The Epistles of Clement
The date of this epistle has been the subject of considerable
controversy. It is clear from the writing itself that it was composed
soon after some persecution (chap. i.) which the Roman church had
endured; and the only question is, whether we are to fix upon the
persecution under Nero or Domitian. If the former, the date will be
about the year 68; if the latter, we must place it towards the close
of the first century or the beginning of the second. We possess no
external aid to the settlement of this question. The lists of early
Roman bishops are in hopeless confusion, some making Clement the
immediate successor of St. Peter, others placing Linus, and others
still Linus and Anacletus, between him and the apostle. The internal
evidence, again, leaves the matter doubtful, though it has been
strongly pressed on both sides. The probability seems, on the whole,
to be in favour of the Domitian period, so that the epistle may be
dated about a.d. 97.
Reprinted from the translation given in the 1st vol. of the
Ante-Nicene Fathers. Completed and revised from a manuscript
discovered after the publication of that volume.
by Rev. John Keith, D.D.
Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and
first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional
introductionary material and notes provided for the American
edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.
Introductory Notice to 1st Clement.
The first Epistle, bearing the name of Clement, has been preserved to
us in a single manuscript only. Though very frequently referred to by
ancient Christian writers, it remained unknown to the scholars of
Western Europe until happily discovered in the Alexandrian
manuscript. This ms. of the sacred Scriptures (known and generally
referred to as Codex A) was presented in 1628 by Cyril, Patriarch of
Constantinople, to Charles I., and is now preserved in the British
Museum. Subjoined to the books of the New Testament contained in it,
there are two writings described as the Epistles of one Clement. Of
these, that now before us is the first. It is tolerably perfect, but
there are many slight lacunæ, or gaps, in the ms., and one whole leaf
is supposed to have been lost towards the close. These lacunæ,
however, so numerous in some chapters, do not generally extend beyond
a word or syllable, and can for the most part be easily supplied.
Who the Clement was to whom these writings are ascribed, cannot with
absolute certainty be determined. The general opinion is, that he is
the same as the person of that name referred to by St. Paul (Phil. iv.
3). The writings themselves contain no statement as to their author.
The first, and by far the longer of them, simply purports to have been
written in the name of the church at Rome to the church at Corinth.
But in the catalogue of contents prefixed to the ms. they are both
plainly attributed to one Clement; and the judgment of most scholars
is, that, in regard to the first epistle at least, this statement is
correct, and that it is to be regarded as an authentic production of
the friend and fellow worker of St. Paul. This belief may be traced
to an early period in the history of the church. It is found in the
writings of Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., iii. 15), of Origen (Comm. in
Joan., i. 29), and others. The internal evidence also tends to
support this opinion. The doctrine, style, and manner of thought are
all in accordance with it; so that, although, as has been said,
positive certainty cannot be reached on the subject, we may with great
probability conclude that we have in this epistle a composition of
that Clement who is known to us from Scripture as having been an
associate of the great apostle.
This epistle was held in very great esteem by the early church. The
account given of it by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., iii. 16) is as follows:
"There is one acknowledged epistle of this Clement (whom he has just
identified with the friend of St. Paul), great and admirable, which he
wrote in the name of the church of Rome to the church at Corinth,
sedition having then arisen in the latter church. We are aware that
this epistle has been publicly read in very many churches, both in old
times and also in our own day." The epistle before us thus appears to
have been read in numerous churches, as being almost on a level with
the canonical writings. And its place in the Alexandrian ms.,
immediately after the inspired books, is in harmony with the position
thus assigned it in the primitive church. There does indeed appear a
great difference between it and the inspired writings in many
respects, such as the fanciful use sometimes made of Old Testament
statements, the fabulous stories which are accepted by its author, and
the general diffuseness and feebleness of style by which it is
distinguished. But the high tone of evangelical truth which pervades
it, the simple and earnest appeals which it makes to the heart and
conscience, and the anxiety which its writer so constantly shows to
promote the best interests of the church of Christ, still impart an
undying charm to this precious relic of later apostolic times.
Towards the close of 1875, at Constantinople, Philotheus Bryennius,
Metropolitan of Serræ, published the first complete edition of the
epistles ascribed to Clement. This he was enabled to do by the
discovery of a ms. in the library of the Holy Sepulchre at Fanari in
Constantinople. This ms., of vellum, consists of one hundred and
twenty leaves in small octavo, nearly seven and a half inches in
length and six in breadth. The ms. bears the date 1056, and was
written by one Leo. Its contents are:
1. Chrysostom's Synopsis of the Old Testament (the New also being
included in the title).
2. Epistle of Barnabas.
3. Clement to the Corinthians I.
4. Clement to the Corinthians II.
5. Teaching of the Twelve Apostles.
6. Ignatian Epistles.
The ms. is written with comparative accuracy and clearness. Internal
evidence seems to establish its independent value; e.g., words
carelessly omitted in the Codex Alexandrinus are found in this ms. It
also supplies the lacunæ, notably chapters 57 (concluding
sentence)--63 inclusive of the first Epistle and chapters 12
(concluding sentences)--20, being the close of the second Epistle.
Harnack seems to prove that the new ms. is as complete as the original
The lacuna of the first Epistle consists mainly of a prayer, the
writer somewhat abruptly passing from the oratio obliqua to the oratio
recta. The prayer is indicative of intense earnestness and emotion
rather than official authority. It is marked by wealth of quotation,
especially from the Septuagint. Perhaps, too, the nature of the
sufferings referred to in the opening chapters may be inferred from
the petitions of this prayer.
In the Notes the old ms. is indicated by A, the recently discovered
ms. by I.
The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. 
Chapter I.--The Salutation. Praise of the Corinthians Before the
Breaking Forth of Schism Among Them.
The church of God which sojourns at Rome, to the church of God
sojourning at Corinth, to them that are called and sanctified by the
will of God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and
peace, from Almighty God through Jesus Christ, be multiplied.
Owing, dear brethren, to the sudden and successive calamitous events
 which have happened to ourselves, we feel that we have been
somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the points respecting which
you consulted us; and especially to that shameful and detestable
sedition, utterly abhorrent to the elect of God, which a few rash and
self-confident persons have kindled to such a pitch of frenzy, that
your venerable and illustrious name, worthy to be universally loved,
has suffered grievous injury. For who ever dwelt even for a
short time among you, and did not find your faith to be as fruitful of
virtue as it was firmly established? Who did not admire the
sobriety and moderation of your godliness in Christ? Who did not
proclaim the magnificence of your habitual hospitality? And who did
not rejoice over your perfect and well-grounded knowledge? For ye did
all things without respect of persons, and walked in the commandments
of God, being obedient to those who had the rule over you, and giving
all fitting honour to the presbyters among you. Ye enjoined young men
to be of a sober and serious mind, ye instructed your wives to do all
things with a blameless, becoming, and pure conscience, loving their
husbands as in duty bound; and ye taught them that, living in the rule
of obedience, they should manage their household affairs becomingly,
and be in every respect marked by discretion.
 According to I, the title is "Clement's (Epistle) to the
Corinthians." A includes in a Table of Contents of the New Testament
after the Apocalypse: "Clement's Epistle I." "Clement's Epistle II."
The space for the title for the 1st Epistle is mutilated, and we find
only "....Corinthians I.;" the 2d Epistle has no title. On the
authority of Eusebius, Jerome, Georgius Syncellus, the earlier
editions give the titles, "First Epistle of Saint Clement, Bishop of
Rome, to the Corinthians, written in name of the Church of Rome,"
"Second Epistle of Saint Clement, Bishop of Rome, to the Corinthians."
 I, peristaseis (critical experiences).
 Literally "is greatly blasphemed."
 Literally, "did not prove your all-virtuous and firm faith."
Chapter II.--Praise of the Corinthians Continued.
Moreover, ye were all distinguished by humility, and were in no
respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than
extorted it,  and were more willing to give than to receive.
Content with the provision which God  had made for you,
and carefully attending to His words, ye were inwardly filled 
with His doctrine, and His sufferings were before your eyes. Thus a
profound and abundant peace was given to you all, and ye had an
insatiable desire for doing good, while a full outpouring of the Holy
Spirit was upon you all. Full of holy designs, ye did, with true
earnestness of mind and a godly confidence, stretch forth your hands
to God Almighty, beseeching Him to be merciful unto you, if ye had
been guilty of any involuntary transgression. Day and night ye were
anxious for the whole brotherhood,  that the number of God's
elect might be saved with mercy  and a good conscience. 
Ye were sincere and uncorrupted, and forgetful of injuries between one
another. Every kind of faction and schism was abominable in your
sight. Ye mourned over the transgressions of your neighbours: their
deficiencies you deemed your own. Ye never grudged any act of
kindness, being "ready to every good work." Adorned by a
thoroughly virtuous and religious life, ye did all things in the fear
of God. The commandments and ordinances of the Lord were written upon
the tablets of your hearts. 
 Eph. v. 21; 1 Pet. v. 5.
 Acts xx. 35.
 I. Christou (Christ). In the monophysite controversy, the
theologians of Alexandria preferred to call the Lord "God" rather than
 Literally, "ye embraced it in your bowels."
 1 Pet. ii. 17.
 I. deous (fear).
 So in the ms., but many have suspected that the text is here
corrupt. Perhaps the best emendation is that which substitutes
sunaistheseos "compassion," for suneideseos "conscience."
 Tit. iii. 1.
 Prov. vii. 3.
Chapter III.--The Sad State of the Corinthian Church After Sedition
Arose in It from Envy and Emulation.
Every kind of honour and happiness  was bestowed upon you, and
then was fulfilled that which is written, "My beloved did eat and
drink, and was enlarged and became fat, and kicked." Hence
flowed emulation and envy, strife and sedition, persecution and
disorder, war and captivity. So the worthless rose up against the
honoured, those of no reputation against such as were renowned, the
foolish against the wise, the young against those advanced in years.
For this reason righteousness and peace are now far departed from you,
inasmuch as every one abandons the fear of God, and is become blind in
His faith,  neither walks in the ordinances of His appointment,
nor acts a part becoming a Christian,  but walks after his own
wicked lusts, resuming the practice of an unrighteous and ungodly
envy, by which death itself entered into the world. 
 Literally, "enlargement."
 Deut. xxxii. 15.
 It seems necessary to refer autou to God, in opposition to the
translation given by Abp. Wake and others.
 Literally, "Christ;" comp. 2 Cor. i. 21; Eph. iv. 20.
 Wisd. ii. 24.
Chapter IV.--Many Evils Have Already Flowed from This Source in
For thus it is written: "And it came to pass after certain days, that
Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God; and Abel
also brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the fat thereof.
And God had respect to Abel and to his offerings, but Cain and his
sacrifices He did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, and his
countenance fell. And God said to Cain, Why art thou grieved, and why
is thy countenance fallen? If thou offerest rightly, but dost not
divide rightly, hast thou not sinned? Be at peace: thine offering
returns to thyself, and thou shalt again possess it. And Cain said to
Abel his brother, Let us go into the field. And it came to pass,
while they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his
brother, and slew him." Ye see, brethren, how envy and
jealousy led to the murder of a brother. Through envy, also, our
father Jacob fled from the face of Esau his brother. Envy
made Joseph be persecuted unto death, and to come into bondage. 
Envy compelled Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt,
when he heard these words from his fellow-countryman, "Who made thee a
judge or a ruler over us? Wilt thou kill me, as thou didst kill the
Egyptian yesterday?" On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had
to make their abode without the camp. Envy brought down
Dathan and Abiram alive to Hades, through the sedition which they
excited against God's servant Moses. Through envy, David not
only underwent the hatred of foreigners, but was also persecuted by
Saul king of Israel. 
 Gen. iv. 3-8. The writer here, as always, follows the reading
of the Septuagint, which in this passage both alters and adds to the
Hebrew text. We have given the rendering approved by the best
critics; but some prefer to translate, as in our English version,
"unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." See,
for an ancient explanation of the passage, Irenæus, Adv. Hær., iv. 18,
 Gen. xxvii. 41, etc.
 Gen. xxxvii.
 Ex. ii. 14.
 Num. xii. 14, 15.
 Num. xvi. 33.
 1 Kings xviii. 8, etc.
Chapter V.--No Less Evils Have Arisen from the Same Source in the Most
Recent Times. The Martyrdom of Peter and Paul.
But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let us come to the most recent
spiritual heroes. Let us take the noble examples furnished in
our own generation. Through envy  and jealousy the greatest and
most righteous pillars [of the church] have been persecuted and put to
death. Let us set before our eyes the illustrious 
apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two,
but numerous labours; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom,
departed to the place of glory due to him. Owing to envy, Paul also
obtained  the reward of patient endurance, after being seven
times thrown into captivity,  compelled  to flee, and
stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the
illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness
 to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west,
 and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he
removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved
himself a striking example of patience.
 Literally, "those who have been athletes."
 I. erin (strife).
 I. heos thanatou ethlesan (contended unto death).
 Literally "good."
 I. edeixen (displayed).
 Seven imprisonments of St. Paul are not referred to in
 I. phugadeutheis (having become a fugitive). Archbishop Wake
here reads "scourged." We have followed the most recent critics in
filling up the numerous lacunæ in this Chapter.
 I. punctuates elabe dikaiosunen, (received righteousness,
 Some think Rome, others Spain, and others even Britain, to be
here referred to.
 That is, under Tigellinus and Sabinus, in the last year of the
Emperor Nero; but some think Helius and Polycletus referred to; and
others, both here and in the preceding sentence, regard the words as
denoting simply the witness borne by Peter and Paul to the truth of
the gospel before the rulers of the earth.
Chapter VI.--Continuation. Several Other Martyrs.
To these men who spent their lives in the practice of holiness, there
is to be added a great multitude of the elect, who, having through
envy endured many indignities and tortures, furnished us with a most
excellent example. Through envy, those women, the Danaids  and
Dircæ, being persecuted, after they had suffered terrible and
unspeakable torments, finished the course of their faith with
stedfastness,  and though weak in body, received a noble
reward. Envy has alienated wives from their husbands, and changed
that saying of our father Adam, "This is now bone of my bones, and
flesh of my flesh." Envy and strife have overthrown 
great cities, and rooted up mighty nations.
 Some suppose these to have been the names of two eminent female
martyrs under Nero; others regard the clause as an interpolation.
 Literally, "have reached to the stedfast course of faith."
 Gen. ii. 23.
 I. kateskapsen (razed to the ground).
Chapter VII.--An Exhortation to Repentance.
These things, beloved, we write unto you, not merely to admonish you
of your duty, but also to remind ourselves. For we are struggling on
the same arena, and the same conflict is assigned to both of us.
Wherefore let us give up vain and fruitless cares, and approach to the
glorious and venerable rule of our holy calling. Let us
attend to what is good, pleasing, and acceptable in the sight of Him
who formed us. Let us look stedfastly to the blood of Christ, and see
how precious that blood is to God  which, having been shed for
our salvation, has set the grace of repentance before the whole world.
Let us turn to  every age that has passed, and learn
that, from generation to generation, the Lord has granted a place of
repentance to all such as would be converted unto Him. Noah preached
repentance, and as many as listened to him were saved. Jonah
proclaimed destruction to the Ninevites;  but they, repenting of
their sins, propitiated God by prayer, and obtained salvation,
although they were aliens [to the covenant] of God.
 I. tes paradoseos hemon (of our tradition).
 I. to patri autou to theo (to His Father God).
 I. epenenken (conferred).
 I. dielthomen (traverse, trace).
 Gen. vii; 1 Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5.
 Jonah iii.
Chapter VIII.--Continuation Respecting Repentance.
The ministers of the grace of God have, by the Holy Spirit, spoken of
repentance; and the Lord of all things has himself declared with an
oath regarding it, "As I live, saith the Lord, I desire not the death
of the sinner, but rather his repentance;"  adding, moreover,
this gracious declaration, "Repent, O house of Israel, of your
iniquity." Say to the children of my people, Though your sins
reach from earth to heaven, and though they be redder  than
scarlet, and blacker than sack-cloth, yet if ye turn to me with your
whole heart, and say, Father! I will listen to you, as to a holy
 people. And in another place He speaks thus: "Wash you and
become clean; put away the wickedness of your souls from before mine
eyes; cease from your evil ways, and learn to do well; seek out
judgment, deliver the oppressed, judge the fatherless, and see that
justice is done to the widow; and come, and let us reason together.
He declares, Though your sins be like crimson, I will make them white
as snow; though they be like scarlet, I will whiten them like wool.
And if ye be willing and obey me, ye shall eat the good of the land;
but if ye refuse, and will not hearken unto me, the sword shall devour
you, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things." 
Desiring, therefore, that all His beloved should be partakers of
repentance, He has, by His almighty will, established [these
 Ezek. xxxiii. 11.
 Ezek. xviii. 30.
 Comp. Isa. i. 18.
 These words are not found in Scripture, though they are quoted
again by Clem. Alex. (Pædag. i. 10) as from Ezekiel.
 Isa. i. 16-20.
Chapter IX.--Examples of the Saints.
Wherefore, let us yield obedience to His excellent and glorious will;
and imploring His mercy and loving-kindness, while we forsake all
fruitless labours  and strife, and envy, which leads to death,
let us turn and have recourse to His compassions. Let us stedfastly
contemplate those who have perfectly ministered to his excellent
glory. Let us take (for instance) Enoch, who, being found righteous
in obedience, was translated, and death was never known to happen to
him. Noah, being found faithful, preached regeneration to the
world through his ministry; and the Lord saved by him the animals
which, with one accord, entered into the ark.
 Some read mataiologian, vain talk.
 Gen. v. 24; Heb. xi. 5. Literally, "and his death was not
Chapter X.--Continuation of the Above.
Abraham, styled "the friend,"  was found faithful, inasmuch as
he rendered obedience to the words of God. He, in the exercise of
obedience, went out from his own country, and from his kindred, and
from his father's house, in order that, by forsaking a small
territory, and a weak family, and an insignificant house, he might
inherit the promises of God. For God said to him, "Get thee out from
thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, into
the land which I shall show thee. And I will make thee a great
nation, and will bless thee, and make thy name great, and thou shalt
be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them
that curse thee; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be
blessed." And again, on his departing from Lot, God said to
him, "Lift up thine eyes, and look from the place where thou now art,
northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward; for all the land
which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever.
And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth, [so that] if a man
can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be
numbered." And again [the Scripture] saith, "God brought
forth Abram, and spake unto him, Look up now to heaven, and count the
stars if thou be able to number them; so shall thy seed be. And Abram
believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness." 
On account of his faith and hospitality, a son was given him in his
old age; and in the exercise of obedience, he offered him as a
sacrifice to God on one of the mountains which He showed him. 
 Isa. xli. 8; 2 Chron. xx. 7; Judith viii. 19; James ii. 23.
 Gen. xii. 1-3.
 Gen. xiii. 14-16.
 Gen. xv. 5, 6; Rom. iv. 3.
 Gen. xii. 22; Heb. xi. 17.
Chapter XI.--Continuation. Lot.
On account of his hospitality and godliness, Lot was saved out of
Sodom when all the country round was punished by means of fire and
brimstone, the Lord thus making it manifest that He does not forsake
those that hope in Him, but gives up such as depart from Him to
punishment and torture. For Lot's wife, who went forth with
him, being of a different mind from himself, and not continuing in
agreement with him [as to the command which had been given them], was
made an example of, so as to be a pillar of salt unto this day. 
This was done that all might know that those who are of a double
mind, and who distrust the power of God, bring down judgment on
themselves  and become a sign to all succeeding generations.
 Gen. xix; comp. 2 Pet. ii. 6-9.
 So Joseph., Antiq., i. 11. 4; Irenæus, Adv. Hær., iv. 31.
 Literally, "become a judgment and sign."
Chapter XII.--The Rewards of Faith and Hospitality. Rahab.
On account of her faith and hospitality, Rahab the harlot was saved.
For when spies were sent by Joshua, the son of Nun, to Jericho, the
king of the country ascertained that they were come to spy out their
land, and sent men to seize them, in order that, when taken, they
might be put to death. But the hospitable Rahab receiving them,
concealed them on the roof of her house under some stalks of flax.
And when the men sent by the king arrived and said, "There came men
unto thee who are to spy out our land; bring them forth, for so the
king commands," she answered them, "The two men whom ye seek came unto
me, but quickly departed again and are gone," thus not discovering the
spies to them. Then she said to the men, "I know assuredly that the
Lord your God hath given you this city, for the fear and dread of you
have fallen on its inhabitants. When therefore ye shall have taken
it, keep ye me and the house of my father in safety." And they said
to her, "It shall be as thou hast spoken to us. As soon, therefore,
as thou knowest that we are at hand, thou shalt gather all thy family
under thy roof, and they shall be preserved, but all that are found
outside of thy dwelling shall perish." Moreover, they gave
her a sign to this effect, that she should hang forth from her house a
scarlet thread. And thus they made it manifest that redemption should
flow through the blood of the Lord to all them that believe and hope
in God. Ye see, beloved, that there was not only faith, but
prophecy, in this woman.
 Josh. ii; Heb. xi. 31.
 Others of the fathers adopt the same allegorical
interpretation, e. g., Justin Mar., Dial. c. Tryph., n. 111; Irenæus,
Adv. Hær., iv. 20.
Chapter XIII.--An Exhortation to Humility.
Let us therefore, brethren, be of humble mind, laying aside all
haughtiness, and pride, and foolishness, and angry feelings; and let
us act according to that which is written (for the Holy Spirit saith,
"Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man
glory in his might, neither let the rich man glory in his riches; but
let him that glorieth glory in the Lord, in diligently seeking Him,
and doing judgment and righteousness"  ), being especially
mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake teaching us
meekness and long-suffering. For thus He spoke: "Be ye merciful,
that ye may obtain mercy; forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as
ye do, so shall it be done unto you; as ye judge, so shall ye be
judged; as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to you; with what
measure ye mete, with the same it shall be measured to you." 
By this precept and by these rules let us stablish ourselves, that we
walk with all humility in obedience to His holy words. For the holy
word saith, "On whom shall I look, but on him that is meek and
peaceable, and that trembleth at my words?" 
 Jer. ix. 23, 24; 1 Cor. i. 31; 2 Cor. x. 17.
 Comp. Matt. vi. 12-15, vii. 2; Luke vi. 36-38.
 Isa. lxvi. 2.
Chapter XIV.--We Should Obey God Rather Than the Authors of Sedition.
It is right and holy therefore, men and brethren, rather to obey God
than to follow those who, through pride and sedition, have become the
leaders of a detestable emulation. For we shall incur no slight
injury, but rather great danger, if we rashly yield ourselves to the
inclinations of men who aim at exciting strife and tumults,  so
as to draw us away from what is good. Let us be kind one to another
after the pattern of the tender mercy and benignity of our Creator.
For it is written, "The kind-hearted shall inhabit the land, and the
guiltless shall be left upon it, but transgressors shall be destroyed
from off the face of it." And again [the Scripture] saith, "I
saw the ungodly highly exalted, and lifted up like the cedars of
Lebanon: I passed by, and, behold, he was not; and I diligently
sought his place, and could not find it. Preserve innocence, and look
on equity: for there shall be a remnant to the peaceable man." 
 I. eis haireseis (sects).
 Prov. ii. 21, 22.
 Ps. xxxvii. 35-37. "Remnant" probably refers either to the
memory or posterity of the righteous.
Chapter XV.--We Must Adhere to Those Who Cultivate Peace, Not to Those
Who Merely Pretend to Do So.
Let us cleave, therefore, to those who cultivate peace with godliness,
and not to those who hypocritically profess to desire it. For [the
Scripture] saith in a certain place, "This people honoureth me with
their lips, but their heart is far from me." And again:
"They bless with their mouth, but curse with their heart." 
And again it saith, "They loved Him with their month, and lied 
to Him with their tongue; but their heart was not right with Him,
neither were they faithful in His covenant." "Let the
deceitful lips become silent,  [and "let the Lord destroy all
the lying lips,  ] and the boastful tongue of those who have
said, Let us magnify our tongue: our lips are our own; who is lord
over us? For the oppression of the poor, and for the sighing of the
needy, will I now arise, saith the Lord: I will place him in safety;
I will deal confidently with him." 
 Isa. xxix. 13; Matt. xv. 8; Mark vii. 6.
 Ps. lxii. 4.
 I. epsexan (blamed).
 Ps. lxxviii. 36, 37.
 Ps. xxxi. 18.
 These words within brackets are not found in the ms., but have
been inserted from the Septuagint by most editors.
 Ps. xii. 3-5.
Chapter XVI.--Christ as an Example of Humility.
For Christ is of those who are humble-minded, and not of those who
exalt themselves over His flock. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre
of the majesty of God, did not come in the pomp of pride or arrogance,
although He might have done so, but in a lowly condition, as the Holy
Spirit had declared regarding Him. For He says, "Lord, who hath
believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We
have declared [our message] in His presence: He is, as it were, a
child, and like a root in thirsty ground; He has no form nor glory,
yea, we saw Him, and He had no form nor comeliness; but His form was
without eminence, yea, deficient in comparison with the [ordinary]
form of men. He is a man exposed to stripes and suffering, and
acquainted with the endurance of grief: for His countenance was
turned away; He was despised, and not esteemed. He bears our
iniquities, and is in sorrow for our sakes; yet we supposed that [on
His own account] He was exposed to labour, and stripes, and
affliction. But He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised
for our iniquities. The chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and
by His stripes we were healed. All we, like sheep, have gone astray;
[every] man has wandered in his own way; and the Lord has delivered
Him up for our sins, while He in the midst of His sufferings openeth
not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a
lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He openeth not His mouth. In His
humiliation His judgment was taken away; who shall declare His
generation? for His life is taken from the earth. For the
transgressions of my people was He brought down to death. And I will
give the wicked for His sepulchre, and the rich for His death, 
because He did no iniquity, neither was guile found in His mouth. And
the Lord is pleased to purify him by stripes. If ye make
 an offering for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed.
And the Lord is pleased to relieve Him of the affliction of His soul,
to show Him light, and to form Him with understanding,  to
justify the Just One who ministereth well to many; and He Himself
shall carry their sins. On this account He shall inherit many, and
shall divide the spoil of the strong; because His soul was delivered
to death, and He was reckoned among the transgressors, and He bare the
sins of many, and for their sins was He delivered." And again
He saith, "I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of
the people. All that see me have derided me; they have spoken with
their lips; they have wagged their head, [saying] He hoped in God, let
Him deliver Him, let Him save Him, since He delighteth in Him." 
Ye see, beloved, what is the example which has been given us; for if
the Lord thus humbled Himself, what shall we do who have through Him
come under the yoke of His grace?
 The Latin of Cotelerius, adopted by Hefele and Dressel,
translates this clause as follows: "I will set free the wicked on
account of His sepulchre, and the rich on account of His death."
 The reading of the ms., is tes pleges, "purify, or free Him,
from stripes." We have adopted the emendation of Junius.
 Wotton reads, "If He make."
 Or, "fill Him with understanding," if plesai should be read
instead of plasai as Grabe suggests.
 Isa. liii. The reader will observe how often the text of the
Septuagint, here quoted, differs from the Hebrew as represented by our
authorized English version.
 Ps. xxii. 6-8.
Chapter XVII.--The Saints as Examples of Humility.
Let us be imitators also of those who in goat-skins and sheep-skins
 went about proclaiming the coming of Christ; I mean Elijah,
Elisha, and Ezekiel among the prophets, with those others to whom a
like testimony is borne [in Scripture]. Abraham was specially
honoured, and was called the friend of God; yet he, earnestly
regarding the glory of God, humbly declared, "I am but dust and
ashes." Moreover, it is thus written of Job, "Job was a
righteous man, and blameless, truthful, God-fearing, and one that kept
himself from all evil." But bringing an accusation against
himself, he said, "No man is free from defilement, even if his life be
but of one day." Moses was called faithful in all God's
house;  and through his instrumentality,  God punished
Egypt with plagues and tortures. Yet he, though thus greatly
honoured, did not adopt lofty language, but said, when the divine
oracle came to him out of the bush, "Who am I, that Thou sendest me?
I am a man of a feeble voice and a slow tongue." And again he
said, "I am but as the smoke of a pot." 
 Heb. xi. 37.
 Gen. xviii. 27.
 Job i. 1.
 Job xiv. 4, 5.
 Num. xii. 7; Heb. iii. 2.
 I. huperesias (service).
 Ex. iii. 11, iv. 10.
 This is not found in Scripture.
Chapter XVIII.--David as an Example of Humility.
But what shall we say concerning David, to whom such testimony was
borne, and of whom  God said, "I have found a man after mine own
heart, David the son of Jesse; and in everlasting mercy have I
anointed him?" Yet this very man saith to God, "Have mercy on
me, O Lord, according to Thy great mercy; and according to the
multitude of Thy compassions, blot out my transgression. Wash
me still more from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. For I
acknowledge mine iniquity, and my sin is ever before me. Against Thee
only have I sinned, and done that which is evil in Thy sight; that
Thou mayest be justified in Thy sayings, and mayest overcome when Thou
 art judged. For, behold, I was conceived in transgressions,
and in sins did my mother conceive me. For, behold, Thou hast loved
truth; the secret and hidden things of wisdom hast Thou shown me.
Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed; Thou
shalt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. Thou shalt make me to
hear joy and gladness; my bones, which have been humbled, shall
exult. Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine
iniquities. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right
spirit within me. Cast me not away from Thy presence, and
take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of Thy
salvation, and establish me by Thy governing Spirit. I will teach
transgressors Thy ways, and the ungodly shall be converted unto Thee.
Deliver me from blood-guiltiness,  O God, the God of my
salvation: my tongue shall exult in Thy righteousness. O Lord, Thou
shalt open my mouth, and my lips shall show forth Thy praise. For if
Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would have given it; Thou wilt not
delight in burnt-offerings. The sacrifice [acceptable] to God is a
bruised spirit; a broken and a contrite heart God will not despise."
 Or, as some render "to whom."
 Ps. lxxxix. 21.
 "Wash me...." and following verses omitted in I.
 Or, "when Thou judgest."
 Literally, "in my inwards."
 Literally, "bloods."
 Ps. li. 1-17.
Chapter XIX.--Imitating These Examples, Let Us Seek After Peace.
Thus the humility and godly submission of so great and illustrious men
have rendered not only us, but also all the generations before us,
better; even as many as have received His oracles in fear and truth.
Wherefore, having so many great and glorious examples set before us,
let us turn again to the practice of that peace which from the
beginning was the mark set before us;  and let us look
stedfastly to the Father and Creator of the universe, and cleave to
His mighty and surpassingly great gifts and benefactions of peace.
Let us contemplate Him with our understanding, and look with the eyes
of our soul to His long-suffering will. Let us reflect how free from
the wrath He is towards all His creation.
 Literally, "Becoming partakers of many great and glorious
deeds, let us return to the aim of peace delivered to me from the
beginning." Comp. Heb. xii. 1.
Chapter XX.--The Peace and Harmony of the Universe.
The heavens, revolving under His government, are subject to Him in
peace. Day and night run the course appointed by Him, in no wise
hindering each other. The sun and moon, with the companies of the
stars, roll on in harmony according to His command, within their
prescribed limits, and without any deviation. The fruitful earth,
according to His will, brings forth food in abundance, at the proper
seasons, for man and beast and all the living beings upon it, never
hesitating, nor changing any of the ordinances which He has fixed.
The unsearchable places of abysses, and the indescribable arrangements
of the lower world, are restrained by the same laws. The vast
unmeasurable sea, gathered together by His working into various
basins,  never passes beyond the bounds placed around it, but
does as He has commanded. For He said, "Thus far shalt thou come, and
thy waves shall be broken within thee." The ocean, impassable
to man and the worlds beyond it, are regulated by the same enactments
of the Lord. The seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter,
peacefully give place  to one another. The winds in their
several quarters  fulfil, at the proper time, their service
without hindrance. The ever-flowing fountains, formed both for
enjoyment and health, furnish without fail their breasts for the life
of men. The very smallest of living beings meet together in peace and
concord. All these the great Creator and Lord of all has appointed to
exist in peace and harmony; while He does good to all, but most
abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to His compassions through
Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and
 Or, "collections."
 Job xxxviii. 11.
 I. metaprodidoasi (transfer from one to another).
 Or "stations."
Chapter XXI.--Let Us Obey God, and Not the Authors of Sedition.
Take heed, beloved, lest His many kindnesses lead to the condemnation
of us all. [For thus it must be] unless we walk worthy of Him, and
with one mind do those things which are good and well-pleasing in His
sight. For [the Scripture] saith in a certain place, "The Spirit of
the Lord is a candle searching the secret parts of the belly." 
Let us reflect how near He is, and that none of the thoughts or
reasonings in which we engage are hid from Him. It is right,
therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has
assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and
inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their
speech, than [offend] God. Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ,
 whose blood was given for us; let us esteem those who have the
rule over us;  let us honour the aged  among us; let us
train up the young men in the fear of God; let us direct our wives to
that which is good. Let them exhibit the lovely habit of purity [in
all their conduct]; let them show forth the sincere disposition of
meekness; let them make manifest the command which they have of their
tongue, by their manner  of speaking; let them display their
love, not by preferring  one to another, but by showing equal
affection to all that piously fear God. Let your children be
partakers of true Christian training; let them learn of how great
avail humility is with God--how much the spirit of pure affection can
prevail with Him--how excellent and great His fear is, and how it
saves all those who walk in  it with a pure mind. For He is a
Searcher of the thoughts and desires [of the heart]: His breath is in
us; and when He pleases, He will take it away.
 Prov. xx. 27.
 I. omits "Christ."
 Comp. Heb. xiii. 17; 1 Thess. v. 12, 13.
 Or, "the presbyters."
 I. siges (silence).
 I. proskleseis (summonses). Comp. 1 Tim. v. 21.
 Some translate, "who turn to Him."
Chapter XXII.--These Exhortations are Confirmed by the Christian
Faith, Which Proclaims the Misery of Sinful Conduct.
Now the faith which is in Christ confirms all these [admonitions].
For He Himself by the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: "Come, ye
children, hearken unto me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.
What man is he that desireth life, and loveth to see good
days? Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.
Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. The eyes of
the Lord are upon the righteous, and His ears are [open] unto their
prayers. The face of the Lord is against them that do evil, to cut
off the remembrance of them from the earth. The righteous cried, and
the Lord heard him, and delivered him out of all his troubles." 
"Many are the stripes [appointed for] the wicked; but mercy shall
compass those about who hope in the Lord." 
 I. omits rest of quotation as far us "Many," etc.
 Ps. xxxiv. 11-17.
 Ps. xxxii. 10.
Chapter XXIII.--Be Humble, and Believe that Christ Will Come Again.
The all-merciful and beneficent Father has bowels [of compassion]
towards those that fear Him, and kindly and lovingly bestows His
favours upon those who come to Him with a simple mind. Wherefore let
us not be double-minded; neither let our soul be lifted  up on
account of His exceedingly great and glorious gifts. Far from us be
that which is written, "Wretched are they who are of a double mind,
and of a doubting heart; who say, These things we have heard even in
the times of our fathers; but, behold, we have grown old, and none of
them has happened unto us;"  Ye foolish ones! compare yourselves
to a tree; take [for instance] the vine. First of all, it sheds its
leaves,  then it buds, next it puts forth leaves, and then it
flowers; after that comes the sour grape, and then follows the ripened
fruit. Ye perceive how in a little time the fruit of a tree comes to
maturity. Of a truth, soon and suddenly shall His will be
accomplished, as the Scripture also bears witness, saying, "Speedily
will He come, and will not tarry;"  and, "The Lord shall
suddenly come to His temple, even the Holy One, for whom ye look."
 Or, as some render, "neither let us have any doubt of."
 Some regard these words as taken from an apocryphal book,
others as derived from a fusion of James i. 8 and 2 Pet. iii. 3, 4.
 I. omits.
 Hab. ii. 3; Heb. x. 37.
 Mal. iii. 1.
Chapter XXIV.--God Continually Shows Us in Nature that There Will Be a
Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to us that
there shall be a future resurrection, of which He has rendered the
Lord Jesus Christ  the first-fruits  by raising Him from
the dead. Let us contemplate, beloved, the resurrection which is at
all times  taking place. Day and night declare to us a
resurrection. The night sinks to sleep, and the day arises; the day
[again] departs, and the night comes on. Let us behold  the
fruits [of the earth], how the sowing of grain takes place. The sower
 goes forth, and casts it into the ground,  and the seed
being thus scattered, though dry and naked when it fell upon the
earth, is gradually dissolved. Then out of its dissolution the mighty
power of the providence of the Lord raises it up again, and from one
seed many arise and bring forth fruit.
 I. omits "Christ."
 Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 20; Col. i. 18.
 I. kata kairon (in due season).
 I. labomen (let us take).
 Comp. Luke viii. 5.
 I. adds hekaston ton spermaton (the seeds severally.)
Chapter XXV.--The Phoenix an Emblem of Our Resurrection.
Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the resurrection] which takes
place in eastern lands, that is, in Arabia and the countries round
about. There is a certain bird which is called a phoenix. This is
the only one of its kind, and lives five hundred years. And when the
time of its dissolution draws near that it must die, it builds itself
a nest of frankincense, and myrrh, and other spices, into which, when
the time is fulfilled, it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a
certain kind of worm is produced, which, being nourished by the juices
of the deed bird, brings forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired
strength, it takes up that nest in which are the bones of its parent,
and bearing these it passes  from the land of Arabia into Egypt,
to the city called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying  in the
sight of all men, it places them on the altar of the sun, and having
done this, hastens back to its former abode. The priests then inspect
the registers of the dates, and find that it has returned exactly as
the five hundredth year was completed. 
 I. dianuei (accomplishes its journey).
 I. omits epiptas (on the wing, flying).
 This fable respecting the phoenix is mentioned by Herodotus
(ii. 73), and by Pliny (Nat. Hist., x. 2). and is used as above by
Tertullian (De Resurr., § 13), and by others of the fathers.
Chapter XXVI.--We Shall Rise Again, Then, as the Scripture Also
Do we then deem it any great and wonderful thing for the Maker of all
things to raise up again those that have piously served Him in the
assurance of a good faith, when even by a bird He shows us the
mightiness of His power to fulfil His promise? For [the
Scripture] saith in a certain place, "Thou shalt raise me up, and I
shall confess unto Thee";  and again, "I laid me down, and
slept"; "I awaked, because Thou art with me;"  and again, Job
says, "Thou shalt raise up this flesh of mine, which has suffered all
these things." 
 Literally, "the mightiness of His promise."
 Ps. xxviii. 7, or from some apocryphal book.
 Comp. Ps. iii. 6.
 Job xix. 25, 26.
Chapter XXVII.--In the Hope of the Resurrection, Let Us Cleave to the
Omnipotent and Omniscient God.
Having then this hope, let our souls be bound to Him who is faithful
in His promises, and just in His judgments. He who has commanded us
not to lie, shall much more Himself not lie; for nothing is impossible
with God, except to lie. Let His faith therefore be stirred
up again within us, and let us consider that all things are nigh unto
Him. By the word of His might  He established all things, and
by His word He can overthrow them. "Who shall say unto Him, What hast
thou done? or, Who shall resist the power of His strength?" 
When, and as He pleases, He will do all things, and none of the things
determined by Him shall pass away. All things are open before
Him, and nothing can be hidden from His counsel. "The heavens 
declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handy-work.
Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth
knowledge. And there are no words or speeches of which the voices are
not heard." 
 Comp. Tit. i. 2; Heb. vi. 18.
 Or "majesty."
 Wisd. xii. 12, xi. 21.
 Comp. Matt. xxiv. 35.
 Literally, "if the heavens," etc.
 I. omits.
 Ps. xix. 1-3. I. omits Ps. xix. 2-4, with the exception of the
concluding words, akouontai hai phonai auton (their voices are heard),
which are connected with the opening words of the following Chapter.
Chapter XXVIII.--God Sees All Things: Therefore Let Us Avoid
Since then all things are seen and heard [by God], let us fear Him,
and forsake those wicked works which proceed from evil  desires;
 so that, through His mercy, we may be protected from the
judgments to come. For whither can any of us flee from His mighty
hand? Or what world will receive any of those who run away from Him?
For the Scripture saith in a certain place, "Whither shall I go, and
where shall I be hid from Thy presence? If I ascend into heaven, Thou
art there; if I go away even to the uttermost parts of the earth,
there is Thy right hand;  if I make my bed in the abyss, there
is Thy Spirit." Whither, then, shall anyone go, or where
shall he escape from Him who comprehends all things?
 I. blaberas (hurtful).
 Literally, "abominable lusts of evil deeds."
 I. su ekei ei (Thou art there).
 Ps. cxxxix. 7-10.
Chapter XXIX.--Let Us Also Draw Near to God in Purity of Heart.
Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure
and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father,
who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect. For
thus it is written, "When the Most High divided the nations, when He
scattered  the sons of Adam, He fixed the bounds of the nations
according to the number of the angels of God. His people Jacob became
the portion of the Lord, and Israel the lot of His inheritance. 
And in another place [the Scripture] saith, "Behold, the Lord taketh
unto Himself a nation out of the midst of the nations, as a man takes
the first-fruits of his threshing-floor; and from that nation shall
come forth the Most Holy." 
 Literally, "has made us to Himself a part of election."
 Literally, "sowed abroad."
 Deut. xxxii. 8, 9.
 Formed apparently from Num. xviii. 27 and 2 Chron. xxxi. 14.
Literally, the closing words are, "the holy of holies."
Chapter XXX.--Let Us Do Those Things that Please God, and Flee from
Those He Hates, that We May Be Blessed.
Seeing, therefore, that we are the portion of the Holy One,  let
us do all those things which pertain to holiness, avoiding all
evil-speaking, all abominable and impure embraces, together with all
drunkenness, seeking after change,  all abominable lusts,
detestable adultery, and execrable pride. "For God," [saith the
Scripture], "resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble."
Let us cleave, then, to those to whom grace has been given by
God. Let us clothe ourselves with concord and humility, ever
exercising self-control, standing far off from all whispering and
evil-speaking, being justified by our works, and not our words. For
[the Scripture] saith, "He that speaketh much, shall also hear much in
answer. And does he that is ready in speech deem himself righteous?
Blessed  is he that is born of woman, who liveth but a short
time: be not given to much speaking." Let our praise be in
God, and not of ourselves; for God hateth those that commend
themselves. Let testimony to our good  deeds be borne by
others, as it was in the case of our righteous forefathers. Boldness,
and arrogance, and audacity belong to  those that are accursed
of God; but moderation, humility, and meekness to such as are blessed
 I. hagia mere (holy parts.)
 Some translate, "youthful lusts."
 Prov. iii. 34; James iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5.
 I. omits.
 Job xi. 2, 3. The translation is doubtful.
 I. omits.
 I. edothe (was given).
Chapter XXXI.--Let Us See by What Means We May Obtain the Divine
Let us cleave then to His blessing, and consider what are the means
 of possessing it. Let us think  over the things which
have taken place from the beginning. For what reason was our father
Abraham blessed? Was it not because he wrought righteousness and
truth through faith? Isaac,  with perfect confidence, as if
knowing what was to happen,  cheerfully yielded himself as a
sacrifice. Jacob, through reason  of his brother, went
forth with humility from his own land, and came to Laban and served
him; and there was given to him the sceptre of the twelve tribes of
 Literally, "what are the ways of His blessing."
 Literally, "unroll."
 Comp. James ii. 21.
 Some translate, "knowing what was to come."
 Gen. xxii. 6-10.
 So Jacobson: Wotton reads, "fleeing from his brother."
Chapter XXXII.--We are Justified Not by Our Own Works, But by Faith.
Whosoever will candidly consider each particular, will recognise the
greatness of the gifts which were given by him. For from him
 have sprung the priests and all the Levites who minister at the
altar of God. From him also [was descended] our Lord Jesus Christ
according to the flesh. From him [arose] kings, princes, and
rulers of the race of Judah. Nor are his other tribes in small glory,
 inasmuch as God had promised, "Thy seed shall be as the stars
of heaven." All these, therefore, were highly honoured, and
made great, not for their own sake, or for their own works, or for the
righteousness which they wrought, but through the operation of His
will. And we, too, being called by His will  in Christ Jesus,
are not justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or
understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in
holiness of heart; but by that faith through which, from the
beginning, Almighty God has justified all men; to whom be glory for
ever and ever. Amen.
 The meaning here is very doubtful. Some translate, "the gifts
which were given to Jacob by Him," i.e. God.
 ms. auton, referring to the gifts: we have followed the
emendation autou, adopted by most editors. Some refer the word to
God, and not Jacob.
 Comp. Rom. ix. 5.
 I. taxei (rank).
 Gen. xxii. 17, xxviii. 4.
 I. omits.
Chapter XXXIII.--But Let Us Not Give Up the Practice of Good Works and
Love. God Himself is an Example to Us of Good Works.
What shall we do,  then, brethren? Shall we become slothful in
well-doing, and cease from the practice of love? God forbid that any
such course should be followed by us! But rather let us hasten with
all energy and readiness of mind to perform every good work. For the
Creator and Lord of all Himself rejoices in His works. For by His
infinitely great power He established the heavens, and by His
incomprehensible wisdom He adorned them. He also divided the earth
from the water which surrounds it, and fixed it upon the immovable
foundation of His own will. The animals also which are upon it He
commanded by His own word  into existence. So likewise, when He
had formed  the sea, and the living creatures which are in it,
He enclosed them [within their proper bounds] by His own power. Above
all,  with His holy and undefiled hands He formed man, the most
excellent [of His creatures], and truly great through the
understanding given him--the express likeness of His own image. For
thus says God: "Let us make man in our image, and after our
likeness. So God made man; male and female He created them." 
Having thus finished all these things, He approved them, and blessed
them, and said, "Increase and multiply." We see,  then,
how all righteous men have been adorned with good works, and how the
Lord Himself, adorning Himself with His works, rejoiced. Having
therefore such an example, let us without delay accede to His will,
and let us work the work of righteousness with our whole strength.
 I. eroumin (shall we say).
 Or, "commandment."
 I. proetoimasas (having previously prepared).
 Or, "in addition to all."
 Gen. i. 26, 27.
 Gen. i. 28.
 Or, "let us consider."
Chapter XXXIV.--Great is the Reward of Good Works with God. Joined
Together in Harmony, Let Us Implore that Reward from Him.
The good servant  receives the bread of his labour with
confidence; the lazy and slothful cannot look his employer in the
face. It is requisite, therefore, that we be prompt in the practice
of well-doing; for of Him are all things. And thus He forewarns us:
"Behold, the Lord [cometh], and His reward is before His face, to
render to every man according to his work." He exhorts us,
therefore,  with our whole heart to attend to this,  that
we be not lazy or slothful in any good work. Let our boasting and our
confidence be in Him. Let us submit ourselves to His will. Let us
consider the whole multitude of His angels, how they stand ever ready
to minister to His will. For the Scripture saith, "Ten thousand times
ten thousand stood around Him, and thousands of thousands ministered
unto Him,  and cried, Holy, holy, holy, [is] the Lord of
Sabaoth; the whole creation  is full of His glory." And
let us therefore, conscientiously gathering together in harmony, cry
to Him earnestly, as with one mouth, that we may be made partakers of
His great and glorious promises. For [the Scripture] saith, "Eye hath
not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man,
the things which He hath prepared for them that wait for  Him."
 Or, "labourer."
 Isa. xl. 10, lxii. 11; Rev. xxii. 12.
 I. pisteuontas (believing).
 The text here seems to be corrupt. Some translate, "He warns
us with all His heart to this end, that," etc.
 Dan. vii. 10.
 I. ge (earth).
 Isa. vi. 3.
 I. agaposin (love).
 1 Cor. ii. 9.
Chapter XXXV.--Immense is This Reward. How Shall We Obtain It?
How blessed and wonderful, beloved, are the gifts of God! Life in
immortality, splendour in righteousness, truth in perfect confidence,
 faith in assurance, self-control in holiness! And all these
fall under the cognizance of our understandings [now]; what then shall
those things be which are prepared for such as wait for Him? The
Creator and Father of all worlds,  the Most Holy,  alone
knows their amount and their beauty. Let us therefore earnestly
strive to be found in the number of those that wait for Him, in order
that we may share in His promised gifts. But how, beloved, shall this
be done? If our understanding be fixed by faith towards God; if we
earnestly seek the things  which are pleasing and acceptable to
Him; if we do the things which are in harmony with His blameless will;
and if we follow the way of truth, casting away from us all
unrighteousness and iniquity,  along with all covetousness,
 strife, evil practices, deceit, whispering, and evil-speaking,
all hatred of God, pride and haughtiness, vain glory and ambition.
For they that do such things are hateful to God; and not only
they that do them, but also those that take pleasure in them that do
them. For the Scripture saith, "But to the sinner God said,
Wherefore dost thou declare my statutes, and take my covenant into thy
mouth, seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind
thee? When thou sawest a thief, thou consentedst with  him, and
didst make thy portion with adulterers. Thy mouth has abounded with
wickedness, and thy tongue contrived  deceit. Thou sittest, and
speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest  thine own
mother's son. These things thou hast done, and I kept silence; thou
thoughtest, wicked one, that I should be like to thyself. But I will
reprove thee, and set thyself before thee. Consider now these things,
ye that forget God, lest He tear you in pieces, like a lion, and there
be none to deliver. The sacrifice of praise will glorify me,
and a way is there by which I will show him the salvation of God."
 Some translate, "in liberty."
 Or, "of the ages."
 I. ho demiourgos ton aionon kai poter panagios (the Creator
Eternal and Father All-Holy.)
 I. ta agatha (good things) added.
 I. ponerian (wickedness).
 I. omits pleonexia (covetousness).
 The reading is doubtful: some have aphiloxenian, "want of a
 Rom. i. 32.
 Literally, "didst run with."
 Literally, "did weave."
 Or, "layest a snare for."
 I. omit "su de emisesas...ho rhuomenos Ps. l. 17-22, and
connects by en to telei (in the end).
 Ps. l. 16-23. The render will observe how the Septuagint
followed by Clement differs from the Hebrew.
Chapter XXXVI.--All Blessings are Given to Us Through Christ.
This is the way, beloved, in which we find our Saviour,  even
Jesus Christ, the High Priest of all our offerings, the defender and
helper of our infirmity. By Him we look up to the heights of heaven.
By Him we behold, as in a glass, His immaculate and most excellent
visage. By Him are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our foolish
and darkened understanding blossoms  up anew towards His
marvellous light. By Him the Lord has willed that we should taste of
immortal knowledge,  "who, being the brightness of His majesty,
is by so much greater than the angels, as He hath by inheritance
obtained a more excellent name than they." For it is thus
written, "Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of
fire." But concerning His Son  the Lord spoke thus:
"Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten Thee. Ask of me, and I will
give Thee the heathen for Thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts
of the earth for Thy possession." And again He saith to Him,
"Sit Thou at my right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool."
But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set
themselves to oppose the will of God. 
 Literally, "that which saves us."
 Or, "rejoices to behold."
 Or, "knowledge of immortality."
 Heb. i. 3, 4.
 Ps. civ. 4; Heb. i. 7.
 Some render, "to the Son."
 Ps. ii. 7, 8; Heb. i. 5.
 Ps. cx. 1; Heb. i. 13.
 Some read, "who oppose their own will to that of God."
Chapter XXXVII.--Christ is Our Leader, and We His Soldiers.
Let us then, men and brethren, with all energy act the part of
soldiers, in accordance with His holy commandments. Let us consider
those who serve under our generals, with what order, obedience, 
and submissiveness they perform the things which are commanded them.
All are not prefects, nor commanders of a thousand, nor of a hundred,
nor of fifty, nor the like, but each one in his own rank performs the
things commanded by the king and the generals. The great cannot
subsist without the small, nor the small without the great. There is
a kind of mixture in all things, and thence arises mutual advantage.
Let us take our body for an example. The head is
nothing without the feet, and the feet are nothing without the head;
yea, the very smallest members of our body are necessary and useful to
the whole body. But all work  harmoniously together, and are
under one common rule  for the preservation of the whole body.
 I. hektikos (habitually).
 Literally, "in these there is use."
 1 Cor. xii. 12, etc.
 Literally, "all breathe together."
 Literally, "use one subjection."
Chapter XXXVIII.--Let the Members of the Church Submit Themselves, and
No One Exalt Himself Above Another.
Let our whole body, then, be preserved in Christ Jesus;  and let
every one be subject to his neighbour, according to the special gift
 bestowed upon him. Let the strong not despise  the weak,
and let the weak show respect unto the strong. Let the rich man
provide for the wants of the poor; and let the poor man bless God,
because He hath given him one by whom his need may be supplied. Let
the wise man display his wisdom, not by [mere] words, but through good
deeds. Let the humble not bear testimony to himself, but leave
witness to be borne to him by another. Let him that is pure
in the flesh not grow proud  of it, and boast, knowing that it
was another who bestowed on him the gift of continence. Let us
consider, then, brethren, of what matter we were made,--who and what
manner of beings we came into the world, as it were out of a
sepulchre, and from utter darkness. He who made us and
fashioned us, having prepared His bountiful gifts for us before we
were born, introduced us into His world. Since, therefore, we receive
all these things from Him, we ought for everything to give Him thanks;
to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
 I. omits "Jesus."
 Literally, "according as he has been placed in his charism."
 I. temeleito (attend to).
 Comp. Prov. xxvii. 2.
 The ms. is here slightly torn, and we are left to conjecture.
 Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 15.
Chapter XXXIX.--There is No Reason for Self-Conceit.
Foolish and inconsiderate  men, who have neither wisdom 
nor instruction, mock and deride us, being eager to exalt themselves
in their own conceits. For what can a mortal man do, or what strength
is there in one made out of the dust? For it is written, "There was
no shape before mine eyes, only I heard a sound,  and a voice
[saying], What then? Shall a man be pure before the Lord? Or shall
such an one be [counted] blameless in his deeds, seeing He does not
confide in His servants, and has charged  even His angels with
perversity? The heaven is not clean in His sight: how much less they
that dwell in houses of clay, of which also we ourselves were made!
He smote them as a moth; and from morning even until evening they
endure not. Because they could furnish no assistance to themselves,
they perished. He breathed upon them, and they died, because they had
no wisdom. But call now, if any one will answer thee, or if thou wilt
look to any of the holy angels; for wrath destroys the foolish man,
and envy killeth him that is in error. I have seen the foolish taking
root, but their habitation was presently consumed. Let their sons be
far from safety; let them be despised  before the gates of those
less than themselves, and there shall be none to deliver. For what
was prepared for them, the righteous shall eat; and they shall not be
delivered from evil." 
 I omits kai asunetoi (and without understanding).
 Literally, "and silly and uninstructed."
 Literally, "a breath."
 Or, "has perceived."
 Some render, "they perished at the gates."
 Job iv. 16-18, 19-21, v. 1-5, xv. 15.
Chapter XL.--Let Us Preserve in the Church the Order Appointed by God.
These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into
the depths of the divine knowledge, it behoves us to do all things in
[their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at
stated times. He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and
service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or
irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom
He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own
supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according
to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him. Those,
therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are
accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the
Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the
high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests,
and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The
layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.
 Some join kata kairous tetagmenous, "at stated times," to the
 Literally, "to His will."
Chapter XLI.--Continuation of the Same Subject.
Let every one of you, brethren, give thanks  to God in his own
order, living in all good conscience, with becoming gravity, and not
going beyond the rule of the ministry prescribed to him. Not in every
place, brethren, are the daily sacrifices offered, or the
peace-offerings, or the sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but
in Jerusalem only. And even there they are not offered in any place,
but only at the altar before the temple, that which is offered being
first carefully examined by the high priest and the ministers already
mentioned. Those, therefore, who do anything beyond that which is
agreeable to His will, are punished with death. Ye see, 
brethren, that the greater the knowledge that has been vouchsafed to
us, the greater also is the danger to which we are exposed.
 I. euaresteito (be well-pleasing).
 Or, "consider."
Chapter XLII.--The Order of Ministers in the Church.
The apostles have preached the gospel to us from  the Lord Jesus
Christ; Jesus  Christ [has done so] from God. Christ therefore
was sent forth by God,  and the apostles by Christ. Both these
appointments,  then, were made in an orderly way, according to
the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being
fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and
established  in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy
Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at
hand. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed
the first fruits [of their labours], having first proved them by the
Spirit,  to be bishops and deacons of those who should
afterwards believe. Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many
ages before it was written concerning bishops and deacons. For thus
saith the Scripture in a certain place, "I will appoint their bishops
 in righteousness, and their deacons  in faith." 
 Or, "by the command of."
 A. "the Christ," I. "Christ."
 I. omits.
 Literally, "both things were done."
 Or, "confirmed by."
 Or, "having tested them in spirit."
 Or, "overseers."
 Or, "servants."
 Isa. lx. 17, Sept.; but the text is here altered by Clement.
The LXX. have, "I will give thy rulers in peace, and thy overseers in
Chapter XLIII.--Moses of Old Stilled the Contention Which Arose
Concerning the Priestly Dignity.
And what wonder is it if those in Christ who were entrusted with such
a duty by God, appointed those [ministers] before mentioned, when the
blessed Moses also, "a faithful servant in all his house," 
noted down in the sacred books all the injunctions which were given
him, and when the other prophets also followed him, bearing witness
with one consent to the ordinances which he had appointed? For, when
rivalry arose concerning the priesthood, and the tribes were
contending among themselves as to which of them should be adorned with
that glorious title, he commanded the twelve princes of the tribes to
bring him their rods, each one being inscribed with the name  of
the tribe. And he took them and bound them [together], and sealed
them with the rings of the princes of the tribes, and laid them up in
the tabernacle of witness on the table of God. And having shut the
doors of the tabernacle, he sealed the keys, as he had done the rods,
and said to them, Men and brethren, the tribe whose rod shall blossom
has God chosen to fulfil the office of the priesthood, and to minister
unto Him. And when the morning was come, he assembled all Israel, six
hundred thousand men, and showed the seals to the princes of the
tribes, and opened the tabernacle of witness, and brought forth the
rods. And the rod of Aaron was found not only to have blossomed, but
to bear fruit upon it. What think ye, beloved? Did not Moses
know beforehand that this would happen? Undoubtedly he knew; but he
acted thus, that there might be no sedition in Israel, and that the
name of the true and only God might be glorified; to whom be glory for
ever and ever. Amen.
 Num. xii. 10; Heb. iii. 5.
 Literally, "every tribe being written according to its name."
 See Num xvii.
Chapter XLIV.--The Ordinances of the Apostles, that There Might Be No
Contention Respecting the Priestly Office.
Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there
would be strife on account of the office  of the episcopate.
For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect
fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those [ministers] already
mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions,  that when these
should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their
ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them,
 or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the
whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in
a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long
time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed
from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from
the episcopate  those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled
its duties. Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished
their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect
departure [from this world]; for they have no fear lest any one
deprive them of the place now appointed them. But we see that ye have
removed some men of excellent behaviour from the ministry, which they
fulfilled blamelessly and with honour.
 Literally, "on account of the title of the oversight " Some
understand this to mean, "in regard to the dignity of the episcopate;"
and others simply, "on account of the oversight." I. for epinome
gives epidomeBryennius conjectures epidoche, which perhaps, may be
rendered "Succession" (diadoche).
 The meaning of this passage is much controverted. Some render,
"left a list of other approved persons;" while others translate the
unusual word epinome, which causes the difficulty, by "testamentary
direction," and many others deem the text corrupt. We have given what
seems the simplest version of the text as it stands.
 i.e. the apostles.
 Or, "oversight."
 Literally, "presented the offerings."
Chapter XLV.--It is the Part of the Wicked to Vex the Righteous.
Ye are fond of contention, brethren, and full of zeal about things
which do not pertain to salvation. Look carefully into the
Scriptures, which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. Observe
 that nothing of an unjust or counterfeit character is written
in them. There  you will not find that the righteous were cast
off by men who themselves were holy. The righteous were indeed
persecuted, but only by the wicked. They were cast into prison, but
only by the unholy; they were stoned, but only by transgressors; they
were slain, but only by the accursed, and such as had conceived an
unrighteous envy against them. Exposed to such sufferings, they
endured them gloriously. For what shall we say, brethren? Was Daniel
 cast into the den of lions by such as feared God? Were
Ananias, and Azarias, and Michael shut up in a furnace  of fire
by those who observed  the great and glorious worship of the
Most High? Far from us be such a thought! Who, then, were they that
did such things? The hateful, and those full of all wickedness, were
roused to such a pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those
who served God with a holy and blameless purpose [of heart], not
knowing that the Most High is the Defender and Protector of all such
as with a pure conscience venerate  His all-excellent name; to
whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. But they who with confidence
endured [these things] are now heirs of glory and honour, and have
been exalted and made illustrious  by God in their memorial for
ever and ever. Amen.
 Or, "Ye perceive."
 Or, "For."
 Dan. vi. 16.
 Dan. iii. 20.
 Literally, "worshipped."
 Literally, "serve."
 Or, "lifted up." I. engraphoi (inscribed).
Chapter XLVI.--Let Us Cleave to the Righteous: Your Strife is
Such examples, therefore, brethren, it is right that we should follow;
 since it is written, "Cleave to the holy, for those that cleave
to them shall [themselves] be made holy." And again, in
another place, [the Scripture] saith, "With a harmless man thou shalt
prove  thyself harmless, and with an elect man thou shalt be
elect, and with a perverse man thou shalt show  thyself
perverse." Let us cleave, therefore, to the innocent and
righteous, since these are the elect of God. Why are there strifes,
and tumults, and divisions, and schisms, and wars  among you?
Have we not [all] one God and one Christ? Is there not one Spirit of
grace poured out upon us? And have we not one calling in Christ?
Why do we divide and tear in pieces the members of Christ,
and raise up strife against our own body, and have reached such a
height of madness as to forget that "we are members one of another?"
Remember the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, how  He
said, "Woe to that man [by whom  offences come]! It were better
for him that he had never been born, than that he should cast a
stumbling-block before one of my elect. Yea, it were better for him
that a millstone should be hung about [his neck], and he should be
sunk in the depths of the sea, than that he should cast a
stumbling-block before one of my little ones." Your schism
has subverted [the faith of] many, has discouraged many, has given
rise to doubt in many, and has caused grief to us all. And still your
 Literally, "to such examples it is right that we should
 Not found in Scripture.
 Literally, "be."
 Or, "thou wilt overthrow."
 Ps. xviii. 25, 26.
 Or, "war." Comp. James iv. 1.
 Comp. Eph. iv. 4-6.
 Rom. xii. 5.
 This clause is wanting in the text.
 This clause is wanting in the text.
 Comp. Matt. xviii. 6, xxvi. 24; Mark ix. 42; Luke xvii. 2.
Chapter XLVII.--Your Recent Discord is Worse Than the Former Which
Took Place in the Times of Paul.
Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to
you at the time when the gospel first began to be preached? 
Truly, under the inspiration  of the Spirit, he wrote to you
concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos,  because even then
parties  had been formed among you. But that inclination for
one above another entailed less guilt upon you, inasmuch as your
partialities were then shown towards apostles, already of high
reputation, and towards a man whom they had approved. But now reflect
who those are that have perverted you, and lessened the renown of your
far-famed brotherly love. It is disgraceful, beloved, yea, highly
disgraceful, and unworthy of your Christian profession,  that
such a thing should be heard of as that the most stedfast and ancient
church of the Corinthians should, on account of one or two persons,
engage in sedition against its presbyters. And this rumour has
reached not only us, but those also who are unconnected  with
us; so that, through your infatuation, the name of the Lord is
blasphemed, while danger is also brought upon yourselves.
 Literally, "in the beginning of the gospel."
 Or, "spiritually."
 1 Cor. iii. 13, etc.
 Or, "inclinations for one above another." I. proskleseis
(summonses) throughout for proskliseis.
 Literally, "of conduct in Christ." I. agape (love).
 Or, "aliens from us," i.e. the Gentiles.
Chapter XLVIII.--Let Us Return to the Practice of Brotherly Love.
Let us therefore, with all haste, put an end  to this [state of
things]; and let us fall down before the Lord, and beseech Him with
tears, that He would mercifully  be reconciled to us, and
restore us to our former seemly and holy practice of brotherly love.
For [such conduct] is the gate of righteousness, which is set open for
the attainment of life, as it is written, "Open to me the gates of
righteousness; I will go in by them, and will praise the Lord: this
is the gate of the Lord: the righteous shall enter in by it." 
Although, therefore, many gates have been set open, yet this gate of
righteousness is that gate in Christ by which blessed are all they
that have entered in and have directed their way in holiness and
righteousness, doing all things without disorder. Let a man be
faithful: let him be powerful in the utterance of knowledge; let him
be wise in judging of words; let him be pure in all his deeds; yet the
more he seems to be superior to others [in these respects], the more
humble-minded ought he to be, and to seek the common good of all, and
not merely his own advantage.
 Literally, "remove."
 Literally, "becoming merciful."
 Ps. cxviii. 19, 20.
Chapter XLIX--The Praise of Love.
Let him who has love in Christ keep the commandments of Christ. Who
can describe the [blessed] bond of the love of God? What man is able
to tell the excellence of its beauty, as it ought to be told? The
height to which love exalts is unspeakable. Love unites us to God.
Love covers a multitude of sins. Love beareth all things, is
long-suffering in all things. There is nothing base, nothing
arrogant in love. Love admits of no schisms: love gives rise to no
seditions: love does all things in harmony. By love have all the
elect of God been made perfect; without love nothing is well-pleasing
to God. In love has the Lord taken us to Himself. On account of the
love He bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the
will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls.
 James v. 20; 1 Pet. iv. 8.
 Comp. 1 Cor. xiii. 4, etc.
Chapter L.--Let Us Pray to Be Thought Worthy of Love.
Ye see, beloved, how great and wonderful a thing is love, and that
there is no declaring its perfection. Who is fit to be found in it,
except such as God has vouchsafed to render so? Let us pray, 
therefore, and implore of His mercy, that we may live  blameless
in love, free from all human partialities for one above another. All
the generations from Adam even unto this day have passed away; but
those who, through the grace of God, have been made perfect in love,
now possess a place among the godly, and shall be made manifest at the
revelation  of the kingdom of Christ. For it is
written, "Enter into thy secret chambers for a little time, until my
wrath and fury pass away; and I will remember a propitious  day,
and will raise you up out of your graves." Blessed are we,
beloved, if we keep the commandments of God in the harmony of love;
that so through love our sins may be forgiven us. For it is written,
"Blessed are they whose transgressions are forgiven, and whose sins
are covered. Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not impute to
him, and in whose mouth there is no guile. This blessedness
cometh upon those who have been chosen by God through Jesus Christ our
Lord; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
 I. gives indicative mood.
 I. heurethomen (may be found).
 Literally, "visitation."
 I. theou (God).
 Or, "good."
 Isa. xxvi. 20.
 Ps. xxxii. 1, 2.
Chapter LI.--Let the Partakers in Strife Acknowledge Their Sins.
Let us therefore implore forgiveness for all those transgressions
which through any [suggestion] of the adversary we have committed.
And these who have been the leaders of sedition and disagreement ought
to have respect  to the common hope. For such as live in fear
and love would rather that they themselves than their neighbours
should be involved in suffering. And they prefer to bear blame
themselves, rather than that the concord which has been well and
piously  handed down to us should suffer. For it is better that
a man should acknowledge his transgressions than that he should harden
his heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who stirred up
sedition against Moses the servant  of God, and whose
condemnation was made manifest [unto all]. For they went down alive
into Hades, and death swallowed them up. Pharaoh with his
army and all the princes of Egypt, and the chariots with their riders,
were sunk in the depths of the Red Sea, and perished,  for no
other reason than that their foolish hearts were hardened, after so
many signs and wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt by Moses
the servant of God.
 Or, "look to."
 Or, "righteously."
 I. anthropon (man).
 Num. xvi. I thanatos poimanei autous--"Death shall feed on
them," Ps. xlix. 14 A.V.--should be, "Death shall tend them."
 Ex. xiv.
Chapter LII.--Such a Confession is Pleasing to God.
The Lord, brethren, stands in need of nothing; and He desires nothing
of any one except that confession be made to Him. For, says the elect
David, "I will confess unto the Lord; and that will please Him more
than a young bullock  that hath horns and hoofs. Let the poor
see it, and be glad." And again he saith, "Offer  unto
God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows unto the Most High. And
call upon me in the day of thy trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me." For "the sacrifice of God is a broken
 I. omits from Ps. lxix. 31, 32 the word following "bullock."
 Ps. lxix. 31, 32.
 Or, "sacrifice."
 Ps. l. 14, l5. I. omits Ps. l. 15.
 Ps. li. 17.
Chapter LIII.--The Love of Moses Towards His People.
Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the sacred Scriptures, and
ye have looked very earnestly into the oracles of God. Call then
these things to your remembrance. When Moses went up into the mount,
and abode there, with fasting and humiliation, forty days and forty
nights, the Lord said unto him, "Moses, Moses, get thee down quickly
from hence; for thy people whom thou didst bring out of the land of
Egypt have committed iniquity. They have speedily departed from the
way in which I commanded them to walk, and have made to themselves
molten images." And the Lord said unto him, "I have spoken to
thee once and again, saying, I have seen this people, and, behold, it
is a stiff-necked people: let me destroy them, and blot out their
name from under heaven; and I will make thee a great and wonderful
nation, and one much more numerous than this." But Moses
said, "Far be it from Thee, Lord: pardon the sin of this people; else
blot me also out of the book of the living." O marvellous
 love! O insuperable perfection! The servant  speaks
freely to his Lord, and asks forgiveness for the people, or begs that
he himself might perish  along with them.
 Ex. xxxii. 7, etc.; Deut. ix. 12, etc.
 Ex. xxxii. 9, etc.
 Ex. xxxii. 32.
 Or, "mighty."
 I. despotes (master).
 Literally, "be wiped out."
Chapter LIV.--He Who is Full of Love Will Incur Every Loss, that Peace
May Be Restored to the Church.
Who then among you is noble-minded? who compassionate? who full of
love? Let him declare, "If on my account sedition and disagreement
and schisms have arisen, I will depart, I will go away whithersoever
ye desire, and I will do whatever the majority  commands; only
let the flock of Christ live on terms of peace with the presbyters set
over it." He that acts thus shall procure to himself great glory in
the Lord;  and every place will welcome  him. For "the
earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." These things
they who live a godly life that is never to be repented of, both have
done and always will do.
 Literally, "the multitude."
 I. en Christo (in Christ).
 Or, "receive."
 Ps. xxiv. 1; 1 Cor. x. 26, 28.
Chapter LV.--Examples of Such Love.
To bring forward some examples  from among the heathen: Many
kings and princes, in times of pestilence, when they had been
instructed by an oracle, have given themselves up to death, in order
that by their own blood they might deliver their fellow-citizens [from
destruction]. Many have gone forth from their own cities, that so
sedition might be brought to an end within them. We know many among
ourselves who have given themselves up to bonds, in order that they
might ransom others. Many, too, have surrendered themselves to
slavery, that with the price  which they received for
themselves, they might provide food for others. Many women also,
being strengthened by the grace of God, have performed numerous manly
exploits. The blessed Judith, when her city was besieged, asked of
the elders permission to go forth into the camp of the strangers; and,
exposing herself to danger, she went out for the love which she bare
to her country and people then besieged; and the Lord delivered
Holofernes into the hands of a woman. Esther also, being
perfect in faith, exposed herself to no less danger, in order to
deliver the twelve tribes of Israel from impending destruction. For
with fasting and humiliation she entreated the everlasting  God,
who seeth all things; and He, perceiving the humility of her spirit,
delivered the people for whose sake she had encountered peril. 
 I. hupomnemata (memorials).
 Literally, "and having received their prices, fed others."
 Judith viii. 30.
 I. omits despoten (Lord).
 Esther vii., viii.
Chapter LVI.--Let Us Admonish and Correct One Another.
Let us then also pray for those who have fallen into any sin, that
meekness and humility may be given to them, so that they may submit,
not unto us, but to the will of God. For in this way they shall
secure a fruitful and perfect remembrance from us, with sympathy for
them, both in our prayers to God, and our mention of them to the
saints. Let us receive correction, beloved, on account of
which no one should feel displeased. Those exhortations by which we
admonish one another are both good [in themselves], and highly
profitable, for they tend to unite  us to the will of God. For
thus saith the holy Word: "The Lord hath severely chastened me, yet
hath not given me over to death." "For whom the Lord loveth
He chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth." 
"The righteous,"  saith it, "shall chasten me in mercy, and
reprove me; but let not the oil of sinners make fat my head." 
And again he saith, "Blessed is the man whom the Lord reproveth, and
reject not thou the warning of the Almighty. For He causes sorrow,
and again restores [to gladness]; He woundeth, and His hands make
whole. He shall deliver thee in six troubles, yea, in the seventh no
evil shall touch thee. In famine He shall rescue thee from death, and
in war He shall free thee from the power  of the sword. From
the scourge of the tongue will He hide thee, and thou shalt not fear
when evil cometh. Thou shalt laugh at the unrighteous and the wicked,
and shalt not be afraid of the beasts of the field. For the wild
beasts shall be at peace with thee: then shalt thou know that thy
house shall be in peace, and the habitation of thy tabernacle shall
not fail. Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great,
and thy children like the grass of the field. And thou shalt come to
the grave like ripened corn which is reaped in its season, or like a
heap of the threshing-floor which is gathered together at the proper
time." Ye see, beloved, that  "protection is afforded
to those that are chastened of the Lord; for since God is good, 
He corrects us, that we may be admonished"  by His holy
 Literally, "there shall be to them a fruitful and perfect
remembrance, with compassions both towards God and the saints."
 Or "they unite."
 Ps. cxviii. 18.
 Prov. iii. 12; Heb. xii. 6.
 I. kurios (Lord).
 Ps. cxli. 5.
 Literally, "hand."
 Literally, "err" or "sin."
 Job v. 17-26.
 I. blepete posos (ye see how great).
 I. (despotou) pater gar agathos on (being a good father).
 I. eleethenai (be pitied).
Chapter LVII.--Let the Authors of Sedition Submit Themselves.
Ye therefore, who laid the foundation of this sedition, submit
yourselves to the presbyters, and receive correction so as to repent,
bending the knees of your hearts. Learn to be subject, laying aside
the proud and arrogant self-confidence of your tongue. For it is
better for you that ye should occupy  a humble but honourable
place in the flock of Christ, than that, being highly exalted, ye
should be cast out from the hope of His people. For thus
speaketh all-virtuous Wisdom: "Behold, I will bring forth to you the
words of my Spirit, and I will teach you my speech. Since I called,
and ye did not hear; I held forth my words, and ye regarded not, but
set at naught my counsels, and yielded not at my reproofs; therefore I
too will laugh at your destruction; yea, I will rejoice when ruin
cometh upon you, and when sudden confusion overtakes you, when
overturning presents itself like a tempest, or when tribulation and
oppression  fall upon you. For it shall come to pass, that when
ye call upon me, I will not hear you; the wicked shall seek me, and
they shall not find me. For they hated wisdom, and did not choose the
fear of the Lord; nor would they listen to my counsels, but despised
my reproofs. Wherefore they shall eat the fruits of their own way,
and they shall be filled  with their own ungodliness. 
...For, in punishment for the wrongs which they practised upon babes,
shall they be slain, and inquiry will be death to the ungodly; but he
that heareth me shall rest in hope and be undisturbed by the fear of
 Literally, "to be found small and esteemed."
 Literally, "His hope."
 I. adds otenochoria (straits).
 Here begins the lacuna in the old text referred to in the
Introduction. The newly discovered portion of the Epistle extends
from this point to the end of Chap. lxiii.
 Prov. i. 22-33.
Chapter LVIII.--Submission the Precursor of Salvation.
Let us, therefore, flee from the warning threats pronounced by Wisdom
on the disobedient, and yield submission to His all-holy and glorious
name, that we may stay our trust upon the most hallowed name of His
majesty. Receive our counsel, and ye shall be without repentance.
For, as God liveth, and as the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost
live,--both the faith and hope of the elect, he who in lowliness of
mind, with instant gentleness, and without repentance hath observed
the ordinances and appointments given by God--the same shall obtain a
place and name in the number of those who are being saved through
Jesus Christ, through whom is glory to Him for ever and ever. Amen.
Chapter LIX.--Warning Against Disobedience. Prayer.
If, however, any shall disobey the words spoken by Him through us, let
them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and
serious danger; but we shall be innocent of this sin, and, instant in
prayer and supplication, shall desire that the Creator of all preserve
unbroken the computed number of His elect in the whole world through
His beloved Son Jesus Christ, through whom He called us from darkness
to light, from ignorance to knowledge of the glory of His name, our
hope resting on Thy name which is primal cause of every
creature,--having opened the eyes of our heart to the knowledge of
Thee, who alone "dost rest highest among the highest, holy among the
holy,"  who "layest low the insolence of the haughty," 
who "destroyest the calculations of the heathen,"  who "settest
the low on high and bringest low the exalted;"  who "makest rich
and makest poor,"  who "killest and makest to live,"  only
Benefactor of spirits and God of all flesh,  who beholdest the
depths, the eye-witness of human works, the help of those in danger,
the Saviour of those in despair, the Creator and Guardian of every
spirit, who multipliest nations upon earth, and from all madest choice
of those who love Thee through Jesus Christ, Thy beloved Son, through
whom Thou didst instruct, sanctify, honour us. We would have Thee,
Lord, to prove our help and succour. Those of us in affliction save,
on the lowly take pity; the fallen raise; upon those in need arise;
the sick  heal; the wandering ones of Thy people turn; fill the
hungry; redeem those of us in bonds; raise up those that are weak;
comfort the faint-hearted; let all the nations know that Thou art God
alone and Jesus Christ Thy Son, and we are Thy people and the sheep of
 Is. lvii. 15.
 Is. xiii. 11.
 Ps. xxxiii. 10.
 Job v. 11; Ezek. xvii. 24.
 1 Sam. ii. 7.
 Deut. xxxii. 39.
 Numb. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16; Jer. xxxii. 27.
 I. gives asebeis (ungodly) where astheneis (sick) is
Chapter LX.--Prayer Continued.
Thou didst make to appear the enduring fabric of the world by the
works of Thy hand; Thou, Lord, didst create the earth on which we
dwell,--Thou, who art faithful in all generations, just in judgments,
wonderful in strength and majesty, with wisdom creating and with
understanding fixing the things which were made, who art good among
them that are being saved  and faithful among them whose trust
is in Thee; O merciful and Compassionate One, forgive us our
iniquities and offences and transgressions and trespasses. Reckon not
every sin of Thy servants and handmaids, but Thou wilt purify us with
the purification of Thy truth; and direct our steps that we may walk
in holiness of heart and do what is good and well-pleasing in Thy
sight and in the sight of our rulers. Yea, Lord, make Thy face to
shine upon us for good in peace, that we may be shielded by Thy mighty
hand and delivered from every sin by Thine uplifted arm, and deliver
us from those who hate us wrongfully. Give concord and peace to us
and all who dwell upon the earth, even as Thou gavest to our fathers,
when they called upon Thee in faith and truth, submissive as we are to
Thine almighty and all-excellent Name.
 sozomenois is the emendation of Harnack for horomenois (seen).
Chapter LXI.--Prayer Continued--For Rulers and Governors. Conclusion.
To our rulers and governors on the earth--to them Thou, Lord, gavest
the power of the kingdom by Thy glorious and ineffable might, to the
end that we may know the glory and honour given to them by Thee and be
subject to them, in nought resisting Thy will; to them, Lord, give
health, peace, concord, stability, that they may exercise the
authority given to them without offence. For Thou, O heavenly Lord
and King eternal, givest to the sons of men glory and honour and power
over the things that are on the earth; do Thou, Lord, direct their
counsel according to that which is good and well-pleasing in Thy
sight, that, devoutly in peace and meekness exercising the power given
them by Thee, they may find Thee propitious. O Thou, who only hast
power to do these things and more abundant good with us, we praise
Thee through the High Priest and Guardian of our souls Jesus Christ,
through whom be glory and majesty to Thee both now and from generation
to generation and for evermore. Amen.
Chapter LXII.--Summary and Conclusory--Concerning Godliness.
Concerning the things pertaining to our religious observance which are
most profitable for a life of goodness to those who would pursue a
godly and righteous course, we have written to you, men and brethren,
at sufficient length. For concerning faith and repentance and true
love and continence and soberness and patience, we have touched upon
every passage, putting you in mind that you ought in righteousness and
truth and long-suffering to be well-pleasing  to Almighty God
with holiness, being of one mind--not remembering evil--in love and
peace with instant gentleness, even as also our fathers forementioned
found favour by the humility of their thoughts towards the Father and
God and Creator and all mankind. And of these things we put you in
mind with the greater pleasure, since we were well assured that we
were writing to men who were faithful and of highest repute and had
peered into the oracles of the instruction of God.
 euaristein is emendation for eucharistein (give thanks).
Chapter LXIII.--Hortatory, Letter Sent by Special Messengers.
Right is it, therefore, to approach examples so good and so many, and
submit the neck and fulfil the part of obedience, in order that,
undisturbed by vain sedition, we may attain unto the goal set before
us in truth wholly free from blame. Joy and gladness will ye afford
us, if ye become obedient to the words written by us and through the
Holy Spirit root out the lawless wrath of your jealousy according to
the intercession which we have made for peace and unity in this
letter. We have sent men faithful and discreet, whose conversation
from youth to old age has been blameless amongst us,--the same shall
be witnesses between you and us. This we have done, that ye may know
that our whole concern has been and is that ye may be speedily at
Chapter LXIV.--Blessings Sought for All that Call Upon God.
May God, who seeth all things, and who is the Ruler of all spirits and
the Lord of all flesh--who chose our Lord Jesus Christ and us through
Him to be a peculiar  people--grant to every soul that calleth
upon His glorious and holy name, faith, fear, peace, patience,
long-suffering, self-control, purity, and sobriety, to the
well-pleasing of His name, through our High Priest and Protector,
Jesus Christ, by whom be to Him glory, and majesty, and power, and
honour, both now and for evermore. Amen.
 Comp. Tit. ii. 14.
Chapter LXV.--The Corinthians are Exhorted Speedily to Send Back Word
that Peace Has Been Restored. The Benediction.
Send back speedily to us in peace and with joy these our messengers to
you: Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, with Fortunatus; that they
may the sooner announce to us the peace and harmony we so earnestly
desire and long for [among you], and that we may the more quickly
rejoice over the good order re-established among you. The grace of
our Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and with all everywhere that are
the called of God through Him, by whom be to Him glory, honour, power,
majesty, and eternal dominion,  from everlasting to everlasting.
 Literally, "an eternal throne."
 Literally, "from the ages to the ages of ages."
[From Vol. VII., p. 515 of the Ante-Nicene Fathers.]
The first certain reference which is made by any early writer to this
so-called Epistle of Clement is found in these words of Eusebius
(Hist. Eccl., iii. 38): "We must know that there is also a second
Epistle of Clement. But we do not regard it as being equally notable
with the former, since we know of none of the ancients that have made
use of it." Several critics in modern times have endeavoured to
vindicate the authenticity of this epistle. But it is now generally
regarded. as one of the many writings which have been falsely ascribed
to Clement. Besides the want of external evidence, indicated even by
Eusebius in the above extract, the diversity of style clearly points
to a different writer from that of the first epistle. A commonly
accepted opinion among critics at the present day is, that this is not
an epistle at all, but a fragment of one of the many homilies falsely
ascribed to Clement. There can be no doubt, however, that in the
catalogue of writings contained in the Alexandrian ms. it is both
styled an epistle, and, as well as the other which accompanies it, is
attributed to Clement. As the ms. is certainly not later than the
fifth century, the opinion referred to must by that time have taken
firm root in the Church; but in the face of internal evidence, and in
want of all earlier testimony, such a fact goes but a small way to
establish its authenticity.
The second epistle differs from the first in several respects. The
range of Scriptural quotation is wider, the quotations of the first
epistle being taken mainly from the Septuagint version of the Old
Testament. The attitude of the writer is in accordance with this
fact; it is distinctively Gentile. For example, Chapter XII. contains
a report of words purporting to have been spoken by the Lord; these,
Clemens Alexandrinus states, are taken from the Apocryphal Gospel
according to the Egyptians, not now extant. The reference in Chapter
XIV. to the spiritual church, recalling Eph. i. 3-5, is parallel to
the Pastor of Hermas, Vision II. 4. These passages help to determine
the date; for the quotation from the Apocryphal Gospel would not have
been made after the four gospels of the New Testament obtained
exclusive authority--toward the close of the second century; while
similarity of idea and exposition would seem to make the second
epistle and the Pastor of Hermas somewhat contemporaneous.
The conclusion of the second epistle, as in the recently discovered
ms., goes to establish the speculation made before this ms. was
discovered, that it is a homily to be read in churches.
The Second Epistle of Clement. 
Chapter I.--We Ought to Think Highly of Christ.
Brethren, it is fitting that you should think of Jesus Christ as of
God,--as the Judge of the living and the dead. And it does not become
us to think lightly of our salvation; for if we think little of Him,
we shall also hope but to obtain little [from Him]. And those of us
who hear carelessly of these things, as if they were of small
importance, commit sin, not knowing whence we have been called, and by
whom, and to what place, and how much Jesus Christ submitted to suffer
for our sakes. What return, then, shall we make to Him, or what fruit
that shall be worthy of that which He has given to us? For, indeed,
how great are the benefits  which we owe to Him! He has
graciously given us light; as a Father, He has called us sons; He has
saved us when we were ready to perish. What praise, then, shall we
give to Him, or what return shall we make for the things which we have
received? We were deficient  in understanding,
worshipping stones and wood, and gold, and silver, and brass, the
works of men's hands;  and our whole life was nothing else than
death. Involved in blindness, and with such darkness  before
our eyes, we have received sight, and through His will have laid aside
that cloud by which we were enveloped. For He had compassion on us,
and mercifully saved us, observing the many errors in which we were
entangled, as well as the destruction to which we were exposed, 
and that we had no hope of salvation except it came to us from Him.
For He called us when we were not,  and willed that out of
nothing we should attain a real existence. 
 No title, not even a letter, is preserved in A. I. inserts
"Clement's (Epistle) to the Corinthians II."
 Literally, "holy things."
 Comp. Ps. cxvi. 12.
 Literally, "lame." I. poneroi (wicked).
 Literally, "of men."
 Literally, "being full of such darkness in our sight."
 Literally, "having beheld in us much error and destruction."
 Comp. Hos. ii. 23; Rom. iv. 17, ix. 25.
 Literally, "willed us from not being to be."
Chapter II.--The Church, Formerly Barren, is Now Fruitful.
"Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that
travailest not; for she that is desolate hath many more children than
she that hath an husband." In that He said, "Rejoice, thou
barren that bearest not," He referred to us, for our church was barren
before that children were given to her. But when He said, "Cry out,
thou that travailest not," He means this, that we should sincerely
offer up our prayers to God, and should not, like women in travail,
show signs of weakness. And in that He said, "For she that is
desolate hath many more children than she that hath an husband," [He
means] that our people seemed to be outcast from God, but now, through
believing, have become more numerous than those who are reckoned to
possess God. And another Scripture saith, "I came not to call
the righteous, but sinners." This means that those who are
perishing must be saved. For it is indeed a great and admirable thing
to establish not the things which are standing, but those that are
falling. Thus also did Christ  desire to save the things which
were perishing,  and has saved many by coming and calling us
when hastening to destruction. 
 Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.
 Some render, "should not cry out, like women in travail." The
text is doubtful. I. ekkakomen (faint).
 It has been remarked that the writer here implies he was a
 Matt. ix. 13; Luke v. 32.
 I. Kurios (Lord).
 Comp. Matt. xviii. 11.
 Literally, "already perishing."
Chapter III.--The Duty of Confessing Christ.
Since, then, He has displayed so great mercy towards us, and
especially in this respect, that we who are living should not offer
sacrifices to gods that are dead, or pay them worship,  but
should attain through Him to the knowledge of the true Father, 
whereby shall we show that we do indeed know Him,  but by not
denying Him through whom this knowledge has been attained? For He
himself declares, "Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I
confess before my Father." This, then, is our reward if we
shall confess Him by whom we have been saved. But in what way shall
we confess Him? By doing what He says, and not transgressing His
commandments, and by honouring Him not with our lips only, but with
all our heart and all our mind. For He says in Isaiah, "This
people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me."
 I. omits.
 I. tes aletheias (of truth).
 Literally, "what is the knowledge which is towards Him."
 Matt. x. 32.
 Comp. Matt. xxii. 37.
 Isa. xxix. 13.
Chapter IV.--True Confession of Christ.
Let us, then, not only call Him Lord, for that will not save us. For
He saith, "Not every one that saith to me, Lord, Lord, shall be saved,
but he that worketh righteousness." Wherefore, brethren, let
us confess Him by our works, by loving one another, by not committing
adultery, or speaking evil of one another, or cherishing envy; but by
being continent, compassionate, and good. We ought also to sympathize
with one another, and not be avaricious. By such works let us confess
Him,  and not by those that are of an opposite kind. And it is
not fitting that we should fear men, but rather God. For this reason,
if we should do such [wicked] things, the Lord hath said, "Even though
ye were gathered together to  me in my very bosom, yet if ye
were not to keep my commandments, I would cast you off, and say unto
you, Depart from me; I know you not whence ye are, ye workers of
 Matt. vii. 21, loosely quoted.
 Some read, "God."
 Or, "with me."
 The first part of this sentence is not found in Scripture; for
the second comp., Matt. vii. 23; Luke xiii. 27.
Chapter V.--This World Should Be Despised.
Wherefore, brethren, leaving [willingly] our sojourn in this present
world, let us do the will of Him that called us, and not fear to
depart out of this world. For the Lord saith, "Ye shall be as lambs
in the midst of wolves." And Peter answered and said unto
Him,  "What, then, if the wolves shall tear in pieces the
lambs?" Jesus said unto Peter, "The lambs have no cause after they
are dead to fear  the wolves; and in like manner, fear not ye
them that kill you, and can do nothing more unto you; but fear Him
who, after you are dead, has power over both soul and body to cast
them into hell-fire." And consider,  brethren, that the
sojourning in the flesh in this world is but brief and transient, but
the promise of Christ is great and wonderful, even the rest of the
kingdom to come, and of life everlasting. By what course of
conduct, then, shall we attain these things, but by leading a holy and
righteous life, and by deeming these worldly things as not belonging
to us, and not fixing our desires upon them? For if we desire to
possess them, we fall away from the path of righteousness.
 Matt. x. 16.
 No such conversation is recorded in Scripture.
 Or, "Let not the lambs fear."
 Matt. x. 28; Luke xii. 4, 5.
 Or, "know."
 The text and translation are here doubtful.
Chapter VI.--The Present and Future Worlds are Enemies to Each Other.
Now the Lord declares, "No servant can serve two masters." If
we desire, then, to serve both God and mammon, it will be unprofitable
for us. "For what will it profit if a man gain the whole world, and
lose his own soul?" This world and the next are two enemies.
The one urges  to adultery and corruption, avarice and deceit;
the other bids farewell to these things. We cannot, therefore, be the
friends of both; and it behoves us, by renouncing the one, to make
sure  of the other. Let us reckon  that it is better to
hate the things present, since they are trifling, and transient, and
corruptible; and to love those [which are to come,] as being good and
incorruptible. For if we do the will of Christ, we shall find rest;
otherwise, nothing shall deliver us from eternal punishment, if we
disobey His commandments. For thus also saith the Scripture in
Ezekiel, "If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not
deliver their children in captivity." Now, if men so
eminently righteous are not able by their righteousness to deliver
their children, how  can we hope to enter into the royal
residence  of God unless we keep our baptism holy and
undefiled? Or who shall be our advocate, unless we be found possessed
of works of holiness and righteousness?
 Matt. vi. 24; Luke xvi. 13.
 Matt. xvi. 26. I. omits holon (whole).
 Literally, "speaks of."
 Or, "enjoy. "
 The ms. has, "we reckon."
 Ezek. xiv. 14, 20.
 Literally, "with what confidence shall we."
 Wake translates "kingdom," as if the reading had been basileian
; but the ms. has basileion, "palace."
Chapter VII.--We Must Strive in Order to Be Crowned.
Wherefore, then, my brethren, let us struggle with all earnestness,
knowing that the contest is [in our case] close at hand, and that many
undertake long voyages to strive for a corruptible reward;  yet
all are not crowned, but those only that have laboured hard and
striven gloriously. Let us therefore so strive, that we may all be
crowned. Let us run the straight  course, even the race that is
incorruptible; and let us in great numbers set out  for it, and
strive that we may be crowned. And should we not all be able to
obtain the crown, let us at least come near to it. We must remember
 that he who strives in the corruptible contest, if he be found
acting unfairly,  is taken away and scourged, and cast forth
from the lists. What then think ye? If one does anything unseemly in
the incorruptible contest, what shall he have to bear? For of those
who do not preserve the seal  [unbroken], [the Scripture] saith,
"Their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and
they shall be a spectacle to all flesh." 
 Literally, "that many set sail for corruptible contests,"
referring probably to the concourse at the Isthmian games.
 Or, "Let us place before us."
 Or, "set sail."
 Literally, "know."
 Literally, "if he be found corrupting."
 Baptism is probably meant.
 Isa. lxvi. 24.
Chapter VIII.--The Necessity of Repentance While We are on Earth.
As long, therefore, as we are upon earth, let us practise repentance,
for we are as clay in the hand of the artificer. For as the potter,
if he make a vessel, and it be distorted or broken in his hands,
fashions it over again; but if he have before this cast it into the
furnace of fire, can no longer find any help for it: so let us also,
while we are in this world, repent with our whole heart of the evil
deeds we have done in the flesh, that we may be saved by the Lord,
while we have yet an opportunity of repentance. For after we have
gone out of the world, no further power of confessing or repenting
will there belong to us. Wherefore, brethren, by doing the will of
the Father, and keeping the flesh holy, and observing the commandments
of the Lord, we shall obtain eternal life. For the Lord saith in the
Gospel, "If ye have not kept that which was small, who will commit to
you the great? For I say unto you, that he that is faithful in that
which is least, is faithful also in much." This, then, is
what He means: "Keep the flesh holy and the seal undefiled, that
 ye may receive eternal life." 
 Comp. Luke xvi. 10-12.
 ms. has "we," which is corrected by all editors as above. I.
 Some have thought this a quotation from an unknown apocryphal
book, but it seems rather an explanation of the preceding words.
Chapter IX.--We Shall Be Judged in the Flesh.
And let no one of you say that this very flesh shall not be judged,
nor rise again. Consider ye in what [state] ye were saved, in what ye
received sight,  if not while ye were in this flesh. We must
therefore preserve the flesh as the temple of God. For as ye were
called in the flesh, ye shall also come [to be judged] in the flesh.
As Christ  the Lord who saved us, though He was first a Spirit
 became flesh, and thus called us, so shall we also receive the
reward in this flesh. Let us therefore love one another, that we may
all attain to the kingdom of God. While we have an opportunity of
being healed, let us yield ourselves to God that healeth us, and give
to Him a recompense. Of what sort? Repentance out of a sincere
heart; for He knows all things beforehand, and is acquainted with what
is in our hearts. Let us therefore give Him praise, not with the
mouth only, but also with the heart, that He may accept us as sons.
For the Lord has said, "Those are my brethren who do the will of my
 Literally, "looked up."
 The ms. has heis, "one," which Wake follows, but it seems
clearly a mistake for hos.
 I. logos (word).
 Matt. xii. 50.
Chapter X.--Vice is to Be Forsaken, and Virtue Followed.
Wherefore, my brethren, let us do the will of the Father who called
us, that we may live; and let us earnestly  follow after virtue,
but forsake every wicked tendency  which would lead us into
transgression; and flee from ungodliness, lest evils overtake us. For
if we are diligent in doing good, peace will follow us. On this
account, such men cannot find it [i.e. peace] as are  influenced
by human terrors, and prefer rather present enjoyment  to the
promise which shall afterwards be fulfilled. For they know not what
torment present enjoyment incurs, or what felicity is involved in the
future promise. And if, indeed, they themselves only did such things,
it would be [the more] tolerable; but now they persist in imbuing
innocent souls with their pernicious doctrines, not knowing that they
shall receive a double condemnation, both they and those that hear
 Literally, "rather."
 Literally, "malice, as it were, the precursor of our sins."
Some deem the text corrupt.
 Literally, according to the ms., "it is not possible that a man
should find it who are"--the passage being evidently corrupt.
 I. anapausin (rest).
Chapter XI.--We Ought to Serve God, Trusting in His Promises.
Let us therefore serve God with a pure heart, and we shall be
righteous; but if we do not serve Him, because we believe not the
promise of God, we shall be miserable. For the prophetic word also
declares, "Wretched are those of a double mind, and who doubt in their
heart, who say, All these things  have we heard even in the
times of our fathers; but though we have waited day by day, we have
seen none of them [accomplished]. Ye fools! compare yourselves to a
tree; take, for instance, the vine. First of all it sheds its leaves,
then the bud appears; after that the sour grape, and then the
fully-ripened fruit. So, likewise, my people have borne disturbances
and afflictions, but afterwards shall they receive their good things."
Wherefore, my brethren, let us not be of a double mind, but
let us hope and endure, that we also may obtain the reward. For He is
faithful who has promised that He will bestow on every one a reward
according to his works. If, therefore, we shall do righteousness in
the sight of God, we shall enter into His kingdom, and shall receive
the promises, which "ear hath not heard, nor eye seen, neither have
entered into the heart of man." 
 I. palai (long ago).
 The same words occur in Clement's first epistle, chap. xxiii.
 1 Cor. ii. 9.
Chapter XII.--We are Constantly to Look for the Kingdom of God.
Let us expect, therefore, hour by hour, the kingdom of God in love and
righteousness, since we know not the day of the appearing of God. For
the Lord Himself, being asked by one when His kingdom would come,
replied, "When two shall be one, that which is without as that which
is within, and the male with the female, neither male nor female."
Now, two are one when we speak the truth one to another, and
there is unfeignedly one soul in two bodies. And "that which is
without as" that which is within meaneth this: He calls the soul
"that which is within," and the body "that which is without." As,
then, thy body is visible to sight, so also let thy soul be manifest
by good works. And "the male, with the female, neither male nor
female," this  He saith, that brother seeing sister may have no
thought concerning her as female, and that she may have no thought
concerning him as male. "If ye do these things," saith He, "the
kingdom of my Father shall come." 
 These words are quoted (Clem. Alex., Strom., iii. 9, 1.) from
the Gospel according to the Egyptians, no longer extant.
 Here the piece formerly broke off. From this point to the end
the text of Gebhardt, Harnack, Zahn has been followed.
 Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 29.
Chapter XIII.--God's Name Not to Be Blasphemed.
Brethren, then, let us now at length repent, let us soberly turn to
that which is good; for we are full of abundant folly and wickedness.
Let us wipe out from us our former sins, and repenting from the heart
be saved; and let us not be men-pleasers, nor be willing to please one
another only, but also the men without, for righteousness sake, that
the name may not be, because of us, blasphemed. For the Lord saith,
"Continually my name is blasphemed among all nations," and "Wherefore
my name is blasphemed; blasphemed in what? In your not doing the
things which I wish." For the nations, hearing from our mouth
the oracles of God, marvel at their excellence and worth; thereafter
learning that our deeds are not worthy of the words which we
speak,--receiving this occasion they turn to blasphemy, saying that
they are a fable and a delusion. For, whenever they hear from us that
God saith, "No thank have ye, if ye love them which love you, but ye
have thank, if ye love your enemies and them which hate you" 
--whenever they hear these words, they marvel at the surpassing
measure of their goodness; but when they see, that not only do we not
love those who hate, but that we love not even those who love, they
laugh us to scorn, and the name is blasphemed.
 Is. lii. 5.
 Luke vi. 32 sqq.
Chapter XIV.--The Church Spiritual.
So, then, brethren, if we do the will of our Father God, we shall be
members of the first church, the spiritual,--that which was created
before sun and moon; but if we shall not do the will of the Lord, we
shall come under the Scripture which saith, "My house became a den of
robbers." So, then, let us elect to belong to the church of
life,  that we may be saved. I think not that ye are ignorant
that the living church is the body of Christ (for the Scripture,
saith, "God created man male and female;"  the male is Christ,
the female the church,) and that the Books  and the Apostles
teach that the church is not of the present, but from the beginning.
For it was spiritual, as was also our Jesus, and was made manifest at
the end of the days in order to save you. The church being
spiritual, was made manifest in the flesh of Christ, signifying to us
that if any one of us shall preserve it in the flesh and corrupt it
not, he shall receive it in the Holy Spirit. For this flesh is the
type of the spirit; no one, therefore, having corrupted the type, will
receive afterwards the antitype. Therefore is it, then, that He
saith, brethren, "Preserve ye the flesh, that ye may become partakers
of the spirit." If we say that the flesh is the church and the spirit
Christ, then it follows that he who shall offer outrage to the flesh
is guilty of outrage on the church. Such an one, therefore, will not
partake of the spirit, which is Christ. Such is the life and
immortality, which this flesh may afterwards receive, the Holy Spirit
cleaving to it; and no one can either express or utter what things the
Lord hath prepared for His elect. 
 Jer. vii. 11.
 Comp. 1 Pet. ii., iv. sqq.
 Gen. i. 27; comp. Eph. v. 22-23.
 i.e., The Old Testament.
 1 Pet. i. 20.
 1 Cor. ii. 9.
Chapter XV.--He Who Saves and He Who is Saved.
I think not that I counted trivial counsel concerning continence;
following it, a man will not repent thereof, but will save both
himself and me who counselled. For it is no small reward to
turn back a wandering and perishing soul for its salvation. 
For this recompense we are able to render to the God who created us,
if he who speaks and hears both speak and hear with faith and love.
Let us, therefore, continue in that course in which we, righteous and
holy, believed, that with confidence we may ask God who saith, "Whilst
thou art still speaking, I will say, Here I am." For these
words are a token of a great promise, for the Lord saith that He is
more ready to give than he who asks. So great, then, being the
goodness of which we are partakers, let us not grudge one another the
attainment of so great blessings. For in proportion to the pleasure
with which these words are fraught to those who shall follow them, in
that proportion is the condemnation with which they are fraught to
those who shall refuse to hear.
 1 Tim. iv. 16.
 Jas. v. 19-25.
 Is. lviii. 9.
Chapter XVI.--Preparation for the Day of Judgment.
So, then, brethren, having received no small occasion to repent, while
we have opportunity, let us turn to God who called us, while yet we
have One to receive us. For if we renounce these indulgences and
conquer the soul by not fulfilling its wicked desires, we shall be
partakers of the mercy of Jesus. Know ye that the day  of
judgment draweth nigh like a burning oven, and certain of the heavens
and all the earth will melt, like lead melting in fire; and then will
appear the hidden and manifest deeds of men. Good, then, is alms as
repentance from sin; better is fasting than prayer, and alms than
both; "charity covereth a multitude of sins,"  and prayer out of
a good conscience delivereth from death. Blessed is every one that
shall be found complete in these; for alms lightens the burden of sin.
 2 Pet. ii. 9, iii. 5-10.
 1 Pet. iv. 4.
Chapter XVII.--Same Subject Continued.
Let us, then, repent with our whole heart, that no one of us may
perish amiss. For if we have commands and engage in withdrawing from
idols and instructing others, how much more ought a soul already
knowing God not to perish. Rendering, therefore, mutual help, let us
raise the weak also in that which is good, that all of us may be saved
and convert one another and admonish. And not only now let us seem to
believe and give heed, when we are admonished by the elders; 
but also when we take our departure home, let us remember the
commandments of the Lord, and not be allured back by worldly lusts,
but let us often and often draw near and try to make progress in the
Lord's commands, that we all having the same mind may be gathered
together for life. For the Lord said, "I come to gather all nations
[kindreds] and tongues." This means the day of His appearing,
when He will come and redeem us--each one according to his works. And
the unbelievers will see His glory and might, and, when they see the
empire of the world in Jesus, they will be surprised, saying, "Woe to
us, because Thou wast, and we knew not and believed not and obeyed not
the elders  who show us plainly of our salvation." And "their
worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they
shall be a spectacle unto all flesh." It is of the great day
of judgment He speaks, when they shall see those among us who were
guilty of ungodliness and erred in their estimate of the commands of
Jesus Christ. The righteous, having succeeded both in enduring the
trials and hating the indulgences of the soul, whenever they witness
how those who have swerved and denied Jesus by words or deeds are
punished with grievous torments in fire unquenchable, will give glory
to their God and say, "There will be hope for him who has served God
with his whole heart."
 i.e., Presbyters.
 This passage proves this so-called Epistle to be a homily.
 Is. lxvi. 18.
 Is. lxvi. 24.
Chapter XVIII.--The Author Sinful, Yet Pursuing.
And let us, then, be of the number of those who give thanks, who have
served God, and not of the ungodly who are judged. For I myself,
though a sinner every whit and not yet fleeing temptation but
continuing in the midst of the tools of the devil, study to follow
after righteousness, that I may make, be it only some, approach to it,
fearing the judgment to come.
Chapter XIX.--Reward of the Righteous, Although They May Suffer.
So then, brothers and sisters,  after the God of truth  I
address to you an appeal that ye may give heed to the words written,
 that ye may save both yourselves and him who reads an address
in your midst. For as a reward I ask of you repentance with the whole
heart, while ye bestow upon yourselves salvation and life. For by so
doing we shall set a mark for all the young who wish to be diligent in
godliness and the goodness of God. And let not us, in our folly, feel
displeasure and indignation, whenever any one admonishes us and turns
us from unrighteousness to righteousness. For there are some wicked
deeds which we commit, and know it not, because of the
double-mindedness and unbelief present in our breasts, and our
understanding is darkened by vain desires. Let us, therefore, work
righteousness, that we may be saved to the end. Blessed are they who
obey these commandments, even if for a brief space they suffer in this
world, and they will gather the imperishable fruit of the
resurrection. Let not the godly man, therefore, grieve; if for the
present he suffer affliction, blessed is the time that awaits him
there; rising up to life again with the fathers he will rejoice for
ever without a grief.
 Indicative of the approaching close.
 Bryennius interprets this to refer to the Scripture-lesson.
 Either the Scripture-lesson or the homily.
Chapter XX.--Godliness, Not Gain, the True Riches.
But let it not even trouble your mind, that we see the unrighteous
possessed of riches and the servants of God straitened. Let us,
therefore, brothers and sisters, believe; in a trial of the living God
we strive and are exercised in the present life, that we may obtain
the crown in that which is to come. No one of the righteous received
fruit speedily, but waiteth for it. For if God tendered the reward of
the righteous in a trice, straightway were it commerce that we
practised, and not godliness. For it were as if we were righteous by
following after not godliness but gain; and for this reason the divine
judgment baffled  the spirit that is unrighteous and heavily
weighed the fetter.
To the only God, invisible, Father of truth, who sent forth to us the
Saviour and Author of immortality, through whom He also manifested to
us the truth and the heavenly life, to Him be glory for ever and
 Some take the aorist here used to be the iterative aorist of
proverbs and, therefore, translated by the present tense.
The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher
Translated from the Greek and from the Syriac Version
in Parallel Columns. by
D. M. Kay, B.Sc., B.D.,
Assistant to the Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of
The Apology of Aristides.
The Church Histories, hitherto in dealing with early Christian
literature, have given Aristides along with Quadratus the first place
in the list of lost apologists. It was known that there had been such
early defenders of the faith, and that Quadratus had seen persons who
had been miraculously healed by Christ; but beyond this little more
could be said. To Justin Martyr, who flourished about a.d. 150,
belonged the honour of heading the series of apologists whose works
are extant, viz., Tatian, Melito, Athenagoras, Theophilus, the author
of the Epistle to Diognetus, who all belonged to the second century
and wrote in Greek; and Tertullian, Minucius Felix, Arnobius, and
Lactantius, who wrote in Latin, and Clement and Origen who wrote in
Greek, during the third century. While Christianity was winning its
way to recognition in the Roman empire, these writers tried to
disprove the gross calumnies current about Christians, to enlighten
rulers and magistrates as to the real character and conduct of the
adherents of the new religion, and to remove the prejudice which led
to the violent persecutions of the populace. They also endeavoured to
commend Christianity to "the cultured among its despisers," by showing
that it is philosophy as well as revelation, that it can supply the
answers sought by philosophy, and is unlike human wisdom in being
certain because divinely revealed. At the same time they demonstrated
the folly of polytheism and pointed out its disastrous effects on
morality. This faithful company of the defenders of the faith has now
regained Aristides as their leader in place of Justin Martyr. It will
be well to recount briefly what was previously known about Aristides,
and to tell how the lost Apology has been found.
Eusebius, in his History of the Church, written during the reign of
Constantine, a.d. 306-337, has a Chapter (bk. iv., c. 3) headed "The
authors that wrote in defence of the faith in the reign of Hadrian,
a.d. 117-138." After describing and quoting the Apology of Quadratus,
"Aristides also, a man faithfully devoted to the religion we profess,
like Quadratus, has left to posterity a defence of the faith,
addressed to Hadrian. This work is also preserved by a great number,
even to the present day."
The same Eusebius in his Chronicon states that the Emperor Hadrian
visited Athens in the eighth year of his reign (i.e., a.d. 125 ) and
took part in the Eleusinian mysteries. In the same connection the
historian mentions the presentation of Apologies to the Emperor by
Quadratus and Aristides, "an Athenian philosopher;" and implies that
Hadrian was induced by these appeals, coupled with a letter from
Serenius Granianus, proconsul of Asia, to issue an Imperial rescript
forbidding the punishment of Christians without careful investigation
About a century later Jerome (died a.d. 420) tells us that Aristides
was a philosopher of Athens, that he retained his philosopher's garb
after his conversion to Christianity, and that he presented a defence
of the faith to Hadrian at the same time as Quadratus. This Apology,
he says, was extant in his day, and was largely composed of the
opinions of philosophers ("contextum philosophorum sententiis"), and
was afterwards imitated by Justin Martyr.
After this date Aristides passes out of view. In the mediæval
martyrologies there is a faint reflection of the earlier testimony,
as, e.g., the 31st of August is given as the saint's day "of the
blessed Aristides, most renowned for faith and wisdom, who presented
books on the Christian religion to the prince Hadrian, and most
brilliantly proclaimed in the presence of the Emperor himself how that
Christ Jesus is the only God."
In the seventeenth century there were rumours that the missing Apology
of Aristides was to be found in various monastic libraries in Greece;
and Spon, a French traveller, made a fruitless search for it. The
book had apparently disappeared for ever.
But in recent times Aristides has again "swum into our ken." Armenian
literature, which has done service to Christendom by preserving so
many of its early documents, supplied also the first news of the
recovery of Aristides. In the Mechitarite convent of S. Lazarus at
Venice there is a body of Armenian monks who study Armenian and other
literature. In 1878 these Armenians surprised the learned world by
publishing a Latin translation of an Armenian fragment (the first two
Chapters) of the lost Apology of Aristides. Renan at once set it down
as spurious because it contained theological terms of a later age,
e.g., "bearer of God" applied to the Virgin Mary. These terms were
afterwards seen to be due to the translator. At what time the
translation from Greek into Armenian was made is not apparent; but it
may reasonably be connected with the work begun by the famous Armenian
patriarch Mesrobes. This noble Christian invented an alphabet for his
country, established schools, and sent a band of young Armenians to
Edessa, Athens, and elsewhere with instructions to translate into
Armenian the best sacred and classical books. And in spite of
Mohammedans and Turks Armenia has remained Christian, and now restores
to the world the treasures committed to its keeping in the early
Opinions as to the Armenian fragment of Aristides remained undecided
till 1889. In the spring of that year Professor J. Rendel Harris, of
Cambridge, had the honour of discovering a Syriac version of the whole
Apology in the library of the Convent of St. Catharine, on Mount
Sinai. He found the Apology of Aristides among a collection of Syriac
treatises of an ethical character; and he refers the ms. to the
seventh century. Professor Harris has translated the Syriac into
English, and has carefully edited the Syriac text with minute
discussions of every point of interest. 
The recovery of the Syriac version by Professor Harris placed the
genuineness of the Armenian fragment beyond question. It also led to
the strange reappearance of the greater part of the original Greek.
Professor J. A. Robinson, the general editor of the Cambridge Texts
and Studies, having read the translation of the Syriac version,
discovered that the Apology of Aristides is incorporated in the early
Christian Romance entitled, The Life of Barlaam and Josaphat.
Some account must be given of this remarkable book in order to show
its connection with the Apology of Aristides. Its author is said to
be John of Damascus, who died about a.d. 760. Whoever wrote it, the
book soon became very popular. In the East it was translated into
Arabic, Ethiopic, Armenian, and Hebrew; in the West there are versions
of it in nearly a dozen languages, including an English metrical
rendering. As early as 1204 a king of Norway had it translated into
Icelandic. It is now known to be the story of Buddha in a Christian
setting, furnished with fables and parables which have migrated from
the far East and can be traced back to an extreme antiquity.
The outline of the story is as follows: A king in India, Abenner by
name, who is an enemy of the Christians, has an only son Josaphat (or
Joasaph). At his birth the astrologers predict that he will become
great, but will embrace the new doctrine. To prevent this, his father
surrounds the prince with young and beautiful attendants, and takes
care that Josaphat shall see nothing of illness, old age, or death.
At length Josaphat desires his freedom, and then follow the excursions
as in the case of Buddha. Josaphat seeing so much misery possible in
life is sunk in despair. In this state he is visited by a Christian
hermit--Barlaam by name. Josaphat is converted to Christianity, and
Barlaam withdraws again to the desert.
To undo his son's conversion the king arranges that a public
disputation shall be held; one of the king's sages, Nachor by name, is
to personate Barlaam and to make a very weak statement of the
Christian case, and so be easily refuted by the court orators. When
the day comes, the prince Josaphat charges Nachor, the fictitious
monk, to do his best on pain of torture. Thus stimulated, Nachor
begins, and "like Balaam's ass he spake that which he had not purposed
to speak; and he said, `I, O king, in the providence of God,' etc."
He then recites the Apology of Aristides to such purpose that he
converts himself, the king, and all his people. Josaphat finally
relinquishes his kingdom, and retires into the desert with the genuine
Barlaam for prayer and meditation. Not only so, but the churches of
the Middle Ages, forgetting the fabulous character of the story,
raised Barlaam and Josaphat to the rank of saints, with a holy day in
the Christian calendar. Thus the author of Barlaam and Josaphat
caused Christianity unwittingly to do honour to the founder of
Buddhism under the name of St. Josaphat; and also to read the Apology
of Aristides in nearly twenty languages without suspecting what it
The speech of Nachor in Greek, that is to say, the greater part of the
original Greek of the Apology of Aristides, has been extracted from
this source by Professor Robinson and is published in Texts and
Studies, Vol. I., so that there is now abundant material for making an
estimate of Aristides.
It may be asked whether we have in any of our three sources the actual
words of Aristides. The circumstances under which the Apology was
incorporated in The Life of Barlaam and Josaphat are such as to render
it unlikely that the author of the Romance should copy with the
faithfulness of a scribe; but examination proves that very few
modifications hare been made. The Greek divides men into three races
(the Syriac and Armenian into four); the introductory accounts of
these races are in the Greek blended with the general discussion; and
at the close the description of early Christian customs is shortened.
These few differences from the Syriac are all explained by the fact
that the Apology had to be adapted to the circumstances of an Indian
court in a later age. On the other hand, when the Syriac is compared.
with the Greek and Armenian in passages where these two agree, it is
found that explanatory clauses are added; and there is throughout a
cumbrous redundancy of pronouns in the Syriac. In short, the actual
words of Aristides may be restored with tolerable certainty--a task
which has been already accomplished by a German scholar, Lic. Edgar
Hennecke. In any case we have the substance of the Apology of
Aristides with almost verbal precision.
In regard to the date of Aristides, Eusebius says expressly that the
Apology was presented to Hadrian while he was in Athens about the year
a.d. 125. The only ground for questioning this statement is the
second superscription given in the Syriac version, which implies that
the Apology was presented to Antoninus Pius, a.d. 138-161. This
heading is accepted by Professor Harris as the true one; and he
assigns the Apology to "the early years of the reign of Antoninus
Pius; and it is at least conceivable," he adds, "that it may have been
presented to the Emperor along with other Christian writings during an
unrecorded visit of his to his ancient seat of government at Smyrna."
But this requires us to suppose that Eusebius was wrong; that Jerome
copied his error; that the Armenian version curiously fell into the
same mistake; and that the Syriac translator is at this point
exceptionally faithful. So perhaps it is better with Billius, "not to
trust more in one's own suspicions, than in Christian charity which
believeth all things," and to rest in the comfortable hypothesis that
Eusebius spoke the truth.
Writing in a.d. 125, or even twenty years later, Aristides becomes an
important witness as to the nature of early Christianity. His Apology
contains no express quotation from Scripture; but the Emperor is
referred for information to a gospel which is written. Various echoes
of New Testament expressions will at once be recognized; and "the
language moulding power of Christianity" is discernible in the new
meaning given to various classical words. Some topics are conspicuous
by their absence. Aristides has no trace of ill-feeling to the Jews;
no reference to the Logos doctrine, nor to the distinctive ideas of
the Apostle Paul; he has no gnosticism or heresy to denounce, and he
makes no appeal to miracle and prophecy. Christianity, in his view,
is worthy of a philosophic emperor because it is eminently reasonable,
and gives an impulse and power to live a good life. On the whole,
Aristides represents that type of Christian practice which is found in
the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; and to this he adds a simple
Christian philosophy which may be compared with that of St. Paul at
Athens. Although the details about the elements and the heathen gods
are discussed with tedious minuteness, still his closing section
describing the lives of the early Christians should always be good
The translation of the Syriac given here is independently made from
the Syriac text, edited by Professor Harris  . Full advantage
has been taken of his notes and apparatus criticus, but no use has
been made of his translation. In obscure passages the German
translation of Dr. Richard Raabe  has been compared; and the
Text-Rekonstruktion of Hennecke has been consulted on textual points
in both translations. The Greek translation is made from the text
edited by Professor Robinson. The translations from the Greek
and from the Syriac are arranged side by side, so that their relation
to one another is apparent at a glance. No attempt has been made to
force the same English words from passages which are evidently meant
to be identical in the two languages; but the literal tenour of each
has been allowed to assert itself.
 Texts and Studies. Contributions to Biblical and Patristic
Literature. Edited by J. A. Robinson, B.D. Vol. i., No. 1, the
Apology of Aristides, edited and translated by J. Rendel Harris, M.A.,
with an Appendix by J. A. Robinson, B.D. (Cambridge University
 Die Apologie des Aristides. Recension und Rekonstruktion des
Textes, von Lic. Edgar Hennecke. (Die Griechischen Apologeten: Heft
 The Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. i., No. 1.
 Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Altchristlichen
Litteratur, Gebhardt und Harnack, IX. Band, Heft 1.
 The Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. i., No. 1.
The Apology of Aristides
as it is preserved in the history of
Barlaam and Josaphat.
Translated from the Greek.
I. I, O King in the providence of God came into the world; and when I
had considered the heaven and the earth, the sun and the moon and the
rest, I marvelled at their orderly arrangement.
And when I saw that the universe and all that is therein is moved by
necessity, I perceived that the mover and controller is God.
For everything which causes motion is stronger than that which is
moved, and that which controls is stronger than that which is
The self-same being, then, who first established and now controls the
universe--him do I affirm to be God who is without beginning and
without end, immortal and self-sufficing, above all passions and
infirmities, above anger and forgetfulness and ignorance and the rest.
Through Him too all things consist. He requires not sacrifice and
libation nor anyone of the things that appear to sense; but all men
stand in need of Him.
II. Having thus spoken concerning God, so far as it was possible for
me to speak of Him,  let us next proceed to the human race, that
we may see which of them participate in the truth and which of them in
For it is clear to us, O King,  that there are three 
classes of men in this world; these being the worshippers of the gods
acknowledged among you, and Jews, and Christians. Further they who
pay homage to many gods are themselves divided into three classes,
Chaldæans namely, and Greeks, and Egyptians; for these have been
guides and preceptors to the rest of the nations in the service and
worship of these many-titled deities.
III. Let us see then which of them participate in truth and which of
them in error.
The Chaldæans, then, not knowing God went astray after the elements
and began to worship the creation more than their Creator.
And of these they formed certain shapes and styled them a
representation of the heaven and the earth and the sea, of the sun too
and the moon and the other primal bodies or luminaries. And they shut
them up together in shrines, and worship them, calling them gods, even
though they have to guard them securely for fear they should be stolen
by robbers. And they did not perceive that anything which acts as
guard is greater than that which is guarded, and that he who makes is
greater than that which is made. For if their gods are unfit to look
after their own safety, how shall they bestow protection upon others?
Great then is the error into which the Chaldæans wandered in adoring
lifeless and good-for-nothing images.
And it occurs to me as surprising, O King, how it is that their
so-called philosophers have quite failed to observe that the elements
themselves are perishable. And if the elements are perishable and
subject to necessity, how are they gods? And if the elements are not
gods, how do the images made in their honour come to be gods?
IV. Let us proceed then, O King, to the elements themselves that we
may show in regard to them that they are not gods, but perishable and
mutable, produced out of that which did not exist at the command of
the true God, who is indestructible and immutable and invisible; yet
He sees all things and as He wills, modifies and changes things. What
then shall I say concerning the elements?
They err who believe that the sky is a god. For we see that it
revolves and moves by necessity and is compacted of many parts, being
thence called the ordered universe (Kosmos). Now the universe is the
construction of some designer; and that which has been constructed has
a beginning and an end. And the sky with its luminaries moves by
necessity. For the stars are carried along in array at fixed
intervals from sign to sign, and, some setting, others rising, they
traverse their courses in due season so as to mark off summers and
winters, as it has been appointed for them by God; and obeying the
inevitable necessity of their nature they transgress not their proper
limits, keeping company with the heavenly order. Whence it is plain
that the sky is not a god but rather a work of God.
They erred also who believed the earth to be a goddess. For we see
that it is despitefully used and tyrannized over by men, and is
furrowed and kneaded and becomes of no account. For, if it be burned
with fire, it becomes devoid of life; for nothing will grow from the
ashes. Besides if there fall upon it an excess of rain it dissolves
away, both it and its fruits. Moreover it is trodden under foot of
men and the other creatures; it is dyed with the blood of the
murdered; it is dug open and filled with dead bodies and becomes a
tomb for corpses. In face of all this, it is inadmissible that the
earth is a goddess but rather it is a work of God for the use of men.
V. They also erred who believed the water to be a god. For it, too,
has been made for the use of men, and is controlled by them; it is
defiled and destroyed and suffers change on being boiled and dyed with
colours; and it is congealed by the frost, and polluted with blood,
and is introduced for the washing of all unclean things. Wherefore it
is impossible that water should be a god, but it is a work of God.
They also err who believe that fire is a god. For fire was made for
the use of men, and it is controlled by them, being carried about from
place to place for boiling and roasting all kinds of meat, and even
for (the burning of) dead bodies. Moreover it is extinguished in many
ways, being quenched through man's agency. So it cannot be allowed
that fire is a god, but it is a work of God.
They also err who think the blowing of the winds is a goddess. For it
is clear that it is under the dominion of another; and for the sake of
man it has been designed by God for the transport of ships and the
conveyance of grain and for man's other wants. It rises too and falls
at the bidding of God, whence it is concluded that the blowing of the
winds is not a goddess but only a work of God.
VI. They also err who believe the sun to be a god. For we see that
it moves by necessity and revolves and passes from sign to sign,
setting and rising so as to give warmth to plants and tender shoots
for the use of man.
Besides it has its part in common with the rest of the stars, and is
much smaller than the sky; it suffers eclipse of its light and is not
the subject of its own laws. Wherefore it is concluded that the sun
is not a god, but only a work of God. They also err who believe that
the moon is a goddess. For we see that it moves by necessity and
revolves and passes from sign to sign, setting and rising for the
benefit of men; and it is less than the sun and waxes and wanes and
has eclipses. Wherefore it is concluded that the moon is not a
goddess but a work of God.
VII. They also err who believe that man  is a god. For we see
that he is moved by necessity, and is made to grow up, and becomes old
even though he would not. And at one time he is joyous, at another he
is grieved when he lacks food and drink and clothing. And we see that
he is subject to anger and jealousy and desire and change of purpose
and has many infirmities. He is destroyed too in many ways by means
of the elements and animals, and by ever-assailing death. It cannot
be admitted, then, that man is a god, but only a work of God.
Great therefore is the error into which the Chaldæans wandered,
following after their own desires.
For they reverence the perishable elements and lifeless images, and do
not perceive that they themselves make these things to be gods.
VIII. Let us proceed then to the Greeks, that we may see whether they
have any discernment concerning God. The Greeks, indeed, though they
call themselves wise proved more deluded than the Chaldæans in
alleging that many gods have come into being, some of them male, some
female, practised masters in every passion and every variety of
folly. [And the Greeks themselves represented them to be adulterers
and murderers, wrathful and envious and passionate, slayers of fathers
and brothers, thieves and robbers, crippled and limping, workers in
magic, and victims of frenzy. Some of them died (as their account
goes), and some were struck by thunderbolts, and became slaves to men,
and were fugitives, and they mourned and lamented, and changed
themselves into animals for wicked and shameful ends.] 
Wherefore, O King, they are ridiculous and absurd and impious tales
that the Greeks have introduced, giving the name of gods to those who
are not gods, to suit their unholy desires, in order that, having them
as patrons of vice, they might commit adultery and robbery and do
murder and other shocking deeds. For if their gods did such deeds why
should not they also do them?
So that from these misguided practices it has been the lot of mankind
to have frequent wars and slaughters and bitter captivities.
IX. But, further, if we be minded to discuss their gods individually,
you will see how great is the absurdity; for instance, how Kronos is
brought forward by them as a god above all, and they sacrifice their
own children to him. And he had many sons by Rhea, and in his madness
devoured his own offspring. And they say that Zeus cut off his
members and cast them into the sea, whence Aphrodite is said in fable
to be engendered. Zeus, then, having bound his own father, cast him
into Tartaros. You see the error and brutality which they advance
against their god? Is it possible, then, that a god should be
manacled and mutilated? What absurdity! Who with any wit would ever
Next Zeus is introduced, and they say that he was king of their gods,
and that he changed himself into animals that he might debauch mortal
For they allege that he transformed himself into a bull for Europe,
and into gold for Danae, and into a swan for Leda, and into a satyr
for Antiope, and into a thunderbolt for Semele. Then by these there
were many children, Dionysos and Zethus and Amphion and Herakles and
Apollo and Artemis and Perseus, Kastor and Helenes and Polydeukes and
Minos and Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon, and the nine daughters whom they
called the Muses. Then too they bring forward statements about the
matter of Ganymedes.
Hence it happened, O King, to mankind to imitate all these things and
to become adulterous men and lascivious women, and to be workers of
other terrible iniquities, through the imitation of their god. Now
how is it possible that a god should be an adulterer or an obscene
person or a parricide?
X. Along with him, too, they bring forward one Hephaistos as a god,
and they say that he is lame and wields a hammer and tongs, working as
a smith for his living.
Is he then badly off? But it cannot be admitted that a god should be
a cripple, and besides be dependent on mankind.
Then they bring forward Hermes as a god, representing him to be
lustful, and a thief, and covetous, and a magician (and maimed) and an
interpreter of language. But it cannot be admitted that such an one
is a god.
They also bring forward Asklepios as a god who is a doctor and
prepares drugs and compounds plasters for the sake of a living. For
he was badly off. And afterwards he was struck, they say, with a
thunderbolt by Zeus on account of Tyndareos, son of Lacedaimon; and so
was killed. Now if Asklepios in spite of his divinity could not help
himself when struck by lightning, how will he come to the rescue of
Again Ares is represented as a god, fond of strife and given to
jealousy, and a lover of animals and other such things. And at last
while corrupting Aphrodite, he was bound by the youthful Eros and by
Hephaistos. How then was he a god who was subject to desire, and a
warrior, and a prisoner and an adulterer?
They allege that Dionysos also is a god who holds nightly revels and
teaches drunkenness, and carries off the neighbours' wives, and goes
mad and takes to flight. And at last he was put to death by the
Titans. If then Dionysos could not save himself when he was being
killed, and besides used to be mad, and drunk with wine, and a
fugitive, how should he be a god?
They allege also that Herakles got drunk and went mad and cut the
throats of his own children, then he was consumed by fire and so died.
Now how should he be a god, who was drunk and a slayer of children
and burned to death? or how will he come to the help of others, when
he was unable to help himself?
XI. They represent Apollo also as a jealous god, and besides as the
master of the bow and quiver, and sometimes of the lyre and flute, and
as divining to men for pay? Can he then be very badly off? But it
cannot be admitted that a god should be in want, and jealous, and a
They represent Artemis also as his sister, who is a huntress and has a
bow with a quiver; and she roams alone upon the hills with the dogs to
hunt the stag or the wild boar. How then should such a woman, who
hunts and roams with her dogs, be a divine being?
Even Aphrodite herself they affirm to be a goddess who is adulterous.
For at one time she had Ares as a paramour, and at another time
Anchises and again Adonis, whose death she also laments, feeling the
want of her lover. And they say that she even went down to Hades to
purchase back Adonis from Persephone. Did you ever see, O King,
greater folly than this, to bring forward as a goddess one who is
adulterous and given to weeping and wailing?
And they represent that Adonis is a hunter god, who came to a violent
end, being wounded by a wild boar and having no power to help himself
in his distress. How then will one who is adulterous and a hunter and
mortal give himself any concern for mankind?
All this and much more of a like nature, and even far more disgraceful
and offensive details, have the Greeks narrated, O King, concerning
their gods;--details which it is not proper either to state or for a
moment to remember. And hence mankind, taking an impulse from their
gods, practised all lawlessness and brutality and impiety, polluting
both earth and air by their awful deeds.
XII. The Egyptians, again, being more stupid and witless than these
have gone further astray than all the nations. For they were not
content with the objects of worship of the Chaldæans and the Greeks,
but in addition to these brought forward also brute creatures as gods,
both land and water animals, and plants and herbs; and they were
defiled with all madness and brutality more deeply than all the
nations on the earth.
For originally they worshipped Isis, who had Osiris as brother and
husband. He was slain by his own brother Typhon; and therefore Isis
with Horos her son fled for refuge to Byblus in Syria, mourning for
Osiris with bitter lamentation, until Horos grew up and slew Typhon.
So that neither had Isis power to help her own brother and husband;
nor could Osiris defend himself when he was being slain by Typhon; nor
did Typhon, the slayer of his brother, when he was perishing at the
hands of Horos and Isis, find means to rescue himself from death. And
though they were revealed in their true character by such mishaps,
they were believed to be very gods by the simple Egyptians, who were
not satisfied even with these or the other deities of the nations, but
brought forward also brute creatures as gods. For some of them
worshipped the sheep, and some the goat; another tribe (worshipped)
the bull and the pig; others again, the raven and the hawk, and the
vulture and the eagle; and others the crocodile; and some the cat and
the dog, and the wolf and the ape, and the dragon and the asp; and
others the onion and the garlic and thorns and other created things.
And the poor creatures do not perceive about all these that they are
utterly helpless. For though they see their gods eaten by men of
other tribes, and burnt as offerings and slain as victims and
mouldering in decay, they have not perceived that they are not gods.
XIII. So the Egyptians and the Chaldæans and the Greeks made a great
error in bringing forward such beings as gods, and in making images of
them, and in deifying dumb and senseless idols.
And I wonder how they saw their gods sawn out and hacked and docked by
the workmen, and besides aging with time and falling to pieces, and
being cast from metal, and yet did not discern concerning them that
they were not gods.
For when they have no power to see to their own safety, how will they
take forethought for men?
But further, the poets and philosophers, alike of the Chaldæans and
the Greeks and the Egyptians, while they desired by their poems and
writings to magnify the gods of their countries, rather revealed their
shame, and laid it bare before all men. For if the body of man while
consisting of many parts does not cast off any of its own members, but
preserving an unbroken unity in all its members, is harmonious with
itself, how shall variance and discord be so great in the nature of
For if there had been a unity of nature among the gods, then one god
ought not to have pursued or slain or injured another. And if the
gods were pursued by gods, and slain, and kidnapped and struck with
lightning by them, then there is no longer any unity of nature, but
divided counsels, all mischievous. So that not one of them is a god.
It is clear then, O King, that all their discourse on the nature of
the gods is an error.
But how did the wise and erudite men of the Greeks not observe that
inasmuch as they make laws for themselves they are judged by their own
laws? For if the laws are righteous, their gods are altogether
unrighteous, as they have committed transgressions of laws, in slaying
one another, and practising sorceries, and adultery and thefts and
intercourse with males. If they were right in doing these things,
then the laws are unrighteous, being framed contrary to the gods.
Whereas in fact, the laws are good and just, commending what is good
and forbidding what is bad. But the deeds of their gods are contrary
to law. Their gods, therefore, are lawbreakers, and all liable to the
punishment of death; and they are impious men who introduce such
gods. For if the stories about them be mythical, the gods are nothing
more than mere names; and if the stories be founded on nature, still
they who did and suffered these things are no longer gods; and if the
stories be allegorical, they are myths and nothing more.
It has been shown then, O King, that all these polytheistic objects of
worship are the works of error and perdition. For it is not right to
give the name of gods to beings which may be seen but cannot see; but
one ought to reverence the invisible and all-seeing and all-creating
XIV. Let us proceed then, O King, to the Jews also, that we may see
what truth there is in their view of God. For they were descendants
of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and migrated to Egypt. And thence God
brought them forth with a mighty hand and an uplifted arm through
Moses, their lawgiver; and by many wonders and signs He made known His
power to them. But even they proved stubborn and ungrateful, and
often served the idols of the nations, and put to death the prophets
and just men who were sent to them. Then when the Son of God was
pleased to come upon the earth, they received him with wanton violence
and betrayed him into the hands of Pilate the Roman governor; and
paying no respect to his good deeds and the countless miracles he
wrought among them, they demanded a sentence of death by the cross.
And they perished by their own transgression; for to this day they
worship the one God Almighty, but not according to knowledge. For
they deny that Christ is the Son of God; and they are much like to the
heathen, even although they may seem to make some approach to the
truth from which they have removed themselves. So much for the Jews.
XV. Now the Christians  trace their origin from the Lord Jesus
Christ. And He is acknowledged by the Holy Spirit to be the son of
the most high God, who came down from heaven for the salvation of
men. And being born of a pure virgin, unbegotten and immaculate, He
assumed flesh and revealed himself among men that He might recall them
to Himself from their wandering after many gods. And having
accomplished His wonderful dispensation, by a voluntary choice He
tasted death on the cross, fulfilling an august dispensation. And
after three days He came to life again and ascended into heaven. And
if you would read, O King, you may judge the glory of His presence
from the holy gospel writing, as it is called among themselves. He
had twelve disciples, who after His ascension to heaven went forth
into the provinces of the whole world, and declared His greatness. As
for instance, one of them traversed the countries about us,
proclaiming the doctrine of the truth. From this it is, that they who
still observe the righteousness enjoined by their preaching are called
And these are they who more than all the nations on the earth have
found the truth. For they know God, the Creator and Fashioner of all
things through the only-begotten Son and the Holy Spirit  ; and
beside Him they worship no other God. They have the commands of the
Lord Jesus Christ Himself graven upon their hearts; and they observe
them, looking forward to the resurrection of the dead and life in the
world to come. They do not commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear
false witness, nor covet the things of others; they honour father and
mother, and love their neighbours; they judge justly, and they never
do to others what they would not wish to happen to themselves; they
appeal to those who injure them, and try to win them as friends; they
are eager to do good to their enemies; they are gentle and easy to be
entreated; they abstain from all unlawful conversation and from all
impurity; they despise not the widow, nor oppress the orphan; and he
that has, gives ungrudgingly for the maintenance of him who has not.
If they see a stranger, they take him under their roof, and rejoice
over him as over a very brother; for they call themselves brethren not
after the flesh but after the spirit.
And they are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Christ;
for they observe His commands without swerving, and live holy and just
lives, as the Lord God enjoined upon them.
And they give thanks unto Him every hour, for all meat and drink and
XVI. Verily then, this is the way of the truth which leads those who
travel therein to the everlasting kingdom promised through Christ in
the life to come. And that you may know, O King, that in saying these
things I do not speak at my own instance, if you deign to look into
the writings of the Christians, you will find that I state nothing
beyond the truth. Rightly then, did thy son  apprehend, and
justly was he taught to serve the living God and to be saved for the
age that is destined to come upon us. For great and wonderful are the
sayings and deeds of the Christians; for they speak not the words of
men but those of God. But the rest of the nations go astray and
deceive themselves; for they walk in darkness and bruise themselves
like drunken men.
XVII. Thus far, O King, extends my discourse to you, which has been
dictated in my mind by the Truth. Wherefore let thy foolish
sages cease their idle talk against the Lord; for it is profitable for
you to worship God the Creator, and to give ear to His incorruptible
words, that ye may escape from condemnation and punishment, and be
found to be heirs of life everlasting.
 The Greek might be rendered, "so far as there was room for me
to speak of Him," i.e., the attributes of the Deity are not further
relevant to the discussion--as the translator into Syriac takes it.
The Armenian adopts the other meaning, viz., the theme is beyond man's
power to discuss. As translated by F. C. Conybeare, the Armenian is
in these words: "Now by the grace of God it was given me to speak
wisely concerning Him. So far as I have received the faculty I will
speak, yet not according to the measure of the inscrutability of His
greatness shall I be able to do so, but by faith alone do I glorify
and adore Him."
 The "King" in the Greek is Abenner, the father of Josaphat; in
the Syriac, as in the Greek originally, he is the Roman Emperor,
 The Armenian and Syriac agree in giving four races, which was
probably the original division. To a Greek, men were either Greeks or
Barbarians; to a Greek Christian it would seem necessary to add two
new peoples, Jews and Christians. The Greek calls the Barbarians
"Chaldæans." This change of classification is probably the cause of
the omission in the Greek of the preliminary accounts of the four
classes. The Greek blends the summaries with the fuller accounts.
 "I do not think it out of place here to mention Antinous of our
day [a slave of the Emperor Hadrian], whom all, not withstanding they
knew who and whence he was, yet affected to worship as a god."--Justin
Martyr quoted in Eusebius Hist. Bk. IV., c. 8.
 The passage in brackets occurs earlier in "Barlaam and
Josaphat," and is restored to its place by J. A. Robinson.
 This, the "Christological" passage, occurs earlier in the
Syriac. Chap. II.
 The Armenian agrees with the Greek against the Syriac. "Uná
cum Spiritu Sancto" Arm.
 The reference is to Josaphat, son of Abenner, who was taught to
be a Christian by the monk Barlaam.
 Nachor, the fictitious monk who represented Barlaam, intended
to make a weak defence of Christianity, but, according to the story,
he was constrained to speak what he had not intended. It is evidently
the author's intention to make it an instance of "suggestio verborum"
or plenary inspiration, in the case of the fictitious monk.
The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher.
Translated from the Syriac.
Here follows the defence which Aristides the philosopher made before
Hadrian the King on behalf of reverence for God.
...All-powerful Cæsar Titus Hadrianus Antoninus, venerable and
merciful, from Marcianus Aristides, an Athenian philosopher. 
I. I, O King, by the grace of God came into this world; and when I
had considered the heaven and the earth and the seas, and had surveyed
the sun and the rest of creation, I marvelled at the beauty of the
world. And I perceived that the world and all that is therein are
moved by the power of another; and I understood that he who moves them
is God, who is hidden in them, and veiled by them. And it is manifest
that that which causes motion is more powerful than that which is
moved. But that I should make search concerning this same mover of
all, as to what is his nature (for it seems to me, he is indeed
unsearchable in his nature), and that I should argue as to the
constancy of his government, so as to grasp it fully,--this is a vain
effort for me; for it is not possible that a man should fully
comprehend it. I say, however, concerning this mover of the world,
that he is God of all, who made all things for the sake of mankind.
And it seems to me that this is reasonable, that one should fear God
and should not oppress man.
I say, then, that God is not born, not made, an ever-abiding nature
without beginning and without end, immortal, perfect, and
incomprehensible. Now when I say that he is "perfect," this means
that there is not in him any defect, and he is not in need of anything
but all things are in need of him. And when I say that he is "without
beginning," this means that everything which has beginning has also an
end, and that which has an end may be brought to an end. He has no
name, for everything which has a name is kindred to things created.
Form he has none, nor yet any union of members; for whatsoever
possesses these is kindred to things fashioned. He is neither male
nor female. The heavens do not limit him, but the heavens and
all things, visible and invisible, receive their bounds from him.
Adversary he has none, for there exists not any stronger than he.
Wrath and indignation he possesses not, for there is nothing which is
able to stand against him. Ignorance and forgetfulness are not in his
nature, for he is altogether wisdom and understanding; and in Him
stands fast all that exists. He requires not sacrifice and libation,
nor even one of things visible; He requires not aught from any, but
all living creatures stand in need of him.
II. Since, then, we have addressed you concerning God, so far as our
discourse can bear upon him, let us now come to the race of men, that
we may know which of them participate in the truth of which we have
spoken, and which of them go astray from it.
This is clear to you, O King, that there are four classes of men in
this world:--Barbarians and Greeks, Jews and Christians. The
Barbarians, indeed, trace the origin of their kind of religion from
Kronos and from Rhea and their other gods; the Greeks, however, from
Helenos, who is said to be sprung from Zeus. And by Helenos there
were born Aiolos and Xuthos; and there were others descended from
Inachos and Phoroneus, and lastly from the Egyptian Danaos and from
Kadmos and from Dionysos.
The Jews, again, trace the origin of their race from Abraham, who
begat Isaac, of whom was born Jacob. And he begat twelve sons who
migrated from Syria to Egypt; and there they were called the nation of
the Hebrews, by him who made their laws; and at length they were named
The Christians, then, trace the beginning of their religion from Jesus
the Messiah; and he is named the Son of God Most High. And it is said
that God came down from heaven, and from a Hebrew virgin assumed and
clothed himself with flesh; and the Son of God lived in a daughter of
man. This is taught in the gospel, as it is called, which a short
time ago was preached among them; and you also if you will read
therein, may perceive the power which belongs to it. This Jesus,
then, was born of the race of the Hebrews; and he had twelve disciples
in order that the purpose of his incarnation  might in time be
accomplished. But he himself was pierced by the Jews, and he died and
was buried; and they say that after three days he rose and ascended to
heaven. Thereupon these twelve disciples went forth throughout the
known parts of the world, and kept showing his greatness with all
modesty and uprightness. And hence also those of the present day who
believe that preaching are called Christians, and they are become
So then there are, as I said above, four classes of men:--Barbarians
and Greeks, Jews and Christians.
Moreover the wind is obedient to God, and fire to the angels; the
waters also to the demons and the earth to the sons of men. 
III. Let us begin, then, with the Barbarians, and go on to the rest
of the nations one after another, that we may see which of them hold
the truth as to God and which of them hold error.
The Barbarians, then, as they did not apprehend God, went astray among
the elements, and began to worship things created instead of their
Creator;  and for this end they made images and shut them up in
shrines, and lo! they worship them, guarding them the while with much
care, lest their gods be stolen by robbers. And the Barbarians did
not observe that that which acts as guard is greater than that which
is guarded, and that everyone who creates is greater than that which
is created. If it be, then, that their gods are too feeble to see to
their own safety, how will they take thought for the safety of men?
Great then is the error into which the Barbarians wandered in
worshipping lifeless images which can do nothing to help them. And I
am led to wonder, O King, at their philosophers, how that even they
went astray, and gave the name of gods to images which were made in
honour of the elements; and that their sages did not perceive that the
elements also are dissoluble and perishable. For if a small part of
an element is dissolved or destroyed, the whole of it may be dissolved
and destroyed. If then the elements themselves are dissolved and
destroyed and forced to be subject to another that is more stubborn
than they, and if they are not in their nature gods, why, forsooth, do
they call the images which are made in their honour, God? Great,
then, is the error which the philosophers among them have brought upon
IV. Let us turn now, O King, to the elements in themselves, that we
may make clear in regard to them, that they are not gods, but a
created thing, liable to ruin and change, which is of the same nature
as man; whereas God is imperishable and unvarying, and invisible,
while yet He sees, and overrules, and transforms all things.
Those then who believe concerning the earth that it is a god have
hitherto deceived themselves, since it is furrowed and set with plants
and trenched; and it takes in the filthy refuse of men and beasts and
cattle. And at times it becomes unfruitful, for if it be burnt to
ashes it becomes devoid of life, for nothing germinates from an
earthen jar. And besides if water be collected upon it, it is
dissolved together with its products. And it is trodden under foot of
men and beast, and receives the bloodstains of the slain; and it is
dug open, and filled with the dead, and becomes a tomb for corpses.
But it is impossible that a nature, which is holy and worthy and
blessed and immortal, should allow of anyone of these things. And
hence it appears to us that the earth is not a god but a creation of
V. In the same way, again, those erred who believed the waters to be
gods. For the waters were created for the use of man, and are put
under his rule in many ways. For they suffer change and admit
impurity, and are destroyed and lose their nature while they are
boiled into many substances. And they take colours which do not
belong to them; they are also congealed by frost and are mingled and
permeated with the filth of men and beasts, and with the blood of the
slain. And being checked by skilled workmen through the restraint of
aqueducts, they flow and are diverted against their inclination, and
come into gardens and other places in order that they may be collected
and issue forth as a means of fertility for man, and that they may
cleanse away every impurity and fulfil the service man requires from
them. Wherefore it is impossible that the waters should be a god, but
they are a work of God and a part of the world.
In like manner also they who believed that fire is a god erred to no
slight extent. For it, too, was created for the service of men, and
is subject to them in many ways:--in the preparation of meat, and as a
means of casting metals, and for other ends whereof your Majesty is
aware. At the same time it is quenched and extinguished in many ways.
Again they also erred who believed the motion of the winds to be a
god. For it is well known to us that those winds are under the
dominion of another, at times their motion increases, and at times it
fails and ceases at the command of him who controls them. For they
were created by God for the sake of men, in order to supply the
necessity of trees and fruits and seeds; and to bring over the sea
ships which convey for men necessaries and goods from places where
they are found to places where they are not found; and to govern the
quarters of the world. And as for itself, at times it increases and
again abates; and in one place brings help and in another causes
disaster at the bidding of him who rules it. And mankind too are able
by known means to confine and keep it in check in order that it may
fulfil for them the service they require from it. And of itself it
has not any authority at all. And hence it is impossible that the
winds should be called gods, but rather a thing made by God.
VI. So also they erred who believed that the sun is a god. For we
see that it is moved by the compulsion of another, and revolves and
makes its journey, and proceeds from sign to sign, rising and setting
every day, so as to give warmth for the growth of plants and trees,
and to bring forth into the air where with it (sunlight) is mingled
every growing thing which is upon the earth. And to it there belongs
by comparison a part in common with the rest of the stars in its
course; and though it is one in its nature it is associated with many
parts for the supply of the needs of men; and that not according to
its own will but rather according to the will of him who rules it.
And hence it is impossible that the sun should be a god, but the work
of God; and in like manner also the moon and the stars.
VII. And those who believed of the men of the past, that some of them
were gods, they too were much mistaken. For as you yourself allow, O
King, man is constituted of the four elements and of a soul and a
spirit (and hence he is called a microcosm),  and without anyone
of these parts he could not consist. He has a beginning and an end,
and he is born and dies. But God, as I said, has none of these things
in his nature, but is uncreated and imperishable. And hence it is not
possible that we should set up man to be of the nature of God:--man,
to whom at times when he looks for joy, there comes trouble, and when
he looks for laughter there comes to him weeping,--who is wrathful and
covetous and envious, with other defects as well. And he is destroyed
in many ways by the elements and also by the animals.
And hence, O King, we are bound to recognize the error of the
Barbarians, that thereby, since they did not find traces of the true
God, they fell aside from the truth, and went after the desire of
their imagination, serving the perishable elements and lifeless
images, and through their error not apprehending what the true God is.
VIII. Let us turn further to the Greeks also, that we may know what
opinion they hold as to the true God. The Greeks, then, because they
are more subtle than the Barbarians, have gone further astray than the
Barbarians; inasmuch as they have introduced many fictitious gods, and
have set up some of them as males and some as females; and in that
some of their gods were found who were adulterers, and did murder, and
were deluded, and envious, and wrathful and passionate, and
parricides, and thieves, and robbers. And some of them, they say,
were crippled and limped, and some were sorcerers, and some actually
went mad, and some played on lyres, and some were given to roaming on
the hills, and some even died, and some were struck dead by lightning,
and some were made servants even to men, and some escaped by flight,
and some were kidnapped by men, and some, indeed, were lamented and
deplored by men. And some, they say, went down to Sheol, and some
were grievously wounded, and some transformed themselves into the
likeness of animals to seduce the race of mortal women, and some
polluted themselves  by lying with males. And some, they say,
were wedded to their mothers and their sisters and their daughters.
And they say of their gods that they committed adultery with the
daughters of men; and of these there was born a certain race which
also was mortal. And they say that some of the females disputed about
beauty, and appeared before men for judgment. Thus, O King, have the
Greeks put forward foulness, and absurdity, and folly about their gods
and about themselves, in that they have called those that are of such
a nature gods, who are no gods. And hence mankind have received
incitements to commit adultery and fornication, and to steal and to
practise all that is offensive and hated and abhorred. For if they
who are called their gods practised all these things which are written
above, how much more should men practise them--men, who believe that
their gods themselves practised them. And owing to the foulness of
this error there have happened to mankind harassing wars, and great
famines, and bitter captivity, and complete desolation. And lo! it
was by reason of this alone that they suffered and that all these
things came upon them; and while they endured those things they did
not perceive in their mind that for their error those things came upon
IX. Let us proceed further to their account of their gods that we may
carefully demonstrate all that is said above. First of all, the
Greeks bring forward as a god Kronos, that is to say Chiun 
(Saturn). And his worshippers sacrifice their children to him, and
they burn some of them alive in his honour. And they say that he took
to him among his wives Rhea, and begat many children by her. By her
too he begat Dios, who is called Zeus. And at length he (Kronos) went
mad, and through fear of an oracle that had been made known to him, he
began to devour his sons. And from him Zeus was stolen away without
his knowledge; and at length Zeus bound him, and mutilated the signs
of his manhood, and flung them into the sea. And hence, as they say
in fable, there was engendered Aphrodite, who is called Astarte. And
he (Zeus) cast out Kronos fettered into darkness. Great then is the
error and ignominy which the Greeks have brought forward about the
first of their gods, in that they have said all this about him, O
King. It is impossible that a god should be bound or mutilated; and
if it be otherwise, he is indeed miserable.
And after Kronos they bring forward another god Zeus. And they say of
him that he assumed the sovereignty, and was king over all the gods.
And they say that he changed himself into a beast and other shapes in
order to seduce mortal women, and to raise up by them children for
himself. Once, they say, he changed himself into a bull through love
of Europe and Pasiphae. And again he changed himself into the
likeness of gold through love of Danae, and to a swan through love of
Leda, and to a man through love of Antiope, and to lightning through
love of Luna,  and so by these he begat many children. For by
Antiope, they say, that he begat Zethus and Amphion, and by Luna
Dionysos, by Alcmena Hercules, and by Leto, Apollo and Artemis, and by
Danae Perseus, and by Leda, Castor and Polydeuces, and Helene and
Paludus,  and by Mnemosyne he begat nine daughters whom they
styled the Muses, and by Europe, Minos and Rhadamanthos and Sarpedon.
And lastly he changed himself into the likeness of an eagle through
his passion for Ganydemos (Ganymede) the shepherd.
By reason of these tales, O King, much evil has arisen among men, who
to this day are imitators of their gods, and practise adultery and
defile themselves with their mothers and their sisters, and by lying
with males, and some make bold to slay even their parents. For if he
who is said to be the chief and king of their gods do these things how
much more should his worshippers imitate him? And great is the folly
which the Greeks have brought forward in their narrative concerning
him. For it is impossible that a god should practise adultery or
fornication or come near to lie with males, or kill his parents; and
if it be otherwise, he is much worse than a destructive demon.
X. Again they bring forward as another god Hephaistos. And they say
of him, that he is lame, and a cap is set on his head, and he holds in
his hands firetongs and a hammer; and he follows the craft of iron
working, that thereby he may procure the necessaries of his
livelihood. Is then this god so very needy? But it cannot be that a
god should be needy or lame, else he is very worthless.
And further they bring in another god and call him Hermes. And they
say that he is a thief,  a lover of avarice, and greedy for
gain, and a magician and mutilated and an athlete, and an interpreter
of language. But it is impossible that a god should be a magician or
avaricious, or maimed, or craving for what is not his, or an athlete.
And if it be otherwise, he is found to be useless.
And after him they bring forward as another god Asklepios. And they
say that he is a physician and prepares drugs and plaster that he may
supply the necessaries of his livelihood. Is then this god in want?
And at length he was struck with lightning by Dios on account of
Tyndareos of Lacedæmon, and so he died. If then Asklepios were a god,
and, when he was struck with lightning, was unable to help himself,
how should he be able to give help to others? But that a divine
nature should be in want or be destroyed by lightning is impossible.
And again they bring forward another as a god, and they call him
Ares. And they say that he is a warrior, and jealous, and covets
sheep and things which are not his. And he makes gain by his arms.
And they say that at length he committed adultery with Aphrodite, and
was caught by the little boy Eros and by Hephaistos the husband of
Aphrodite. But it is impossible that a god should be a warrior or
bound or an adulterer.
And again they say of Dionysos that he forsooth! is a god, who
arranges carousals by night, and teaches drunkenness, and carries off
women who do not belong to him. And at length, they say, he went mad
and dismissed his handmaidens and fled into the desert; and during his
madness he ate serpents. And at last he was killed by Titanos. If
then Dionysos were a god, and when he was being killed was unable to
help himself, how is it possible that he should help others?
Herakles next they bring forward and say that he is a god, who hates
detestable things, a tyrant,  and warrior and a destroyer of
plagues. And of him also they say that at length he became mad and
killed his own children, and cast himself into a fire and died. If
then Herakles is a god, and in all these calamities was unable to
rescue himself, how should others ask help from him? But it is
impossible that a god should be mad, or drunken or a slayer of his
children, or consumed by fire.
XI. And after him they bring forward another god and call him
Apollon. And they say that he is jealous and inconstant, and at times
he holds the bow and quiver, and again the lyre and plectron. And he
utters oracles for men that he may receive rewards from them. Is then
this god in need of rewards? But it is an insult that all these
things should be found with a god.
And after him they bring forward as a goddess Artemis, the sister of
Apollo; and they say that she was a huntress and that she herself used
to carry a bow and bolts, and to roam about upon the mountains,
leading the hounds to hunt stags or wild boars of the field. But it
is disgraceful that a virgin maid should roam alone upon the hills or
hunt in the chase for animals. Wherefore it is impossible that
Artemis should be a goddess.
Again they say of Aphrodite that she indeed is a goddess. And at
times she dwells with their gods, but at other times she is a
neighbour to men. And once she had Ares as a lover, and again Adonis
who is Tammuz. Once also, Aphrodite was wailing and weeping for the
death of Tammuz, and they say that she went down to Sheol that she
might redeem Adonis from Persephone, who is the daughter of Sheol
(Hades). If then Aphrodite is a goddess and was unable to help her
lover at his death, how will she find it possible to help others? And
this cannot be listened to, that a divine nature should come to
weeping and wailing and adultery.
And again they say of Tammuz that he is a god. And he is, forsooth! a
hunter and an adulterer. And they say that he was killed by a wound
from a wild boar, without being able to help himself. And if he could
not help himself, how can he take thought for the human race? But
that a god should be an adulterer or a hunter or should die by
violence is impossible.
Again they say of Rhea that she is the mother of their gods. And they
say that she had once a lover Atys, and that she used to delight in
depraved men. And at last she raised a lamentation and mourned for
Atys her lover. If then the mother of their gods was unable to help
her lover and deliver him from death, how can she help others? So it
is disgraceful that a goddess should lament and weep and take delight
in depraved men.
Again they introduce Kore and say that she is a goddess, and she was
stolen away by Pluto, and could not help herself. If then she is a
goddess and was unable to help herself how will she find means to help
others? For a god who is stolen away is very powerless.
All this, then, O King, have the Greeks brought forward concerning
their gods, and they have invented and declared it concerning them.
And hence all men received an impulse to work all profanity and all
defilements; and hereby the whole earth was corrupted.
XII. The Egyptians, moreover, because they are more base and stupid
than every people that is on the earth, have themselves erred more
than all. For the deities (or religion) of the Barbarians and the
Greeks did not suffice for them, but they introduced some also of the
nature of the animals, and said thereof that they were gods, and
likewise of creeping things which are found on the dry land and in the
waters. And of plants and herbs they said that some of them were
gods. And they were corrupted by every kind of delusion and
defilement more than every people that is on the earth. For from
ancient times they worshipped Isis, and they say that she is a goddess
whose husband was Osiris her brother. And when Osiris was killed by
Typhon his brother, Isis fled with Horos her son to Byblus in Syria,
and was there for a certain time till her son was grown. And he
contended with Typhon his uncle, and killed him. And then Isis
returned and went about with Horos her son and sought for the dead
body of Osiris her lord, bitterly lamenting his death. If then Isis
be a goddess, and could not help Osiris her brother and lord, how can
she help another? But it is impossible that a divine nature should be
afraid, and flee for safety, or should weep and wail; or else it is
And of Osiris also they say that he is a serviceable god. And he was
killed by Typhon and was unable to help himself. But it is well known
that this cannot be asserted of divinity. And further, they say of
his brother Typhon that he is a god, who killed his brother and was
killed by his brother's son and by his bride, being unable to help
himself. And how, pray, is he a god who does not save himself ?
As the Egyptians, then, were more stupid than the rest of the nations,
these and such like gods did not suffice for them. Nay, but they even
apply the name of gods to animals in which there is no soul at all.
For some of them worship the sheep and others the calf; and some the
pig and others the shad fish; and some the crocodile and the hawk and
the fish and the ibis and the vulture and the eagle and the raven.
Some of them worship the cat, and others the turbotfish, some the dog,
some the adder, and some the asp, and others the lion; and others the
garlic and onions and thorns, and others the tiger and other such
things. And the poor creatures do not see that all these things are
nothing, although they daily witness their gods being eaten and
consumed by men and also by their fellows; while some of them are
cremated, and some die and decay and become dust, without their
observing that they perish in many ways. So the Egyptians have not
observed that such things which are not equal to their own
deliverance, are not gods. And if, forsooth, they are weak in the
case of their own deliverance, whence have they power to help in the
case of deliverance of their worshippers? Great then is the error
into which the Egyptians wandered;--greater, indeed, than that of any
people which is upon the face of the earth.
XIII. But it is a marvel, O King, with regard to the Greeks, who
surpass all other peoples in their manner of life and reasoning, how
they have gone astray after dead idols and lifeless images. And yet
they see their gods in the hands of their artificers being sawn out,
and planed and docked, and hacked short, and charred, and ornamented,
and being altered by them in every kind of way. And when they grow
old, and are worn away through lapse of time, and when they are molten
and crushed to powder, how, I wonder, did they not perceive concerning
them, that they are not gods? And as for those who did not find
deliverance for themselves, how can they serve the distress of men?
But even the writers and philosophers among them have wrongly alleged
that the gods are such as are made in honour of God Almighty. And
they err in seeking to liken (them) to God whom man has not at any
time seen nor can see unto what He is like. Herein, too (they err) in
asserting of deity that any such thing as deficiency can be present to
it; as when they say that He receives sacrifice and requires
burnt-offering and libation and immolations of men, and temples. But
God is not in need, and none of these things is necessary to Him; and
it is clear that men err in these things they imagine.
Further their writers and their philosophers represent and declare
that the nature of all their gods is one. And they have not
apprehended God our Lord who while He is one, is in all. They err
therefore. For if the body of a man while it is many in its parts is
not in dread, one member of another, but, since it is a united body,
wholly agrees with itself; even so also God is one in His nature. A
single essence is proper to Him, since He is uniform in His nature and
His essence; and He is not afraid of Himself. If then the nature of
the gods is one, it is not proper that a god should either pursue or
slay or harm a god. If, then, gods be pursued and wounded by gods,
and some be kidnapped and some struck dead by lightning, it is obvious
that the nature of their gods is not one. And hence it is known, O
King, that it is a mistake when they reckon and bring the natures of
their gods under a single nature. If then it becomes us to admire a
god which is seen and does not see, how much more praiseworthy is it
that one should believe in a nature which is invisible and
all-seeing? And if further it is fitting that one should approve the
handiworks of a craftsman, how much more is it fitting that one should
glorify the Creator of the craftsman?
For behold! when the Greeks made laws they did not perceive that by
their laws they condemn their gods. For if their laws are righteous,
their gods are unrighteous, since they transgressed the law in killing
one another, and practising sorcery, and committing adultery, and in
robbing and stealing, and in lying with males, and by their other
practises as well. For if their gods were right in doing all these
things as they are described, then the laws of the Greeks are
unrighteous in not being made according to the will of their gods.
And in that case the whole world is gone astray.
For the narratives about their gods are some of them myths, and some
of them nature-poems (lit: natural:--phusikai), and some of them
hymns and elegies. The hymns indeed and elegies are empty words and
noise. But these nature-poems, even if they be made as they say,
still those are not gods who do such things and suffer and endure such
things. And those myths are shallow tales with no depth whatever in
XIV. Let us come now, O King, to the history of the Jews also, and
see what opinion they have as to God. The Jews then say that God is
one, the Creator of all, and omnipotent; and that it is not right that
any other should be worshipped except this God alone. And herein they
appear to approach the truth more than all the nations, especially in
that they worship God and not His works. And they imitate God by the
philanthropy which prevails among them; for they have compassion on
the poor, and they release the captives, and bury the dead, and do
such things as these, which are acceptable before God and
well-pleasing also to men,--which (customs) they have received from
Nevertheless they too erred from true knowledge. And in their
imagination they conceive that it is God they serve; whereas by their
mode of observance it is to the angels and not to God that their
service is rendered:--as when they celebrate sabbaths and the
beginning of the months, and feasts of unleavened bread, and a great
fast; and fasting and circumcision and the purification of meats,
which things, however, they do not observe perfectly.
XV. But the Christians, O King, while they went about and made
search,  have found the truth; and as we learned from their
writings, they have come nearer to truth and genuine knowledge than
the rest of the nations. For they know and trust in God, the Creator
of heaven and of earth, in whom and from whom are all things, to whom
there is no other god as companion, from whom they received
commandments which they engraved upon their minds and observe in hope
and expectation of the world which is to come. Wherefore they do not
commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear false witness, nor embezzle
what is held in pledge, nor covet what is not theirs. They honour
father and mother, and show kindness to those near to them; and
whenever they are judges, they judge uprightly. They do not worship
idols (made) in the image of man; and whatsoever they would not that
others should do unto them, they do not to others; and of the food
which is consecrated to idols they do not eat, for they are pure. And
their oppressors they appease (lit: comfort) and make them their
friends; they do good to their enemies; and their women, O King, are
pure as virgins, and their daughters are modest; and their men keep
themselves from every unlawful union and from all uncleanness, in the
hope of a recompense to come in the other world. Further, if one or
other of them have bondmen and bondwomen or children, through love
towards them they persuade them to become Christians, and when they
have done so, they call them brethren without distinction. They do
not worship strange gods, and they go their way in all modesty and
cheerfulness. Falsehood is not found among them; and they love one
another, and from widows they do not turn away their esteem; and they
deliver the orphan from him who treats him harshly. And he, who has,
gives to him who has not, without boasting. And when they see a
stranger, they take him in to their homes and rejoice over him as a
very brother; for they do not call them brethren after the flesh, but
brethren after the spirit and in God. And whenever one of their poor
passes from the world, each one of them according to his ability gives
heed to him and carefully sees to his burial. And if they hear that
one of their number is imprisoned or afflicted on account of the name
of their Messiah, all of them anxiously minister to his necessity, and
if it is possible to redeem him they set him free. And if there is
among them any that is poor and needy, and if they have no spare food,
they fast two or three days in order to supply to the needy their lack
of food. They observe the precepts of their Messiah with much care,
living justly and soberly as the Lord their God commanded them. Every
morning  and every hour they give thanks and praise to God for
His loving-kindnesses toward them; and for their food and their drink
they offer thanksgiving to Him. And if any righteous man among them
passes from the world, they rejoice and offer thanks to God; and they
escort his body as if he were setting out from one place to another
near. And when a child has been born to one of them, they give thanks
to God; and if moreover it happen to die in childhood, they give
thanks to God the more, as for one who has passed through the world
without sins. And further if they see that anyone of them dies in his
ungodliness or in his sins, for him they grieve bitterly, and sorrow
as for one who goes to meet his doom.
XVI. Such, O King, is the commandment of the law of the Christians,
and such is their manner of life. As men who know God, they ask from
Him petitions which are fitting for Him to grant and for them to
receive. And thus they employ their whole lifetime. And since they
know the loving-kindnesses of God toward them, behold! for their sake
the glorious things which are in the world flow forth to view. And
verily, they are those who found the truth when they went about and
made search for it; and from what we considered, we learned that they
alone come near to a knowledge of the truth. And they do not proclaim
in the ears of the multitude the kind deeds they do, but are careful
that no one should notice them; and they conceal their giving just as
he who finds a treasure and conceals it. And they strive to be
righteous as those who expect to behold their Messiah, and to receive
from Him with great glory the promises made concerning them. And as
for their words and their precepts, O King, and their glorying in
their worship, and the hope of earning according to the work of each
one of them their recompense which they look for in another world, you
may learn about these from their writings. It is enough for us to
have shortly informed your Majesty concerning the conduct and the
truth of the Christians. For great indeed, and wonderful is their
doctrine to him who will search into it and reflect upon it. And
verily, this is a new people, and there is something divine (lit: a
divine admixture) in the midst of them.
Take, then, their writings, and read therein, and lo! you will find
that I have not put forth these things on my own authority, nor spoken
thus as their advocate; but since I read in their writings I was fully
assured of these things as also of things which are to come. And for
this reason I was constrained to declare the truth to such as care for
it and seek the world to come. And to me there is no doubt but that
the earth abides through the supplication of the Christians. But the
rest of the nations err and cause error in wallowing before the
elements of the world, since beyond these their mental vision will not
pass. And they search about as if in darkness because they will not
recognize the truth; and like drunken men they reel and jostle one
another and fall.
XVII. Thus far, O King, I have spoken; for concerning that which
remains, as is said above,  there are found in their other
writings things which are hard to utter and difficult for one to
narrate,--which are not only spoken in words but also wrought out in
Now the Greeks, O King, as they follow base practises in intercourse
with males, and a mother and a sister and a daughter, impute their
monstrous impurity in turn to the Christians. But the Christians are
just and good, and the truth is set before their eyes, and their
spirit is long-suffering; and, therefore, though they know the error
of these (the Greeks), and are persecuted by them, they bear and
endure it; and for the most part they have compassion on them, as men
who are destitute of knowledge. And on their side, they offer prayer
that these may repent of their error; and when it happens that one of
them has repented, he is ashamed before the Christians of the works
which were done by him; and he makes confession to God, saying, I did
these things in ignorance. And he purifies his heart, and his sins
are forgiven him, because he committed them in ignorance in the former
time, when he used to blaspheme and speak evil of the true knowledge
of the Christians. And assuredly the race of the Christians is more
blessed than all the men who are upon the face of the earth.
Henceforth let the tongues of those who utter vanity and harass the
Christians be silent; and hereafter let them speak the truth. For it
is of serious consequence to them that they should worship the true
God rather than worship a senseless sound. And verily whatever is
spoken in the mouth of the Christians is of God; and their doctrine is
the gateway of light. Wherefore let all who are without the knowledge
of God draw near thereto; and they will receive incorruptible words,
which are from all time and from eternity. So shall they appear
before the awful judgment which through Jesus the Messiah is destined
to come upon the whole human race.
The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher is finished.
 The superscription seems to be duplicate in the Syriac. It is
absent from the Greek as we have it; the Armenian has "To the Emperor
Cæsar Hadrian from Aristides." Various explanations are offered. (a)
Both emperors, as colleagues, may be meant. In support of this the
Syriac adjectives for "venerable and merciful" are marked plural; the
phrase "Your majesty" occurring later has a plural suffix; and two
Imperatives, "Take and read," are plural. On the other hand "O King"
occurs constantly in the singular; and the emperors were colleagues
only for a few months in the year a.d. 138. (b) The longer heading is
the true one--the shorter being due perhaps to a scribe who had a
collection of works to copy. In that case the word "Hadrian" has been
selected from the full title of Antonine, and the two adjectives
"venerable and merciful" are proper names, Augustus Pius. (Harris.)
(c) The shorter heading has the support of Eusebius and the Armenian
version; and the translator into Syriac may have amplified. (***)
Almighty is separated from the word for "God" by a pause, and is not
an attribute which a Christian would care to apply to a Roman
emperor. pantokrator may have been confounded with au tokrator.
Raabe supplies *** giving the sense "qui imperium (postatem) habet,"
as an epithet of Cæsar. If *** ="Renewed, or dedicated again
to...Antoninus Pius," could be read, both headings might be retained.
 The Armenian adds, "For that which is subject to this
distinction is moved by passions."
 Literally: "a certain dispensation of his." The Greek term
oikonomia, "dispensation," suggests to the translator into Syriac the
idea of the Incarnation, familiar, as it seems, by his time.
Professor Sachau reads the equivalent of thaumaste instead of ***
(tis). In the translation given *** is taken adverbially =
 This irrelevant sentence is found in the Armenian version also,
and therefore was probably in the original Greek. It seems to be an
obiter dictum. Men fall into four groups, and, by the way, so do the
elements, air, fire, earth, and water; and the powers that govern
them. One quaternion suggests others.
 Cf. Rom. i. 25 and Col. ii. 8.
 Or "and hence the world also gets its name kosmos." The Syriac
is the equivalent of the Greek "dio kai kosmos kaleitai," which occurs
(Chap. IV.) in discussing the supposed divinity of the sky or heaven.
 Professor Nöldeke's emendation, ***, in place of *** ="they
were reviled," is adopted in the translation given.
 Cf. Amos v. 26, "Chiun, your star god," and Acts vii. 43.
 Pasiphae's unnatural passion for Taurus is not in the Greek
mythology charged to Zeus.
 The visit of Zeus to Semele (not Selene) is evidently referred
to. Selene Luna would give the Syriac ***.
 Professor Rendel Harris pronounces "Paludus" a vox nihili, and
explains its presence as due to a corrupt repetition of the preceding
Polydeuces. The Syriac word in the text suggests Pollux--the Latin
equivalent of Polydeuces. Clytemnestra is the name required.
 Adopting Professor Harris's emendation *** = kleptes instead of
*** = vir.
 "Tyrant," ***, seems out of place when connected with
Herakles. Perhaps *** = ebrius, which occurs at the close of the
paragraph, should be read here. Cf. also the Greek.
 The same two words are used of Isis. The Christians are unlike
her in finding what they sought.
 Cf. Pliny's letter to the Emperor Trajan, a.d. 112, "The
Christians are wont to meet at dawn on an appointed day, and to sing a
hymn to Christ as God."
 The Christian Scriptures are previously referred to as a source
of information, not as containing difficulties. cf. 2 Peter iii. 16.
The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs.
Andrew Rutherford, B.D.
Translation by Prof. J. A. Robinson. Introduction by A. R.
The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs.
The Scillitan Martyrs were condemned and executed at Carthage on the
17th July, a.d. 180. The martyrs belonged to Scili, a place in that
part of Numidia which belonged to proconsular Africa. The proconsul
at the time, who is said by Tertullian to have been the first to draw
the sword against the Christians there, was P. Vigellius Saturninus.
The consuls for the year were Præsens II. and Condianus. Marcus
Aurelius had died only a few months before.
The exact date of the martyrdom was long under dispute, and the
question has recently arisen whether the Acts were originally written
in Latin or Greek. Baronius placed the date as late as 202. The text
had become corrupt in passing through various Latin and Greek versions
and transcriptions, and it was long impossible to recognize the names
of the consuls for the year in the first line of the piece. But M.
Leon Renier conjectured that the word bis pointed to a consul's name
underlying the word preceding it, and suggested the year 180, when
Præsens and Condianus were consuls. This conjecture was confirmed by
Usener's publication in 1881 of a Greek version from a ninth century
ms. in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, though even here the
names, though recognizable, were in a corrupt form. Usener believed
this version to be a translation from a Latin original, and his theory
has been confirmed by Mr. Armitage Robinson's discovery of a Latin ms.
of the ninth century in the British Museum, containing the Acts of the
Scillitan Martyrs in a form briefer than any of the other versions and
believed to be the original. Mr. A. Robinson's translation which
follows, is from the Latin which he discovered, and which is printed
in Texts and Studies, vol. i., No. 2.
The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs.
When Præsens, for the second time, and Claudianus were the consuls, on
the seventeenth day of July, at Carthage, there were set in the
judgment-hall Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Donata, Secunda and
Saturninus the proconsul said: Ye can win the indulgence of our lord
the Emperor, if ye return to a sound mind.
Speratus said: We have never done ill, we have not lent ourselves to
wrong, we have never spoken ill, but when ill-treated we have given
thanks; because we pay heed to our Emperor.
Saturninus the proconsul said: We too are religious, and our religion
is simple, and we swear by the genius of our lord the Emperor, and
pray for his welfare, as ye also ought to do.
Speratus said: If thou wilt peaceably lend me thine ears, I can tell
thee the mystery of simplicity.
Saturninus said: I will not lend mine ears to thee, when thou
beginnest to speak evil things of our sacred rites; but rather swear
thou by the genius of our lord the Emperor.
Speratus said: The empire of this world I know not; but rather I
serve that God, whom no man hath seen, nor with these eyes can see.
I have committed no theft; but if I have bought anything I
pay the tax; because I know my Lord, the King of kings and Emperor of
Saturninus the proconsul said to the rest: Cease to be of this
Speratus said: It is an ill persuasion to do murder, to speak false
Saturninus the proconsul said: Be not partakers of this folly.
Cittinus said: We have none other to fear, save only our Lord God,
who is in heaven.
Donata said: Honour to Cæsar as Cæsar: but fear to God. 
Vestia said: I am a Christian.
Secunda said: What I am, that I wish to be.
Saturninus the proconsul said to Speratus: Dost thou persist in being
Speratus said: I am a Christian. And with him they all agreed.
Saturninus the proconsul said: Will ye have a space to consider?
Speratus said: In a matter so straightforward there is no
Saturninus the proconsul said: What are the things in your chest?
Speratus said: Books and epistles of Paul, a just man.
Saturninus the proconsul said: Have a delay of thirty days and
Speratus said a second time: I am a Christian. And with him they all
Saturninus the proconsul read out the decree from the tablet:
Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Donata, Vestia, Secunda and the rest
having confessed that they live according to the Christian rite, since
after opportunity offered them of returning to the custom of the
Romans they have obstinately persisted, it is determined that they be
put to the sword.
Speratus said: We give thanks to God.
Nartzalus said: To-day we are martyrs in heaven; thanks be to God.
Saturninus the proconsul ordered it to be declared by the herald:
Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Veturius, Felix, Aquilinus, Lætantius,
Januaria, Generosa, Vestia, Donata and Secunda, I have ordered to be
They all said: Thanks be to God.
And so they all together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign
with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever.
 1 Tim. vi. 16.
 Cf. Rom. xiii. 7.
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