the paper written upon floats
 upwards (to the surface), bearing the response. Accordingly there
ensue frequently to the attendant formidable fancies for also he strikes
blows plentifully on the terrified (bystanders). For, casting incense into
the fire, he again operates after the following method. Covering a lump of
what are called "fossil salts" with Etruscan wax, and dividing the piece
itself of incense into two parts, he throws in a grain of salt; and again
joining (the piece) together, and placing it on the burning coals, he leaves
it there. And when this is consumed, the salts, bounding upwards, create the
impression of, as it were, a strange vision taking place. And the dark-blue
dye which has been deposited in the incense produces a blood-red flame, as
we have already declared. But (the sorcerer) makes a scarlet liquid, by
mixing wax with alkanet, and, as I said, depositing the wax in the incense.
And he makes the coals  be moved, placing underneath powdered alum;
and when this is dissolved and swells up like bubbles, the coals are moved.
Chapter XXIX. Display of Different Eggs.
But different eggs they display after this manner. Perforating the top at
both ends, and extracting the white, (and) having again dipped it, throw in
some minium and some writing ink. Close, however, the openings with refined
scrapings of the eggs, smearing them with fig-juice.
Chapter XXX. Self-Slaughter of Sheep.
By those who cause sheep to cut off their own heads, the following plan is
adopted. Secretly smearing the throat (of the animal) with a cauterizing
drug, he places a sword near, and leaves it there.  The sheep,
desirous of scratching himself, rushes against the blade, and in the act of
rubbing is slaughtered, while the head is almost severed from the trunk.
There is, however, a compound of the drug, bryony and salt and squills, made
up in equal parts. In order that the person bringing the drug may escape
notice, he carries a box with two compartments constructed of horn, the
visible one of which contains frankincense, but the secret one (the
aforesaid) drug. He, however, likewise insinuates into the ears of the sheep
about to meet death quicksilver; but this is a poisonous drug.
Chapter XXXI. Method of Poisoning Goats.
And if one smear  the ears of goats over with cerate, they say that
they expire a little afterwards, by having their breathing obstructed. For
this to them is the way as these affirm of their drawing their breath in an
act of respiration. And a ram, they assert, dies,  if one bends back
(its neck)  opposite the sun. And they accomplish the burning of a
house, by daubing it over with the juice of a certain fish called dactylus.
And this effect, which it has by reason of the sea-water, is very useful.
Likewise foam of the ocean is boiled in an earthen jar along with some sweet
ingredients; and if you apply a lighted candle to this while in a seething
state, it catches the fire and is consumed; and (yet though the mixture) be
poured upon the head, it does not bum it at all. If, however, you also smear
it over with heated resin,  it is consumed far more effectually. But
he accomplishes his object better still, if also he takes some sulphur.
Chapter XXXII. Imitations of Thunder, and Other Illusions.
Thunder is produced in many ways; for stones very numerous and unusually
large, being rolled downwards along wooden planks, fall upon plates of
brass, and cause a sound similar to thunder. And also around the thin plank
with which carders thicken cloth, they coil a thin rope; and then drawing
away the cord with a whiff, they spin the plank round, and in its revolution
it emits a sound like thunder. These farces, verily, are played off thus.
There are, however, other practices which I shall explain, which those who
execute these ludicrous performances estimate as great exploits. Placing a
cauldron full of pitch upon burning coals, when it boils up, (though) laying
their hands down upon it, they are not burned; nay, even while walking on
coals of fire with naked feet, they are not scorched. But also setting a
pyramid of stone on a hearth, (the sorcerer) makes it get on fire, and from
the mouth it disgorges a volume of smoke, and that of a fiery description.
Then also putting a linen cloth upon a pot of water, throwing on (at the
same time) a quantity of blazing coals, (the magician) keeps the linen cloth
unconsumed. Creating also darkness in the house, (the sorcerer) alleges that
he can introduce gods or demons; and if any requires him to show
Aesculapius, he uses an invocation couched in the following words:
"The child once slain, again of Phoebus deathless made,
I call to come, and aid my sacrificial rites;
Who, also, once the countless tribes of fleeting dead,
In ever-mournful homes of Tartarus wide,
The fatal billow breasting, and the inky  flood
Surmounting, where all of mortal mould must float,
Torn, beside the lake, with endless  grief and woe,
Thyself didst snatch from gloomy Proserpine.
Or whether the seat of Holy Thrace thou haunt, or lovely
Pergamos, or besides Ionian Epidaurus,
The chief of seers, O happy God, invites thee here."
Chapter XXXIII. The Burning Aesculapius; Tricks with Fire.
But after he discontinues uttering these jests, a fiery Aesculapius 
appears upon the floor. Then, placing in the midst a pot full of water, he
invokes all the deities, and they are present. For any one who is by,
glancing into the pot, will behold them all, and Diana leading on her baying
hounds. We shall not, however, shrink from narrating the account (of the
devices) of these men, how they attempt (to accomplish their jugglery). For
(the magician) lays his hand upon the cauldron of pitch,  which is
in, as it were, a boiling state; and throwing in (at the same time) vinegar
and nitre and moist pitch, he kindles a fire beneath the cauldron. The
vinegar, however, being mixed along with the nitre, on receiving a small
accession of heat, moves the pitch, so as to cause bubbles to rise to the
surface, and afford the mere semblance of a seething (pot). The (sorcerer),
however, previously washes his hands frequently in brine; the consequence
being, that the contents of the cauldron do not in any wise, though in
reality boiling, burn him very much. But if, having smeared his hands with a
tincture of myrtle  and nitre and myrrh, along with vinegar, he wash
them in brine frequently, he is not scorched: and he does not burn his feet,
provided he smear them with isinglass and a salamander.
As regards, however, the burning like a taper of the pyramid, though
composed of stone, the cause of this is the following. Chalky earth is
fashioned into the shape of a pyramid, but its colour is that of a
milk-white stone, and it is prepared after this fashion. Having anointed the
piece of clay with plenty of oil, and put it upon coals, and baked it, by
smearing it afresh, and scorching it a second and third time, and
frequently, (the sorcerer) contrives that it can be burned, even though he
should plunge it in water; for it contains in itself abundance of oil. The
hearth, however, is spontaneously kindled, while the magician pours out
 a libation, by having time instead of ashes burning underneath, and
refined frankincense and a large quantity of tow,  and a bundle
 of anointed tapers and of gall nuts, hollow within, and supplied with
(concealed) fire. And after some delay, (the sorcerer) makes (the pyramid)
emit smoke from the mouth, by both putting fire in the gall nut, and
encircling it with tow, and blowing into the mouth. The linen cloth,
however, that has been placed round the cauldron, (and) on which he deposits
the coals, on account of the underlying brine, would not be burned; besides,
that it has itself been washed in brine, and then smeared with the white of
an egg, along with moist alum. And if, likewise, one mix in these the juice
of house-leek along with vinegar, and for a long time previously smear it
(with this preparation), after being washed in this drug, it continues
Chapter XXXIV. The Illusion of the Sealed Letters; Object in Detailing These
After, then,  we have succinctly explained the powers of the secret
arts practised among these (magicians), and have shown their easy plan for
the acquisition of knowledge,  neither are we disposed to be silent
on the following point, which is a necessary one, how that, loosing the
seals, they restore the sealed letters, with the actual seals themselves.
Melting pitch, resin, and sulphur, and moreover asphalt, in equal parts,
(and) forming the ointment into a figure, they keep it by them. When,
however, it is time to loose a small tablet, smearing with oil their tongue,
next with the latter anointing the seal, (and) heating the drug with a
moderate fire, (the sorcerers) place it upon the seal; and they leave it
there until it has acquired complete consistence, and they use it in this
condition as a seal. But they say, likewise, that wax itself with fir-wood
gum possesses a similar potency, as well as two parts of mastich with one
part of dry asphalt. But sulphur also by itself effects the purpose
tolerably well, and flower of gypsum strained with water, and of gum. Now
this (last mixture) certainly answers most admirably also for sealing molten
lead. And that which is accomplished by the Tuscan wax, and refuse 
of resin, and pitch, and asphalt, and mastich, and powdered spar, all being
boiled together in equal parts, is superior to the rest of the drugs which I
have mentioned, while that which is effected by the gum is not inferior. In
this manner, then, also, they attempt to loose the seals, endeavouring to
learn the letters written within.
These contrivances, however, I hesitated to narrate  in this book,
perceiving the danger lest, perchance, any knavish person, taking occasion
(from my account), should attempt (to practise these juggleries).
Solicitude, however, for many young persons, who could be preserved from
such practices, has persuaded me to teach and publish, for security's sake,
(the foregoing statements). For although one person may make use of these
for gaining instruction in evil, in this way somebody else will, by being
instructed (in these practices), be preserved from them. And the magicians
themselves, corrupters of life, will be ashamed in plying their art. And
learning these points that have been previously elucidated  by us,
they will possibly be restrained from their folly. But that this seal may
not be broken, let me seal it with hog's lard and hair mixed with wax.
Chapter XXXV. The Divination by a Cauldron; Illusion of Fiery Demons;
Specimen of a Magical Invocation.
But neither shall I be silent respecting that piece of knavery of these
(sorcerers), which consists in the divination by means of the cauldron. For,
making a closed chamber, and anointing the ceiling with cyanus for present
use,  they introduce certain vessels of cyanus,  and stretch
them upwards. The cauldron, however, full of water, is placed in the middle
on the ground; and the reflection of the cyanus falling upon it, presents
the appearance of heaven. But the floor also has a certain concealed
aperture, on which the cauldron is laid, having been (previously, supplied
with a bottom of crystal, while itself is composed of stone. 
Underneath, however, unnoticed (by the spectators), is a compartment, into
which the accomplices, assembling, appear invested with the figures of such
gods and demons as the magician wishes to exhibit. Now the dupe, beholding
these, becomes astonished at the knavery of the magician, and subsequently
believes all things that are likely to be stated by him. But (the sorcerer)
produces a burning demon, by tracing on the wall whatever figure he wishes,
and then covertly smearing it with a drug mixed according to this manner,
viz., of Laconian  and Zacynthian asphalt, while next, as if under
the influence of prophetic frenzy, he moves the lamp towards the wall. The
drug, however, is burned with considerable splendour. And that a fiery
Hecate seems to career through air, he contrives in the mode following.
Concealing a certain accomplice in a place which he wishes, (and) taking
aside his dupes, he persuades them (to believe himself), alleging that he
will exhibit a flaming demon riding through the air. Now he exhorts them
immediately to keep their eyes fixed until they see the flame in the air,
and that (then), veiling themselves, they should fall on their face until he
himself should call them; and after having given them these instructions,
he, on a moonless night, in verses speaks thus:
"Infernal, and earthy, and supernal Bombo, come!
Saint of streets, and brilliant one, that strays by night;
Foe of radiance, but friend and mate of gloom;
In howl of dogs rejoicing, and in crimson gore,
Wading mid corpses through tombs of lifeless dust,
Panting for blood; with fear convulsing men.
Gorgo, and Mormo, and Luna,  and of many shapes,
Come, propitious, to our sacrificial rites!"
Chapter XXXVI. Mode of Managing an Apparition.
And while speaking these words, fire is seen borne through the air; but the
(spectators) being horrified at the strange apparition, (and) covering their
eyes, fling themselves speechless to earth. But the success of the artifice
is enhanced by the following contrivance. The accomplice whom I have spoken
of as being concealed, when he hears the incantation ceasing, holding a kite
or hawk enveloped with tow, sets fire to it and releases it. The bird,
however, frightened by the flame, is borne aloft, and makes a
(proportionably) quicker flight, which these deluded persons beholding,
conceal themselves, as if they had seen something divine. The winged
creature, however, being whirled round by the fire, is borne whithersoever
chance may have it, and burns now the houses, and now the courtyards. Such
is the divination of the sorcerers.
Chapter XXXVII. Illusive Appearance of the Moon.
And they make moon and stars appear on the ceiling after this manner. In the
central part of the ceiling, having fastened a mirror, placing a dish full
of water equally (with the mirror) in the central portion of the floor, and
setting in a central place likewise a candle, emitting a faint light from a
higher position than the dish, in this way, by reflection, (the magician)
causes the moon to appear by the mirror. But frequently, also, they suspend
on high from the ceiling, at a distance, a drum,  but which, being
covered with some garment, is concealed by the accomplice, in order that
(the heavenly body) may not appear before the (proper) time. And afterwards
placing a candle (within the drum), when the magician gives the signal to
the accomplice, he removes so much of the covering as may be sufficient for
effecting an imitation representing the figure of the moon as it is at that
particular time. He smears, however, the luminous parts of the drum with
cinnabar and gum;  and having pared around the neck and bottom of a
flagon  of glass ready behind, he puts a candle in it, and places
around it some of the requisite contrivances for making the figures shine,
which some one of the accomplices has concealed on high; and on receiving
the signal, he throws down from above the contrivances, so to make the moon
appear descending from the sky.
And the same result is achieved by means of a jar in sylvan localities.
 For it is by means of a jar that the tricks in a house are performed.
For having set up an altar, subsequently is (placed upon it) the jar, having
a lighted lamp; when, however, there are a greater number of lamps, no such
sight is displayed. After then the enchanter invokes the moon, he orders all
the lights to be extinguished, yet that one be left faintly burning; and
then the light, that which streams from the jar, is reflected on the
ceiling, and furnishes to those present a representation of the moon; the
mouth of the jar being kept covered for the time which it would seem to
require, in order that the representation of full moon should be exhibited
on the ceiling.
Chapter XXXVIII. Illusive Appearance of the Stars.
But the scales of fishes for instance, the seahorse cause the stars to
appear to be; the scales being steeped in a mixture of water and gum, and
fastened on the ceiling at intervals.
Chapter XXXIX. Imitation of an Earthquake.
The sensation of an earthquake they cause in such a way, as that all things
seem set in motion; ordure of a weasel burned with a magnet upon coals (has
this effect). 
Chapter XL. Trick with the Liver.
And they exhibit a liver seemingly bearing an inscription in this manner.
With the left hand he writes what he wishes, appending it to the question,
and the letters are traced with gall juice and strong vinegar. Then taking
up the liver, retaining it in the left hand, he makes some delay, and then
it draws away the impression, and it is supposed to have, as it were,
writing upon it.
Chapter XLI. Making a Skull Speak.
But putting a skull on the ground, they make it speak in this manner. The
skull itself is made out of the caul of an ox;  and when fashioned
into the requisite figure, by means of Etruscan wax and prepared gum,
 (and) when this membrane is placed around, it presents the appearance
of a skull, which seems to all  to speak when the contrivance
operates; in the same manner as we have explained in the case of the
(attendant) youths, when, having procured the windpipe of a crane, 
or some such long-necked animal, and attaching it covertly to the skull, the
accomplice utters what he wishes. And when he desires (the skull) to become
invisible, he appears as if burning incense, placing around, (for this
purpose,) a quantity of coals; and when the wax catches the heat of these,
it melts, and in this way the skull is supposed to become invisible.
Chapter XLII. The Fraud of the Foregoing Practices; Their Connection with
These are the deeds of the magicians,  and innumerable other such
(tricks) there are which work on the credulity of the dupes, by fair
balanced words, and the appearance of plausible acts. And the heresiarchs,
astonished at the art of these (sorcerers), have imitated them, partly by
delivering their doctrines in secrecy and darkness, and partly by advancing
(these tenets) as their own. For this reason, being desirous of warning the
multitude, we have been the more painstaking, in order not to omit any
expedient  practised by the magicians, for those who may be disposed
to be deceived. We have been however drawn, not unreasonably, into a detail
of some of the secret (mysteries) of the sorcerers, which are not very
requisite, to be sure, in reference to the subject taken in hand; yet, for
the purpose of guarding against the villanous and incoherent art of
magicians, may be supposed useful. Since, therefore, as far as delineation
is feasible, we have explained the opinions of all (speculators), exerting
especial attention towards the elucidation of the opinions introduced as
novelties by the heresiarchs; (opinions) which, as far as piety is
concerned, are futile and spurious, and which are not, even among
themselves, perhaps  deemed worthy of serious consideration. (Having
pursued this course of inquiry), it seems expedient that, by means of a
compendious discourse, we should recall to the (reader s) memory statements
that have been previously made.
Chapter XLIII. Recapitulation of Theologies and Cosmogonies; System of the
Persians; Of the Babylonians; The Egyptian Notion of Deity; Their Theology
Based on a Theory of Numbers; Their System of Cosmogony.
Among all those who throughout the earth, as philosophers and theologians,
have carried on investigations, has prevailed diversity of opinion 
concerning the Deity, as to His essence or nature. For some affirm Him to be
fire, and some spirit, and some water, while others say that He is earth.
And each of the elements labours under some deficiency, and one is worsted
by the other. To the wise men of the world, this, however, has occurred,
which is obvious to persons possessing intelligence; (I mean) that,
beholding the stupendous works of creation, they were confused respecting
the substance of existing things, supposing that these were too vast to
admit of deriving generation from another, and at the same time (asserting)
that neither the universe itself is God. As far as theology was concerned,
they declared, however, a single cause for things that fall under the
cognizance of vision, each supposing the cause which he adjudged the most
reasonable; and so, when gazing on the objects made by God, and on those
which are the most insignificant in comparison with His overpowering
majesty, not, however, being able to extend the mind to the magnitude of God
as He really is, they deified these (works of the external world).
But the Persians,  supposing that they had penetrated more within
the confines of the truth, asserted that the Deity is luminous, a light
contained in air. The Babylonians, however, affirmed that the Deity is dark,
which very opinion also appears the consequence of the other; for day
follows night, and night day. Do not the Egyptians, however,  who
suppose themselves more ancient than all, speak of the power of the Deity?
(This power they estimate by) calculating these intervals of the parts (of
the zodiac; and, as if) by a most divine inspiration,  they asserted
that the Deity is an indivisible monad, both itself generating itself, and
that out of this were formed all things. For this, say they,  being
unbegotten, produces the succeeding numbers; for instance, the monad,
superadded into itself, generates the duad; and in like manner, when
superadded (into duad, triad, and so forth), produces the triad and tetrad,
up to the decade, which is the beginning and end of numbers. Wherefore it is
that the first and tenth monad is generated, on account of the decade being
equipollent, and being reckoned for a monad, and (because) this multiplied
ten times will become a hundred, and again becomes a monad, and the hundred
multiplied ten times will produce a thousand, and this will be a monad. In
this manner also the thousand multiplied ten times make up the full sum of a
myriad; in like manner will it be a monad. But by a comparison of
indivisible quantities, the kindred numbers of the monad comprehend 3, 5, 7,
There is also, however, a more natural relation of a different number to the
monad, according to the arrangement of the orbit of six days duration,
 (that is), of the duad, according to the position and division of even
numbers. But the kindred number is 4 and 8. These, however, taking from the
monad of the numbers  an idea of virtue, progressed up to the four
elements; (I allude), of course, to spirit, and fire, and water, and earth.
And out of these having made the world, (God) framed it an ermaphrodite, and
allocated two elements for the upper hemisphere, namely spirit and fire; and
this is styled the hemisphere of the monad, (a hemisphere) beneficent, and
ascending, and masculine. For, being composed of small particles, the monad
soars into the most rarified and purest part of the atmosphere; and the
other two elements, earth and water, being more gross, he assigned to the
duad; and this is termed the descending hemisphere, both feminine and
mischievous. And likewise, again, the upper elements themselves, when
compared one with another, comprise in one another both male and female for
fruitfulness and increase of the whole creation. And the fire is masculine,
and the spirit feminine. And again the water is masculine, and the earth
feminine. And so from the beginning fire consorted with spirit, and water
with earth. For as the power of spirit is fire, so also that of earth is
water;  and the elements themselves, when computed and resolved by
subtraction of enneads, terminate properly, some of them in the masculine
number, and others of them in the feminine. And, again, the ennead is
subtracted for this cause, because the three hundred and sixty parts of the
entire (circle) consist of enneads, and for this reason the four regions of
the world are circumscribed by ninety perfect parts. And light has been
appropriated to the monad, and darkness to the duad, and life to light,
according to nature, and death to the duad. And to life (has been
appropriated) justice; and to death, injustice. Wherefore everything
generated among masculine numbers is beneficent, while that (produced) among
feminine (numbers) is mischievous. For instance, they pursue their
calculations thus: monad that we may commence from this becomes 361, which
(numbers) terminate in a monad by the subtraction of the ennead. In like
manner, reckon thus: Duad becomes 605; take away the enneads, it ends in a
duad, and each reverts into its own peculiar (function).
Chapter XLIV. Egyptian Theory of Nature; Their Amulets.
For the monad, therefore, as being beneficent, they assert that there are
consequently  names ascending, and beneficent, and masculine, and
carefully observed, terminating in an uneven number;  whereas that
those terminating in the even number have been supposed to be both
descending, and feminine and malicious. For they affirm that nature is made
up of contraries, namely bad and good, as right and left, light and
darkness, night and day, life and death. And moreover they make this
assertion, that they have calculated the word "Deity," (and found that it
reverts into a pentad with an ennead subtracted). Now this name is an even
number, and when it is written down (on some material) they attach it to the
body, and accomplish cures  by it. In this manner, likewise, a
certain herb, terminating in this number, being similarly fastened around
(the frame), operates by reason of a similar calculation of the number. Nay,
even a doctor cures sickly people by a similar calculation. If, however, the
calculation is contrary, it does not heal with facility.  Persons
attending to these numbers reckon as many as are homogeneous according to
this principle; some, however, according to vowels alone; whereas others
according to the entire number. Such also is the wisdom of the Egyptians, by
which, as they boast, they suppose that they cognise the divine nature.
Chapter XLV. Use of the Foregoing Discussions.
It appears, then, that these speculations also have been sufficiently
explained by us. But since I think that I have omitted no opinion found in
this earthly and grovelling Wisdom, I perceive that the solicitude expended
by us on these subjects has not been useless. For we observe that our
discourse has been serviceable not only for a refutation of heresies, but
also in reference to those who entertain these opinions. Now these, when
they encounter the extreme care evinced by us, will even be struck with
admiration of our earnestness, and will not despise our industry and condemn
Christians as fools when they discern the opinions to which they themselves
have stupidly accorded their belief. And furthermore, those who, desirous of
learning, addict themselves to the truth, will be assisted by our discourse
to become, when they have learned the fundamental principles of the
heresies, more intelligent not only for the easy refutation of those who
have attempted to deceive them, but that also, when they have ascertained
the avowed opinions of the wise men, and have been made acquainted with
them, that they shall neither be confused by them as ignorant persons would,
nor become the dupes of certain individuals acting as if from some
authority; nay, more than this, they shall be on their guard against those
that are allowing themselves to become victims to these delusions.
Chapter XLVI. The Astrotheosophists; Aratus Imitated by the Heresiarchs; His
System of the Disposition of the Stars.
Having sufficiently explained these opinions, let us next pass on to a
consideration of the subject taken in hand, in order that, by proving what
we have determined concerning heresies, and by compelling their (champions)
to return to these several (speculators) their peculiar tenets, we may show
the heresiarchs destitute (of a system); and by proclaiming the folly of
those who are persuaded (by these heterodox tenets), we shall prevail on
them to retrace their course to the serene haven of the truth. In order,
however, that the statements about to follow may seem more clear to the
readers, it is expedient also to declare the opinions advanced by Aratus
concerning the disposition of the stars of the heavens. (And this is
necessary), inasmuch as some persons, assimilating these (doctrines) to
those declared by the Scriptures, convert (the holy writings) into
allegories, and endeavour to seduce the mind of those who give heed to their
(tenets), drawing them on by plausible words into the admission of whatever
opinions they wish, (and) exhibiting a strange marvel, as if the assertions
made by them were fixed among the stars. They, however, gazing intently on
the very extraordinary wonder, admirers as they are of trifles, are
fascinated like a bird called the owl, which example it is proper to
mention, on account of the statements that are about to follow. The animal
(I speak of) is, however, not very different from an eagle, either in size
or figure, and it is captured in the following way: The hunter of these
birds, when he sees a flock of them lighting anywhere, shaking his hands, at
a distance pretends to dance, and so by little and little draws near the
birds. But they, struck with amazement at the strange sight, are rendered
unobservant of everything passing around them. But others of the party, who
have come into the country equipped for such a purpose, coming from behind
upon the birds, easily lay hold on them as they are gazing on the dancer.
Wherefore I desire that no one, astonished by similar wonders of those who
interpret the (aspect of) heaven, should, like the owl, be taken captive.
For the knavery practised by such speculators may be considered dancing and
silliness, but not truth. Aratus,  therefore, expresses himself
"Just as many are they; hither and thither they roll
Day by day o er heav n, endless, ever, (that is, every star),
Yet this declines not even little; but thus exactly
E er remains with axis fixed and poised in every part
Holds earth midway, and heaven itself around conducts."
Chapter XLVII. Opinions of the Heretics Borrowed from Aratus.
Aratus says that there are in the sky revolving, that is, gyrating stars,
because from east to west, and west to east, they journey perpetually, (and)
in an orbicular figure. And he says that there revolves towards 
"The Bears" themselves, like some stream of a river, an enormous and
prodigious monster, (the) Serpent; and that this is what the devil says in
the book of Job to the Deity, when (Satan) uses these words: "I have
traversed earth under heaven, and have gone around (it),"  that is,
that I have been turned around, and thereby have been able to survey the
worlds. For they suppose that towards the North Pole is situated the Dragon,
the Serpent, from the highest pole looking upon all (the objects), and
gazing on all the works of creation, in order that nothing of the things
that are being made may escape his notice. For though all the stars in the
firmament set, the pole of this (luminary) alone never sets, but, careering
high above the horizon, surveys and beholds all things, and none of the
works of creation, he says, can escape his notice.
Settings mingle and risings one with other." 
(Here Aratus) says that the head of this (constellation) is placed. For
towards the west and east of the two hemispheres is situated the head of the
Dragon, in order, he says, that nothing may escape his notice throughout the
same quartet, either of objects in the west or those in the east, but that
the Beast may know all things at the same time. And near the head itself of
the Dragon is the appearance of a man, conspicuous by means of the stars,
which Aratus styles a wearied image, and like one oppressed with labour, and
he is denominated "Engonasis." Aratus  then affirms that he does not
know what this toil is, and what this prodigy is that revolves in heaven.
The heretics, however, wishing by means of this account of the stars to
establish their own doctrines, (and) with more than ordinary earnestness
devoting their attention to these (astronomic systems), assert that
Engonasis is Adam, according to the commandment of God as Moses declared,
guarding the head of the Dragon, and the Dragon (guarding) his heel. For so
Aratus expresses himself:
"The right-foot's track of the Dragon fierce possessing." 
Chapter XLVIII. Invention of the Lyre; Allegorizing the Appearance and
Position of the Stars; Origin of the Phoenicians; The Logos Identified by
Aratus with the Constellation Canis; Influence of Canis on Fertility and
And (Aratus) says that (the constellations) Lyra and Corona have been placed
on both sides near him, now I mean Engonasis, but that he bends the knee,
and stretches forth both hands, as if making a confession of sin. And that
the lyre is a musical instrument fashioned by Logos while still altogether
an infant, and that Logos is the same as he who is denominated Mercury among
the Greeks. And Aratus, with regard to the construction of the lyre,
"Then, further, also near the cradle, 
Hermes pierced it through, and said, Call it Lyre." 
It consists of seven strings, signifying by these seven strings the entire
harmony and construction of the world as it is melodiously constituted. For
in six days the world was made, and (the Creator) rested on the seventh. If,
then, says (Aratus), Adam, acknowledging (his guilt) and guarding the head
of the Beast, according to the commandment of the Deity, will imitate Lyra,
that is, obey the Logos of God, that is, submit to the law, he will receive
Corona that is situated near him. If, however, he neglect his duty, he shall
be hurled downwards in company with the Beast that lies underneath, and
shall have, he says, his portion with the Beast. And Engonasis seems on both
sides to extend his hands, and on one to touch Lyra, and on the other
Corona and this is his confession; so that it is possible to distinguish him
by means of this (sidereal) configuration itself. But Corona nevertheless is
plotted against, and forcibly drawn away by another beast, a smaller Dragon,
which is the offspring of him who is guarded by the foot  of
Engonasis. A man also stands firmly grasping with both hands, and dragging
towards the space behind the Serpent from Corona; and he does not permit the
Beast to touch Corona. though making a violent effort to do so. And Aratus
styles him Anguitenens, because he restrains the impetuosity of the Serpent
in his attempt to reach Corona. But Logos, he says, is he who, in the figure
of a man, hinders the Beast from reaching Corona, commiserating him who is
being plotted against by the Dragon and his offspring simultaneously.
These (constellations), "The Bears," however, he says, are two hebdomads,
composed of seven stars, images of two creations. For the first creation, he
affirms, is that according to Adam in labours, this is he who is seen "on
his knees" (Engonasis). The second creation, however, is that according to
Christ, by which we are regenerated; and this is Anguitenens, who struggles
against the Beast, and hinders him from reaching Corona, which is reserved
for the man. But "The Great Bear" is, he says, Helice,  symbol of a
mighty world towards which the Greeks steer their course, that is, for which
they are being disciplined. And, wafted by the waves of life, they follow
onwards, (having in prospect) some such revolving world or discipline or
wisdom which conducts those back that follow in pursuit of such a world. For
the term Helice seems to signify a certain circling and revolution towards
the same points. There is likewise a certain other "Small Bear" (Cynosuris),
as it were some image of the second creation that formed according to God.
For few, he says, there are that journey by the narrow path.  But
they assert that Cynosuris is narrow, towards which Aratus  says
that the Sidonians navigate. But Aratus has spoken partly of the Sidonians,
(but means) the Phoenicians, on account of the existence of the admirable
wisdom of the Phoenicians. The Greeks, however, assert that they are
Phoenicians, who have migrated from (the shores of) the Red Sea into this
country where they even at present dwell, for this is the opinion of
Herodotus.  Now Cynosura, he says, is this (lesser) Bear, the second
creation; the one of limited dimensions, the narrow way, and not Helice. For
he does not lead them back, but guides forward by a straight path, those
that follow him being (the tail) of Canis. For Canis is the Logos, 
partly guarding and preserving the flock, that is plotted against by the
wolves; and partly like a dog, hunting the beasts from the creation, and
destroying them; and partly producing all things, and being what they
express by the name "Cyon" (Canis), that is, generator. Hence it is said,
Aratus has spoken of the rising of Canis, expressing himself thus: "When,
however, Canis has risen, no longer do the crops miss." This is what he
says: Plants that have been put into the earth up to the period of Canis
rising, frequently, though not having struck root, are yet covered with a
profusion of leaves, and afford indications to spectators that they will be
productive, and that they appear full of life, (though in reality) not
having vitality in themselves from the root. But when the rising of Canis
takes place, the living are separated from the dead by Canis; for whatsoever
plants have not taken root, really undergo putrefaction. This Canis,
therefore, he says, as being a certain divine Logos, has been appointed
judge of quick and dead. And as (the influence of) Canis is observable in
the vegetable productions of this world, so in plants of celestial growth in
men is beheld the (power of the) Logos. From some such cause, then,
Cynosura, the second creation, is set in the firmament as an image of a
creation by the Logos. The Dragon, however, in the centre reclines between
the two creations, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the
great creation to the small creation; and in guarding those that are fixed
in the (great) creation, as for instance Engonasis, observing (at the same
time) how and in what manner each is constituted in the small creation. And
(the Dragon) himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens. This
image, he affirms, is fixed in heaven, being a certain wisdom to those
capable of discerning it. If. however, this is obscure, by means of some
other image, he says the creation teaches (men) to philosophize, in regard
to which Aratus has expressed himself thus:
"Neither of Cepheus Iasidas are we the wretched brood." 
Chapter XLIX. Symbol of the Creature; And of Spirit; And of the Different
Orders of Animals.
But Aratus says, near this (constellation) is Cepheus, and Cassiepea, and
Andromeda, and Perseus, great lineaments of the creation to those who are
able to discern them. For he asserts that Cepheus is Adam, Cassiepea Eve,
Andromeda the soul of both of these, Perseus the Logos, winged offspring of
Jove, and Cetos  the plotting monster. Not to any of these. but to
Andromeda only does he repair, who slays the Beast; from whom, likewise
taking unto himself Andromeda, who had been delivered (and) chained to the
Beast, the Logos that is, Perseus achieves, be says, her liberation.
Perseus, however, is the winged axle that. pierces both poles through the
centre of the earth, and turns the world round. The spirit also, that which
is in the world, is (symbolized by) Cycnus, a bird a musical animal near
"The Bears" type of the Divine Spirit, because that when it approaches the
end itself of life,  it alone is fitted by nature to sing, on
departing with good hope from the wicked creation, (and) offering up hymns
unto God. But crabs, and bulls, and lions, and rams, and goats, and kids,
and as many other beasts as have their names used for denominating the stars
in the firmament, are, he says, images, and exemplars from which the
creation, subject to change, obtaining (the different) species, becomes
replete with animals of this description.
Chapter L. Folly of Astrology.
Employing these accounts, (the heretics) think to deceive as many of these
as devote themselves over-sedulously to the astrologers, from thence
striving to construct a system of religion that is widely divergent from the
thoughts of these (speculators). Wherefore, beloved, let us avoid the habit
of admiring trifles, secured by which the bird (styled) the owl (is
captured). For these and other such speculations are, (as it were), dancing,
and not Truth. For neither do the stars yield these points of information;
but men of their own accord, for the designation of certain stars, thus
called them by names, in order that they might become to them easily
distinguishable. For what similarity with a bear or lion, or kid, or
waterman, or Cepheus, or Andromeda, or the spectres that have names given
them in Hades, have the stars that are scattered over the firmament for we
must remember that these men, and the titles themselves, came into existence
long after the origin of man, (what, I say, is in common between the two),
that the heretics, astonished at the marvel, should thus strive by means of
such discourses to strengthen their own opinions?
Chapter LI. The Hebdomadarii; System of the Arithmeticians; Pressed into the
Service of Heresy; Instances Of, in Simon and Valentinus; The Nature of the
Universe Deducible from the Physiology of the Brain.
But since almost every heresy (that has sprung up) through the arithmetical
art has discovered measures of hebdomads and certain projections of Aeons,
each rending the art differently, while whatever variation prevailed was in
the names merely; and (since) Pythagoras became the instructor of these,
tint introducing numbers of this sort among the Greeks from Egypt, it seems
expedient not to omit even this, but, after we have given a compendious
elucidation, to approach the demonstration of those things that we propose
Arithmeticians and geometers arose, to whom especially Pythagoras first
seems to have furnished principles. And from numbers that can continually
progress ad infinitum by multiplication, and from figures, these derived
their first principles,  as capable of being discerned by reason
alone; for a principle of geometry, as one may perceive, is an indivisible
point. From that point, however, by means of the art, the generation of
endless figures from the point is discovered. For the point being drawn into
length becomes a line, after being thus continued, having a point for its
extremity. And a line flowing out into breadth begets a surface, and the
limits of the surface are lines; but a surface flowing out into breadth
becomes body, And when what is solid has in this manner derived existence
from, altogether, the smallest point, the nature of a huge body is
constituted; and this is what Simon expresses thus: "The little will be
great, being as a point, and the great illimitable." Now this coincides with
the geometrical doctrine of a point.
But of the arithmetical  art, which by composition contains
philosophy, number became a first principle, which is an indefinable and
incomprehensible (entity), comprising in itself all the numbers that can go
on ad infinitum by aggregation. But the first monad became a principle,
according to substance, of the numbers, which (principle) is a male 
monad, pro-creating paternally all the rest of the numbers. Secondly, the
duad is a female number, which by the arithmeticians is also itself
denominated even. Thirdly, the triad is a male number; this also it has been
the usual custom of arithmeticians to style odd. In addition to all these,
the tetrad is a female number; and this same, because it is feminine, is
likewise denominated even. All the numbers therefore, taken generically, are
four number, however, as regards genus, is indefinite from which, according
to their system, is formed the perfect number I mean the decade. For one,
two, three, four, become ten as has been previously proved if the proper
denomination be preserved, according to substance, for each of the numbers.
This is the sacred quaternion, according to Pythagoras, having in itself
roots of an endless nature, that is, all other numbers; for eleven, and
twelve, and the rest, derive the principle of generation from the ten. Of
this decade the perfect number there are called four parts number, monad,
power, cube whose connections and mixtures take place for the generation of
increase, according to nature completing the productive number. For when the
square is multiplied into itself, it becomes a biquadratic; but when the
square is multiplied into a cube, it becomes the product of a quadratic and
cube; but when a cube is multiplied into a cube, it becomes the product of
cube multiplied by cube. Wherefore all the numbers are seven; so that the
generation of things produced may be from the hebdomad which is number,
monad, power, cube, biquadratic, product of quadratic multiplied by cube,
product of cube multiplied by cube.
Of this hebdomad Simon and Valentinus, having altered the names, detailed
marvellous stories, from thence hastily adopting a system for themselves.
For Simon employs his denominations thus: Mind, Intelligence, Name, Voice,
Ratiocination, Reflection; and He who stood, stands, will stand. And
Valentinus (enumerates them thus): Mind, Truth, Word, Life, Man, Church, and
the Father, reckoned along with these, according to the same principles as
those advanced by the cultivators of arithmetical philosophy. And
(heresiarchs) admiring, as if unknown to the multitude, (this philosophy,
and) following it, have framed heterodox doctrines devised by themselves.
Some indeed, then, attempt likewise to form the hebdomads from the
medical  (art), being astonished at the dissection of the brain,
asserting that the substance of the universe and the power of procreation
and the Godhead could be ascertained from the arrangement of the brain. For
the brain, being the dominant portion of the entire body, reposes calm and
unmoved, containing within itself the spirit. Such an account, then, is not
incredible, but widely differs from the conclusions which these (heretics)
attempt to deduce from it. For the brain, on being dissected, has within it
what may be called a vaulted chamber. And on either side of this are thin
membranes, which they term little wings. Now these are gently moved by the
spirit, and in turn propel towards the cerebellum the spirit, which,
careering through a certain blood-vessel like a reed, advances towards the
pineal gland. And near this is situated the entrance of the cerebellum,
which admits the current of spirit, and distributes it into what is styled
the spinal marrow. But from them the whole frame participates in the
spiritual energy, inasmuch as all the arteries, like a branch, are fastened
on from this blood-vessel, the extremity of which terminates in the genital
blood-vessels, whence all the (animal) seeds proceeding from the brain
through the loin are secreted (in the seminal glands). The form, however, of
the brain is like the head of a serpent, respecting which a lengthened
discussion is maintained by the professors of knowledge, falsely so named,
as we shall prove. Six other coupling ligaments grow out of the brain,
which, traversing round the head, and having their termination in (the head)
itself, hold bodies together; but the seventh (ligament) proceeds from the
cerebellum to the lower parts of the rest of the frame, as we have declared.
And respecting this there is an enlarged discussion, whence both Simon and
Valentinus will be found both to have derived from this source
starting-points for their opinions, and, though they may not acknowledge it,
to be in the first instance liars, then heretics. Since, then, it appears
that we have sufficiently explained these tenets likewise, and that all the
reputed opinions of this earthly philosophy have been comprised in four
books; it seems expedient to proceed to a consideration of the disciples of
these men, nay rather, those who have furtively appropriated their
[On p. 43 supra I omitted to direct attention to the desirable enlargement
of  by a reference to Homer's Hymn of Mercury and its minute
description of the invention of the Lyre. The passage is given in Henry
Nelson Coleridge's Introduction, etc., p.202. The versified translation of
Shelley is inimitable; in ottava rima, but instinct with the ethos of the
 Or, "interval."
 Hippolytus gives the substance of Sextus Empiricus remarks, omitting,
however, a portion of the passage followed. (See Sextus Empiricus Mathem.,
 Or, "celestial."
 Or, "Celbes," or "Ademes." The first is the form of the name employed
in book v. c, viii.; the second in book x. c. vi.
 This passage occurs in Sextus Empiricus.
 Or, "the knowledge of."
 Horoscope (from ōpa skopos) is the act of observing the aspect of the
heavens at the moment of any particular birth. Hereby the astrologer alleged
his ability of foretelling the future career of the person so born. The most
important part of the sky for the astrologer's consideration was that sign
of the Zodiac which rose above the horizon at the moment of parturition.
This was the "horoscope ascendant," or "first house." The circuit of the
heavens was divided into twelve "houses," or zodiacal signs.
 Or, "difference."
 Or," during."
 apotexeōs; some would read apotaxeōs.
 The passage is given more explicitly in Sextus Empiricus. (See
Adversus Astrol., v. 53.)
 Sextus uses almost these words.
 Or "lodgment" (Sextus), or "deposition."
 Or, "attendants of physicians."
 Or, "make."
 Or, "vanishes."
 Not in Sextus Empiricus.
 The passage is more clearly given in Sextus.
 Or, "the cold atmosphere."
 Or, "manifestation."
 Or, "manifestation."
 Or, "reasonable."
 Or, "but the motion... is whirled on with velocity."
 This rendering of the passage may be deduced from Sextus Empiricus.
 The text is corrupt, but the above seems probably the meaning, and
agrees with the rendering of Schneidewin and Cruice.
 Or, "view."
 The clepsydra, an instrument for measuring duration, was, with the
sun-dial, invented by the Egyptians under the Ptolemies. It was employed not
only for the measurernent of time, but for making astronomic calculations.
Water, as the name imports, was the fluid employed, though mercury has been
likewise used. The inherent defect of an instrument of this description is
mentioned by Hippolytus.
 Literally, "twisting, tergiversating."
 This seems the meaning, as deducible from a comparison of
Hippolytus with the corresponding passage in Sextus Empiricus.
 Omitted by Sextus.
 The Abbe Cruice observes, in regard of some verbal difference here
in the text from that of Sextus, that the MS. of The Refutationwas probably
executed by one who heard the extracts from other writers read to him, and
frequently mistook the sound. The transcriber of the MS. was one Michael, as
we learn from a marginal note at the end.
 This was the great doctrine of astrology, the forerunner of the
science of astronomy. Astrology seems to have arisen first among the
Chaldeans, out of the fundamental principle of their religion -the
assimilation of the divine nature to light. This tenet introduced another,
the worship of the stars, which was developed into astrology. Others suppose
astrology to have been of Arabian or Egyptian origin. From some of these
sources it reached the Greeks, and through them the Romans, who held the
astrologic art in high repute. The art, after having become almost extinct,
was revived by the Arabians at the verve of the middle ages. For the history
of astrology one must consult the writings of Manilius, Julius Firmicus, and
Ptolemy. Its greatest medieval apologist is Cardan, the famous physician of
Paris (see his work, De Astron. Judic., lib. vi.-ix. tom. v. of his
 Sextus adds, "bright-eyed."
 Hippolytus here follows Sextus.
 Aratus, from whom Hippolytus quotes so frequently in this Chapter,
was a poet and astronomer of antiquity, born at Soli in Cilicia. He
afterwards became physician to Gonatus, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, king
of Macedon, at whose court he rose high into favour. The work alluded to by
Hippolytus is Aratus Phaenomena, a versified account of the motions of the
stars, and of sidereal influence over men. This work seems to have been a
great favourite with scholars, if we are to judge from the many excellent
annotated editions of it that have appeared. Two of these deserve notice,
viz., Grotius Leyden edition, 1600, in Greek and Latin; and Buhle s
edition, Leipsic, 1803. See also Dionysius Petavius Uranoiogion. Arbutus
must always be famous, from the fact that St. Paul (Acts xiii. 28) quotes
the fifth line of the Phaenomena. Cicero considered Aratus a noble poet, and
translated the Phaenimena into Latin, a fragment of which has been
preserved, and is in Grotius edition. Aratus has been translated into
English verse, with notes by Dr. Lamb, Dean of Bristol (London: J. W.
 The Abbe Cruice suggests "freedom from danger," instead of
"cowardice," and translates thus: "whereby kings are slain, by having
impunity promised in the predictions of these seers."
 Sextus makes the number "nine thousand nine hundred and seventy and
 The parenthetical words are taken from Sextus Empiricus, as
introduced into his text by the Abbe Cruice. Schneidewin alludes to the
passage in Sextus as proof of some confusion in Hippolytus text, which he
thinks is signified by the transcriber in the words, "I think there is some
deficiency or omissions," which occur in the MS. of The Refutation.
 As regards astological predictions, see Origen's Comment. on Gen.;
Diodorus of Tarsus, De Fato; Photii Biblioth., cod, ccxxiii.; and
Bardesanis, De Legibus Nationum, in Cureton's Spicilegium Syriacum.
 See Plato's Timaeus.
 Schneidewin, on Roeper's suggestion, amends the passage thus,
though I am not sure that I exactly render his almost unintelligible Latin
version: "For as many sections as there are of eacb, there are educible from
the monad more segments than sections; for example, if," etc. The Abbe
Cruice would seemingly adopt the following version: "For whatsoever are
sections of each, now there are more segments than sections of a monad, will
become; for example, if," etc.
 Schneidewin, on mathematical authority, discredits the numerical
calculations ascribed to Archimedes.
 This is manifestly erroneous; the total could only be "four
 The Abbe Cruice thinks that the word should be "tones," supporting
his emendation on the authority of Pliny, who states that Pythagoras called
the distance of the Moon from the Earth a tone, deriving the term from
musical science (see Pliny's Hist. Nat., ii. 20).
 These numerical speculations are treated of by Archimedes in his
work On the Number of the Sand, in which he maintains the possibility of
counting the sands, even on the supposition of the world's being much larger
than it is (see Archimedes, ta mechri nun sōzomena apanta, Treatise
psammitēs, p. 120, ed. Eustoc. Ascalon., Basil, 1544).
 Colarbasus is afterwards mentioned in company with Marcus the
heretic, at the beginning and end of book vi of The Refutation.
 This word ( sleoiazousi), more than once used by Hippolytus, is
applied to anything done offhand, e.g., an extempore speech. It therefore
might be made to designate immaturity of opinion. Schediameans something
hastily put together, viz., a raft; scheoios, sudden.
 Schneidewin suggests omōs instead of oimoiōs. The word (
eēanisamenoi) translated "appropriating" is derived from eranos, which
signifies a meal to which those who partake of it have each contributed some
dish (pic-nic). The term, therefore, is an expressive one for Hippolytus
 propsnōstikous. Some would read pros psnōstkous.
 Some propose doxēs. "opinion." Hippolytus, however, used the word
oizēs (translated "school") in a similar way at the end of chap. i. of book
iv. "Novelty" is read instead of "knavery;" and for anapleou, "full," is
proposed (1) anapleontas, (a) anapterountas.
 The subject of the numerical system employed by the Gnostics, and
their occult mysteries, is treated of by the learned Kircher, Aedipi
Aegypt.., tom. ii. part i, de Cabala Hebraeorum; also in his Arithmolog. in
the book De Arithmomantiaa Gnosticor., cap. viii., de Cabala Pythagorea. See
also Mersennes, Comment. on Genes.
 This subject is examined by Cornelius Agrippa in his celebrated
work, De vanitate et incertitudine Scientiarum, chap. xi., De Sorte
Pythagoriea. Terentiuc Maurus has also a versified work on Letters and
Syllables and Metres, in which he alludes to similar interpretations
educible from the names Hector and Patroclus.
 - That is, the division by nine.
 That is, calculated according to the rule of a division by seven.
 We should expect rather five instead of 9, if the division be by
 There is some confusion in the text. Miller conjectures that the
reading should be: "As, for instance, the name Patroclus has the letter o
occurring twice in it, they therefore take it into calculation once."
Schneidewin suggests that the form of the name may be Papatroclus.
 Miller says there is an error in the calculation here.
 This is as near the sense of the passage as a translation in some
respects conjectural can make it.
 The word thelein occurs in this sentence, but is obviously
 In the margin of the Ms. is the note, "Opinion of the
 These words are out of place. See next note.
 There is evidently some displacement of words here. Miller and
Schneidewin suggest: "There are some who ascribe to the influence of the
stars the natures of men: since, in computing the births of individuals,
they thus express themselves as if they were moulding the species of men."
The Abbe Cruice would leave the text as it is, altering only tupountes ideas
into tupōn te ideas.
 Literally, "jumping; " others read "blackish," or "expressive"
(literally, "talking"). The vulgar reading, upo allois, is evidently
 Or "cowardly," or "cowards at heart;" or some read, laropoioi,
i.e., "causative of gl"
 Or, "diseased with unnatural lust," i.e., nosountes for noountes.
 Or, kat epos, "verbally rejecting anything."
 Or better, "weak in the limbs."
 Or, "short."
 Or, "parts."
 Some read
 Or, "they are given to hoarding, they have possessions."
 This is an amended reading of the text, which is obviously
confused. The correction necessary is introduced lower down in the MS.,
which makes the same characteristic be twice mentioned. The Abbe Cruice,
however, accounts for such a twofold mention, on the ground that the whole
subject is treated by Hippolytus in such a way as to expose the absurdities
of the astrologic predictions. He therefore quotes the opinions of various
astrologers, in order to expose the diversities of opinion existing among
 Manilius maintains that persons born under Cancer are of an
avaricious and usurious disposition. (See Astronom., iv. 5.)
 Or, "having the upper parts larger than the lower."
 Some read analoi.
 Schneidewin conjectures asunētheis, i.e., inexperienced.
 Or, "succour."
 Or, "straight, compact."
 Miller gives an additional sentence: "They are of equal measurement
at tbe (same) age, and possess a body perfect and erect."
 Or, "careful observers."
 Or, "speaking falsehoods, they will be believed."
 The parenthetical words are obviously an interpolation.
 Or, "spies."
 Or, "body."
 Literally "moist," or "difficult;" or, the Abbe Cruice suggests,
 Or, "pragmatic, mild, not violent."
 Hippolytus, having exposed the system of sidereal influence over
men, proceeds to detail the magical rites and operations of the sorcerers.
This arrangement is in conformity with the technical divisions of astrology
into (1) judiciary, (2) natural. The former related to the prediction of
future events, and the latter of the phenomena of nature, being thus akin to
the art of magic.
 The text here and at the end of the last Chapter is somewhat
 Or "cushion" (Cruice), or "couch," or "a recess."
 Or "goes up," or "commences," or "enters in before the others,
bearing the oblation" (Cruice).
 Or, "deride."
 The Abbe Cruice considers that this passage, as attributing all
this jugglery to the artifice of sorcerers, militates against the authorship
of Origen, who ascribes ( Ēeri Archōn, lib. iii. p. 144, ed. Benedict.) the
same results not to the frauds of magicians, but to demons.
 Or, "denominated."
 Or, "rises up."
 On the margin of the MS., we find the words, "concerning coals,"
"concerning magical signs," "concerning sheep."
 Or, paradotheis, "he delivers it a sword, and departs."
 Or, "close up."
 The words "death of a goat" occur on the margin of the MS.
 A similar statement is made, on the authority of Alcmaeon, by
Aristotle in his Histor. Animal., i. 2.
 Mannē is the word in the text. But manna in the ordinary
acceptation of the tenn can scarcely be intended. Pliny, however, mentions
it as a proper name of grains of incense and resin. The Abbe Cruice suggests
the very probable emendation of malthē, which signifies a mixture of wax and
resin for caulking ships.
 diaulon in the text has been altered into kelanon. The trans- ~
lator has followed the latter.
 Or "indissoluble," or "inseparable."
 Marsilius Ficinus (in his Commentary on Plotinrus, p. 504 et sec.,
vol. ii. Creuzer's edition), who here discusses the subject of demons and
magical art, mentions, on the authority of Porphyry, that sorcerers had the
power of evoking demons, and that a magician, in the presience of many, had
shown to Plotinus his guardian demon (angel). This constitutes the Goetic
department of magic.
 Or, "full of pitch."
 Mursinē This word is evidently not the right one, for we have (
smurnē) myrrh mentioned. Perhaps the word malthē, suggested in a previous
passage, is the one employed here likewise.
 Or, "makes speedy preparation;" or, "resorts to the contrivance
 The words in italics are added by the Abbe Cruice. There is
obviously some hiatus in the original.
 Or, "the refuse of."
 In the margin of the MS. occur the words, "concerning the
brealking of the seals."
 Or, "exposed their method of proceeding in accordance with the
system of Gnosticism." Schneidewin, following C. Fr. Hermann, is of opinion
that what follows is taken from Celsus work on magic, to which Origen
alludes in the Contra Celsum, lib. i. p.53 (Spencer's edition). Lucian (the
well-known satirist), in his Alexander, or Pseudomiantis, gives an account
of the jugglery of these magicians. See: note, chap. xlii. of this book.
 Or, "ground" phoruktēs,( al.) phruktēs, ( al.) phruktēs, (al.)
 Or, "insert."
 Or "taught," or "adduced," or "delivered."
 This sentence is obviously out of place, and should properly come
in probably before the words, "These contrivances, however, I hesitated to
narrate," etc., a few lines above in this Chapter. The Abbe Cruice
conjectures that it may have been written on the margin by some reader
acquainted with chemistry, and thatafterwards it found its way into the
 Some read phaneron for paron.
 What cyanus was is not exactly known. It was employed in the
Homeric age for the adornment of implements of war. Whatever the nature of
the substance be, it was of a dark-blue colour. Some suppose it to have been
blue steel, other, blue copper. Theophrastus account of it makes it a stone
like a dark sapphire.
 Or, "with the head downwards."
 There is some hiatus here.
 Or, "menmory."
 Or, "suspending a drum, etc., covered with," etc.; or "frequently
placing on an elevated position a drum." For porrōthen, which is not here
easy of explanation, some read tornōthen, others i.e, fastened
with buckles; others, porrō tethen.
 Schneidewin, but not the Abbe Cruice, thinks there is a hiatus
 There are diferent readings: (1) etumololikēs; (2) eti oloklērou;
(3) ualourgikēs, i e., composed of glass. (See next note.)
 The Abbe Cruice properly remarks that this has no meaning here. He
would read ualōdesi topois, or by means of glass images.
 There is a hiatus here.
 The Abbe Cruice suggests epipleon bōlou, which he thinks
corresponds with the material of which the pyramid mentioned in a previous
Chapter was composed. He, however, makes no attempt at translating epipleon,
Does he mean that the skull was filled with clay? His emendation is forced.
 Or, "rubbings of" (Cruice).
 Or, "they say."
 Some similar juggleries are mentioned by Lucian in his Alexander,
or Psendomantis, xxxii. 26, a work of a kindred nature to Celsus Treatise
on Magic (the latter alluded to by Origen, Contr. Cels., lib. i p. 53 ed.
Spenc.), and dedicated by Lucian to Celsius.
 The word magic, or magician, at its origin, had no sinister
meaning, as being the science professed by the Magi, who were an exclusive
religious sect of great antiquity in Persia, universally venerated for their
mathematical skill and erudition generally. It was persons who practised
wicked arts, and assumed the name of Magi, that brought the term into
disrepute. The origin of magic has been ascribed fo Zoroaster, and once
devised, it made rapid progress; because, as Pliny reminds us, it includes
three systems of the greatest influence among men (1) the art of medicine,
(2) religion, divination. This corresponds with Agrippa's division of magic
into (1) natural, (2) celestial, (3) ceremonial, or superstitious. This last
has been also called "goetic " (full of imposture), and relates to the
invocatioms of devils. This originated probably in Egypt, and quickly spread
all over the world.
 Or, "topic discussed; " or, "not leave any place (subterfuge) for
 0r "you will suppose."
 See Aristotle's Metaphiysics, book i.; Cicero, De Natura Deorum,
book i. (both translated in Bohn's (classical Library); and Plutarch, De
Placitis Philosophorum. lib. i.
 The mention of the Persians, Babylonians, and Egyptians shows the
subject-matter of the lost books to have been concerning the speculative
systems of these nations.
 This rendering follows Miller's text. Schneidewin thinks there is
a hiatus, which the Abbe Cruice fills up, the latter translating the passage
without an interrogation: "The Egyptians, who think themselves more ancient
than all, have formed their ideas of the power of the Deity by calculations
and computing," etc.
 Or, "meditation on the divine nature," or "godlike reflection."
 The MS. has "says he."
 The Abbe Cruice suggests the elimination of 9, on account of its
being a divisible number.
 Miller considers some reference here to the six days creation
(Hexaemeron), on account at the word phusikōtera, i.e., more natural. The
Abbe Cruice considers that there is an allusion to an astronomic instrument
used for exhibiting harmonic combinations; see Ptolem., Harmon, i. 2. Bunsen
reads tou exakuklou ulikou.
 The text is obviously corrupt. As given by Schneidewin, it might
be rendered thus: "These deriving from the monad a numerical symbol,a
virtue, have progressed up to the elements." He makes no attempt at a Latin
version. The Abbe Cruice would suggest tbe Introduction of the word
prostethsan, on account of the statement already made, that "the monad,
superadded into itself, produces a duad."
 There is a hiatus here. Hippolytus has said nothing concerning
 Or, "names have been allocated," or "distributed."
 Miller thinks it should be "even number" ( peritton). The Abbe
Cruice would retain "uneven" ( aperizugon), on the ground that the duad
being a perizux arithmos, the monad will be aperizugos.
 Servius on the Eclogues of Virgil (viii, 75) and Pliny ( Hist.
Nat, xxxviii. 2) make similar statements.
 This is Miller and Schneidewin's emendation for "uneven" in the
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 19 et seq.
 Ibid, v. 45, 46.
 This refers to Job i. 7, but is at once recognised as not a
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 61.
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 63 et seq.
 Arat., Phaenom., v, 70.
 "Pierced it through," i.e., bored the holes for the strings, or,
in other words, constructed the instrument. The Latin version in Buhle s
edition of Aratus is ad cunam (cunabulam) compegit, i.e., he fastened the
strings into the shell of the tortoise near his bed. The tortoise is
mentioned by Aratus in the first part of the line, which fact removes the
obscurity of the passage as quoted by Hippolytus. The general tradition
corresponds with this, in representing Mercury on the shores of the Nile
forming a lyre out of a dried tortoise. The word translated bed might be
also rendered fan, which was used as a cradle, its size and construction
being suitable. [See note, p. 46, infra.]
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 268.
 Or, "son of" (see Arat., Phaenom., v. 70).
 The Abbe Cruice considers that these interpretations, as well as
what follows, are taken not from a Greek writer, but a Jewish heretic. No
Greek, he supposes, would write, as is stated lower down, that the Greeks
were a Phoenician colony. The Jewish heresies were impregnated by these
silly doctrines about the stars (see Epiphian., Adv. Haeres., lib. i. De
 Reference is here made to Matt. vii. 14.
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 44.
 Herod., Hist., i. 1.
 Or, "for creation is the Logos" (see Arat., Phaenom., et seq.).
 Arat., Phaenom., v. 179
 i.e., literally a sea-monster (Cicero's Pistrix); Arat.,
Phaenom;., v. 353 et seq.
 pros autois ēdē tois termadi genomenon tou biou. Some read tois
spermasi, which yields no intelligible meaning.
 Sextus Empiricus, adv. Geom., 29 et seq. (See book vi. chap.
xviii. of The Refutation.)
 The observations following have already been made in book i. of
 Some read arsis.
 The Abbe Cruice refers to Censorinus ( De Die Natali, cap. vii. et
xiv.), who mentions that two numbers were held in veneration, the seventh
(hebdomad) and ninth (ennead). The former was of use in curing corporeal
disease, and ascribed to Apollo; the latter healed the diseases of the mind,
and was attributed to the Muses.
 At foot of MS. occur the words, "Fourth Book of Philosophumena."
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