Hippolytus - Refutation of All Heresies - Book VI
Translated by the Rev. J. H. Macmahon, M.a.
Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and
first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional
introductionary material and notes provided for the American
edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.
The following are the contents of the sixth book of the Refutation of all
What the opinions are that are attempted (to be established) by Simon, and
that his doctrine derives its force from the (lucubrations) of magicians and
What are the opinions propounded by Valentinus, and that his system is not
constructed out of the Scriptures, but out of the Platonic and Pythagorean
And what are the opinions of Secundus, and Ptolemaeus, and Heracleon, as
persons also who themselves advanced the same doctrines as the philosophers
among the Greeks, but enunciated them in different phraseology.
And what are the suppositions put forward by Marcus and Colarbasus, and that
some of them devoted their attention to magical arts and the Pythagorean
Chapter I.  The Ophites the Progenitors of Subsequent Heresies.
Whatever opinions, then, were entertained by those who derived the first
principles (of their doctrine) from the serpent, and in process of time
 deliberately  brought forward into public notice their tenets, we
have explained in the book preceding this, (and) which is the fifth of the
Refutation of Heresies. But now also I shall not be silent as regards the
opinions of (heresiarchs) who follow these (Ophites in succession); nay, not
one (speculation) will I leave unrefuted, if it is possible to remember all
(their tenets), and the secret orgies of these (heretics) which one may
fairly style orgies, for they who propagate such audacious opinions are not
far distant from the anger (of God), that I may avail myself of the
assistance of etymology.
Chapter II. Simon Magus.
It seems, then, expedient likewise to explain now the opinions of Simon,
 a native of Gitta, a village of Samaria; and we shall also prove that
his successors, taking a starting-point from him, have endeavoured (to
establish) similar opinions under a change of name. This Simon being an
adept in sorceries, both making a mockery of many, partly according to the
art of Thrasymedes, in the manner in which we have explained above, 
and partly also by the assistance of demons perpetrating his villany,
attempted to deify himself. (But) the man was a (mere) cheat, and full of
folly, and the Apostles reproved him in the Acts.  With much greater
wisdom and moderation than Simon, did Apsethus the Libyan, inflamed with a
similar wish, endeavour to have himself considered a god in Libya, And
inasmuch as his legendary system does not present any wide divergence from
the inordinate desire of that silly Simon, it seems expedient to furnish an
explanation of it, as one worthy of the attempt made by this man.
Chapter III. Story of Apsethus the Libyan.
Apsethus  the Libyan inordinately longed to become a god; but when,
after repeated intrigues, he altogether failed to accomplish his desire, he
nevertheless wished to appear to have become a god; and he did at all events
appear, as time wore on, to have in reality become a god. For the foolish
Libyans were accustomed to sacrifice unto him as to some divine power,
supposing that they were yielding credence to a voice that came down from
above, from heaven. For, collecting into one and the same cage a great
number of birds, parrots, he shut them up. Now there are very many parrots
throughout Libya, and very distinctly these imitate the human voice. This
man, having for a time nourished the birds, was in the habit of teaching
them to say, "Apsethus is a god." After, however, the birds had practised
this for a long period, and were accustomed to the utterance of that which
he thought, when said, would make it supposed that Apsethus was a god, then,
opening the habitation (of the birds), he let forth the parrots, each in a
different direction. While the birds, however, were on the wing, their sound
went out into all Libya, and the expressions of these reached as far as the
Hellenic country. And thus the Libyans, being astonished at the voice of the
birds, and not perceiving the knavery perpetrated by Apsethus, held Apsethus
to be a god. Some one, however, of the Greeks, by accurate examination,
perceiving the trick of the supposed god, by means of those same parrots not
only refutes, but also utterly destroys, that boastful and tiresome fellow.
Now the Greek, by confining many of the parrots, taught them anew to say,
"Apsethus, having caged us, compelled us to say, Apsethus is a god." But
having heard of the recantation of the parrots, the Libyans, coming
together, all unanimously decided on burning Apsethus.
Chapter IV. Simon's Forced Interpretation of Scripture; Plagiarizes from
Heraclitus and Aristotle; Simon's System of Sensible and Intelligible
In this way we must think concerning Simon the magician, so that we may
compare him unto the Libyan, far sooner than unto Him who, though made man,
 was in reality God. If, however, the assertion of this likeness is in
itself accurate, and the sorcerer was the subject of a passion similar to
Apsethus, let us endeavour to teach anew the parrots of Simon, that Christ,
who stood, stands, and will stand, (that is, was, is, and is to come,) was
not Simon. But (Jesus) was man, offspring of the seed of a woman, born of
blood and the will of the flesh, as also the rest (of humanity). And that
these things are so, we shall easily prove as the discussion proceeds.
Now Simon, both foolishly and knavishly paraphrasing the law of Moses, makes
his statements (in the manner following): For when Moses asserts that "God
is a burning and consuming fire,"  taking what is said by Moses not in
its correct sense, he affirms that fire is the originating principle of the
universe. (But Simon) does not consider what the statement is which is made,
namely, that it is not that God is a fire, but a burning and consuming fire,
(thereby) not only putting a violent sense upon the actual law of Moses, but
even plagiarizing from Heraclitus the Obscure. And Simon denominates the
originating principle of the universe an indefinite power, expressing
himself thus: "This is the treatise of a revelation of (the) voice and name
(recognisable) by means of intellectual apprehension of the Great Indefinite
Power. Wherefore it will be sealed, (and) kept secret, (and) hid, (and) will
repose in the habitation, at the foundation of which lies the root of all
things." And he asserts that this man who is born of blood is (the
aforesaid) habitation, and that in him resides an indefinite power, which he
affirms to be the root of the universe.
Now the indefinite power which is fire, constitutes, according to Simon, not
any uncompounded (essence, in conformity with the opinion of those who)
assert that the four elements are simple, and who have (therefore) likewise
imagined that fire, (which is one of the four,) is simple. But (this is far
from being the case): for there is, (he maintains,) a certain twofold nature
of fire;  and of this twofold (nature) he denominates one part a
something secret, and another a something manifest, and that the secret are
hidden in the manifest portions of the fire, and that the manifest portions
of the fire derive their being from its secret (portions). This, however, is
what Aristotle denominates by (the expressions) "potentiality" and
"energy," or (what) Plato (styles) "intelligible" and "sensible." And the
manifest portion of the fire comprises all things in itself, whatsoever any
one might discern, or even whatever objects of the visible creation 
he may happen to overlook. But the entire secret (portion of the fire) which
one may discern is cognised by intellect, and evades the power of the
senses; or one fails to observe it, from want of a capacity for that
particular sort of perception. In general, however, inasmuch as all existing
things fall under the categories, namely, of what are objects of Sense, and
what are objects of Intellect, and as for the denomination of these (Simon)
employs the terms secret and manifest; it may, (I say, in general,) be
affirmed that the fire, (I mean) the super-celestial (fire), is a treasure,
as it were a large tree, just such a one as in a dream was seen by
Nabuchodonosor,  out of which all flesh is nourished. And the
manifest portion of the fire he regards as the stem, the branches, the
leaves, (and) the external rind which overlaps them. All these (appendages),
he says, of the Great Tree being kindled, are made to disappear by reason of
the blaze of the all-devouring fire. The fruit, however, of the tree, when
it is fully grown, and has received its own form, is deposited in a granary,
not (flung) into the fire. For, he says, the fruit has been produced for the
purpose of being laid in the storehouse, whereas the chaff that it may be
delivered over to the fire.  (Now the chaff) is stem, (and is)
generated not for its own sake, but for that of the fruit.
Chapter V. Simon Appeals to Scripture in Support of His System.
And this, he says, is what has been written in Scripture: "For the vineyard
of the Lord of Sabaoth is the house of Israel, and the man of Judah is His
beloved plant." If, however, the man of Judah (is) the beloved plant, it has
been proved, he says, that there is not any other tree but that man. But
concerning the secretion and dissolution of this (tree), Scripture, he says,
has spoken sufficiently. And as regards instruction for those who have been
fashioned after the image (of him), that statement is enough which is made
(in Scripture), that "all flesh is grass, and all the glory of flesh, as it
were, a flower of grass. The grass withereth, and its flower falleth; but
the word of the Lord abideth for ever." The word of the Lord, he says, is
that word which is produced in the mouth, and (is) a Logos, but nowhere else
exists there a place of generation.
Chapter VI. Simon's System Expounded in the Work, Great Announcement;
Now, to express myself briefly, inasmuch as the fire is of this description,
according to Simon, and since all things are visible and invisible, (and) in
like manner resonant and not resonant, numerable and not subjects of
numeration; he denominates in the Great Announcement a perfect intelligible
(entity), after such a mode, that each of those things which, existing
indefinitely, may be infinitely comprehended, both speaks, and understands,
and acts in such a manner as Empedocles speaks of:
"For earth, indeed, by earth we see, and water by water,
And air divine by air, and fire fierce by fire,
And love by love, and also strife by gloomy strife."
Chapter VII. Simon's System of a Threefold Emanation by Pairs.
For, he says, he is in the habit of considering that all these portions of
the fire, both visible and invisible, are possessed of perception and a
share of intelligence. The world, therefore, that which is generated, was
produced from the unbegotten fire. It began, however, to exist, he says,
according to the following manner. He who was begotten from the principle of
that fire took six roots, and those primary ones, of the originating
principle of generation. And, he says that the roots were made from the fire
in pairs, which roots he terms "Mind" and "Intelligence," "Voice" and
"Name," "Ratiocination" and "Reflection." And that in these six roots
resides simultaneously the entire indefinite power potentially, (however)
not actually. And this indefinite power, he says, is he who stood, stands,
and will stand. Wherefore, whensoever he may be made into an image, inasmuch
as he exists in the six powers, he will exist (there) substantially,
potentially, quantitively, (and) completely. (And he will be a power) one
and the same with the unbegotten and indefinite power, and not labouring
under any greater deficiency than that unbegotten and unalterable (and)
indefinite power. If, however, he may continue only potentially in the six
powers, and has not been formed into an image, he vanishes, he says, and is
destroyed in such a way as the grammatical or geometrical capacity in man s
soul. For when the capacity takes unto itself an art, a light of existent
things is produced; but when (the capacity) does not take unto itself (an
art), unskilfulness and ignorance are the results; and just as when (the
power) was non-existent, it perishes along with the expiring man.
Chapter VIII. Further Progression of This Threefold Emanation; Co-Existence
with the Double Triad of a Seventh Existence.
And of those six powers, and of the seventh which co-exists with them, the
first pair, Mind and Intelligence, he calls Heaven and Earth. And that one
of these, being of male sex, beholds from above and takes care of his
partner. but that the earth receives below the rational fruits, akin to the
earth, which are borne down from the heaven. On this account, he says, the
Logos, frequently looking towards the things that are being generated from
Mind and Intelligence, that is, from Heaven and Earth, exclaims, "Hear, O
heaven, and give ear, O earth, because the Lord has spoken. I have brought
forth children, and exalted them; and these have rejected me." Now, he who
utters these words, he says, is the seventh power he who stood, stands, and
will stand; for he himself is cause of those beauteous objects of creation
which Moses commended, and said that they were very good. But Voice and Name
(the second of the three pairs) are Sun and Moon; and Ratiocination and
Reflection (the third of the three pairs) are Air and Water. And in all
these is intermingled and blended, as I have declared, the great, the
indefinite, the (self-) existing power.
Chapter IX. Simon's Interpretation of the Mosaic Hexaëmeron; His Allegorical
Representation of Paradise.
When, therefore, Moses has spoken of "the six days in which God made heaven
and earth, and rested on the seventh from all His works,"  Simon, in
a manner already specified, giving (these and other passages of Scripture) a
different application (from the one intended by the holy writers), deifies
himself. When, therefore, (the followers of Simon) affirm that there are
three days begotten before sun and moon, they speak enigmatically of Mind
and Intelligence, that is, Heaven and Earth, and of the seventh power, (I
mean) the indefinite one. For these three powers are produced antecedent to
all the rest. But when they say, "He begot me prior to all the Ages,"
 such statements, he says, are alleged to hold good concerning the
seventh power. Now this seventh power, which was a power existing in the
indefinite power, which was produced prior to all the Ages, this is, he
says, the seventh power, respecting which Moses utters the following words:
"And the Spirit of God was wafted over  the water; "that is, says
(the Simonian), the Spirit which contains all things in itself, and is an
image of the indefinite power about which Simon speaks, "an image from an
incorruptible form, that alone reduces all things into order." For this
power that is wafted over the water, being begotten, he says, from an
incorruptible form alone, reduces all things into order. When, therefore,
according to these (heretics), there ensued some such arrangement, and (one)
similar (to it) of the world, the Deity, he says, proceeded to form man,
taking clay from the earth. And He formed him not uncompounded, but twofold,
according to (His own) image and likeness.  Now the image is the
Spirit that is wafted over the water; and whosoever is not fashioned into a
figure of this, will perish with the world, inasmuch as he continues only
potentially, and does exist actually. This, he says, is what has been
spoken, "that we should not be condemned with the world."  If one,
however, be made into the figure of (the Spirit), and be generated from an
indivisible point, as it has been written in the Announcement, (such a one,
albeit) small, will become great. But what is great will continue unto
infinite and unalterable duration, as being that which no longer is subject
to the conditions of a generated entity.
How then, he says, and in what manner, does God form man? In Paradise; for
so it seems to him. Grant Paradise, he says, to be the womb; and that this
is a true (assumption) the Scripture will teach, when it utters the words,
"I am He who forms thee in thy mother's womb."  For this also he
wishes to have been written so. Moses, he says, resorting to allegory, has
declared Paradise to be the womb, if we ought to rely on his statement. If,
however, God forms man in his mother's womb that is, in Paradise as I have
affirmed, let Paradise be the womb, and Edem the after-birth,  "a
river flowing forth from Edem, for the purpose of irrigating Paradise,"
 (meaning by this) the navel. This navel, he says, is separated into
four principles; for on either side of the navel are situated two arteries,
channels of spirit, and two veins channels of blood. But when, he says, the
umbilical vessels  proceed forth from Edem, that is, the caul in
which the foetus is enveloped grows into the (foetus) that is being formed
in the vicinity of the epigastrium, (now) all in common denominate this a
navel, these two veins through which the blood flows, and is conveyed from
Edem. the after-birth, to what are styled the gates of the liver; (these
veins, I say,) nourish the foetus. But the arteries which we have spoken of
as being channels of spirit, embrace the bladder on both sides, around the
pelvis, and connect it with the great artery, called the aorta, in the
vicinity of the dorsal ridge. And in this way the spirit, making its way
through the ventricles to the heart, produces a movement of the foetus. For
the infant that was formed in Paradise neither receives nourishment through
the mouth, nor breathes through the nostrils: for as it lay in the midst of
moisture, at its feet was death, if it attempted to breathe; for it would
(thus) have been drawn away from moisture, and perished (accordingly). But
(one may go further than this); for the entire (foetus) is bound tightly
round by a covering styled the caul, and is nourished by a navel, and it
receives through the (aorta), in the vicinity of the dorsal ridge, as I have
stated, the substance of the spirit.
Chapter X. Simon's Explanation of the First Two Books of Moses.
The river, therefore, he says, which proceeds out of Edem is divided into
four principles, four channels that is, into four senses, belonging to the
creature that is being born, viz., seeing, smelling, taste, and touch; for
the child formed in Paradise has these senses only. This, he says, is the
law which Moses appointed; and in reference to this very law, each of his
books has been written, as the inscriptions evince. The first book is
Genesis. The inscription of the book is, he says, sufficient for a knowledge
of the universe. For this is (equivalent in meaning with) generation, (that
is,) vision, into which one section of the river is divided. For the world
was seen by the power of vision. Again, the inscription of the second book
is Exodus. For what has been produced, passing through the Red Sea, must
come into the wilderness, now they say he calls the Red (Sea) blood, and
taste bitter water. For bitter, he says, is the water which is (drunk) after
(crossing) the Red Sea; which (water) is a path to be trodden, that leads
(us) to a knowledge in (this) life of (our) toilsome and bitter lot.
Altered, however, by Moses that is, by the Logos that bitter (water) becomes
sweet. And that this is so we may hear in common from all who express
themselves according to the (sentiments of the) poets:
"Dark at the root, like milk, the flower,
Gods call it Moly, and hard for mortal men
To dig, but power divine is boundless." 
Chapter XI. Simon's Explanation of the Three Last Books of the Pentateuch.
What is spoken by the Gentiles is sufficient for a knowledge of the universe
to those who have ears (capable) of hearing. For whosoever, he says, has
tasted this fruit, is not the only one that is changed by Circe into a
beast; but also, employing the power of such a fruit, he forms anew and
moulds afresh, and re-entices into that primary peculiar character of
theirs, those that already have been altered into beasts. But a faithful
man, and beloved by that sorceress, is, he says, discovered through that
milk-like and divine fruit. In like manner, the third book is Leviticus,
which is smelling, or respiration. For the entire of that book is (an
account) of sacrifices and offerings. Where, however, there is a sacrifice,
a certain savour of the fragrance arises from the sacrifice through the
incense-offerings; and in regard of this fragrance (the sense of) smelling
is a test. Numbers, the fourth of the books, signifies taste, where the
discourse is operative. For, from the fact of its speaking all things, it is
denominated by numerical arrangement. But Deuteronomy, he says, is written
in reference to the (sense of) touch possessed by the child that is being
formed. For as touch, by seizing the things that are seen by the other
senses, sums them up and ratifies them, testing what is rough, or warm, or
clammy, (or cold); so the fifth book of the law constitutes a summary of the
four books preceding this.
All things, therefore, he says, when unbegotten, are in us potentially, not
actually, as the grammatical or geometrical (art). If, then, one receives
proper instruction and teaching, and (where consequently) what is bitter
will be altered into what is sweet, that is, the spears into pruning-hooks,
and the swords into plough-shares,  there will not be chaff and wood
begotten for fire, but mature fruit, fully formed, as I said, equal and
similar to the unbegotten and indefinite power. If, however, a tree
continues alone, not producing fruit fully formed, it is utterly destroyed.
For somewhere near, he says, is the axe (which is laid) at the roots of the
tree. Every tree, he says, which does not produce good fruit, is hewn down
and cast into fire. 
Chapter XII. Fire a Primal Principle, According to Simon.
According to Simon, therefore, there exists that which is blessed and
incorruptible in a latent condition in every one (that is,) potentially, not
actually; and that this is He who stood, stands,  and is to stand.
 He has stood above in unbegotten power. He stands below, when in the
stream of waters He was begotten in a likeness. He is to stand above, beside
the blessed indefinite power, if He be fashioned into an image. For, he
says, there are three who have stood; and except there were three Aeons who
have stood, the unbegotten one is not adorned. (Now the unbegotten one) is,
according to them, wafted over the water, and is re-made, according to the
similitude (of an eternal nature), a perfect celestial (being), in no
(quality of) intelligence formed inferior to the unbegotten power: that is
what they say I and you, one; you, before me; I, that which is after you.
This, he says, is one power divided above (and) below, generating itself,
making itself grow, seeking itself, finding itself, being mother of itself,
father of itself, sister of itself, spouse of itself, daughter of itself,
son of itself, mother, father, a unit, being a root of the entire circle of
And that, he says, the originating principle of the generation of things
begotten is from fire, he discerns after some such method as the following.
Of all things, (i.e.) of whatsoever there is a generation, the beginning of
the desire of the generation is from fire. Wherefore the desire after
mutable generation is denominated "to be inflamed." For when the fire is
one, it admits of two conversions. For, he says, blood in the man being both
warm and yellow, is converted as a figured flame into seed; but in the woman
this same blood is converted into milk. And the conversion of the male
becomes generation, but the conversion of the female nourishment for the
foetus. This, he says, is "the flaming sword, which turned to guard the way
of the tree of life."  For the blood is converted into seed and milk,
and this power becomes mother and father father of those things that are in
process of generation, and the augmentation of those things that are being
nourished; (and this power is) without further want, (and) self-sufficient.
And, he says, the tree of life is guarded, as we have stated, by the
brandished flaming sword. And it is the seventh power, that which (is
produced) from itself, (and) which contains all (powers, and) which reposes
in the six powers. For if the flaming sword be not brandished, that good
tree will be destroyed, and perish. If, however, these be converted into
seed and milk, the principle that resides in these potentially, and is in
possession of a proper position, in which is evolved a principle of souls,
(such a principle,) beginning, as it were, from a very small spark, will be
altogether magnified, and will increase and become a power indefinite (and)
unalterable, (equal and similar) to an unalterable age, which no longer
passes into the indefinite age.
Chapter XIII. His Doctrine of Emanation Further Expanded.
Therefore, according to this reasoning, Simon became confessedly a god to
his silly followers, as that Libyan, namely, Apsethus begotten, no doubt,
and subject to passion, when he may exist potentially, but devoid of
propensions. (And this too, though born from one having pro-pensions, and
uncreated though born) from one that is begotten, when He may be fashioned
into a figure, and, becoming perfect, may come forth from two of the primary
powers, that is, Heaven and Earth. For Simon expressly speaks of this in the
"Revelation" after this manner: "To you, then, I address the things which I
speak, and (to you) I write what I write. The writing is this: there are two
offshoots from all the Aeons, having neither beginning nor end, from one
root. And this is a power, viz., Sige, (who is) invisible (and)
incomprehensible. And one of these (offshoots) appears from above, which
constitutes a great power, (the creative) Mind of the universe, which
manages all things, (and is) a male. The other (offshoot), however, is from
below, (and constitutes) a great Intelligence, and is a female which
produces all things. From whence, ranged in pairs opposite each other, they
undergo conjugal union, and manifest an intermediate interval, namely, an
incomprehensible air, which has neither beginning nor end. But in this is a
father who sustains all things, and nourishes things that have beginning and
end. This is he who stood, stands, and will stand, being an hermaphrodite
power according to the pre-existent indefinite power, which has neither
beginning nor end. Now this (power) exists in isolation. For Intelligence,
(that subsists) in unity, proceeded forth from this (power), (and) became
two. And that (father) was one, for having in himself this (power) he was
isolated, and, however, He was not primal though pre-existent; but being
rendered manifest to himself from himself, he passed into a state of
duality. But neither was he denominated father before this (power) would
style him father. As, therefore, he himself, bringing forward himself by
means of himself, manifested unto himself his own peculiar intelligence, so
also the intelligence, when it was manifested, did not exercise the function
of creation. But beholding him, she concealed the Father within herself,
that is, the power; and it is an hermaphrodite power, and an intelligence.
And hence it is that they are ranged in pairs, one opposite the other; for
power is in no wise different from intelligence, inasmuch as they are one.
For from those things that are above is discovered power; and from those
below, intelligence. So it is, therefore, that likewise what is manifested
from these, being unity, is discovered (to be) duality, an hermaphrodite
having the female in itself. This, (therefore,) is Mind (subsisting) in
Intelligence; and these are separable one from the other, (though both taken
together) are one, (and) are discovered in a state of duality."
Chapter XIV. Simon Interprets His System by the Mythological Representation
of Helen of Troy; Gives an Account of Himself in Connection with the Trojan
Heroine; Immorality of His Followers; Simon's View of Christ; The
Simonists Apology for Their Vice.
Simon then, after inventing these (tenets), not only by evil devices
interpreted the writings of Moses in whatever way he wished, but even the
(works) of the poets.  For also he fastens an allegorical meaning on
(the story of) the wooden horse and Helen with the torch, and on very many
other (accounts), which he transfers to what relates to himself and to
Intelligence, and (thus) furnishes a fictitious explanation of them. He
said, however, that this (Helen) was the lost sheep. And she, always abiding
among women, confounded the powers in the world by reason of her surpassing
beauty. Whence, likewise, the Trojan war arose on her account. For in the
Helen born at that time resided this Intelligence; and thus, when all the
powers were for claiming her (for themselves), sedition and war arose,
during which (this chief power) was manifested to nations. And from this
circumstance, without doubt, we may believe that Stesichorus, who had
through (some) verses reviled her, was deprived of the use of his eyes; and
that, again, when he repented and composed recantations, in which he sung
(Helen s) praises, he recovered the power of vision. But the angels and the
powers below who, he says, created the world caused the transference from
one body to another of (Helen's soul); and subsequently she stood on the
roof of a house in Tyre, a city of Phoenicia, and on going down thither
(Simon professed to have) found her. For he stated that, principally for the
purpose of searching after this (woman), he had arrived (in Tyre), in order
that he might rescue her from bondage. And after having thus redeemed her,
he was in the habit of conducting her about with himself, alleging that this
(girl) was the lost sheep, and affirming himself to be the Power above all
things. But the filthy  fellow, becoming enamoured of this miserable
woman called Helen, purchased her (as his slave), and enjoyed her person.
 He, (however,) was likewise moved with shame towards his disciples,
and concocted this figment.
But, again, those who become followers of this impostor I mean Simon the
sorcerer indulge in similar practices, and irrationally allege the necessity
of promiscuous intercourse. They express themselves in the manner following:
"All earth is earth, and there is no difference where any one sows, provided
he does sow." But even they congratulate themselves on account of this
indiscriminate intercourse, asserting that this is perfect love, and
employing the expressions, "holy of holies," and "sanctify one another."
 For (they would have us believe) that they are not overcome by the
supposed vice, for that they have been redeemed. "And (Jesus), by having
redeemed Helen in this way," (Simon says,) "has afforded salvation to men
through his own peculiar intelligence. For inasmuch as the angels, by reason
of their lust for pre-eminence, improperly managed the world, (Jesus Christ)
being transformed, and being assimilated to the rulers and powers and
angels, came for the restoration (of things). And so (it was that Jesus)
appeared as man, when in reality he was not a man. And (so it was) that
likewise he suffered though not actually undergoing suffering, but appearing
to the Jews to do so  in Judea as Son, and in Samaria as Father,
 and among the rest of the Gentiles as Holy Spirit. "And (Simon
alleges) that Jesus tolerated being styled by whichever name (of the three
just mentioned) men might wish to call him. "And that the prophets, deriving
their inspiration from the world-making angels, uttered predictions
(concerning him)." Wherefore, (Simon said,) that towards these (prophets)
those felt no concern up to the present, who believe on Simon and Helen, and
that they do whatsoever they please, as persons free; for they allege that
they are saved by grace. For that there is no reason for punishment, even
though one shall act wickedly; for such a one is not wicked by nature, but
by enactment. "For the angels who created the world made," he says,
"whatever enactments they pleased," thinking by such (legislative) words to
enslave those who listened to them. But, again, they speak of a
dissolution  of the world, for the redemption of his own particular
Chapter XV. Simon's Disciples Adopt the Mysteries; Simon Meets St. Peter at
Rome; Account of Simon's Closing Years.
The disciples, then, of this (Magus), celebrate magical rites, and resort to
incantations. And (they profess to) transmit both love-spells and charms,
and the demons said to be senders of dreams, for the purpose of distracting
whomsoever they please. But they also employ those denominated Paredroi.
"And they have an image of Simon (fashioned) into the figure of Jupiter, and
(an image) of Helen in the form of Minerva; and they pay adoration to
these." But they call the one Lord and the other Lady. And if any one
amongst them, on seeing the images of either Simon or Helen, would call them
by name, he is cast off, as being ignorant of the mysteries. This Simon,
deceiving many  in Samaria by his sorceries, was reproved by the
Apostles, and was laid under a curse, as it has been written in the Acts.
But he afterwards abjured the faith, and attempted these (aforesaid
practices). And journeying as far as Rome,  he fell in with the
Apostles; and to him, deceiving many by his sorceries, Peter offered
repeated opposition. This man, ultimately repairing to (and) sitting under
a plane tree, continued to give instruction (in his doctrines). And in truth
at last, when conviction was imminent, in case he delayed longer, be stated
that, if he were buried alive, he would rise the third day. And accordingly,
having ordered a trench to be dug by his disciples,  he directed
himself to be interred there. They, then, executed the injunction given;
whereas he remained (in that grave) until this day, for he was not the
Christ. This constitutes the legendary system advanced by Simon, and from
this Valentinus derived a starting-point (for his own doctrine. This
doctrine, in point of fact, was the same with the it Simonian, though
Valentinus) denominated under different titles: for "Nous," and
"Aletheia," and "Logos," and "Zoe," and "Anthropos," and "Ecclesia," and
Aeons of Valentinus, are confessedly the six roots of Simon, viz., "Mind"
and "Intelligence," "Voice" and "Name," "Ratiocination" and "Reflection."
But since it seems to us that we have sufficiently explained Simon's tissue
of legends, let us see what also Valentinus asserts.
Chapter XVI. Heresy of Valentinus; Derived from Plato and Pythagoras.
The heresy of Valentinus  is certainly, then, connected with the
Pythagorean and Platonic theory. For Plato, in the Timaeus, altogether
derives his impressions from Pythagoras, and therefore Timaeus himself is
his Pythagorean stranger. Wherefore, it appears expedient that we should
commence by reminding (the reader) of a few points of the Pythagorean and
Platonic theory, and that (then we should proceed) to declare the opinions
of Valentinus.  For even although in the books previously finished by
us with so much pains, are contained the opinions advanced by both
Pythagoras and Plato, yet at all events I shall not be acting unreasonably,
in now also calling to the recollection of the reader. by means of an
epitome, the principal heads of the favourite tenets of these (speculators).
And this (recapitulation) will facilitate our knowledge of the doctrines of
Valentinus, by means of a nearer comparison, and by similarity of
composition (of the two systems). For (Pythagoras and Plato) derived these
tenets originally from the Egyptians, and introduced their novel opinions
among the Greeks. But (Valentinus took his opinions) from these, because,
although he has suppressed the truth regarding his obligations to (the Greek
philosophers), and in this way has endeavoured to construct a doctrine, (as
it were,) peculiarly his own, yet, in point of fact, he has altered the
doctrines of those (thinkers) in names only, and numbers, and has adopted a
peculiar terminology (of his own). Valentinus has formed his definitions by
measures, in order that he may establish an Hellenic heresy, diversified no
doubt, but unstable, and not connected with Christ.
Chapter XVII. Origin of the Greek Philosophy.
The origin, then, from which Plato derived his theory in the Timoeus, is
(the) wisdom of the Egyptians.  For from this source, by some ancient
and prophetical tradition, Solon  taught his entire system concerning
the generation and destruction of the world, as Plato says, to the Greeks,
who were (in knowledge) young children, and were acquainted with no
theological doctrine of greater antiquity. In order, therefore, that we may
trace accurately the arguments by which Valentinus established his tenets, I
shall now explain what are the principles of the philosophy of Pythagoras of
Samos, a philosophy (coupled) with that Silence so celebrated by the Greeks.
And next in this manner (I shall elucidate) those (opinions) which
Valentinus derives from Pythagoras and Plato, but refers with all solemnity
of speech to Christ, and before Christ to the Father of the universe, and to
Silence conjoined with the Father.
Chapter XVIII. Pythagoras System of Numbers.
Pythagoras, then, declared the originating principle of the universe to be
the unbegotten monad, and the generated duad, and the rest of the numbers.
And he says that the monad it the father of the duad, and the duad the
mother of all things that are being begotten the begotten one (being mother)
of the things that arc begotten. And Zaratas, the pupil of Pythagoras, was
in the habit of denominating unity a father, and duality a mother. For the
duad has been generated from the monad, according to Pythagoras; and the
monad is male and primary, but the duad female (and secondary). And from the
duad, again, as Pythagoras states, (are generated) the triad and the
succeeding numbers up to ten. For Pythagoras is aware that this is the only
perfect number I mean the decade for that eleven and twelve are an addition
and repetition of the decade; not, however, that what is added 
constitutes the generation of another number. And all solid bodies he
generates from incorporeal (essences). For he asserts that an element and
principle of both corporeal and incorporeal entities is the point which is
indivisible. And from a point, he says, is generated a line, and from a line
a surface; and a surface flowing out into a height becomes, he says, a solid
body. Whence also the Pythagoreans have a certain object of adjuration,
viz., the concord of the four elements. And they swear in these words:
"By him who to our head quaternion gives,
A font that has the roots of everlasting nature." 
Now the quaternion is the originating principle of natural and solid bodies,
as the monad of intelligible ones. And that likewise the quaternion
generates,  he says, the perfect number, as in the case of
intelligibles (the monad) does the decade, they teach thus. If any,
beginning to number, says one, and adds two, then in like manner three,
these (together) will be six, and to these (add) moreover four, the entire
(sum), in like manner, will be ten. For one, two, three, four, become ten,
the perfect number. Thus, he says, the quaternion in every respect imitated
the intelligible monad, which was able to generate a perfect number.
Chapter XIX. Pythagoras Duality of Substances; His "Categories."
There are, then, according to Pythagoras, two worlds: one intelligible,
which has the monad for an originating principle; and the other sensible.
But of this (latter) is the quaternion having the iota the one tittle,
 a perfect number. And there likewise is, according to the
Pythagoreans, the i, the one tittle, which is chief and most dominant, and
enables us to apprehend the substance of those intelligible entities which
are capable of being understood through the medium of intellect and of
sense. (And in this substance inhere) the nine incorporeal accidents which
cannot exist without substance, viz., "quality," and "quantity," and
"relation," and "where," and "when," and "position," and "possession," and
"action," and "passion." These, then, are the nine accidents (inhering in)
substance, and when reckoned with these (substances), contains the perfect
number, the i. Wherefore, the universe being divided, as we said, into the
intelligible and sensible world, we have also reason from the intelligible
(world), in order that by reason we may behold the substance of things that
are cognised by intellect, and are incorporeal and divine. But we have, he
says, five senses smelling, seeing, hearing, taste, and touch. Now, by these
we arrive at a knowledge of things that are discerned by sense; and so, he
says, the sensible is divided from the intelligible world. And that we have
for each of these an instrument for attaining knowledge, we perceive from
the following consideration. Nothing, he says, of intelligibles can be known
to us from sense. For he says neither eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor any
whatsoever of the other senses known that (which is cognised by mind).
Neither, again, by reason is it possible to arrive at a knowledge of any of
the things discernible by sense. But one must see that a thing is white, and
taste that it is sweet, and know by hearing that it is musical or out of
tune. And whether any odour is fragrant or disagreeable, is the function of
smell, not of reason. It is the same with objects of touch; for anything
rough, or soft, or warm, or cold, it is not possible to know by hearing, but
(far from it), for touch is the judge of such (sensations). Things being
thus constituted, the arrangement of things that have been made and are
being made is observed to happen in conformity with numerical
(combinations). For in the same manner as, commencing from monad, by an
addition of monads or triads, and a collection of the succeeding numbers, we
make some one very large complex whole of number; (and) then, again, from an
amassed number thus formed by addition, we accomplish, by means of a certain
subtraction and re-calculation, a solution of the totality of the aggregate
numbers; so likewise he asserts that the world, bound by a certain
arithmetical and musical chain, was, by its tension and relaxation, and by
addition and subtraction, always and for ever preserved in-corrupt.
Chapter XX. Pythagoras Cosmogony; Similar to that of Empedocles.
The Pythagoreans therefore declare their opinion concerning the continuance
of the world in some such manner as this:
"For heretofore it was and will be; never, I ween,
Of both of these will void the age eternal be."
"Of these; "but what are they? Discord and Love. Now, in their system, Love
forms the world incorruptible (and) eternal, as they suppose. For substance
and the world are one. Discord, however, separates and puts asunder, and
evinces numerous attempts by subdividing to form the world. It is just as if
one severs into small parts, and divides arithmetically, the myriad into
thousands, and hundreds, and tens; and drachmae into oboli and small
farthings. In this manner, he says, Discord severs the substance of the
world into animals, plants, metals and things similar to these. And the
fabricator of the generation of all things produced is, according to them,
Discord; whereas Love, on the other hand, manages and provides for the
universe in such a manner that it enjoys permanence. And conducting
together  into unity the divided and scattered parts of the universe,
and leading them forth from their (separate) mode of existence, (Love)
unites and adds to the universe, in order that it may enjoy permanence; and
it thus constitutes one system. They will not therefore cease, neither
Discord dividing the world, nor Love attaching to the world the divided
parts. Of some such description as this, so it appears, is the distribution
of the world according to Pythagoras. But Pythagoras says that the stars are
fragments from the sun, and that the souls  of animals are conveyed
from the stars; and that these are mortal when they are in the body, just as
if buried, as it were, in a tomb: whereas that they rise (out of this world)
and become immortal, when we are separated from our bodies. Whence Plato,
being asked by some one, "What is philosophy? "replied, "It is a separation
of soul from body."
Chapter XXI. Other Opinions of Pythagoras.
Pythagoras, then, became a student of these doctrines likewise, in which he
speaks both by enigmas and some such expressions as these: "When you depart
from your own (tabernacle), return not;  if, however, (you act) not
(thus), the Furies, auxiliaries to justice, will overtake you," denominating
the body one's own (tabernacle), and its passions the Furies. When,
therefore, he says, you depart, that is, when you go forth from the body, do
not earnestly crave for this; but if you are eagerly desirous (for
departure), the passions will once more confine you within the body. For
these suppose that there is a transition of souls from one body to another,
as also Empedocles, adopting the principles of Pythagoras, affirms. For,
says he, souls that are lovers of pleasure, as Plato states,  if,
when they are in the condition of suffering incidental to man, they do not
evolve theories of philosophy, must pass through all animals and plants
(back) again into a human body. And when (the soul) may form a system of
speculation thrice in the same body, (he maintains) that it ascends up to
the nature of some kindred star. If, however, (the soul) does not
philosophize, (it must pass) through the same (succession of changes once
more). He affirms, then, that the soul sometimes may become even mortal, if
it is overcome by the Furies, that is, the passions (of the body); and
immortal, if it succeeds in escaping the Furies, which are the passions.
Chapter XXII. The "Sayings" Of Pythagoras.
But since also we have chosen to mention the sayings darkly expressed by
Pythagoras to his disciples by means of symbols, it seems likewise expedient
to remind (the reader) of the rest (of his doctrines. And we touch on this
subject) on account also of the heresiarchs, who attempt by some method of
this description to converse by means of symbols; and these are not their
own, but they have, (in propounding them,) taken advantage of expressions
employed by the Pythagoreans.  Pythagoras then instructs his
disciples, addressing them as follows: "Bind up the sack that carries the
bedding." (Now,) inasmuch as they who intend going upon a journey tie their
clothes into a wallet, to be ready for the road; so, (in like manner,) he
wishes his disciples to be prepared, since every moment death is likely to
come upon them by surprise.  (In this way Pythagoras sought to
effect) that (his followers) should labour under no deficiency in the
qualifications required in his pupils.  Wherefore of necessity he was
in the habit, with the dawn of day, of instructing the Pythagoreans to
encourage one another to bind up the sack that carries the bedding, that is,
to be ready for death. "Do not stir fire with a sword; "  (meaning,)
do not, by addressing him, quarrel with an enraged man; for a person in a
passion is like fire, whereas the sword is the uttered expression. "Do not
trample on a besom; "  (meaning,) despise not a small matter. "Plant
not a palm tree in a house; "(meaning,) foment not discord in a family, for
the palm tree is a symbol of battle and slaughter.  "Eat not from a
stool; "(meaning,) do not undertake an ignoble art, in order that you may
not be a slave to the body, which is corruptible, but make a livelihood from
literature. For it lies within your reach both to nourish the body, and make
the soul better. "Don t take a bite out of an uncut loaf; "(meaning,)
diminish not thy possessions, but live on the profit (of them), and guard
thy substance as an entire loaf. "Feed not on beans; (meaning,) accept not
the government of a city, for with beans they at that time were accustomed
to ballot for their magistrates.
Chapter XXIII. Pythagoras Astronomic System.
These, then, and such like assertions, the Pythagoreans put forward; and the
heretics, imitating these, are supposed by some to utter important truths.
The Pythagorean system, however, lays down that the Creator of all alleged
existences is the Great Geometrician and Calculator a sun; and that this one
has been fixed in the whole world, just as in the bodies a soul, according
to the statement of Plato. For the sun (being of the nature of) fire,
resembles the soul, but the earth (resembles the) body. And, separated from
fire, there would be nothing visible, nor would there be any object of touch
without something solid; but not any solid body exists without earth. Whence
the Deity, locating air in the midst, fashioned the body of the universe out
of fire and earth. And the Sun, he says, calculates and geometrically
measures the world in some such manner as the following: The world is a
unity cognizable by sense; and concerning this (world) we now make these
assertions. But one who is an adept in the science of numbers, and a
geometrician, has divided it into twelve parts. And the names of these parts
are as follow: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio,
Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Pisces. Again, he divides each of the
twelve parts into thirty parts, and these are days of the month. Again, he
divides each part of the thirty parts into sixty small divisions, and (each)
of these small (divisions) he subdivides into minute portions, and (these
again) into portions still more minute. And always doing this, and not
intermitting, but collecting from these divided portions (an aggregate), and
constituting it a year; and again resolving and dividing the compound, (the
sun) completely finishes the great and everlasting world. 
Chapter XXIV. Valentinus Convicted of Plagiarisms from the Platonic and
Pythagoric Philosophy; The Valentinian Theory of Emanation by Duads.
Of some such nature, as I who have accurately examined their systems (have
attempted) to state compendiously, is the opinion of Pythagoras and Plato.
And from this (system), not from the Gospels, Valentinus, as we have proved,
has collected the (materials of) heresy I mean his own (heresy) and may
(therefore) justly be reckoned a Pythagorean and Platonist, not a Christian.
Valentinus, therefore, and Heracleon, and Ptolemaeus, and the entire school
of these (heretics), as disciples of Pythagoras and Plato, (and) following
these guides, have laid down as e fundamental principle of their doctrine
the arithmetical system. For, likewise, according to these (Valentinians),
the originating cause of the universe is a Monad, unbegotten, imperishable,
incomprehensible, inconceivable, productive, and a cause of the generation
of all existent things. And the aforesaid Monad is styled by them Father.
There is, however, discoverable among them some considerable diversity of
opinion. For some of them, in order that the Pythagorean doctrine of
Valentinus may be altogether free from admixture (with other tenets),
suppose that the Father is unfeminine, and unwedded, and solitary. But
others, imagining it to be impossible that from a male only there could
proceed a generation at all of any of those things that have been made to
exist, necessarily reckon along with the Father of the universe, in order
that he may be a father, Sige as a spouse. But as to Sige, whether at any
time she is united in marriage (to the Father) or not, this is a point which
we leave them to wrangle about among themselves. We at present, keeping to
the Pythagorean principle, which is one, and unwedded, unfeminine, (and)
deficient in nothing, shall proceed to give an account of their doctrines,
as they themselves inculcate them. There is, says (Valentinus), not anything
at all begotten, but the Father is alone unbegotten, not subject to the
condition of place, not (subject to the condition of) time, having no
counsellor, (and) not being any other substance that could be realized
according to the ordinary methods of perception. (The Father,) however, was
solitary, subsisting, as they say, in a state of quietude, and Himself
reposing in isolation within Himself. When, however, He became productive,
 it seemed to Him expedient at one time to generate and lead forth the
most beautiful and perfect (of those germs of existence) which He possessed
within Himself, for (the Father) was not fond of solitariness. For, says he,
He was all love, but love is not love except there may be some object of
affection. The Father Himself, then, as He was solitary, projected and
produced Nous and Aletheia, that is, a duad which became mistress, 
and origin, and mother of all the Aeons computed by them (as existing)
within the Pleroma. Nous and Aletheia being projected from the Father,
 one capable of continuing generation, deriving existence from a
productive being, (Nous) himself likewise, in imitation of the Father,
projected Logos and Zoe; and Logos and Zoe project Anthropos and Ecclesia.
But Nous and Aletheia, when they beheld that their own offspring had been
born productive, returned thanks to the Father of the universe, and offer
unto Him a perfect number, viz., ten Aeons. For, he says, Nous and Aletheia
could not offer unto the Father a more perfect (one) than this number. For
the Father, who is perfect, ought to be celebrated by a perfect number, and
ten is a perfect number, because this is first of those (numbers) that are
formed by plurality, (and therefore) perfect.  The Father, however,
being more perfect, because being alone unbegotten, by means of the one
primary conjugal union of Nous and Aletheia, found means of projecting all
the roots of existent things.
Chapter XXV. The Tenet of the Duad Made the Foundation of Valentinus System
of the Emanation of Aeons.
Logos himself also, and Zoe, then saw that Nous and Aletheia had celebrated
the Father of the universe by a perfect number; and Logos himself likewise
with Zoe wished to magnify their own father and mother, Nous and Aletheia.
Since, however, Nous and Aletheia were begotten, and did not possess
paternal (and) perfect uncreatedness, Logos and Zoe do not glorify Nous
their father with a perfect number, but far from it, with an imperfect
one.  For Logos and Zoe offer twelve Aeons unto Nous and Aletheia.
For, according to Valentinus, these namely, Nous and Aletheia, Logos and
Zoe, Anthropos and Ecclesia have been the primary roots of the Aeons. But
there are ten the Aeons proceeding from Nous and Aletheia, and twelve from
Logos and Zoe twenty and eight in all.  And to these (ten) they give
these following denominations:  Bythus and Mixis, Ageratus and
Henosis, Autophyes and Hedone, Acinetus and Syncrasis, Monogenes and
Macaria.  These are ten Aeons whom some say (have been projected) by
Nous and Aletheia, but some by Logos and Zoe. Others, however, affirm that
the twelve (Aeons have been projected) by Anthropos and Ecclesia, while
others by Logos and Zoe. And upon these they bestow these following names:
 Paracletus and Pistis, Patricus and Elpis, Metricus and Agape, Aeinous
and Synesis, Ecclesiasticus and Macariotes, Theletus and Sophia. But of the
twelve, the twelfth and youngest of all the twenty-eight Aeons, being a
female, and called Sophia, observed the multitude and power of the besetting
Aeons, and hurried back into the depth of the Father. And she perceived that
all the rest of the Aeons, as being begotten, generate by conjugal
intercourse. The Father, on the other hand, alone, without copulation, has
produced (an offspring). She wished to emulate the Father,  and to
produce (offspring) of herself without a marital partner, that she might
achieve a work in no wise inferior  to (that of) the Father. (Sophia,
however,) was ignorant that the Unbegotten One, being an originating
principle of the universe, as well as root and depth and abyss, alone
possesses the power of self-generation. But Sophia, being begotten, and born
after many more (Aeons), is not able to acquire possession of the power
inherent in the Unbegotten One. For in the Unbegotten One, he says, all
things exist simultaneously, but in the begotten (Aeons) the female is
projective of substance, and the male is formative of the substance which is
projected by the female. Sophia, therefore, prepared to project that only
which she was capable (of projecting), viz., a formless and undigested
substance.  And this, he says, is what Moses asserts: "The earth was
invisible, and unfashioned." This (substance) is, he says, the good (and)
the heavenly Jerusalem, into which God has promised to conduct the children
of Israel, saying, "I will bring you into a land flowing with milk and
Chapter XXVI. Valentinus Explanation of the Existence of Christ and the
Ignorance, therefore, having arisen within the Pleroma in consequence of
Sophia, and shapelessness in consequence of the offspring of Sophia,
confusion arose in the Pleroma. (For all) the Aeons that were begotten
(became overwhelmed with apprehension, imagining) that in like manner
formless and incomplete progenies of the Aeons should be generated; and that
some destruction, at no distant period, should l at length seize upon the
Aeons. All the Aeons, then, betook themselves to supplication of the Father,
that he would tranquillize the sorrowing Sophia; for she continued weeping
and bewailing on account of the abortion produced by her, for so they, term
it. The Father, then, compassionating the tears of Sophia, and accepting the
supplication of the Aeons, orders a further projection. For he did not,
(Valentinus) says, himself project, but Nous and Aletheia (projected) Christ
and the Holy Spirit for the restoration of Form, and the destruction of the
abortion, and (for) the consolation and cessation of the groans of Sophia.
And thirty Aeons came into existence along with Christ and the Holy Spirit.
Some of these (Valentinians) wish that this should be a triacontad of Aeons,
whereas others desire that Sige should exist along with the Father, and that
the Aeons should be reckoned along with them.
Christ, therefore, being additionally projected, and the Holy Spirit, by
Nous and Aletheia, immediately this abortion of Sophia, (which was)
shapeless, (and) born of herself only, and generated without conjugal
intercourse, separates from the entire of the Aeons, lest the perfect Aeons,
beholding this (abortion), should be disturbed by reason of its
shapelessness. In order, then, that the shapelessness of the abortion might
not at all manifest itself to the perfect Aeons, the Father also again
projects additionally one Aeon, viz., Staurus. And he being begotten great,
as from a mighty and perfect father, and being projected for the
guardianship and defence of the Aeons, becomes a limit of the Pleroma,
having within itself all the thirty Aeons together, for these are they that
had been projected. Now this (Aeon) is styled Horos, because he separates
from the Pleroma the Hysterema that is outside. And (he is called)
Metocheus, because he shares also in the Hysterema. And (he is denominated)
Staurus, because he is fixed inflexibly and inexorably, so that nothing of
the Hysterema can come near the Aeons who are within the Pleroma. Outside,
then, Horos, (or) Metocheus,  (or) Staurus, is the Ogdoad, as it is
called, according to them, and is that Sophia which is outside the Pleroma,
which (Sophia) Christ, who was additionally projected by Nous and Aletheia,
formed and made a perfect Aeon so that in no respect she should be inferior
in power to any of the Aeons within the Pleroma.  Since, however,
Sophia was formed outside, and it was not possible and equitable that Christ
and the Holy Spirit, who were projected from Nous and Aletheia, should
remain outside the Pleroma, Christ hurried away, and the Holy Spirit, from
her who had had shape imparted to her, unto Nous and Aletheia within the
Limit, in order that with the rest of the Aeons they might glorify the
Chapter XXVII. Valentinus Explanation of the Existence of Jesus; Power of
Jesus Over Humanity.
After, then, there ensued some one (treaty of) peace and harmony between all
the Aeons within the Pleroma, it appeared expedient to them not only by a
conjugal union to have magnified the Son, but also that by an offering of
ripe fruits they should glorify the Father. Then all the thirty Aeons
consented to project one Aeons, joint fruit of the Pleroma, that he might be
(an earnest) of their union,  and unanimity, and peace. And he alone
was projected by all the Aeons in honour of the Father. This (one) is styled
among them "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma." These (matters), then, took place
within the Pleroma in this way. And the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma" was
projected, (that is,) Jesus, for this is his name, the great High Priest.
Sophia, however, who was outside the Pleroma in search of Christ, who had
given her form, and of the Holy Spirit, became involved in great terror that
she would perish, if he should separate from her, who had given her form and
consistency. And she was seized with grief, and fell into a state of
considerable perplexity, (while) reflecting who was he who had given her
form, what the Holy Spirit was, whither he had departed, who it was that had
hindered them from being present, who it was that had been envious of that
glorious and blessed spectacle. While involved in sufferings such as these,
she turns herself to prayer and supplication of him who had deserted her.
During the utterance of her entreaties, Christ, who is within the Pleroma,
had mercy upon (her), and all the rest of the Aeons (were similarly
affected); and they send forth beyond the Pleroma "the Joint Fruit of the
Pleroma" as a spouse for Sophia, who was outside, and as a rectifier of
those sufferings which she underwent in searching after Christ.
"The Fruit," then, arriving outside the Pleroma, and discovering (Sophia) in
the midst of those four primary passions, both fear and sorrow, and
perplexity and entreaty he rectified her affections. While, however,
correcting them, he observed that it would not be proper to destroy these,
inasmuch as they are (in their nature) eternal, and peculiar to Sophia; and
yet that neither was it seemly that Sophia should exist in the midst of such
passions, in fear and sorrow, supplication (and) perplexity. He therefore,
as an Aeons so great, and (as) offspring of the entire Pleroma, caused the
passions to depart from her, and he made these substantially-existent
essences.  He altered fear into animal desire,  and (made)
grief material, and (rendered) perplexity (the passion) of demons. But
conversion,  and entreaty, and supplication, he constituted as a path
to repentance and power over the animal essence, which is denominated
right.  The Creator  (acted) from fear; (and) that is what, he
says, Scripture affirms: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of
wisdom."  For this is the beginning of the affections of Sophia, for
she was seized with fear, next with grief, then with perplexity, and so she
sought refuge in entreaty and supplication. And the animal essence is, he
says, of a fiery nature, and is also termed by them the super-celestial
Topos, and Hebdomad,  and "Ancient of Days."  And whatever
other such statements they advance respecting this (Aeon), these they allege
to hold good of the animalish (one), whom they assert to be creator of the
world. Now he is of the appearance of fire. Moses also, he says, expresses
himself thus: "The Lord thy God is a burning and consuming fire." 
For he, likewise, wishes (to think) that it has been so written. There is,
however, he says, a twofold power of the fire; for fire is all-consuming,
(and) cannot he quenched. According, therefore, to this division, there
exists, subject to death, a certain soul which is a sort of mediator, for it
is a Hebdomad and Cessation.  For underneath the Ogdoad, where Sophia
is, but above Matter, which is the Creator, a day has been formed, 
and the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma." If the soul has been fashioned in the
image of those above, that is, the Ogdoad, it became immortal and repaired
to the Ogdoad, which is, he says, heavenly Jerusalem. If, however, it has
been fashioned in the image of Matter, that is, the corporeal passions, the
soul is of a perishable nature, and is (accordingly) destroyed.
Chapter XXVIII. The Valentinian Origin of the Creation.
As, therefore, the primary and greatest power  of the animal essence
came into existence, an image (of the only begotten Son); so also the devil,
who is the ruler of this world, constitutes the power of the material
essence, as Beelzebub is of the essence of demons which emanates from
anxiety. (In consequence of this,) Sophia from above exerted her energy from
the Ogdoad to the Hebdomad. For the Demiurge, they say, knows nothing at
all, but is, according to them, devoid of understanding, and silly, and is
not conscious of what he is doing or working at. But in him, while thus in a
state of ignorance that even he is producing, Sophia wrought all sorts of
energy, and infused vigour (into him). And (although Sophia) was really the
operating cause, he himself imagines that he evolves the creation of the
world out of himself: whence he commenced, saying, "I am God, and beside me
there is no other." 
Chapter XXIX. The Other Valentinian Emanations in Conformity with the
Pythagorean System of Numbers.
The quaternion, then, advocated by Valentinus, is "a source of the
everlasting nature having roots; "  and Sophia (is the power) from
whom the animal and material creation has derived its present condition. But
Sophia is called "Spirit," and the Demiurge "Soul," and the Devil "the ruler
of this world," and Beelzebub "the (ruler) of demons." These are the
statements which they put forward. But further, in addition to these,
rendering, as I have previously mentioned, their entire system of doctrine
(akin to the) arithmetical (art), (they determine) that the thirty Aeons
within the Pleroma have again, in addition to these, projected other Aeons,
according to the (numerical) proportion (adopted by the Pythagoreans), in
order that the Pleroma might be formed into an aggregate, according to a
perfect number. For how the Pythagoreans divided (the celestial sphere) into
twelve and thirty and sixty parts, and how they have minute parts of
diminutive portions, has been made evident.
In this manner these (followers of Valentinus) subdivide the parts within
the Pleroma. Now likewise the parts in the Ogdoad have been subdivided, and
there has been projected Sophia, which is, according to them, mother of all
living creatures, and the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma," (who is) the
Logos,  (and other Aeons,) who are celestial angels that have their
citizenship in Jerusalem which is above, which is in heaven. For this
Jerusalem is Sophia, she (that is) outside (the Pleroma), and her spouse is
the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma." And the Demiurge projected souls; for this
(Sophia) is the essence of souls. This (Demiurge), according to them, is
Abraham, and these (souls) the children of Abraham. From the material and
divilish essence the Demiurge fashioned bodies for the souls. This is what
has been declared: "And God formed man, taking clay from the earth, and
breathed upon his face the breath of life, and man was made into a living
soul."  This, according to them, is the inner man, the natural (man),
residing in the material body: Now a material (man) is perishable,
incomplete, (and) formed out of the devilish essence. And this is the
material man, as it were, according to them an inn,  or domicile, at
one time of soul only, at another time of soul and demons, at another time
of soul and Logoi.  And these are the Logoi that have been dispersed
from above, from the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma" and (from) Sophia, into
this world. And they dwell in an earthly body, with a soul, when demons do
not take up their abode with that soul. This, he says, is what has been
written in Scripture: "On this account I bend my knees to the God and Father
and Lord of our Lord Jesus Christ, that God would grant you to have Christ
dwelling in the inner man,"  that is, the natural (man), not the
corporeal (one), " that you may be able to understand what is the depth,"
which is the Father of the universe, "and what is the breadth," which is
Staurus, the limit of the Pleroma, "or what is the length," that is, the
Pleroma of the Aeons. Wherefore, he says, "the natural man receiveth not the
things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; " 
but folly, he says, is the power of the Demiurge, for he was foolish and
devoid of understanding, and imagined himself to be fabricating the world.
He was, however, ignorant that Sophia, the Mother, the Ogdoad, was really
the cause of all the operations performed by him who had no consciousness in
reference to the creation of the world.
Chapter XXX. Valentinus Explanation of the Birth of Jesus; Twofold Doctrine
on the Nature of Jesus Body; Opinion of the Italians, that Is, Heracleon
and Ptolemaeus; Opinion of the Orientals, that Is, Axionicus and Bardesanes.
All the prophets, therefore, and the law spoke by means of the Demiurge, a
silly god,  he says, (and themselves) fools, who knew nothing. On
account of this, he says, the Saviour observes: "All that came before me are
thieves and robbers."  And the apostle (uses these words) "The
mystery which was not made known to former generations."  For none of
the prophets, he says, said anything concerning the things of which we
speak; for (a prophet) could not but be ignorant of all (these) things,
inasmuch as they certainly had been uttered by the Demiurge only. When,
therefore, the creation received completion, and when after (this) there
ought to have been the revelation of the sons of God that is, of the
Demiurge, which up to this had been concealed, and in which obscurity the
natural man was hid, and had a veil upon the heart; when (it was time),
then, that the veil should be taken away, and that these mysteries should be
seen, Jesus was born of Mary the virgin, according to the declaration (in
Scripture), "The Holy Ghost will come upon thee" Sophia is the Spirit " and
the power of the Highest will overshadow thee" the Highest is the
Demiurge, "wherefore that which shall be born of thee shall be called
holy."  For he has been generated not from the highest alone, as
those created in (the likeness of) Adam have been created from the highest
alone that is, (from) Sophia and the Demiurge. Jesus, however, the new man,
(has been generated) from the Holy Spirit that is, Sophia and the
Demiurge in order that the Demiurge may complete the conformation and
constitution of his body, and that the Holy Spirit may supply his essence,
and that a celestial Logos may proceed from the Ogdoad being born of Mary.
Concerning this (Logos) they have a great question amongst them an occasion
both of divisions and dissension. And hence the doctrine of these has become
divided: and one doctrine, according to them, is termed Oriental, and the
other Italian. They from Italy, of whom is Heracleon and Ptolemaeus, say
that the body of Jesus was (an) animal (one). And on account of this, (they
maintain) that at his baptism the Holy Spirit as a dove came down that is,
the Logos of the mother above, (I mean Sophia) and became (a voice) to the
animal (man), and raised him from the dead. This, he says, is what has been
declared: "He who raised Christ from the dead will also quicken your mortal
and natural bodies."  For loam has come under a curse; "for," says
he, "dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."  The Orientals,
on the other hand, of whom is Axionicus  and Bardesianes, 
assert that the body of the Saviour was spiritual; for there came upon Mary
the Holy Spirit that is, Sophia and the power of the highest. This is the
creative art, (and was vouchsafed) in order that what was given to Mary by
the Spirit might be fashioned.
Chapter XXXI. Further Doctrines of Valentinus Respecting the Aeons; Reasons
for the Incarnation.
Let, then, those (heretics) pursue these inquiries among themselves, (and
let others do so likewise,) if it should prove agreeable to anybody else to
investigate (such points. Valentinus) subjoins, however, the following
statement: That the trespasses appertaining to the Aeons within (the
Pleroma) had been corrected; and likewise had been rectified the trespasses
appertaining to the Ogdoad, (that is,) Sophia, outside (the Pleroma); and
also (the trespasses) appertaining to the Hebdomad (had been rectified). For
the Demiurge had been taught by Sophia that He is not Himself God alone, as
He imagined, and that except Himself there is not another (Deity). But when
taught by Sophia, He was made to recognise the superior (Deity). For He was
instructed  by her, and initiated and indoctrinated into the great
mystery of the Father and of the Aeons, and divulged this to none. This is,
as he says, what (God) declares to Moses: "I am the God of Abraham, and the
God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and my name I have not announced to
them; "  that is, I have not declared the mystery, nor explained who
is God, but I have preserved the mystery which I have heard from Sophia in
secrecy with myself. When, then, the trespasses of those above had been
rectified, it was necessary, according to the same consequence, that the
(transgressions) here likewise should obtain rectification. On this account
Jesus the Saviour was born of Mary that he might rectify (the trespasses
committed) here; as the Christ who, having been projected additionally from
above by Nous and Aletheia, had corrected the passions of Sophia that is,
the abortion (who was) outside (the Pleroma). And, again, the Saviour who
was born of Mary came to rectify the passions  of the soul. There
are therefore, according to these (heretics), three Christs: (the first the)
one additionally projected by Nous and Aletheia, along with the Holy Spirit;
and (the second) the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma," spouse of Sophia, who was
outside (the Pleroma). And she herself is likewise styled Holy Spirit, but
one inferior to the first (projection). And the third (Christ is) He who was
born of Mary for the restoration of this world of ours.
Chapter XXXII. Valentinus Convicted of Plagiarisms from Plato.
I think that the heresy of Valentinus which is of Pythagorean (origin), has
been sufficiently, indeed more than sufficiently, delineated. It therefore
seems also expedient, that having explained his opinions, we should desist
from (further) refutation (of his system). Plato, then, in expounding
mysteries concerning the universe, writes to Dionysius expressing himself
after some such manner  as this: "I must speak to you by riddles,
 in order that if the letter may meet with any accident in its leaves
by either sea or land, he who reads (what falls into his hands) may not
understand it. For so it is. All things are about the King of all, and on
his account are all things, and he is cause of all the glorious (objects of
creation). The second is about the second, and the third about the third.
But pertaining to the King there is none of those things of which I have
spoken. But after this the soul earnestly desires to learn what sort these
are, looking upon those things that are akin to itself, and not one of these
is (in itself) sufficient. This is, O son of Dionysius and Doris, the
question (of yours) which is a cause of all evil things. Nay, but rather the
solicitude concerning this is innate in the soul; and if one does not remove
this, he will never really attain truth.  But what is astonishing in
this matter, listen. For there are men who have heard these things (men)
furnished with capacities for learning, and furnished with capacities of
memory, and persons who altogether in every way are endued with an aptitude
for investigation with a view to inference. (These are) at present aged
speculators.  And they assert that opinions which at one time were
credible are now incredible, and that things once incredible are now the
contrary. While, therefore, turning the eye of examination towards these
(inquiries), exercise caution, lest at any time you should have reason to
repent in regard of those things should they happen in a manner unbecoming
to your dignity. On this account I have written nothing concerning these
(points); nor is there any treatise of Plato's (upon them), nor ever shall
there be. The observations, however, now made are those of Socrates,
conspicuous for virtue even while he was a young man."
Valentinus, falling in with these (remarks), has made a fundamental
principle in his system "the King of all," whom Plato mentioned, and whom
this heretic styles Pater, and Bythos, and Proarche  over the rest
of the Aeons. And when Plato uses the words, "what is second about things
that are second," Valentinus supposes to be second all the Aeons that are
within the limit (of the Pleroma, as well as) the limit (itself). And when
Plato uses the words, what is third about what is third," he has
(constituted as third) the entire of the arrangement (existing) outside the
limit  and the Pleroma. And Valentinus has elucidated this
(arrangement) very succinctly, in a psalm commencing from below, not as
Plato does, from above, expressing himself thus: "I behold  all
things suspended in air by spirit, and I perceive all things wafted by
spirit; the flesh (I see) suspended from soul, but the soul shining out from
air, and air depending from Aether, and fruits produced from Bythus, and the
foetus borne from the womb." Thus (Valentinus) formed his opinion on such
(points). Flesh, according to these (heretics), is matter which is suspended
from the soul of the Demiurge. And soul shines out from air; that is, the
Demiurge emerges from the spirit, (which is) outside the Pleroma. But air
springs forth from Aether; that is, Sophia, which is outside (the Pleroma,
is projected from the Pleroma) which is within the limit, and (from) the
entire Pleroma (generally). And from Bythus fruits are produced; (that is,)
the entire projection of the Aeons is made from the Father. The opinions,
then, advanced by Valentinus have been sufficiently declared. It remains for
us to explain the tenets of those who have emanated from-his school, though
each adherent (of Valentinus) entertains different opinions. 
Chapter XXXIII. Secundus System of Aeons; Epiphanes; Ptolemaeus.
A certain (heretic) Secundus,  born about the same time with
Ptolemaeus, expresses himself thus: (he says) that there is a right tetrad
and a left tetrad, namely, light and darkness. And he affirms that the power
which withdrew and laboured under deficiency, was not produced from the
thirty Aeons, but from the fruits of these. Some other (heretic),
however Epiphanes, a teacher among them expresses himself thus: "The
earliest originating principle was inconceivable, ineffable, and unnameable;
"and he calls this Monotes. And (he maintains) that there co-exists with
this (principle) a power which he denominates Henotes. This Henotes and this
Monotes, not by projection (from themselves), sent forth a principle (that
should preside) over all intelligibles; (and this was) both unbegotten and
invisible, and he styles it a Monad. "With this power co-exists a power of
the same essence, which very (power) I call Unity. These four powers sent
forth the remainder of the projections of the Aeons." But others, again,
denominate the chief and originating Ogdoad, (which is) fourth (and)
invisible, by the following names: first, Proarche; next, Anennoetus; third,
Arrhetus; and fourth, Aoratus. And that from the first, Proarche, was
projected by a first and fifth place, Arche; and from Anennoetus, by a
second and sixth place, Acataleptus; and from Arrhetus, by a third and
seventh place, Anonomastus; and from Aoratus, Agennetus, a complement of the
first Ogdoad. They wish that these powers should exist before Bythus and
Sige. Concerning, however, Bythus himself, there are many different
opinions. Some affirm him to be unwedded, neither male nor female; but
others (maintain) that Sige, who is a female, is present with him, and that
this constitutes the first conjugal union.
But the followers of Ptolemaeus  assert that (Bythus) has two
spouses, which they call likewise dispositions, viz., Ennoia and Thelesis
(conception and volition). For first the notion was conceived of projecting
anything; next followed, as they say, the will to do so. Wherefore also
these two dispositions and powers namely, Ennoia and Thelesis being, as it
were, mingled one with the other, there ensued a projection of Monogenes and
Aletheia by means of a conjugal union. And the consequence was, that visible
types and images of those two dispositions of the Father came forth from the
invisible (Aeons), viz., from Thelema, Nous, and from Ennoia, Aletheia. And
on this account the image of the subsequently generated Thelema is (that of
a) male; but (the image) of the unbegotten Ennoia is (that of a) female,
since volition is, as it were, a power of conception. For conception always
cherished the idea of a projection, yet was not of itself at least able to
project itself, but cherished the idea (of doing so). When, however, the
power of volition (would be present), then it projects the idea which had
Chapter XXXIV. System of Marcus; A Mere Impostor; His Wicked Devices Upon
the Eucharistic Cup.
A certain other teacher among them, Marcus,  an adept in sorcery,
carrying on operations  partly by sleight of hand and partly by
demons, deceived many from time to time. This (heretic) alleged that there
resided in him the mightiest power from invisible and unnameable places. And
very often, taking the Cup, as if offering up the Eucharistic prayer, and
prolonging to a greater length than usual the word of invocation, he would
cause the appearance of a purple, and sometimes of a red mixture, so that
his dupes imagined that a certain Grace descended and communicated to the
potion a blood-red potency. The knave, however, at that time succeeded in
escaping detection from many; but now, being convicted (of the imposture),
he will be forced to desist from it. For, infusing secretly into the mixture
some drug that possessed the power of imparting such a colour (as that
alluded to above), uttering for a, considerable time nonsensical
expressions, he was in the habit of waiting, (in expectation) that the
(drug), obtaining a supply of moisture, might be dissolved, and, being
intermingled with the potion, might impart its colour to it. The drugs,
however, that possess the quality of furnishing this effect we have
previously mentioned in the book on magicians.  And here we have
taken occasion to explain how they make dupes of many, and thoroughly ruin
them. And if it should prove agreeable to them to apply their attention with
greater accuracy to the statement made by us, they will become aware of the
deceit of Marcus.
Chapter XXXV. Further Acts of Jugglery on the Part of Marcus.
And this (Marcus), infusing (the aforesaid) mixture into a smaller cup, was
in the habit of delivering it to a woman to offer up the Eucharistic prayer,
while he himself stood by, and held (in his hand) another empty (chalice)
larger than that. And after his female dupe had pronounced the sentence of
Consecration,  having received (the cup from her), he proceeded to
infuse (its contents) into the larger (chalice), and, pouring them
frequently from one cup to the other, was accustomed at the same time to
utter the following invocation: "Grant that the inconceivable and ineffable
Grace which existed prior to the universe, may fill thine inner man, and
make to abound in thee the knowledge of this (grace), as She disseminates
the seed of the mustard-tree upon the good soil." And simultaneously
pronouncing some such words as these, and astonishing both his female dupe
and those that are present, he was regarded as one performing a miracle;
while the larger was being filled from the smaller chalice, in such a way as
that (the contents), being superabundant, flowed over. And the contrivance
of this (juggler) we have likewise explained in the aforesaid (fourth) book,
where we have proved that very many drugs, when mingled in this way with
liquid substances, are endued with the quality of yielding augmentation,
more particularly when diluted in wine. Now, when (one of these impostors)
previously smears, in a clandestine manner, an empty cup with any one of
these drugs, and shows it (to the spectators) as if it contained nothing, by
infusing into it (the contents) from the other cup, and pouring them back
again, the drug, as it is of a flatulent nature, is dissolved by being
blended with the moist substance. And the effect of this was, that a
superabundance of the mixture ensued, and was so far augmented, that what
was infused was put in motion, such being the nature of the drug. And if one
stow away (the chalice) when it has been filled, (what has been poured into
it) will after no long time return to its natural dimensions, inasmuch as
the potency of the drug becomes extinct by reason of the continuance of
moisture. Wherefore he was in the habit of hurriedly presenting the cup to
those present, to drink; but they, horrified at the same time, and eager (to
taste the contents of the cup), proceeded to drink (the mixture), as if it
were something divine, and devised by the Deity.
Chapter XXXVI. The Heretical Practices of the Marcites in Regard of Baptism.
Such and other (tricks) this impostor attempted to perform. And so it was
that he was magnified by his dupes, and sometimes he was supposed to utter
predictions. But sometimes he tried to make others (prophesy), partly by
demons carrying on these operations, and partly by practising sleight of
hand, as we have previously stated. Hoodwinking therefore multitudes, he led
on (into enormities) many (dupes) of this description who had become his
disciples, by teaching them that they were prone, no doubt, to sin, but
beyond the reach of danger, from the fact of their belonging to the perfect
power, and of their being participators in the inconceivable potency. And
subsequent to the (first) baptism, to these they promise another, which they
call Redemption. And by this (other baptism) they wickedly subvert those
that remain with them in expectation of redemption, as if persons, after
they had once been baptized, could again obtain remission. Now, it is by
means of such knavery as this that they seem to retain their hearers. And
when they consider that these have been tested, and are able to keep (secret
the mysteries) committed unto them, they then admit them to this (baptism).
They, however, do not rest satisfied with this alone, but promise (their
votaries) some other (boon) for the purpose of confirming them in hope, in
order that they may be inseparable (adherents of their sect). For they utter
something in an inexpressible (tone of) voice, after having laid hands on
him who is receiving the redemption. And they allege that they could not
easily declare (to another) what is thus spoken unless one were highly
tested, or one were at the hour of death, (when) the bishop comes and
whispers (it) into the (expiring one s) ear. And this knavish device (is
undertaken) for the purpose of securing the constant attendance upon the
bishop of (Marcus ) disciples, as individuals eagerly panting to learn what
that may be which is spoken at the last, by (the knowledge of) which the
learner will be advanced to the rank of those admitted into the higher
mysteries. And in regard of these I have maintained a silence for this
reason, lest at any time one should suppose that I was guilty of disparaging
these (heretics). For this does not come within the scope of our present
work, only so far as it may contribute to prove from what source (the
heretics) have derived the standing-point from which they have taken
occasion to introduce the opinions advanced by them. 
Chapter XXXVII. Marcus System Explained by Irenaeus; Marcus Vision; The
Vision of Valentinus Revealing to Him His System.
For also the blessed presbyter Irenaeus, having approached the subject of a
refutation in a more unconstrained spirit, has explained such washings and
redemptions, stating more in the way of a rough digest  what are
their practices. (And it appears that some of the Marcosians,) on meeting
with (Irenaeus work), deny that they have so received (the secret word just
alluded to), but they have learned that always they should deny. Wherefore
our anxiety has been more accurately to investigate, and to discover
minutely what are the (instructions) which they deliver in the case of the
first bath, styling it by some such name; and in the case of the second,
which they denominate Redemption. But not even has this secret of theirs
escaped (our scrutiny). For these opinions, however, we consent to pardon
Valentinus and his school.
But Marcus, imitating his teacher, himself also feigns a vision, imagining
that in this way he would be magnified. For Valentinus likewise alleges that
he had seen an infant child lately born; and questioning (this child), he
proceeded to inquire who it might be. And (the child) replied, saying that
he himself is the Logos, and then subjoined a sort of tragic legend; and out
of this (Valentinus) wishes the heresy attempted by him to consist. Marcus,
making a similar attempt  with this (heretic), asserts that the
Tetrad came to him in the form of a woman, since the world could not bear,
he says, the male (form) of this Tetrad, and that she revealed herself who
she was, and explained to this (Marcus) alone the generation of the
universe, which she never had revealed to any, either of gods or of men,
expressing herself after this mode: When first the self-existent Father, He
who is inconceivable and without substance, He who is neither male nor
female, willed that His own ineffability should become realized in something
spoken, and that His invisibility should become realized in form, He opened
His mouth, and sent forth similar to Himself a Logos. And this (Logos) stood
by Him, and showed unto Him who he was, viz., that he himself had been
manifested as a (realization in) form of the Invisible One. And the
pronunciation of the name was of the following description. He was
accustomed to utter the first word of the name itself, which was Arche, and
the syllable of this was (composed) of four  letters. Then he
subjoined the second (syllable), and this was also (composed) of four
letters. Next he uttered the third (syllable), which was (composed) of ten
letters; and he uttered the fourth (syllable), and this was (composed) of
twelve letters. Then ensued the pronunciation of the entire name, (composed)
of thirty letters, but of four syllables. And each of the elements had its
own peculiar letters, and its own peculiar form, and its own peculiar
pronunciation, as well as figures and images. And not one of these was there
that beholds the form of that (letter) of which this was an element. And of
course none of them could know the pronunciation of the (letter) next to
this, but (only) as he himself pronounces it, (and that in such a way) as
that, in pronouncing the whole (word), he supposed that he was uttering the
entire (name). For each of these (elements), being part of the entire
(name), he denominates (according to) its own peculiar sound, as if the
whole (of the word). And he does not intermit sounding until he arrived at
the last letter of the last element, and uttered it in a single
articulation. Then he said, that the restoration of the entire ensued when
all the (elements), coming down into the one letter, sounded one and the
same pronunciation, and an image of the pronunciation he supposed to exist
when we simultaneously utter the word Amen.  And that these sounds
are those which gave form to the insubstantial and unbegotten Aeon, and that
those forms are what the Lord declared to be angels the (forms) that
uninterruptedly behold the face of the Father.
Chapter XXXVIII. Marcus System of Letters.
But the generic and expressed names of the elements he called Aeons, and
Logoi, and Roots, and Seeds, and Pleromas, and Fruits. (And he maintains)
that every one of these, and what was peculiar to each, is perceived as
being contained in the name of "Ecclesia." And the final letter of the last
element sent forth its own peculiar articulation. And the sound of this
(letter) came forth and produced, in accordance with images of the elements,
its own peculiar elements. And from these he says that things existing here
were garnished, and the things antecedent to these were produced. The letter
itself certainly, of which the sound was concomitant with the sound below,
he says, was received up by its own syllable into the complement of the
entire (name); but that the sound, as if cast outside, remained below. And
that the element itself, from which the letter along with its own
pronunciation descended below, he says, is (composed) of thirty letters, and
that each one of the thirty letters contains in itself other letters, by
means of which the title of the letter is named. And again, that the other
(letters) are named by different letters, and the rest by different (ones
still). So that by writing down the letters individually, the number would
eventuate in infinity. In this way one may more clearly understand what is
spoken. The element Delta, (he says,) has five letters in itself, (viz.),
Delta, and Epsilon, and Lambda, and Tau, and Alpha; and these very letters
are (written) by means of other letters. If, therefore, the entire substance
of the Delta eventuates in infinity, (and if) different letters invariably
produce different letters, and succeed one another, by how much greater than
that element is the more enormous sea  of the letters? And if one
letter is thus infinite, behold the entire name's depth of the letters out
of which the patient industry, nay, rather (I should say,) the vain toil of
Marcus wishes that the Progenitor (of things) should consist! Wherefore also
(he maintains) that the Father, who knew that He was inseparable from
Himself, gave (this depth) to the elements, which he likewise denominates
Aeons. And he uttered aloud to each one of them its own peculiar
pronunciation, from the fact that one could not pronounce the entire.
Chapter XXXIX. The Quaternion Exhibits "Truth."
And (Marcus alleged) that the Quaternion, after having explained these
things, spoke as follows: "Now, I wish also to exhibit to you Truth herself,
for I have brought her down from the mansions above, in order that you may
behold her naked, and become acquainted with her beauty; nay, also that you
may hear her speak, and may marvel at her wisdom. Observe," says the
Quaternion, "then, first, the head above, Alpha (and long) O; the neck, B
and P [si]; shoulders, along with hands, G and C [hi]; breasts, Delta and P
[hi]; diaphragm,  Eu; belly, Z and T; pudenda, Eta and S; thighs, T
[h] and R; knees, Ip; calves, Ko; ankles, Lx [si]; feet, M and N." This is
in the body of Truth, according to Marcus. This is the figure of the
element; this the character of the letter. And he styles this element Man,
and affirms it to be the source of every word, and the originating principle
of every sound, and the realization in speech of everything that is
ineffable, and a mouth of taciturn silence. And this is the body of (Truth)
herself. But do you, raising aloft the conceiving power of the
understanding, hear from the mouths of Truth (of) the Logos, who is
Self-generator  and Progenitor. 
Chapter XL. The Name of Christ Jesus.
But, after uttering these words, (Marcus details) that Truth, gazing upon
him, and opening her mouth, spoke the discourse (just-alluded to). And (he
tells us) that the discourse became a name, and that the name was that which
we know and utter, viz., Christ Jesus, and that as soon as she had named
this (name) she remained silent. While Marcus, however, was expecting that
she was about to say more, the Quaternion, again advancing into the midst,
speaks as follows: "Thou didst regard as contemptible  this
discourse which you have heard from the mouth of Truth. And yet this which
you know and seem long since to possess is not the name; for you have merely
the sound of it, but are ignorant of the power. For Jesus is a remarkable
name, having six letters,  invoked  by all belonging to the
called (of Christ); whereas the other (name, that is, Christ,) consists of
many parts, and is among the (five) Aeons of the Pleroma. (This name) is of
another form and a different type, and is recognised by those existences who
are connate with him, and whose magnitudes subsist with him continually.
Chapter XLI. Marcus Mystic Interpretation of the Alphabet.
Know, (therefore,) that these letters which with you are (reckoned at)
twenty-four, are emanations from the three powers, and are representative
 of those (powers) which embrace even the entire number of the
elements. For suppose that there are some letters that are mute nine of
them of Pater and Aletheia, from the fact that these are mute that is,
ineffable and unutterable. And (again, assume) that there are other (letters
that are) semi-vowels eight of them of the Logos and of Zoe, from the fact
that these are intermediate between consonants and vowels, and receive the
emanation  of the (letters) above them, but the reflux of those
below them.  And (likewise take for granted) that there are
vowels and these are seven of Anthropos and Ecclesia, inasmuch as the voice
of Anthropos proceeded forth, and imparted form to the (objects of the)
universe. For the sound of the voice produced figure, and invested them with
it. From this it follows that there are Logos and Zoe, which have eight
(semi-vowels); and Anthropos and Ecclesia, which have seven (vowels); and
Pater and Aletheia, which have nine (mutes). But from the fact that Logos
wanted  (one of being an ogdoad), he who is in the Father was
removed (from his seat on God's right hand), and came down (to earth). And
he was sent forth (by the Father) to him from whom he was separated, for the
rectification of actions that had been committed. (And his descent took
place) in order that the unifying process, which is inherent in Agathos, of
the Pleromas might produce in all the single power that emanates from all.
And thus he who is of the seven (vowels) acquired the power of the eight
 (semi-vowels); and there were produced three topoi, corresponding with
the (three) numbers (nine, seven, and eight), (these topoi) being ogdoads.
And these three being added one to the other, exhibited the number of the
twenty-four (letters). And (he maintains), of course, that the three
elements, (which he himself affirms to be (allied) with the three powers by
conjugal union, and which (by this state of duality) become six, and from
which have emanated the twenty-four elements, being rendered fourfold by the
Quaternion's ineffable word, produce the same number (twenty-four) with
these. And these, he says, belong to Anonomastus. And (he asserts) that
these are conveyed by the six powers into a similarity with Aoratus. And (he
says) that there are six double letters of these elements, images of images,
which, being reckoned along with the twenty-four letters, produce, by an
analogical power, the number thirty.
Chapter XLII. His System Applied to Explain Our Lord's Life and Death.
And he says, as the result of this computation and that proportion, 
that in the similitude of an image He appeared who after the six days
Himself ascended the mountain a fourth person, and became the sixth.
 And (he asserts) that He (likewise) descended and was detained by the
Hebdomad, and thus became an illustrious Ogdoad. And He contains in Himself
of the elements the entire number which He manifested, as He came to His
baptism. (And the symbol of manifestation was) the descent of the dove,
which is O [mega] and Alpha, and which by the number manifested (by these
is) 801.  And for this reason (he maintains) that Moses says that
man was created on the sixth day. And (he asserts) that the dispensation of
suffering (took place) on the sixth day, which is the preparation; (and so
it was) that on this (day) appeared the last man for the regeneration of the
first man. And that the beginning and end of this dispensation is the sixth
hour, at which He was nailed to the (accursed) tree. For (he says) that
perfect Nous, knowing the sixfold number to be possessed of the power of
production and regeneration, manifested to the sons of light the
regeneration that had been introduced into this number by that illustrious
one who had appeared. Whence also he says that the double letters 
involve the remarkable number. For the illustious number, being intermingled
with the twenty-four elements, produced the name (consisting) of the thirty
Chapter XLIII Letters, Symbols of the Heavens.
He has, however, employed the instrumentality of the aggregate of the seven
numbers, in order that the result of the self-devised (counsel) 
might be manifested. Understand, he says, for the present, that remarkable
number to be Him who was formed by the illustrious one, and who was, as it
were, divided, and remained outside. And He, through both His Own power and
wisdom, by means of the projection of Himself, imparted, in imitation of the
seven powers,  animation to this world, so as to make it consist of
seven powers, and constituted (this world) the soul of the visible universe.
And therefore this one has resorted to such all operation as what was
spontaneously undertaken by Himself; and these minister,  inasmuch
as they are imitations of things inimitable, unto the intelligence of the
Mother. And the first heaven sounds Alpha,  and the one after that E
[psilon], and the third Eta, and the fourth, even that in the midst of the
seven (vowels, enunciates) the power of Iota, and the fifth of O [micron],
and the sixth of U [psilon], and the seventh and fourth from the central
 one, O [mega]. And all the powers, when they are connected together in
one, emit a sound, and glorify that (Being) from whom they have been
projected. And the glory of that sound is transmitted upwards to the
Progenitor. And furthermore, he says that the sound of this ascription of
glory being conveyed to the earth, became a creator and producer of
terrestrial objects. And (he maintains) that the proof of this (may be
drawn) from the case of infants recently born, whose soul, simultaneously
with exit from the womb utters similarly this sound of each one of the
elements. As, then, he says, the seven powers glorify the Logos, so also
does the sorrowing soul in babes (magnify Him).  And on account of
this, he says, David likewise has declared, "Out of the mouths of babes and
sucklings Thou hast perfected praise."  And again, "The heavens
declare the glory of God."  When,  however, the soul is
involved in hardships, it utters no other exclamation than the O [mega],
inasmuch as it is afflicted in order that the soul above, becoming aware of
what is akin to herself (below), may send down one to help this (earthly
Chapter XLIV. Respecting the Generation of the Twenty-Four Letters.
And so far for these points. Respecting, however, the generation of the
twenty-four elements, he expresses himself thus: that Henotes coexists with
Monotes, and that from these issue two projections, viz., Monas and Hen, and
that these being added together become four, for twice two are four. And
again, the two and four (projections) being added together, manifested the
number six; and these six made fourfold, produce the twenty-four forms. And
these are the names of the first tetrad, and they are under stood as Holy of
Holies, and cannot be expressed and they are recognised by the Son alone.
These the Father knows which they are. Those names which with Him are
pronounced in silence and with faith, are Arrhetus and Sige, Pater and
Aletheia. And of this tetrad the entire number is (that) of twenty-four
letters. For Arrhetus has seven elements, Sige five, and Pater five, and
Aletheia seven. And in like manner also (is it with) the second tetrad;
(for) Logos and Zoe. Anthropos and Ecclesia, exhibited the same number of
elements. And (he says) that the expressed name (that is, Jesus) of the
Saviour consists of six letters, but that His ineffable name, according to
the number of the letters, one by one, consists of twenty-four elements, but
Christ a Son of twelve. And (he says) that the ineffable (name) in Christ
consists of thirty letters, and this exists, according to the letters l
which are in Him, the elements being counted one by one. For the (name)
Christ  consists of eight elements; for Chi  consists of
three, and R [ho] of two, and EI of two, and I [ota], of four,'s [igma] of
five, and T [au] of three, and OU of two, and San of three. Thus the
ineffable name in Christ consists, they allege, of thirty letters. And they
assert that for this reason He utters the words, "I am Alpha and Omega,"
displaying the dove, which (symbolically) has this number, which is eight
hundred and one. 
Chapter XLV. Why Jesus is Called Alpha.
Now Jesus possesses this ineffable generation. For from the mother of the
universe, I mean the first tetrad, proceeded forth, in the manner of a
daughter, the second tetrad. And it became an ogdoad, from which proceeded
forth the decade; and thus was produced ten, and next eighteen. The decade,
therefore, coming in along with the ogdoad, and rendering it tenfold,
produced the number eighty; and again making eighty tenfold, generated the
number eight hundred.  And so it is that the entire number of
letters that proceeded forth from ogdoad into decade is eight hundred and
eighty-eight, which is Jesus; for the name Jesus, according to the number in
letters, is eight hundred and eighty-eight. Now likewise the Greek alphabet
has eight monads and eight decades, and eight hecatontads; and these exhibit
the calculated sum of eight hundred and eighty-eight, that is, Jesus, who
consists of all numbers. And that on this account He is called Alpha (and
Omega), indicating His generation (to be) from all. 
Chapter XLVI. Marcus Account of the Birth and Life of Our Lord.
But concerning the creation of this (Jesus), he expresses himself thus: That
powers emanating from the second tetrad fashioned Jesus, who appeared on
earth, and that the angel Gabriel  filled the place of the Logos,
and the Holy Spirit that of Zoe, and the "Power of the Highest" 
that of Anthropos, and the Virgin that of Ecclesia.  And so it was,
in Marcus system, that the man (who appeared) in accordance with the
dispensation was born through Mary.  And when He came to the water,
(he says) that He descended like a dove upon him who had ascended above and
filled the twelfth number. And in Him resides the seed of these, that is,
such as are sown along with Him, and that descend with (Him), and ascend
with (Him). And that this power which descended upon Him, he says, is the
seed of the Pleroma, which contains in itself both the Father and the Son,
and the unnameable power of Sige, which is recognised through these and all
the Aeons. And that this (seed) is the spirit which is in Him and spoke in
Him through the mouth of the Son, the confession of Himself as Son of man,
and of His being one who would manifest the Father; (and that) when this
spirit came down upon Jesus, He was united with Him. The Saviour, who was of
the dispensation, he says, destroyed death, whereas He made known (as) the
Father Christ (Jesus). He says that Jesus, therefore, is the name of the man
of the dispensation, and that it has been set forth for the assimilation and
formation of Anthropos, who was about to descend upon Him; and that when He
had received Him unto Himself, He retained possession of Him. And (he says)
that He was Anthropos, (that) He (was) Logos, (that) He (was) Pater, and
Arrhetus, and Sige, and Aletheia, and Ecclesia, and Zoe.
Chapter XLVII. The System of Marcus Shown to Be that of Pythagoras, by
Quotations from the Writings of Marcus Followers.
I trust, therefore, that as regards these doctrines it is obvious to all
possessed of a sound mind, that (these tenets) are unauthoritative, and far
removed from the knowledge that is in accordance with Religion, and are mere
portions of astrological discovery, and the arithmetical art of the
Pythagoreans. And this assertion, ye who are desirous of learning shall
ascertain (to be true, by a reference to the previous books, where,) amongst
other opinions elucidated by us, we have explained these doctrines likewise.
In order, however, that we may prove it a more clear statement, viz., that
these (Marcosians) are disciples not of Christ but of Pythagoras, I shall
proceed to explain those opinions that have been derived (by these heretics)
from Pythagoras concerning the meteoric (phenomena) of the starts 
as far as it is possible (to do so) by an epitome.
Now the Pythagoreans make the following statements: that the universe
consists of a Monad and Duad, and that by reckoning from a monad as far as
four they thus generate a decade. And again,  a duad coming forth as
far as the remarkable (letter), for instance, two and four and
six, exhibited the (number) twelve. And again, if we reckon from the duad to
the decade, thirty is produced; and in this are comprised the ogdoad, and
decade, and dodecade. And therefore, on account of its having the remarkable
(letter), the dodecade has concomitant  with it a remarkable
passion.  And for this reason (they maintain) that when an error had
arisen respecting the twelfth number, the sheep skipped from the flock and
wandered away;  for that the apostasy took place, they say, in like
manner from the decade. And with a similar reference to the dodecade, they
speak of the piece of money which, on losing, a woman, having lit a candle,
searched for diligently. (And they make a similar application) of the loss
(sustained) in the case of the one sheep out of the ninety and nine; and
adding these one into the other, they give a fabulous account of numbers.
And in this way, they affirm, when the eleven is multiplied into nine, that
it produces the number ninety and nine; and on this account that it is said
that the word Amen embraces the number ninety-nine. And in regard of another
number they express themselves in this manner: that the letter Eta along
with the remarkable one constitutes all ogdoad, as it is situated in the
eighth place from Alpha. Then, again, computing the number of these elements
without the remarkable (letter), and adding them together up to Eta, they
exhibit the number thirty. For any one beginning from the Alpha  to
the Eta will, after subtracting the remarkable (letter), discover the number
of the elements to be the number thirty. Since, therefore, the number thirty
is unified from the three powers; when multiplied thrice into itself it
produced ninety, for thrice thirty is ninety, (and this triad when
multiplied into itself produced nine). In this way the Ogdoad brought forth
the number ninety-nine from the first Ogdoad, and Decade, and Dodecade. And
at one time they collect the number of this (trio) into an entire sum, and
produce a triacontad; whereas at another time they subtract twelve, and
reckon it at eleven. And in like manner, (they subtract) ten and make it
nine. And connecting these one into the other, and multiplying them tenfold,
they complete the number ninety-nine. Since, however, the twelfth Aeon,
having left the eleven (Aeons above), and departing downwards, withdrew,
they allege that even this is correlative (with the letters). For the figure
of the letters teaches (us as much). For L is placed eleventh of the
letters, and this L is the number thirty. And (they say) that this is placed
according to an image of the dispensation above; since from Alpha,
irrespective of the remarkable (letter), the number of the letters
themselves, added together up to L, according to the augmentation of the
letters with the L itself, produces the number ninety-nine. But that the L,
situated in the eleventh (of the alphabet), came down to search after the
number similar to itself, in order that it might fill up the twelfth number,
and that when it was discovered it was filled up, is manifest from the shape
itself of the letter. For Lambda, when it attained unto, as it were, the
investigation of what is similar to itself, and when it found such and
snatched it away, filled up the place of the twelfth, the letter M, which is
composed of two Lambdas. And for this reason (it was) that these (adherents
of Marcus), through their knowledge, avoid the place of the ninety-nine,
that is, the Hysterema, a type of the left hand,  and follow after
the one which, added to ninety-nine, they say was transferred to his own
Chapter XLVIII. Their Cosmogony Framed According to These Mystic Doctrines
And by the Mother, they allege, were created first the four elements, which,
they say, are fire, water, earth, air; and these have been projected as an
image of the tetrad above; and reckoning the energies of these for instance,
as hot, cold, moist, dry they assert that they accurately portray the
Ogdoad. And next they compute ten powers thus. (There are, they say,) seven
orbicular bodies, which they likewise call heavens. There is next a circle
containing these within its compass, and this also they name an eighth
heaven: and in addition to these, they affirm the existence of both a sun
and moon. And these being ten in number, they say, are images of the
invisible decade that (emanated) from Logos and Zoe. (They affirm,) however,
that the dodecade is indicated by what is termed the zodiacal circle. For
these twelve zodiacal signs, they say, most evidently shadowed forth
 the daughter of Anthropos and Ecclesia, namely the Dodecade. And
since, he says, the upper heaven has been united from an opposite direction
to the revolutionary motion, which is most rapid, of the entire (of the
signs); and since (this heaven) within its cavity retards, and by its
slowness counterpoises, the velocity of those (signs), so that in thirty
years it accomplishes its circuit from sign to sign, they therefore assert
that this (heaven) is an image of Horos, who encircles the mother of these,
who has thirty names. And, again, (they affirm) that the moon, which
traverses the heaven in thirty days, by reason of (these) days portrays the
number of the Aeons. And (they say) that the sun, performing its circuit,
and terminating its exact return to its first position in its orbit in
twelve months, manifests the dodecade. And also (they say) that the days
themselves, involving the measure of twelve hours, constitute a type of the
empty  dodecade; and that the circumference of the actual zodiacal
circle consists of three hundred and sixty degrees, and that each zodiacal
sign possesses thirty divisions. In this way, therefore, even by means of
the circle, they maintain that the image is preserved  of the
connection of the twelve with the thirty.  But, moreover, alleging
that the earth was divided into twelve regions, and that according to each
particular region it receives one power by the latter's being sent down from
the heavens, and that it produces children corresponding in likeness
 unto the power which transmitted (the likeness) by emanation; (for
this reason) they assert that earth is a type of the Dodecade above.
Chapter XLIX. The Work of the Demiurge Perishable.
And in addition to these (points, they lay down) that the Demiurge of the
supernal Ogdoad, desirous of imitating the indefinite, and everlasting, and
illimitable (one), and (the one) not subject to the condition of time; and
(the Demiurge) not being able to represent the stability  and
eternity of this (Ogdoad), on account of his being the fruit of the
Hysterema, to this end appointed times, and seasons, and numbers, measuring
many years in reference to the eternity of this (Ogdoad), thinking by the
multitude of times to imitate its indefiniteness. And here they say, when
Truth eluded his pursuit, that Falsehood followed close upon him; and that
on account of this, when the times were fulfilled, his work underwent
Chapter L. Marcus and Colarbasus Refuted by Irenaeus.
These assertions, then, those who are of the school of Valentinus advance
concerning both the creation and the universe, in each case propagating
opinions still more empty.  And they suppose this to constitute
productiveness (in their system), if any one in like manner, making some
greater discovery, will appear to work wonders. And finding, (as they
insinuate,) each of the particulars of Scripture to accord with the
aforesaid numbers, they (attempt to) criminate Moses and the prophets,
alleging that these speak allegorically of the measures of the Aeons. And
inasmuch as these statements are trifling and unstable, it does not appear
to me expedient to bring them before (the reader. This, however, is the less
requisite,) as now the blessed presbyter  Irenaeus has powerfully
and elaborately refuted the opinions of these (heretics). And to him we are
indebted for a knowledge of their inventions, (and have thereby succeeded
in) proving that these heretics, appropriating these opinions from the
Pythagorean philosophy, and from over-spun theories of the astrologers, cast
an imputation upon Christ, as though He had delivered these (doctrines). But
since I suppose that the worthless opinions of these men have been
sufficiently explained, and that it has been clearly proved whose disciples
are Marcus and Colarbasus, who were successors of the school of Valentinus,
let us see what statement likewise Basilides advances.
 [Presuming that all who are disposed to study this work will turn to
Dr. Bunsen's first volume (Hippol.), I have not thought it wise to load
the-e pages with references to his interesting reviewal.]
 kata teleiōsin tōn chronōn. This is Bunsen's emendation. The textual
reading is meiōsin.
 ekousiōs: Bunsen suggests anosiōs,i,e., profanely.
 See Irenaeus, Haeres., i. 19, 20; Tertullian, Prescript., c, xlvi.;
Epiphanius, Haeres., xxi.; Theodoret, Haeret. Fab., i. 1; St. Augustine, De
Haeres., 1. See the apology of Justin Martyr (vol. i., this series, p. 171),
who says, " There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called
Gitto, who, in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome,
did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in
him."Simon's history and opinions i are treated of largely in the
Recognitions of Clement. See vol. iii. of the Edinburgh series, pp. 156-271;
[vol. viii. of this series].
 In book iv. of The Refutation.
 Acts viii. 9-24.
 Miller refers us to Apostolius Proverb., s.v. psaphōn. Schneidewin
remarks that Maximus Tyrius relates almost a similar story concerning one
Psapho, a Libyan, in his Dissert. (xxxv.), and that Apostolius extracted
this account and inserted it in his Cent., xviii. p. 730, ed. Leutsch,
mentioning at the same time a similar narrative from Aelian's Hist., xiv.
30. See Justin., xxi. 4, and Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii. 16.
 The text here is corrupt. The above is Miller's emendation. Cruice s
reading may thus be rendered: " So that far sooner we may compare him unto
the Libyan, who was a mere man, and not the true God."
 Deut. iv. 24.
 The Abbe Cruice considers that Theodoret has made use of this
passage. (See Haeret. Fab., i, 1.)
 Or, ton aoraton, the invisible one.
 nōmatos aisan: Miller has gnōmēn isēn, which yields but little
 These powers are thus arranged: 1. Mind and Intelligence: termed
also, 1. Heaven and Earth. 2. Voice and Name 2. Sun and Moon. 3.
"Ratiocination and Reflection," 3. Air and Water.
 Gen. ii. 2.
 Prov. viii. 22-24.
 "Brooded over" (see Gen. i. 2).
 Gen. ii. 7.
 1 Cor. xi. 32.
 Jer. i. 5.
 chōrion(i.e, locality) is the reading in Miller, which Cruice
ingeniously alters into chorion, the caul in which the foetus is enclosed,
which is called the "after-birth."
 Gen. ii. 10.
 This rendering follow- Cruice, who has succeeded in clearing away
the obscurity o( the passage as given in Miller.
 Odyssey, x. 304 et seq. [See Butcher and Lang, p. 163.]
 Isa. ii. 4.
 Matt. iii. 10 ; Luke iii. 9.
 In the Recognitions of Clementwe have this passage: "He (Simon)
wishes himself to be believed to be an exalted power, which is above God the
Creator, and to be thought to be the Christ, and to be called the standing
one" (Ante-Nicene Library, ed. Edinburgh. vol. iii. p. 196).
 The expression stan(standinq) was used by the scholastic as
applicable to the divine nature. Interpreted in this manner, the words in
the text would be equivalent with "which was, and is, and is to come" (Rev.
i. 8). The Recognitions of Clementexplain the term thus: "He (Simon) use:
this name as implying that he can never be dissolved, asserting that his
flesh is so compacted by the power of his divinity, that it can endure to
eternity. Hence, there-fore, he is called the standing one, as though he
cannot fall by any corruption" (Ante-Nicene Library, vol. iii. p. 196). [To
be found in vol. viii. of this series, with the other apocryphal
 Gen. iii. 24.
 Homer, for instance [See Epiphanius, Haeres., xxi. 3).
 miaros, Bunsen's emendation for psuchros, the reading in Miller and
Schneidewin. Some read psudros, i.e., lying: others pseudochristos, i.e.,
counterfeit Christ. Cruice considers Bunsen's emenda-: tion unnecessary, as
psuchrosmay be translated " absurd fellow."The word, literally meaning cold,
is applied in a derived sense to persons who were heartless, an import
suitable to Hippolytus meaning.
 [See Irenaeus, vol. i. p. 348, and Bunsen's ideas, p. 50 of his
 This rendering is according to Bunsen's emendation of the text.
 Cruice omits the word dedokēkenai, which seems in interpolation.
The above rendering adopts the proposed emendation.
 Bunsen thinks that there is an allusion here to the conversation of
our Lord with the woman of Samaria, and it so, that Menander, a disciple of
Simon, and not Simon himself, was the author of The Great Announcement, as
the heretic did not outlive St. Peter and Paul, and therefore died before
the period at which St John's Gospel was written.
 Miller reads phusin, which makes no sense. The rendering above
follows Bunsen's emendation of the text. [Here it is equally interesting to
the student of our author or of Irenaeus to turn to Bunsen (p. 51), and to
observe his parallels.]
 The Abbe Cruice considers that the statements made by Origen
(Iontr. Celsum, lib. i. p. 44, ed Spenc.), respecting the followers of Simon
in respect of number, militates against Origen's authorship of The
 This rendering follows the text of Schneidewin and Cruice. The
Clementine Recognitions(Ante-Nicene Library, ed. Edinb., vol. iii. p. 273)
represent Simon Magus as leaving for Rome, and St. Peter resolving to follow
him thither. Miller's text is different and as emended by him, Hippolytus
account would harmonize with that given in the Acts. Miller's text may be
thus translated: "And having been laid under a curse, as has been written in
the Acts, he subsequently disapproved of his practices, and made an attempt
to journey as far as Rome, but he fell in with the apostles," etc. The text
or Cruice and Schneidewin seems less forced: while the statement itself a
new witness to this controverted point in ecclesiastical history concerning
St. Peter corroborates Hippolytus authorship of The Refutation.
 Justin Martyr mentions, as an instance of the estimation in which
Simon Magus was held among his followers, that a statue was erected to him
at Rome. Bunsen considers that the refection of this fable of Justin
Martyr s, point to the author of The Refutationbeing a Roman, who would
therefore, as he shows himself in the case of the statue, be better informed
than the Eastern writer of any event occurring in the capital of the West.
[Bunsen's magisterial decision (p. 53) is very amusingly characteristic.]
Hippolytus silence is a presumption against the existence of such a statue,
though it is very possible he might omit to mention it, supposing it to be
at Rome. At all events, the jvery precise statement of Justin Martyr ought
not to be rejected on slight or confectural grounds. [See vol. i., this
series, pp. 171 ,172, 182, 187, and 193. But our author relies on Irenaeus,
same vol., p. 348. Why reject positive testimony?]
 Valentinus came from Alexandria to Rome during the pontificate of
Hyginus, and established a school there. Hisdesire seems to have been to
remain in communion with Rome, which he did for many ye:mrs. as Tertullian
informs us. Epiphanius, however, tells that Valentinus. towards the end of
his life, when living in Cyprus, separted entirely from the Church.
Irenaeus, book i.; Tertullian on Valentinus, and chap xxx. of his
Praescript.; Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom., iv. 13 vi.6; Theodoret, Haeret.
Fab., i., 7; Epiphanius, Haer., xxxi.; St. Augustine, Haer., xi.;
Philastrius, Hist. Haers., c. viii.; Photius, Biblioth., cap. ccxxx.;
Clemens Alexandrinus Epitome of Theodotus (pp. 789-809, ed. Sylburg). The
title is, Ek tōn Theodotou kai tēs anatolikēs kaloumenēs didaskalias, kata
tous Oualentinou chronous epitomai. See likewise Neander's Church History,
vol. ii. Bohn's edition.
 These opinions are mostly given in extracts from Valentinus work
Sophia, a book of great repute among Gnostics, and not named by Hippolytus,
probably as being so well known at the time. The Gospel of Truth, mentioned
by Irenaeus as used among the Valentinians, is not, however, considered to
be from the pen of Valentinus. In the extracts given by Hippolytus from
Valentinus, it is important (as in the case of Basilides: see translator s
introduction) to find that he quotes St. John's Gospel, and St. Paul s
Epistle to the Ephesians. The latter had been pronounced by the Tubingen
school as belonging to the period of the Montanistic disputes in the middle
of the second century, that is, somewhere about 25-30 years after
 See Timaeus, c. vii. ed. Bekker.
 Or, "Solomon," evidently a mistake.
 Miller would read for prostithemenon, nomisteonor nomizei.
 Respecting these lines, Miller refers us to Fabricius, in Sextum
Empiricum, p. 332.
 The Abbe Cruice adduces a passage from Suidas (on the word
arithmos) which contains a similar statement to that furnished by
 Matt. v. 18.
 Or, sunagei, leads together.
 The Abbe Cruice considers that the writer of The Refutationdid not
agree with Pythagoras opinion regarding the soul, a fact that negatives the
authorship of Origen, who assented to the Pythagorean psychology. The
question concerning the pre-existence of the soul is stated m a passage
often quoted, viz., St. Jerome's Letter to Marcellina(Ep. 82).
 Cruice thinks that the following words are taken from Heraclitus,
and refers to Plutarch, De Exilio, c. xi.
 Pkaedo, vol. i. p. 89, ed. Bekker.
 "Eat not from a stool." This proverb is also differently read and
interpreted. Another form is, "Eat not from a chariot," of which the import
is variously given, as, Do not tamper with your health, because food
swallowed in haste, as it must be when one is driving a team of horses,
cannot be salutary or nutritive; or, Do not be careless, because one should
attend to the business in hand; if that be guiding a chariot, one should not
at the same time try to eat his meals.
 The word "entire" Plutarch adds to this proverb. Its ancient form
would seem to inculcate patience and courtesy, as if one should not, when at
meals, snap at food before others. As read in Plutarch, it has been also
interpreted as a precept to avoid creating dissension the unbroken bread
being a symbol of unity. It has likewise been explained as an injunction
against greediness. The loaf was marked by two intersecting lines into four
parts, and one was not to devour ail of these. (See Horace, 1 Epist., xvii.
 This is the generally received import of the proverb. Ancient
writers, however, put forward other meanings, connected chiefly with certain
effects of beans, e.g., disturbing the mind, and producing melancholy, which
Pythagoras is said to have noticed. Horace had no such idea concerning beans
(see 2 Serm, vi. 63), but evidently alludes to a belief of the magi that
disembodied spirits resided in beans. (See Lucian, Micyll: Plutarch, Peri
Paid. Agōg. 17; Aulus Gellius, iv, 11; and Guigniaut's Cruiser's Spsmbolik,
i. 160.) [See p. 12 supra, and compare vol, ii., this series, p. 383, and
Elucidation III. p. 403.]
 The text seems doubtful. Some would read, "The sun is (to be
compared with) soul, and the moon with body."
 Zaron. This word also signifies "sweepings"or "refuse." Some say it
means a Chaldean or Babylonian measure. The meaning would then be: Neglect
not giving good measure, i e., practise fair dealing. This agrees with
another form of the proverb, reading zugonfor saron that is, overlook not
the balance or scales.
 Another meaning assigned to this proverb is, "Labour to no
purpose." The palm, it is alleged, when it grows of itself, produces fruit,
but sterility ensues upon transplantation. The proverb is also said to mean:
Avoid what may seem agreeable, but really is injurious. This alludes to the
quality of the wine (see Xenophon's Anab., ii.), which, pleasant in
appearance, produced severe headache in those partaking of it.
 Or, "completes the great year of the world" (see book iv. chap.
vii. of The Refutation).
 Valentinus system, if purged of the glosses put upon it by his
disciples, appears to have been constructed out of a grand conception of
Deity, and evidences much power of abstraction. Between the essence of God,
dwelling in the midst of isolation prior to an exercise of the creative
energy, and the material worlds, Valentinus interposes an ideal world.
Through the latter, the soul of a kindred nature is enabled to mount up to
God. This is the import of the terms Bythus (depth) and Sige (silence, i.e.,
solitarness) afterwards used.
 kuria: instead of this has been suggested the reading kai riza,
i.e., "which is both the root," etc.
 In all this. Valentinus intends to delineate the progress from
absolute to phenomenal being. There are three developments in this
transition. Absolute being (Bythus and Sige) is the same as the eternal
thought and consciousness of God's own essence. Here we have the primary
emanation, viz., Nous, i.e., Mind (called also Monogenes, only-begotten),
and Aletheia, i.e., Truth. Next comes the ideal manifestation through the
Logos, i e., Word (obviously borrowed from the prologue to St. John s
Gospel), and Zoe, i.e., Life (taken from the same source). We have then the
passage from the ideal to the actual in Anthropos, i.e., Man, and Ecclesia,
i.e., Church These last are the phenomenal manifestations o( the divine
 teleios: Bunsen would read telos, which Cruice objects to on
account of the word teleioterosoccurring in the next sentence.
 This follows the text as emended by Bernays.
 The number properly should be thirty, as there were two tetrads:
(1) Bythus, Sige, Nous, and Aletheia; (2) Logos, Zoe, Ecclesia, and
Anthropos. Some, as we learn from Hippolytus, made up the number to thirty,
by the addition of Christ and the Holy Ghost, a fact which Bunsen thinks
conclusively proves that the alleged generation of Aeons was a subsequent
addition to Valentinus system.
 There is some confusion in Hippolytus text, which is, however,
removeable by a reference to Irenaeus (i. 1).
 We subjoin the meanings of these names: -Ten Aeons from Nous and
Aletheia, (or) Logo- and Zoe, 1 Bythus = Profundity. 6. Hedone =
Voluptuousness. 2 Mixis = Mixture. 7. Acinetus = Motionless. 3. Ageratos =
Ever-young. 8. Syncrasis = Composition. 4. Henosis = Unification. 9.
Monogenes = Only-begotten. 5. Autophyes = Self-grown. 10. Macaria =
 The following are the meanings of these names: -Twelve Nous from
Anthropos and Ecclesia, (or) Logos and Zoe: -1. Paracletus = Comforter. 7,
Aeinous = Ever-thinking. 2 Pistis= Faith. 8. Synesis = Intelligence. 3
Patricus = Paternal. 19. Ecclesiasticus = Ecclesiastical. 4 Elpis= Hope. 10.
Makariotes = Felicity. 5 tletricus = Temperate. 11. Theletus = Volition. 6.
Agape = Love. 12. Sophia = Wisdom.
 [Rev. ii 24. It belongs to the "depths of Satan"to create
mytiiologies that caricature the Divine mysteries. Cf. 2 Cor. ii. 11.]
 This Sophia was, so to speak, the bridge which spanned the abyss
between God and Reality. Under an aspect of this kind Solomon (Prov. viii.)
views Wisdom; and Valentinus introduces it into his system, according to the
old Judaistic interpretation of Sophia, as the instrument for God's creative
energy. But Sophia thought to pass beyond her function as the connecting
link between limited and illimitable existence, by an attempt to evolve the
infinite from herself. She fails, and an abortive image of the true Wisdom
is procreated, while Sophia herself sinks into this nether world.
 Miller's text has, "a well-formed and properly-digested
substance." This reading is, however, obviously wrong, as is proved by a
reference to what Epiphanius states (Haer., xxxi.) concerning Valentinus.
 Or, "Metagogeus"(see Irenaeus, i. 1, 2, iii. 1).
 Bunsen corrects the passage, "So that she should not be inferior to
any of the Aeons, or unequal (in power) to any (of them)."
 enotētos: Miller has neotētos, i.e., youth. The former is the
emendation of Bernays.
 This is Bunsen's text, upostatous. Duncker reads upostatikas,
 Some read ousian(see Theodoret, Haer., c. vii.).
 epistrophēn; or it may be rendered "solicitude." Literally, it
means a turning towards, as in this instance, for the purpose of prayer (see
Irenaeus, i. 5).
 Valentinus denominates what is psychical (natural) right, and what
is material or pathematic left (see Irenaeus, i. 5).
 Cruice renders the passage thus: "which is denominated right, or
Demiurge, while fear it is that accomplishes this transformation." The
Demiurge is of course called "right," as being the power of the , psychical
essence (see Clemens Alexandrinue, Hypot. excerpta c Theod., c. 43).
 Ps. cxi. 10; Prov. i. 7, 10.
 Schneidewin fills, up the hiatus thus: "Place of Mecdiation." The
above translation adopts the emendation of Cruice (see Irenaeus, i. 5).
 Dan. vii. 9, 13, 22.
 Deut. ix. 3 ; Ps. l. 3; Heb. xii. 29.
 Gen. ii. 2.
 See Epistle of Barnabas, chap. xv. vol. i. p. 146, and Ignatius
Letter to the Magnesians, chap. ix. p. 63, this series.
 The opening sentence in this Chapter is confused in Miller's text.
The sense, however, as given above, is deducible from a reference to a
corresponding passage in Irenaeus (i. 5).
 Deut. iv. 35; Isa. xlv. 5, 18, 21, 22.
 These words are a line out of Pythagoras Golden Verses: -Pēgē tis
aenaou phuseōs izōmat echousa (48).
 The Abbe Cruise thinks that a comparison of this passage with the
corresponding one in Irenaeus suggests the addition of oi doruphoroiafter
Logos, i.e., the Logos and his satellites. [ Vol. i. p. 381, this series.]
 Gen. ii. 7.
 Or, "subterranean" (Cruice).
 Epiphanius, Haer., xxxi. sec. 7.
 Eph. iii. 14-18.
 1 Cor. ii. 14.
 Epiphanius, Haer., xxxi. 22.
 John x. 8.
 Col. i. 26.
 Luke i. 35.
 Rom. viii. 11, 12.
 Gen. iii. 19.
 Axionicus is mentioned by Tertullian only (see Tertullian, Conte.
Valent., c. iv; [vol. iii. p. 505, this series]).
 Bardesianes (or Ardesianes, as Miller's text has it) is evidently
the sane with Bardesanes, mentioned by Eusebius and St. femme.
 katēchēthē. Stiller's text has katēchthē, which is properly
corrected by Bunsen into the word as translated above.
 Ex. vi. 2, 3.
 Or, "the multitudes."
 Cruice thinks that the following extract from Plato's epistles has
been added by a second hand. [Cf vol. iii. p. 181, this series.]
 There are some verbal diversities between the texts of Plato and
Hippolytus, which a reference will show (see Plat., Epist., t. ix. p. 76,
 Some forty lines that follow in Plato's letter are omitted here.
 Here likewise there is another deficiency as compared with the
 Miller's text is, kai pasi gēn, etc. In the German and French
edition of Hippolytus we have, instead of this, kai Proarchēn. The latter
word is introduced on the authority of Epiphanius and Theodored. Bernays
proposes Zigēn, and Scott Plastēn. The Abbe Cruice considers Plastēnan
incongruous word as applied to the creation of spiritual beings.
 The word "limit" occurs twice in this sentence, and Bunsen alters
the second into "Pleroma," so that the words may be rendered thus:
"Valentinus supposes to be second all the Aeons that are within the
 This is a Gnostic hymn, and is arranged metrically by Cruice, of
which the following is a translation: -All things whirled on by spirit I
see, Flesh from soul depending And soul from air forth flashing, And air
from aether hanging, And fruits from Bythus streaming, And from womb the
 The text here is corrupt, but the above rendering follows the Abbe
Cruice's version. Bunsen's emendation would, however, seem untenable.
 Concerning Secundus and Epiphanes, see Irenaeus, i. 11; Theodoret,
Haer. Fab., i. 5-9; Epiphanius, xxxii. I, 3, 4; Tertullian, Adv. Valent., c.
xxxviii.; and St. Augustine, Haer., xi. Hippolytus, in his remarks on
Secundus and Epiphanes, borrows from St. Irenaeus.
 Concerning Ptolemaeus, see Irenaeus, i. 12; Tertullian, De
Praescript., c. xlix.; and Advers. Valent., c. viii.; Epiphanius, Haer.,
xxxiii. 3-7; and Theodoret, Haeret. Fab., i. 8.
 Concerning Marcus, see Irenaeus, i. 12-18; Tertullian,
Praescript., c. l.; Epiphanius, Haer., xxxiv.; Theodoret, Haeret. Fab., i.
9; St. Augustine, Haer., c. xiv.; and St. Jerome's 29th Epistle.
 energōn: Bunsen reads drōn, which has the same meaning. Cruice
reads aiōrōn, but makes no attempt at translation. Miller's reading is
dōrōn, which is obviously corrupt, but for which dolōnhas been suggested,
and with good show of reason.
 analuomenou: same read anaduomenou, which is obviously untenable.
 [ Here was an awful travesty of the heresy of a later day which
introduced" the miracle of Bolsena" and the Corpus-Christicelebration. See
Robertson, Hist., vol. iii. p. 604.]
 [Buusen (vol. i. p 72-75) makes useful comments.]
 Hippolytus has already employed this word, adromesteron, in the
Proaemium. It literally means, of strong or compact parts. Hippolytus,
however, uses it m contrast to the expression Leptomerēs, in reference to
his Summary of Heresies. Bunsen thinks that Hippolytus means to say that
Irenaeus expressed himself rather too strongly, and that the Marcosians, on
meeting with Irenaeus assertions, indignantly repudiated them. Dr.
Wordsworth translates adromerōs(in the Proaemium), "with rude
generality," a rendering scarcely in keeping with the passage above.
 The largest extract from Irenaeus is that which follows the
explanation of the heresy o( Marcus. From this to the end of book vi. occurs
in Irenaeus likewise. Hippolytus text does not always accurately correspond
with that of his master. The divergence, however, is inconsiderable, and may
sometimes be traceable to the error of the transcriber.
 Hippolytus uses two words to signify letters, oicheionand gramma.
The former strictly means an articulate sound as the basis of language or of
written words, and the latter the sound itself when represented by a
particular symbol or sign.
 [Rev. iii. 14. A name of Christ. This word is travestied as the
name Logosalso, most profanely.]
 This is Duncker's emendation, suggested by Irenaeus text. Miller
reads ton topon, which yields scarcely any meaning.
 Hippolytus text has been here corrected from that of Irenaeus.
 This is a correction from Progenitor, on the authority of Irenaeus
 Propatora: Irenaeus reads Patrodora, which is adopted by
Schneidewin, and translated patrium.
 The reading is doubtful. The translator adopts Scott's emendation.
 [See note 1, p. 94 supra, on "Amen." Comp. Irenaeus, vol. i. p.
393, this series. This name of Jesus does, indeed, run through all
Scripture, in verbal and other forms; Gen. xlix, 18and in Joshua, as a
 Irenaeus has "known."
 eikonikas. This is Irenaeus reading. Miller has
 aporroian: some read aporian, which is obviously erroneous.
 ; Irenaeus reads uper autēn, and Massuet upenerthen.
 The deficiency consisted in there not being three ogdoads. The sum
total was twenty-four, but there was only one ogdoad Logos and Zoe. The
other two Pater and Alethen, and Anthropos and Ecclesia had one above and
one below an ogdoad.
 tōn oktōhas been substituted for tō noētō, an obviously corrupt
reading. The correction is supplied by Irenaeus.
 Or, "ecnnomy."
 Christ went up with the three apostles, and was therefore the
fourth Himself: by the presence of Moses and Elias, He became the sixth:
Matt. xvii. 1: Mark ix. 2.
 The Greek word for dove is peristera, the letters of which
represent 801, as may be seen thus: - p=80 e=5 r=I00 s=200i=10 t=300 e=5
r=100 a=1 ___ 801 This, therefore, is equipollent with Alpha and Omega, as a
is equal to I, and w to 800. [Stuff! Bunsen, very naturally, exclaims.]
 Irenaeus has the sentence thus: "so also the soul in babes,
lamenting and bewailing Marcus, glorifies him."
 Ps. viii. 2.
 Ps. xix. 1.
 Hippolytus here omits some passages which are to be found in
 Literally, "being twice two:" pnme for ousai read ousiai. Irenaeus
has epi duo ousai, i.e., "which being (added) into two."
 Hippolytus has only the word "twenty-four," to which Schneidewin
supplies "letters," and Irenaeus" forms," as given above. Hippolytus
likewise omits the word "produced," which Irenaeus supplies. The text of the
latter is tas eikosetessaras apekuēsan morphas.
 Irenaeus adds, "which being added together, I mean the twice five
and twice seven, complete the number of the twenty-four ( forms) ."
 The parenthetical words had fallen into a wrong part of the
sentence, and are placed here by Schneidewin.
 This is a correction for "expressed" from Irenaeus. Marcus
observes the distinction afterwards.
 kata en grammatōn. The ms.. has engramatōn. Irenaeus omits these
 This entire sentence is wanting in Irenaeus.
 Corrected from Chri, which is in the ms..
 Irenaeus has the passage thus; "And for this reason He says that
He is Alpha and Omega, that He may manifest the dove, inasmuch as this bird
(symbolically) involves this number (801)." See a previous note in chap.
xiii. p. 95. supra.
 Part of this sentence is supplied from Irenaeus.
 Hippolytus here omits the following sentence found in Irenaeus:
"And again thus of the first quarternion, when added into itself, in
accordance with a progression of number, appeared the number ten, and so
 Luke i. 26-38.
 Or, "of the Son," an obvious mistake.
 Irenaeus has, "And the Virgin exhibited the place of Ecclesia."
 Irenaeus adds, "whom the Father of the universe selected, for
passage through the womb, by means of the Logos, for recognition of
 Cruice thinks that for stars we should read "numbers," but gives
no explanation of the meaning of meteōra. This word, as applied to numbers,
might refer to "the astrological phenomena" deducible by means of numierical
 A comparison of Hippolytus with Irenaeus, as regards what follows,
manifests many omissions in the former.
 Following Irenaeus, the passage would be rendered thus: "And
therefore, on account of its having the remarkable (letter) concomitant with
it, they style the dodecade a remarkable passion." Massuet, in his
Annotations on Irenaeus, gives the following explanation of the above
statement, which is made by Hippolytus likewise. From the twelfth number, by
once abstracting the remarkable (number), which does not come into the order
and number of the letters, eleven letters remain. Hence in the dodecade, the
pathos, or what elsewhere the heretics call the "Hysterema," is a defect of
one letter. And this is a symbol of the defect or suffering which, upon the
withdrawal of one Aeon, happended unto the last dodecade of Aeons.
 Hippolytus statement is less copious and less clear than that of
Irenaeus, who explains the defect of the letter to be symbolical of an
apostasy of one of the Aeons, and that this one was a female.
 Luke xv. 4-10.
 Marcus explanation of this, as furnished by Irenaeus, is more
copions than Hippolytus .
 The allusion here seems to be to the habit among the ancients of
employing the tinkers for counting, those of the left hand being used for
all numbers under 100, and those of the right for the numbers above it. To
this custom the poet Juvenal alludes, when he says of Nestor: -Atque suos
jam dextera computat annos. That is, that he was one hundred years old.
 Or, "sketched out" (Irenaeus).
 Or, "radiant."
 Or, "measured."
 Massuet gives the following explanation: The sun each day
describes a circle which is divided into twelve parts of 30 degrees each,
and consists of 360 degrees. And as for each of the hours, where days and
nights are equal, 15 degrees are allowed, it follows that in two hours, that
is, in the twelfth part of a day, the sun completes a progress of 30
 Or, "of the same substance."
 Or, "blamelessness."
 Or, "strange."
 [The Apostle John delights to call himself a presbyter, and St.
Peter claims to be co-presbyter with the elders whom he exhorts. The
Johannean school of primitive theologians seem to love this expression
pre-eminently. It was almost as little specific in the primitive age as that
of pastor or minister in our own.]
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