Writings of Cyril - The Catechetical Lectures
2. For the method of godliness consists of these two things, pious
doctrines, and virtuous practice: and neither are the doctrines
acceptable to God apart from good works, nor does God accept the works
which are not perfected with pious doctrines. For what profit is it,
to know well the doctrines concerning God, and yet to be a vile
fornicator? And again, what profit is it, to be nobly temperate, and
an impious blasphemer? A most precious possession therefore is the
knowledge of doctrines: also there is need of a wakeful soul, since
there are many that make spoil through philosophy and vain deceit
 . The Greeks on the one hand draw men away by their smooth
tongue, for honey droppeth from a harlot's lips  : whereas they
of the Circumcision deceive those who come to them by means of the
Divine Scriptures, which they miserably misinterpret though studying
them from childhood to old age  , and growing old in ignorance.
But the children of heretics, by their good words and smooth tongue,
deceive the hearts of the innocent  , disguising with the name of
Christ as it were with honey the poisoned arrows  of their
impious doctrines: concerning all of whom together the Lord saith,
Take heed lest any man mislead you  . This is the reason for the
teaching of the Creed and for expositions upon it.
The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem,
with a revised translation, introduction, notes, and indices,
by Edwin Hamilton Gifford, D.D.
formerly archdeacon of london, and canon of S. Paul's.
Under the editorial supervision of Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Semimary, New York,
and Henry Wace, D.D., Principal of King's College, London
Published in 1893 by Philip Schaff,
New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.
On the Ten  Points of Doctrine.
Colossians ii. 8.
Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit,
after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, &c.
1. Vice mimics virtue, and the tares strive to be thought wheat,
growing like the wheat in appearance, but being detected by good
judges from the taste. The devil also transfigures himself into an
angel of light  ; not that he may reascend to where he was, for
having made his heart hard as an anvil  , he has henceforth a
will that cannot repent; but in order that he may envelope those who
are living an Angelic life in a mist of blindness, and a pestilent
condition of unbelief. Many wolves are going about in sheeps'
clothing  , their clothing being that of sheep, not so their
claws and teeth: but clad in their soft skin, and deceiving the
innocent by their appearance, they shed upon them from their fangs the
destructive poison of ungodliness. We have need therefore of divine
grace, and of a sober mind, and of eyes that see, lest from eating
tares as wheat we suffer harm from ignorance, and lest from taking the
wolf to be a sheep we become his prey, and from supposing the
destroying Devil to be a beneficent Angel we be devoured: for, as the
Scripture saith, he goeth about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may
devour  . This is the cause of the Church's admonitions, the
cause of the present instructions, and of the lessons which are read.
3. But before delivering you over to the Creed  , I think it is
well to make use at present of a short summary of necessary doctrines;
that the multitude of things to be spoken, and the long interval of
the days of all this holy Lent, may not cause forgetfulness in the
mind of the more simple among you; but that, having strewn some seeds
now in a summary way, we may not forget the same when afterwards more
widely tilled. But let those here present whose habit of mind is
mature, and who have their senses already exercised to discern good
and evil  , endure patiently to listen to things fitted rather
for children, and to an introductory course, as it were, of milk:
that at the same time both those who have need of the instruction may
be benefited, and those who have the knowledge may rekindle the
remembrance of things which they already know.
I. Of God.
4. First then let there be laid as a foundation in your soul the
doctrine concerning God; that God is One, alone unbegotten, without
beginning, change, or variation  ; neither begotten of another,
nor having another to succeed Him in His life; who neither began to
live in time, nor endeth ever: and that He is both good and just;
that if ever thou hear a heretic say, that there is one God who is
just, and another who is good  , thou mayest immediately
remember, and discern the poisoned arrow of heresy. For some have
impiously dared to divide the One God in their teaching: and some
have said that one is the Creator and Lord of the soul, and another of
the body  ; a doctrine at once absurd and impious. For how can a
man become the one servant of two masters, when our Lord says in the
Gospels, No man can serve two masters  ? There is then One Only
God, the Maker both of souls and bodies: One the Creator of heaven
and earth, the Maker of Angels and Archangels: of many the Creator,
but of One only the Father before all ages,--of One only, His
Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom He made all things
visible and invisible  .
5. This Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is not circumscribed in any
place  , nor is He less than the heaven; but the heavens are the
works of His fingers  , and the whole earth is held in His grasp
 : He is in all things and around all. Think not that the sun
is brighter than He  , or equal to Him: for He who at first
formed the sun must needs be incomparably greater and brighter. He
foreknoweth the things that shall be, and is mightier than all,
knowing all things and doing as He will; not being subject to any
necessary sequence of events, nor to nativity, nor chance, nor fate;
in all things perfect, and equally possessing every absolute form
 of virtue, neither diminishing nor increasing, but in mode and
conditions ever the same; who hath prepared punishment for sinners,
and a crown for the righteous.
6. Seeing then that many have gone astray in divers ways from the One
God, some having deified the sun, that when the sun sets they may
abide in the night season without God; others the moon, to have no God
by day  ; others the other parts of the world  ; others the
arts  ; others their various kinds of food  ; others their
pleasures  ; while some, mad after women, have set up on high an
image of a naked woman, and called it Aphrodite  , and worshipped
their own lust in a visible form; and others dazzled by the brightness
of gold have deified it  and the other kinds of matter;--whereas
if one lay as a first foundation in his heart the doctrine of the
unity  of God, and trust to Him, he roots out at once the whole
crop  of the evils of idolatry, and of the error of the
heretics: lay thou, therefore, this first doctrine of religion as a
foundation in thy soul by faith.
7. Believe also in the Son of God, One and Only, our Lord Jesus
Christ, Who was begotten God of God, begotten Life of Life, begotten
Light of Light  , Who is in all things like  to Him that
begat, Who received not His being in time, but was before all ages
eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father: The Wisdom and
the Power of God, and His Righteousness personally subsisting  :
Who sitteth on the right hand of the Father before all ages.
For the throne at God's right hand He received not, as some have
thought, because of His patient endurance, being crowned as it were by
God after His Passion; but throughout His being,--a being by eternal
generation  ,--He holds His royal dignity, and shares the
Father's seat, being God and Wisdom and Power, as hath been said;
reigning together with the Father, and creating all things for the
Father, yet lacking nothing in the dignity of Godhead, and knowing Him
that hath begotten Him, even as He is known of Him that hath begotten;
and to speak briefly, remember thou what is written in the Gospels,
that none knoweth the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any the
Father save the Son  .
8. Further, do thou neither separate  the Son from the Father,
nor by making a confusion believe in a Son-Fatherhood  ; but
believe that of One God there is One Only-begotten Son, who is before
all ages God the Word; not the uttered  word diffused into the
air, nor to be likened to impersonal words  ; but the Word the
Son, Maker of all who partake of reason, the Word who heareth the
Father, and Himself speaketh. And on these points, should God permit,
we will speak more at large in due season; for we do not forget our
present purpose to give a summary introduction to the Faith.
Concerning His Birth of the Virgin.
9. Believe then that this Only-begotten Son of God for our sins came
down from heaven upon earth, and took upon Him this human nature of
like passions  with us, and was begotten of the Holy Virgin and
of the Holy Ghost, and was made Man, not in seeming and mere show
 , but in truth; nor yet by passing through the Virgin as through
a channel  ; but was of her made truly flesh, [and truly
nourished with milk  ], and did truly eat as we do, and truly
drink as we do. For if the Incarnation was a phantom, salvation is a
phantom also. The Christ was of two natures, Man in what was seen,
but God in what was not seen; as Man truly eating like us, for He had
the like feeling of the flesh with us; but as God feeding the five
thousand from five loaves; as Man truly dying, but as God raising him
that had been dead four days; truly sleeping in the ship as Man, and
walking upon the waters as God.
Of the Cross.
10. He was truly crucified for our sins. For if thou wouldest deny
it, the place refutes thee visibly, this blessed Golgotha  , in
which we are now assembled for the sake of Him who was here crucified;
and the whole world has since been filled with pieces of the wood of
the Cross  . But He was crucified not for sins of His own, but
that we might be delivered from our sins. And though as Man He was at
that time despised of men, and was buffeted, yet He was acknowledged
by the Creation as God: for when the sun saw his Lord dishonoured, he
grew dim and trembled, not enduring the sight.
Of His Burial.
11. He was truly laid as Man in a tomb of rock; but rocks were rent
asunder by terror because of Him. He went down into the regions
beneath the earth, that thence also He might redeem the righteous
 . For, tell me, couldst thou wish the living only to enjoy His
grace, and that, though most of them are unholy; and not wish those
who from Adam had for a long while been imprisoned to have now gained
their liberty? Esaias the Prophet proclaimed with loud voice so many
things concerning Him; wouldst thou not wish that the King should go
down and redeem His herald? David was there, and Samuel, and all the
Prophets  , John himself also, who by his messengers said, Art
thou He that should come, or look we for another  ? Wouldst thou
not wish that He should descend and redeem such as these?
Of the Resurrection.
12. But He who descended into the regions beneath the earth came up
again; and Jesus, who was buried, truly rose again the third day. And
if the Jews ever worry thee, meet them at once by asking thus: Did
Jonah come forth from the whale on the third day, and hath not Christ
then risen from the earth on the third day? Is a dead man raised to
life on touching the bones of Elisha, and is it not much easier for
the Maker of mankind to be raised by the power of the Father? Well
then, He truly rose, and after He had risen was seen again of the
disciples: and twelve disciples were witnesses of His Resurrection,
who bare witness not in pleasing words, but contended even unto
torture and death for the truth of the Resurrection. What then, shall
every word be established at the mouth of two of three witnesses 
, according to the Scripture, and, though twelve bear witness to the
Resurrection of Christ, art thou still incredulous in regard to His
Concerning the Ascension.
13. But when Jesus had finished His course of patient endurance, and
had redeemed mankind from their sins, He ascended again into the
heavens, a cloud receiving Him up: and as He went up Angels were
beside Him, and Apostles were beholding. But if any man disbelieves
the words which I speak, let him believe the actual power of the
things now seen. All kings when they die have their power
extinguished with their life: but Christ crucified is worshipped by
the whole world. We proclaim The Crucified, and the devils tremble
now. Many have been crucified at various times; but of what other who
was crucified did the invocation ever drive the devils away?
14. Let us, therefore, not be ashamed of the Cross of Christ; but
though another hide it, do thou openly seal it upon thy forehead, that
the devils may behold the royal sign and flee trembling far away 
. Make then this sign at eating and drinking, at sitting, at lying
down, at rising up, at speaking, at walking: in a word, at every act
 . For He who was here crucified is in heaven above. If after
being crucified and buried He had remained in the tomb, we should have
had cause to be ashamed; but, in fact, He who was crucified on
Golgotha here, has ascended into heaven from the Mount of Olives on
the East. For after having gone down hence into Hades, and come up
again to us, He ascended again from us into heaven, His Father
addressing Him, and saying, Sit Thou on My right hand, until I make
Thine enemies Thy footstool  .
Of Judgment to Come.
15. This Jesus Christ who is gone up shall come again, not from earth
but from heaven: and I say, "not from earth," because there are many
Antichrists to come at this time from earth. For already, as thou
hast seen, many have begun to say, I am the Christ  : and the
abomination of desolation  is yet to come, assuming to himself
the false title of Christ. But look thou for the true Christ, the
Only-begotten Son of God, coming henceforth no more from earth, but
from heaven, appearing to all more bright than any lightning and
brilliancy of light, with angel guards attended, that He may judge
both quick and dead, and reign in a heavenly, eternal kingdom, which
shall have no end. For on this point also, I pray thee, make thyself
sure, since there are many who say that Christ's Kingdom hath an end
Of the Holy Ghost.
16. Believe thou also in the Holy Ghost, and hold the same opinion
concerning Him, which thou hast received to hold concerning the Father
and the Son, and follow not those who teach blasphemous things of Him
 . But learn thou that this Holy Spirit is One, indivisible, of
manifold power; having many operations, yet not Himself divided; Who
knoweth the mysteries, Who searcheth all things, even the deep things
of God  : Who descended upon the Lord Jesus Christ in form of a
dove; Who wrought in the Law and in the Prophets; Who now also at the
season of Baptism sealeth thy soul; of Whose holiness also every
intellectual nature hath need: against Whom if any dare to blaspheme,
he hath no forgiveness, neither in this world, nor in that which is to
come  : "Who with the Father and the Son together  " is
honoured with the glory of the Godhead: of Whom also thrones, and
dominions, principalities, and powers have need  . For there is
One God, the Father of Christ; and One Lord Jesus Christ, the
Only-begotten Son of the Only God; and One Holy Ghost, the sanctifier
and deifier of all  , Who spake in the Law and in the Prophets,
in the Old and in the New Testament.
17. Have thou ever in thy mind this seal  , which for the
present has been lightly touched in my discourse, by way of summary,
but shall be stated, should the Lord permit, to the best of my power
with the proof from the Scriptures. For concerning the divine and
holy mysteries of the Faith, not even a casual statement must be
delivered without the Holy Scriptures; nor must we be drawn aside by
mere plausibility and artifices of speech. Even to me, who tell thee
these things, give not absolute credence, unless thou receive the
proof of the things which I announce from the Divine Scriptures. For
this salvation which we believe depends not on ingenious reasoning
 , but on demonstration of the Holy Scriptures.
Of the Soul.
18. Next to the knowledge of this venerable and glorious and all-holy
Faith, learn further what thou thyself art: that as man thou art of a
two-fold nature, consisting of soul and body; and that, as was said a
short time ago, the same God is the Creator both of soul and body
 . Know also that thou hast a soul self-governed, the noblest
work of God, made after the image of its Creator  : immortal
because of God that gives it immortality; a living being, rational,
imperishable, because of Him that bestowed these gifts: having free
power to do what it willeth  . For it is not according to thy
nativity that thou sinnest, nor is it by the power of chance that thou
committest fornication, nor, as some idly talk, do the conjunctions of
the stars compel thee to give thyself to wantonness  . Why dost
thou shrink from confessing thine own evil deeds, and ascribe the
blame to the innocent stars? Give no more heed, pray, to astrologers;
for of these the divine Scripture saith, Let the stargazers of the
heaven stand up and save thee, and what follows: Behold, they all
shall be consumed as stubble on the fire, and shall not deliver their
soul from the flame  .
19. And learn this also, that the soul, before it came into this
world, had committed no sin  , but having come in sinless, we now
sin of our free-will. Listen not, I pray thee, to any one perversely
interpreting the words, But if I do that which I would not  :
but remember Him who saith, If ye be willing, and hearken unto Me, ye
shall eat the good things of the land: but if ye be not willing,
neither hearken unto Me, the sword shall devour you, &c.  : and
again, As ye presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to
iniquity unto iniquity, even so now present your members as servants
to righteousness unto sanctification  . Remember also the
Scripture, which saith, Even as they did not like to retain God in
their knowledge  : and, That which may be known of God is
manifestin them  ; and again, their eyes they have closed 
. Also remember how God again accuseth them, and saith, Yet I planted
thee a fruitful vine, wholly true: how art thou turned to bitterness,
thou the strange vine  ?
20. The soul is immortal, and all souls are alike both of men and
women; for only the members of the body are distinguished  .
There is not a class of souls sinning by nature, and a class of souls
practising righteousness by nature  : but both act from choice,
the substance of their souls being of one kind only, and alike in
all. I know, however, that I am talking much, and that the time is
already long: but what is more precious than salvation? Art thou not
willing to take trouble in getting provisions for the way against the
heretics? And wilt thou not learn the bye-paths of the road, lest
from ignorance thou fall down a precipice? If thy teachers think it
no small gain for thee to learn these things, shouldest not thou the
learner gladly receive the multitude of things told thee?
21. The soul is self-governed: and though the devil can suggest, he
has not the power to compel against the will. He pictures to thee the
thought of fornication: if thou wilt, thou acceptest it; if thou wilt
not, thou rejectest. For if thou wert a fornicator by necessity, then
for what cause did God prepare hell? If thou were a doer of
righteousness by nature and not by will, wherefore did God prepare
crowns of ineffable glory? The sheep is gentle, but never was it
crowned for its gentleness: since its gentle quality belongs to it
not from choice but by nature.
Of the Body.
22. Thou hast learned, beloved, the nature of the soul, as far as
there is time at present: now do thy best to receive the doctrine of
the body also. Suffer none of those who say that this body is no work
of God  : for they who believe that the body is independent of
God, and that the soul dwells in it as in a strange vessel, readily
abuse it to fornication  . And yet what fault have they found in
this wonderful body? For what is lacking in comeliness? And what in
its structure is not full of skill? Ought they not to have observed
the luminous construction of the eyes? And how the ears being set
obliquely receive the sound unhindered? And how the smell is able to
distinguish scents, and to perceive exhalations? And how the tongue
ministers to two purposes, the sense of taste, and the power of
speech? How the lungs placed out of sight are unceasing in their
respiration of the air? Who imparted the incessant pulsation of the
heart? Who made the distribution into so many veins and arteries?
Who skilfully knitted together the bones with the sinews? Who
assigned a part of the food to our substance, and separated a part for
decent secretion, and hid away the unseemly members in more seemly
places? Who when the human race must have died out, rendered it by a
simple intercourse perpetual?
23. Tell me not that the body is a cause of sin  . For if the
body is a cause of sin, why does not a dead body sin? Put a sword in
the right hand of one just dead, and no murder takes place. Let
beauties of every kind pass before a youth just dead, and no impure
desire arises. Why? Because the body sins not of itself, but the
soul through the body. The body is an instrument, and, as it were, a
garment and robe of the soul: and if by this latter it be given over
to fornication, it becomes defiled: but if it dwell with a holy soul,
it becomes a temple of the Holy Ghost. It is not I that say this, but
the Apostle Paul hath said, Know ye not, that your bodies are the
temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you  ? Be tender,
therefore, of thy body as being a temple of the Holy Ghost. Pollute
not thy flesh in fornication: defile not this thy fairest robe: and
if ever thou hast defiled it, now cleanse it by repentance: get
thyself washed, while time permits.
24. And to the doctrine of chastity let the first to give heed be the
order of Solitaries  and of Virgins, who maintain the angelic
life in the world; and let the rest of the Church's people follow
them. For you, brethren, a great crown is laid up: barter not away a
great dignity for a petty pleasure: listen to the Apostle speaking:
Lest there be any fornicator or profane person, as Esau, who for one
mess of meat sold his own birthright  . Enrolled henceforth in
the Angelic books for thy profession of chastity, see that thou be not
blotted out again for thy practice of fornication.
25. Nor again, on the other hand, in maintaining thy chastity be thou
puffed up against those who walk in the humbler path of matrimony.
For as the Apostle saith, Let marriage be had in honour among all, and
let the bed be undefiled  . Thou too who retainest thy chastity,
wast thou not begotten of those who had married? Because thou hast a
possession of gold, do not on that account reprobate the silver. But
let those also be of good cheer, who being married use marriage
lawfully; who make a marriage according to God's ordinance, and not of
wantonness for the sake of unbounded license; who recognise seasons of
abstinence, that they may give themselves unto prayer  ; who in
our assemblies bring clean bodies as well as clean garments into the
Church; who have entered upon matrimony for the procreation of
children, but not for indulgence.
26. Let those also who marry but once not reprobate those who have
consented to a second marriage  : for though continence is a
noble and admirable thing, yet it is also permissible to enter upon a
second marriage, that the weak may not fall into fornication. For it
is good for them, saith the Apostle, if they abide even as I. But if
they have not continency, let them marry: for it is better to marry
than to burn  . But let all the other practices be banished
afar, fornication, adultery, and every kind of licentiousness: and
let the body be kept pure for the Lord, that the Lord also may have
respect unto the body. And let the body be nourished with food, that
it may live, and serve without hindrance; not, however, that it may be
given up to luxuries.
27. And concerning food let these be your ordinances, since in regard
to meats also many stumble. For some deal indifferently with things
offered to idols  , while others discipline themselves, but
condemn those that eat: and in different ways men's souls are defiled
in the matter of meats, from ignorance of the useful reasons for
eating and not eating. For we fast by abstaining from wine and flesh,
not because we abhor them as abominations, but because we look for our
reward; that having scorned things sensible, we may enjoy a spiritual
and intellectual feast; and that having now sown in tears we may reap
in joy  in the world to come. Despise not therefore them that
eat, and because of the weakness of their bodies partake of food: nor
yet blame these who use a little wine for their stomach's sake and
their often infirmities  : and neither condemn the men as
sinners, nor abhor the flesh as strange food; for the Apostle knows
some of this sort, when he says: forbidding to marry, and commanding
to abstain from meats, which God created to be received with
thanksgiving by them that believe  . In abstaining then from
these things, abstain not as from things abominable  , else thou
hast no reward: but as being good things disregard them for the sake
of the better spiritual things set before thee.
28. Guard thy soul safely, lest at any time thou eat of things
offered to idols: for concerning meats of this kind, not only I at
this time, but ere now Apostles also, and James the bishop of this
Church, have had earnest care: and the Apostles and Elders write a
Catholic epistle to all the Gentiles, that they should abstain first
from things offered to idols, and then from blood also and from things
strangled  . For many men being of savage nature, and living
like dogs, both lap up blood  , in imitation of the manner of the
fiercest beasts, and greedily devour things strangled. But do thou,
the servant of Christ, in eating observe to eat with reverence. And
so enough concerning meats.
29. But let thine apparel be plain, not for adornment, but for
necessary covering: not to minister to thy vanity, but to keep thee
warm in winter, and to hide the unseemliness of the body: lest under
pretence of hiding the unseemliness, thou fall into another kind of
unseemliness by thy extravagant dress.
Of the Resurrection.
30. Be tender, I beseech thee, of this body, and understand that thou
wilt be raised from the dead, to be judged with this body. But if
there steal into thy mind any thought of unbelief, as though the thing
were impossible, judge of the things unseen by what happens to
thyself. For tell me; a hundred years ago or more, think where wast
thou thyself: and from what a most minute and mean substance thou art
come to so great a stature, and so much dignity of beauty  .
What then? Cannot He who brought the non-existent into being, raise
up again that which already exists and has decayed  ? He who
raises the corn, which is sown for our sakes, as year by year it
dies,--will He have difficulty in raising us up, for whose sakes that
corn also has been raised  ? Seest thou how the trees stand now
for many months without either fruit or leaves: but when the winter
is past they spring up whole into life again as if from the dead 
: shall not we much rather and more easily return to life? The rod
of Moses was transformed by the will of God into the unfamiliar nature
of a serpent: and cannot a man, who has fallen into death, be
restored to himself again?
31. Heed not those who say that this body is not raised; for it is
raised: and Esaias is witness, when he says: The dead shall arise,
and they that are in the tombs shall awake  : and according to
Daniel, Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise,
some to everlasting life, and some to everlasting shame  . But
though to rise again is common to all men, yet the resurrection is not
alike to all: for the bodies received by us all are eternal, but not
like bodies by all: for the just receive them, that through eternity
they may join the Choirs of Angels; but the sinners, that they may
endure for ever the torment of their sins.
Of the Laver.
32. For this cause the Lord, preventing us according to His
loving-kindness, has granted repentance at Baptism  , in order
that we may cast off the chief--nay rather the whole burden of our
sins, and having received the seal by the Holy Ghost, may be made
heirs of eternal life. But as we have spoken sufficiently concerning
the Laver the day before yesterday, let us now return to the remaining
subjects of our introductory teaching.
Of the Divine Scriptures.
33. Now these the divinely-inspired Scriptures of both the Old and
the New Testament teach us. For the God of the two Testaments is One,
Who in the Old Testament foretold the Christ Who appeared in the New;
Who by the Law and the Prophets led us to Christ's school. For before
faith came, we were kept in ward under the law, and, the law hath been
our tutor to bring us unto Christ  . And if ever thou hear any
of the heretics speaking evil of the Law or the Prophets, answer in
the sound of the Saviour's voice, saying, Jesus came not to destroy
the Law, but to fulfil it  . Learn also diligently, and from the
Church, what are the books of the Old Testament, and what those of the
New. And, pray, read none of the apocryphal writings  : for why
dost thou, who knowest not those which are acknowledged among all,
trouble thyself in vain about those which are disputed? Read the
Divine Scriptures, the twenty-two books of the Old Testament, these
that have been translated by the Seventy-two Interpreters  .
34. For after the death of Alexander, the king of the Macedonians,
and the division of his kingdom into four principalities, into
Babylonia, and Macedonia, and Asia, and Egypt, one of those who
reigned over Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus, being a king very fond of
learning, while collecting the books that were in every place, heard
from Demetrius Phalereus, the curator of his library, of the Divine
Scriptures of the Law and the Prophets, and judged it much nobler, not
to get the books from the possessors by force against their will, but
rather to propitiate them by gifts and friendship; and knowing that
what is extorted is often adulterated, being given unwillingly, while
that which is willingly supplied is freely given with all sincerity,
he sent to Eleazar, who was then High Priest, a great many gifts for
the Temple here at Jerusalem, and caused him to send him six
interpreters from each of the twelve tribes of Israel for the
translation  . Then, further, to make experiment whether the
books were Divine or not, he took precaution that those who had been
sent should not combine among themselves, by assigning to each of the
interpreters who had come his separate chamber in the island called
Pharos, which lies over against Alexandria, and committed to each the
whole Scriptures to translate. And when they had fulfilled the task
in seventy-two days, he brought together all their translations, which
they had made in different chambers without sending them one to
another, and found that they agreed not only in the sense but even in
words. For the process was no word-craft, nor contrivance of human
devices: but the translation of the Divine Scriptures, spoken by the
Holy Ghost, was of the Holy Ghost accomplished.
35. Of these read the two and twenty books, but have nothing to do
with the apocryphal writings. Study earnestly these only which we
read openly in the Church. Far wiser and more pious than thyself were
the Apostles, and the bishops of old time, the presidents of the
Church who handed down these books. Being therefore a child of the
Church, trench  thou not upon its statutes. And of the Old
Testament, as we have said, study the two and twenty books, which, if
thou art desirous of learning, strive to remember by name, as I recite
them. For of the Law the books of Moses are the first five, Genesis,
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. And next, Joshua the son of
Nave  , and the book of Judges, including Ruth, counted as
seventh. And of the other historical books, the first and second
books of the Kings  are among the Hebrews one book; also the
third and fourth one book. And in like manner, the first and second
of Chronicles are with them one book; and the first and second of
Esdras are counted one. Esther is the twelfth book; and these are the
Historical writings. But those which are written in verses are five,
Job, and the book of Psalms, and Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, and the
Song of Songs, which is the seventeenth book. And after these come
the five Prophetic books: of the Twelve Prophets one book, of Isaiah
one, of Jeremiah one, including Baruch and Lamentations and the
Epistle  ; then Ezekiel, and the Book of Daniel, the
twenty-second of the Old Testament.
36. Then of the New Testament there are the four Gospels only, for
the rest have false titles  and are mischievous. The Manichæans
also wrote a Gospel according to Thomas, which being tinctured with
the fragrance of the evangelic title corrupts the souls of the simple
sort. Receive also the Acts of the Twelve Apostles; and in addition
to these the seven Catholic Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude;
and as a seal upon them all, and the last work of the disciples, the
fourteen Epistles of Paul  . But let all the rest be put aside
in a secondary rank. And whatever books are not read in Churches,
these read not even by thyself, as thou hast heard me say. Thus much
of these subjects.
37. But shun thou every diabolical operation, and believe not the
apostate Serpent, whose transformation from a good nature was of his
own free choice: who can over-persuade the willing, but can compel no
one. Also give heed neither to observations of the stars nor
auguries, nor omens, nor to the fabulous divinations of the Greeks
 . Witchcraft, and enchantment, and the wicked practices of
necromancy, admit not even to a hearing. From every kind of
intemperance stand aloof, giving thyself neither to gluttony nor
licentiousness, rising superior to all covetousness and usury.
Neither venture thyself at heathen assemblies for public spectacles,
nor ever use amulets in sicknesses; shun also all the vulgarity of
tavern-haunting. Fall not away either into the sect of the
Samaritans, or into Judaism: for Jesus Christ henceforth hath
ransomed thee. Stand aloof from all observance of Sabbaths  ,
and from calling any indifferent meats common or unclean. But
especially abhor all the assemblies of wicked heretics; and in every
way make thine own soul safe, by fastings, prayers, almsgivings, and
reading the oracles of God; that having lived the rest of thy life in
the flesh in soberness and godly doctrine, thou mayest enjoy the one
salvation which flows from Baptism; and thus enrolled in the armies of
heaven by God and the Father, mayest also be deemed worthy of the
heavenly crowns, in Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be the glory for
ever and ever. Amen.
 The number "ten" is confirmed by Theodoret, who quotes the
article on Christ's "Birth of the Virgin" as from Cyril's fourth
Catechetical Lecture "On the ten Doctrines." The mss. vary between
"ten" and "eleven," and differ also in the special titles and
numeration of the separate Articles.
 2 Cor. xi. 14.
 Job xli. 24, Sept.; xli. 15: he kardia autou...hesteken hosper
akmon anelatos. These statements concerning the Devil seem to be
directed against Origen's opinion (De Principiis I. 2), that the
Angels "who have been removed from their primal state of blessedness
have not been removed irrecoverably." The question is discussed, and
the opinions of several Fathers quoted, by Huet, Origeniana, II. c.
 Matt. vii. 15. The same text is applied to Heretics by
Ignatius, Philadelph. ii. and by Irenæus, L. I. c. i. § 2.
 1 Pet. v. 8.
 Col. ii. 8.
 Prov. v. 3.
 Is. xlvi. 3. Sept. paideuomenoi ek paidiou heos geros.
 Rom. xvi. 17. Cyril has euglottias in place of eulogias.
 Compare Ignatius, Trall. vi.
 Matt. xxiv. 4.
 Compare Rom. vi. 17: "that form of teaching whereunto ye were
delivered." The instruction of Catechumens in the Articles of the
Faith was commonly called the "Traditio Symboli," or "Delivery of the
 Heb. v. 14.
 Compare Hermas, Mandat. I. Athan. Epist. de Decretis Nic. Syn.
xxii.: houto kai to atrepton kai analloioton auton einai sothesetai.
So Aristotle (Metaphys. XI. c. iv. 13) describes the First Cause as
apathes kai analloioton.
 Irenæus, I. c. xxvii. says that Cerdo taught that the God of the
Law and the Prophets was not the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ: for
that He is known, but the other unknown, and the one is just, but the
other good. Also III. c. 25, § 3: "Marcion himself, therefore, by
dividing God into two, and calling the one good, and the other
judicial, on both sides puts an end to Deity." Compare Tertullian, c.
Marcion. I. 2, and 6; Origen, c. Cels. iv. 54.
 This tenet was held by the Manichæans and other heretics, and is
traced back to the Apostolic age by Bishop Pearson (Exposition of the
Creed, Art. i. p. 79, note c). Compare Athanasius c. Apollinarium, I.
21; II. 8; c. Gentes, § 6; de Incarnatione, § 2, in this series, and
Augustine (c. Faustum, xx. 15, 21, and xxi. 4).
 Matt. vi. 24; Luke xvi. 13.
 John i. 3; Col. i. 16.
 S. Aug. in Ps. lxxv. 6: Si in aliquo loco esset, non esset
Deus. Sermo 342: Deus habitando continet non continetur. Origen, c.
Cels. vii. 34: "God is of too excellent a nature for any place: He
holds all things in His power, and is Himself not confined by anything
whatever." Compare the quotation from Sir Isaac Newton's Principia,
in the note on Cat. vi. 8.
 Ps. viii. 3.
 Is. xl. 12.
 See Cat. xv. 3, and note there.
 idean. Cyril uses the word in the Platonic sense, as in the
next sentence he adopts the formula, which Plato commonly uses in
describing the "idea:" aei kata ta auta kai hosautos echein. Phaed.
 Job xxxi. 26, 27. The worship of Sun and Moon under various
names was almost universal.
 Gaea or Tellus, the earth; Zeus or Jupiter, the sky; rivers,
 Music, Medicine, Hunting, War, Agriculture, Metallurgy, &c.,
represented by Apollo, Æsculapius, Diana, Mars, Ceres, Vulcan.
 Herodotus, Book II., describes the Egyptian worship of various
birds, fishes, and quadrupeds. Leeks and onions also were held
sacred: Porrum et caepe nefas violare, Juv. Sat. xv. 9. Compare
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. c. ii. § 39, Klotz.
 Eros, Dionysus.
 Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. c. iv. § 53, Klotz) states that
the courtesan Phryne was taken as a model for Aphrodite. "Praxiteles
when fashioning the statue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made it like the
form of Cratine his paramour." Ibid.
 tes monarchias tou theou. See note on the title of Cat. VI.
Praxeas made use of the term "Monarchy" to exclude the Son (and the
Spirit) from the Godhead. Tertullian in his treatise against Praxeas
maintains the true doctrine that the Son is no obstacle to the
"Monarchy," because He is of the substance of the Father, does nothing
without the Father's will, and has received all power from the Father,
to Whom He will in the end deliver up the kingdom. In this sense
Dionysius, Bishop of Rome, speaks of the Divine Monarchy as "that most
sacred doctrine of the Church of God." Compare Athanas. de Decretis,
Nic. Syn. c. vi. § 3 and Dr. Newman's note. In Orat. iv. c. Arian. p
606 (617), Athanasius derives the term from arche, in the sense of
"beginning:" houtos mia arche theotetos kai ou duo archai, hothen
kurios kai monarchia estin. See the full discussion of Monarchianism
in Athanasius, p. xxiii. ff. in this series, and Newman's Introduction
to Athan. Or. iv.
 For phoran (Bened.) many mss. read phthoran, "corruption."
 Compare xi. 4, 9, 18.
 Ton homoion kata panta to gennesanti. On the meaning and
history of this phrase, proposed by the Semi-Arians at the Council of
Ariminum as a substitute for homoousion, see Athan. de Syn. § 8, sqq.
 enupostatos. Cf. xi. 10; Athan. c. Apollinar. I. 20, 21.
 The mss. vary much, but I have followed the Benedictine text.
 Matt. xi. 27; John x. 15; xvii. 25.
 This was a point earnestly maintained by the orthodox Bishops at
Nicæa, that the Son begotten of the substance of the Father is ever
inseparably in the Father. Athan. de Decretis Syn. c. 20 ; Tertullian
c. Marc. IV. c. 6. Cf. Ignat. ad Trall. vi. (Long Recension): ton
men gar Christon allotriousi tou Patros.
 huiopatoria. A term of derision applied to the doctrine of
Sabellius. Compare Athanas. Expositio Fidei, c. 2: "neither do we
imagine a Son-Father, as the Sabellians." See Index, Uiopator.
 Logos prophorikos, the term used by Paul of Samosata, implied
that the Word was impersonal, being conceived as a particular activity
of God. See Dorner, Person of Christ, Div. I. vol. ii. p. 436
(English Tr.): and compare Athanasius, Expositio Fidei, c. 1; huion
ek tou Patros anarchos kai aidios gegennemenon, logon de ou
prophorikon, ouk endiatheton. Cardinal Newman (Athan. c. Arianos, I.
7, note) observes that some Christian writers of the 2nd Century "seem
to speak of the Divine generation as taking place immediately before
the creation of the world, that is, as if not eternal, though at the
same time they teach that our Lord existed before that generation. In
other words they seem to teach that He was the Word from eternity, and
became the Son at the beginning of all things; some of them expressly
considering Him, first as the logos endiathetos, or Reason, in the
Father, or (as may be speciously represented) a mere attribute; next,
as the logos prophorikos, or Word." The terms logos endiathetos, or
`word conceived in the mind,' and logos prophorikos, or `word
expressed' (emissum, or prolalivum), were in use among the Gnostics
(Iren. II. c. 12, § 5). As applied to the Son both terms, though
sometimes used in a right sense, were condemned as inadequate.
Compare xi. 10.
 anupostatois logois. Athan. c. Arianos Orat. iv. c. 8: palin
hoi legontes monon onoma einai huiou, anousion de kai anupostaton
einai ton huion tou Theou, k.t.l.
 homoiopathe. Compare Acts xiv. 15; Jas. v. 17.
 On the origin of the Docetic heresy, see vi. 14.
 Valentinus the Gnostic taught that God produced a Son of an
animal nature who "passed through Mary just as water through a tube,
and that on him the Saviour descended at his Baptism." Irenæus, I.
 The words which the Benedictine Editor introduces in the
brackets are found in Theodoret, and adopted by recent Editors, with
 Eusebius, Life of Constantine, iii. 28.
 The discovery of the "True Cross" is related with many
marvellous particulars by Socrates, Eccles. Hist. i. 17; and Sozomen,
E. H. ii. 1. A portion was said to have been left by Helena at
Jerusalem, enclosed in a silver case; and another portion sent to
Constantinople, where Constantine privately enclosed it in his own
statue, to be a safeguard to the city. Eusebius, Life of Constantine,
iii. 25-30 , gives a long account of the discovery of the Holy
Sepulchre, but makes no mention of the Cross. Cyril seems to have
been the first to record it, 25 years after. Cf. Greg. Nyss. Bapt.
Christi (p. 519).
 Compare xiv. 18, 19, on the Descent into Hades.
 The same Old Testament saints are named in xiv. 19, as redeemed
by Christ in Hades.
 Matt. xi. 3.
 Deut. xix. 15.
 Justin M. Dialogue with Trypho, 247 C: We call Him Helper and
Redeemer, the power of whose Name even demons do fear; and at this
day, when exorcised in the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under
Pontius Pilate, Governor of Judæa, they are overcome.
 Tertullian, de Coronâ, 3: At every forward step and movement,
at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when
we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on
seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the
forehead the Sign. If for these, and other such rules, you insist
upon having positive Scripture injunction, you will find none.
Tradition will be held forth to you as the originator of them, custom
as their strengthener, and faith as their observer.
 Ps. cx. 1.
 Matt. xxiv. 5.
 Matt. xxiv. 15. Compare Cat. xv. 9, 15.
 Compare xv. 27, where the followers of Marcellus of Ancyra are
indicated as holding this opinion.
 In xvi. 6-10, Cyril gives a long list of heresies concerning the
 1 Cor. ii. 10.
 Matt. xii. 32.
 This clause is not in the Creed of Nicæa, but is added in the
Creed of Constantinople, a.d. 381.
 Col. i. 16.
 theopoion is omitted in Codd. Roe, Casaubon, and A.
 The Benedictine Editor argues from Cat. i. 5, "that thou mayest
by faith seal up the things that are spoken;" and xxiii. 18: "sealing
up the Prayer by the Amen," that Cyril means by "this seal" the firm
belief of Christian doctrine. Compare John iii. 33. But Milles
understands by the "seal" the Creed itself, which agrees better with
the following context.
 he soteria gar haute tes pisteos hemon, which might be rendered,
"this our salvation by faith," or, with Milles, "this safety of our
Faith." For the rendering in the text compare Heb. iii. 1: archierea
tes homologias hemon. On heuresilogia, see Polybius xviii. 29, § 3:
dia tes pros allelous heuresilogias.
 iv. 4.
 In the Clementine Homily xvi. 16, the soul having come forth
from God, clothed with His breath, is said to be of the same
substance, and yet not God. In Tertull. c. Marcion II. c. 9, the soul
is the affatus (pnoe not pneuma) of God, i.e. the image of the Spirit,
and inferior to it, though possessing the true lineaments of divinity,
immortality, freedom, its own mastery over itself.
 Tertull. c. Marc. II. 6: It was proper that he who is the image
and likeness of God should be formed with a free will, and a mastery
of himself, so that this very thing, namely freedom of will and
self-command, might be reckoned as the image and likeness of God in
 Compare Aug. de Civ. Dei. v. 1, where he says that the
astrologers (Mathematici) say, not merely such or such a position of
Mars signifies that a man will be a murderer, but makes him a
murderer. See Dict. of Christian Antiq., "Astrology."
 Is. xlvii. 13.
 "The Orphic poets were under the impression that the soul is
suffering the punishment of sin, and that the body is an enclosure or
prison in which the soul is incarcerated and kept (sozetai) as the
name soma implies, until the penalty is paid." Plato, Cratyl. 400.
Clement of Alexandria (Strom. III. iii. 17), after referring to this
passage of Plato, quotes Philolaus the Pythagorean, as saying: "The
ancient theologians and soothsayers also testify that the soul has
been chained to the body for a kind of punishment, and is buried in it
as in a tomb."
 Rom. vii. 16.
 Is. i. 19, 20.
 Rom. vi. 19.
 Rom. i. 28.
 Rom. i. 19.
 Matt. xiii. 15.
 Jer. ii. 21.
 Apelles, the heretic, attributed the difference of sex to the
soul, which existing before the body impressed its sex upon it.
Tertull. On the Soul, c. xxxvi.
 Irenæus I. vii. 5: "They (the Valentinians) conceive of three
kinds of men, spiritual, material, and animal....These three natures
are no longer found in one person, but constitute various kinds of
men....And again subdividing the animal souls themselves, they say
that some are by nature good, and others by nature evil." Origen on
Romans, Lib. VIII. § 10: "I know not how those who come from the
School of Valentinus and Basilides...suppose that there are souls of
one nature which are always safe and never perish, and others which
always perish, and are never saved."
 See iv. 18.
 On the impure practices of the Manichees, see vi. 33, 34.
 Fortunatus, the Manichee, in August. Disput. ii. 20, contra
Fortunat. is represented as saying, What we assert is this, that the
soul is compelled to sin by a substance of contrary nature.
 1 Cor. vi. 19.
 monazontes. Compare xii. 33; xvi. 22. The origin of
Monasticism is usually traced to the time of the Decian persecution,
the middle of the third century. Previously "there were no monks, but
only ascetics in the Church; from that time to the reign of
Constantine, Monachism was confined to the anchorets living in private
cells in the wilderness: but when Pachomius had erected monasteries
in Egypt, other countries presently followed the example....Hilarion,
who was scholar to Antonius, was the first monk that ever lived in
Palestine or Syria." Bingham, VII. i. 4.
 Heb. xii. 16.
 Heb. xiii. 4.
 1 Cor. vii. 5.
 The condemnation of a second marriage, which the Benedictine
Editor and others import into this passage, is not to be found in it.
tous deutero gamo sumperienechthentas neither means "qui ad secundas
nuptias ultro se dejecere," nor even "who have involved themselves"
(R.W.C.), but simply "who have consented to,"--or, "consented together
in--a second marriage," without any intimation of censure. See V. 9;
VI. 13: Ecclus. xxv. 1; gune kai haner heautois sumperipheromenoi; 2
Macc. ix. 27; Euseb. H. E. ix. 9, 7: anexikakos kai summetros
sumperipherointo autois; Zeno, ap. Diog. Laert. vii. 18; to
sumperipheresthai tois philois. Diog. Laert. vii. 13:
eusumperiphoros. Polyb. IV. 35, § 7, and II. 17, § 12. The
gentleness with which Cyril here speaks of second marriages is in
striking contrast with the passionate vehemence of Tertullian in the
treatise de Monogamia, and elsewhere. Aug. de Hæresibus, cc. 26, 38,
reckons the condemnation of second marriage among the heretical
doctrines of the Montanists and Cathari. In the treatise de Bono
Viduitatis, c. 6, he argues that a second marriage is not to be
condemned, but is less honourable than widowhood, and severely rebukes
the heretical teaching on this point of Tertullian, the Montanists,
and the Novatians. De Bono Conjugali, c. 21: Sacramentum nuptiarum
temporis nostri sic ad unum virum et unam uxorem redactum est, ut
Ecclesiæ dispensatorem non liceat ordinare nisi unius uxoris virum.
On the practice of the Church at various times see Bingham, IV. v.
1-4; Suicer, Thesaur. Digamia.
 1 Cor. vii. 8, 9.
 The Nicolaitans (Apocal. ii. 14, 20); and the Valentinians, of
whom Irenæus (II. xiv. 5), says that they derived their opinion as to
the indifference of meats from the Cynics. See also Irenæus I. vi. 3;
and xxvi. 3.
 Ps. cxxvi. 5.
 1 Tim. v. 23.
 1 Tim. iv. 3.
 The various sects of Gnostics, and the Manichees, considered
certain meats and drinks, as flesh and wine, to be polluting. Vid.
Iren. Hær. i. 28. Clem. Pæd. ii. 2. p. 186. Epiph. Hær. xlvi. 2,
xlvii. 1, &c., &c. August. Hær. 46, vid. Canon. Apost. 43. "If any
Bishop, &c., abstain from marriage, flesh, and wine, not for
discipline (di' askesin) but as abhorring them, forgetting that they
are all very good, &c., and speaking blasphemy against the creation,
let him amend or be deposed," &c. R.W.C.
 Acts xv. 20, 29. The prohibition of blood and things strangled
has continued to the present day in the Eastern Church, though already
disregarded by the Latins in the time of S. Augustine (c. Faustum.
 Tertullian (Apologeticus, c. 9) speaks of those "who at the
gladiator shows, for the cure of epilepsy, quaff with greedy thirst
the blood of criminals slain in the arena," and of others "who make
meals on the flesh of wild beasts at the place of combat:" and
contrasts the habits of Christians, who abstain from things strangled,
to avoid pollution by the blood.
 XVIII. 9.
 Compare xviii. 6, 9; Athenagoras, On the Resurrection of the
Dead, c. 3.
 XVIII. 6. John xii. 24; 1 Cor. xv. 36.
 XVIII. 7.
 Is. xxvi. 19.
 Dan. xii. 2.
 Gr. loutrou metanoian. Other readings are lutron metanoias,
"redemption by repentance," and loutron metanoias "a laver (baptism)
 Gal. iii. 24. The Paidagogos is described by Clement of
Alexandria (Paedag. i. 7) as one who both conducts a boy to school,
and helps to teach him,--an usher: "under-master" (Wicliff).
 Matt. v. 17.
 ton apokruphon. The sense in which Cyril uses this term may be
learned from Rufinus (Expositio Symboli, § 38), who distinguishes
three classes of books: (1) The Canonical Books of the Old and New
Testaments, which alone are to be used in proof of doctrine; (2)
Ecclesiastical, which may be read in Churches, including Wisdom,
Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, and the Books of the Maccabees, in the
Old Testament, and The Shepherd of Hermas, and The Two Ways in the New
Testament; (3) The other writings they called "Apocryphal," which they
would not have read in Churches. The distinction is useful, though
the second class is not complete.
 The original source of this account of the Septuagint version is
a letter purporting to have been written by Aristeas, or Aristæus, a
confidential minister of Ptolemy Philadelphus, to his brother
Philocrates. Though the letter is not regarded as genuine its
statements are in part admitted to be true, being confirmed by a
fragment, preserved by Eusebius (Præparatio Evangelica, ix. 6.), of a
work of Aristobulus, a Jewish philosopher who wrote in the reign of
Ptolemy Philometor, 181-146, b.c. Upon these testimonies it is
generally admitted that "the whole Law," i.e. the Pentateuch was
translated into Greek at Alexandria in the reign either of Ptolemy
Soter (323-285, b.c.), or of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247,
b.c.), under the direction of Demetrius Phalereus, curator of the
 Up to this point Cyril's account is based upon the statements of
the Pseudo-Aristeas. The fabulous incidents which follow, concerning
the separate cells, the completion of the whole version by each
translator, the miraculous agreement in the very words, proving a
Divine inspiration, are found in Philo Judæus, Life of Moses, II. 7.
Josephus, Antiquities, XII. c. ii. 3-14, following the letter of
Aristeas, gives long descriptions of the magnificent presents sent by
Philadelphus to Jerusalem, and of his splendid hospitality to the
translators, but makes no allusion to the separate cells or miraculous
agreement. On the contrary he represents the 72 interpreters as
meeting together for consultation, agreeing on the text to be adopted,
and completing their joint labours in 72 days. The slightest
comparison of the Version with the original Hebrew must convince any
reasonable person that the idea of divine inspiration or supernatural
assistance, borrowed by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, and other Fathers,
apparently from Philo, is a mere invention of the imagination,
disproved by the facts. Compare the article "Septuagint" in Murray's
Dictionary of the Bible.
 The rendering "trench not" (R.W.C.) agrees well with the
etymology of the verb (paracharasso). Its more usual signification
seems to be "counterfeit," "forge." The sense required here, apart
from any metaphor, is "transgress" (Heurtley).
 The name "Nun" is represented by "Nave" in the Septuagint, which
 The two books of Samuel.
 The Epistle of Jeremy, which now appears in the Apocrypha as the
last chapter of Baruch. On the number and arrangement of the Books of
the Old and New Testaments the student should consult an interesting
Essay by Professor Sanday (Studia Biblica, vol. iii.), who traces the
introduction of a fixed order to the time when papyrus rolls were
superseded by codices, in which the sheets of skin were folded and
bound together, as in printed books. This change had commenced before
the Diocletian persecution, a.d. 303, when among the sacred books
taken from the Christians codices were much more numerous than rolls.
On the contents of the Jewish Canon, see Dictionary of the Bible,
"Canon." B.F.W. "Josephus enumerates 20 books `which are justly
believed to be divine.'" One of the earliest attempts by a Christian
to ascertain correctly the number and order of the Books of the O.T.
was made by Melito, Bishop of Sardis, who travelled for this purpose
to Palestine, in the latter part of the 2nd Century. His list is as
follows:--"Of Moses five (books); Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus,
Deuteronomy, Jesus son of Nave, Judges, Ruth, four Books of Kings, two
of Chronicles, Psalms of David, Solomon's Proverbs, which is also
called Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Prophets, Isaiah,
Jeremiah, the Twelve in one Book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras."
(Eusebius, H.E. III. cap. 10, note I, in this series.) Cyril's List
agrees with that of Athanasius (Festal Epistle, 373 a.d.), except that
Job is placed by Ath. after Canticles instead of before Psalms.
 Gr. pseudepigrapha. For an account of the many Apocryphal
Gospels, see the article by Lipsius in the "Dictionary of Christian
Biography," Smith and Wace, and the English translations in Clark's
 Cyril includes in this list all the books which we receive,
except the Apocalypse. See Bishop Westcott's Article "Canon," in the
Dictionary of the Bible, and Origen's Catalogue in Euseb. Hist. vi. 25
(Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. i.).
 Compare xix. 8. where all such acts of divination are said to be
service of the devil.
 Compare Gal. iv. 10, "Ye observe days."
Hebrews xi. 1, 2
Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things
not seen. For by it the elders obtained a good report.
1. How great a dignity the Lord bestows on you in transferring you
from the order of Catechumens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle
Paul shews, when he affirms, God is faithful, by Whom ye were called
into the fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ  . For since God is
called Faithful, thou also in receiving this title receivest a great
dignity. For as God is called Good, and Just, and Almighty, and Maker
of the Universe, so is He also called Faithful. Consider therefore to
what a dignity thou art rising, seeing thou art to become partaker of
a title of God  .
2. Here then it is further required, that each of you be found
faithful in his conscience: for a faithful man it is hard to find
 : not that thou shouldest shew thy conscience to me, for thou
art not to be judged of man's judgment  ; but that thou shew the
sincerity of thy faith to God, who trieth the reins and hearts  ,
and knoweth the thoughts of men  . A great thing is a faithful
man, being richest of all rich men. For to the faithful man belongs
the whole world of wealth  , in that he disdains and tramples on
it. For they who in appearance are rich, and have many possessions,
are poor in soul: since the more they gather, the more they pine with
longing for what is still lacking. But the faithful man, most strange
paradox, in poverty is rich: for knowing that we need only to have
food and raiment, and being therewith content  , he has trodden
riches under foot.
3. Nor is it only among us, who bear the name of Christ, that the
dignity of faith is great  : but likewise all things that are
accomplished in the world, even by those who are aliens  from the
Church, are accomplished by faith.
By faith the laws of marriage yoke together those who have lived as
strangers: and because of the faith in marriage contracts a stranger
is made partner of a stranger's person and possessions. By faith
husbandry also is sustained, for he who believes not that he shall
receive a harvest endures not the toils. By faith sea-faring men,
trusting to the thinnest plank, exchange that most solid element, the
land, for the restless motion of the waves, committing themselves to
uncertain hopes, and carrying with them a faith more sure than any
anchor. By faith therefore most of men's affairs are held together:
and not among us only has there been this belief, but also, as I have
said, among those who are without  . For if they receive not the
Scriptures, but bring forward certain doctrines of their own, even
these they accept by faith.
4. The lesson also which was read to-day invites you to the true
faith, by setting before you the way in which you also must please
God: for it affirms that without faith it is impossible to please Him
 . For when will a man resolve to serve God, unless he believes
that He is a giver of reward? When will a young woman choose a virgin
life, or a young man live soberly, if they believe not that for
chastity there is a crown that fadeth not away  ? Faith is an
eye that enlightens every conscience, and imparts understanding; for
the Prophet saith, And if ye believe not, ye shall not understand
Faith stoppeth the mouths of lions  , as in Daniel's case: for
the Scripture saith concerning him, that Daniel was brought up out of
the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he believed
in his God  . Is there anything more fearful than the devil?
Yet even against him we have no other shield than faith  , an
impalpable buckler against an unseen foe. For he sends forth divers
arrows, and shoots down in the dark night  those that watch not;
but, since the enemy is unseen, we have faith as our strong armour,
according to the saying of the Apostle, In all things taking the
shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery
darts of the wicked one  . A fiery dart of desire of base
indulgence is often cast forth from the devil: but faith, suggesting
a picture of the judgment, cools down the mind, and quenches the dart.
5. There is much to tell of faith, and the whole day would not be
time sufficient for us to describe it fully. At present let us be
content with Abraham only, as one of the examples from the Old
Testament, seeing that we have been made his sons through faith. He
was justified not only by works, but also by faith  : for though
he did many things well, yet he was never called the friend of God
 , except when he believed. Moreover, his every work was
performed in faith. Through faith he left his parents; left country,
and place, and home through faith  . In like manner, therefore,
as he was justified be thou justified also. In his body he was
already dead in regard to offspring, and Sarah his wife was now old,
and there was no hope left of having children. God promises the old
man a child, and Abraham without being weakened in faith, though he
considered his own body now as good as dead  , heeded not the
weakness of his body, but the power of Him who promised, because he
counted Him faithful who had promised  , and so beyond all
expectation gained the child from bodies as it were already dead. And
when, after he had gained his son, he was commanded to offer him up,
although he had heard the word, In Isaac shall thy seed be called
 , he proceeded to offer up his son, his only son, to God,
believing that God is able to raise up even from the dead  . And
having bound his son, and laid him on the wood, he did in purpose
offer him, but by the goodness of God in delivering to him a lamb
instead of his child, he received his son alive. Being faithful in
these things, he was sealed for righteousness, and received
circumcision as a seal of the faith which he had while he was in
uncircumcision  , having received a promise that he should be the
father of many nations  .
6. Let us see, then, how Abraham is the father of many nations 
. Of Jews he is confessedly the father, through succession according
to the flesh. But if we hold to the succession according to the
flesh, we shall be compelled to say that the oracle was false. For
according to the flesh he is no longer father of us all: but the
example of his faith makes us all sons of Abraham. How? and in what
manner? With men it is incredible that one should rise from the dead;
as in like manner it is incredible also that there should be offspring
from aged persons as good as dead. But when Christ is preached as
having been crucified on the tree, and as having died and risen again,
we believe it. By the likeness therefore of our faith we are adopted
into the sonship of Abraham. And then, following upon our faith, we
receive like him the spiritual seal, being circumcised by the Holy
Spirit through Baptism, not in the foreskin of the body, but in the
heart, according to Jeremiah, saying, And ye shall be circumcised unto
God in the foreskin of your heart  : and according to the
Apostle, in the circumcision of Christ, having been buried with Him in
baptism, and the rest  .
7. This faith if we keep we shall be free from condemnation, and
shall be adorned with all kinds of virtues. For so great is the
strength of faith, as even to buoy men up in walking on the sea.
Peter was a man like ourselves, made up of flesh and blood, and living
upon like food. But when Jesus said, Come  , he believed, and
walked upon the waters, and found his faith safer upon the waters than
any ground; and his heavy body was upheld by the buoyancy of his
faith. But though he had safe footing over the water as long as he
believed, yet when he doubted, at once he began to sink: for as his
faith gradually relaxed, his body also was drawn down with it. And
when He saw his distress, Jesus who remedies the distresses of our
souls, said, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt 
? And being nerved again by Him who grasped his right hand, he had no
sooner recovered his faith, than, led by the hand of the Master, he
resumed the same walking upon the waters: for this the Gospel
indirectly mentioned, saying, when they were gone up into the ship
 . For it says not that Peter swam across and went up, but gives
us to understand that, after returning the same distance that he went
to meet Jesus, he went up again into the ship.
8. Yea, so much power hath faith, that not the believer only is
saved, but some have been saved by others believing. The paralytic in
Capernaum was not a believer, but they believed who brought him, and
let him down through the tiles  : for the sick man's soul shared
the sickness of his body. And think not that I accuse him without
cause: the Gospel itself says, when Jesus saw, not his faith, but
their faith, He saith to the sick of the palsy, Arise  ! The
bearers believed, and the sick of the palsy enjoyed the blessing of
9. Wouldest thou see yet more surely that some are saved by others'
faith? Lazarus died  : one day had passed, and a second, and a
third: his sinews  were decayed, and corruption was preying
already upon his body. How could one four days dead believe, and
entreat the Redeemer on his own behalf? But what the dead man lacked
was supplied by his true sisters. For when the Lord was come, the
sister fell down before Him, and when He said, Where have ye laid him?
and she had made answer, Lord, by this time he stinketh; for he hath
been four days dead, the Lord said, If thou believe, thou shalt see
the glory of God; as much as saying, Supply thou the dead man's lack
of faith: and the sisters' faith had so much power, that it recalled
the dead from the gates of hell. Have then men by believing, the one
on behalf of the other, been able to raise  the dead, and shalt
not thou, if thou believe sincerely on thine own behalf, be much
rather profited? Nay, even if thou be faithless, or of little faith,
the Lord is loving unto man; He condescends to thee on thy
repentance: only on thy part say with honest mind, Lord, I believe,
help thou mine unbelief  . But if thou thinkest that thou really
art faithful, but hast not yet the fulness of faith, thou too hast
need to say like the Apostles, Lord, increase our faith  : for
some part thou hast of thyself, but the greater part thou receivest
10. For the name of Faith is in the form of speech  one, but has
two distinct senses. For there is one kind of faith, the dogmatic,
involving an assent of the soul on some particular point: and it is
profitable to the soul, as the Lord saith: He that heareth My words,
and believeth Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, and cometh not
into judgment  : and again, He that believeth in the Son is not
judged, but hath passed from death unto life  . Oh the great
loving-kindness of God! For the righteous were many years in pleasing
Him: but what they succeeded in gaining by many years of
well-pleasing  , this Jesus now bestows on thee in a single
hour. For if thou shalt believe that Jesus Christ is Lord, and that
God raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved, and shalt be
transported into Paradise by Him who brought in thither the robber.
And doubt not whether it is possible; for He who on this sacred
Golgotha saved the robber after one single hour of belief, the same
shall save thee also on thy believing  .
11. But there is a second kind of faith, which is bestowed by Christ
as a gift of grace. For to one is given through the Spirit the word
of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge according to the same
Spirit: to another faith, by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of
healing  . This faith then which is given of grace from the
Spirit is not merely doctrinal, but also worketh things above man's
power. For whosoever hath this faith, shall say to this mountain,
Remove hence to yonder place, and it shall remove  . For
whenever any one shall say this in faith, believing that it cometh to
pass, and shall not doubt in his heart, then receiveth he the grace.
And of this faith it is said, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard
seed  . For just as the grain of mustard seed is small in size,
but fiery in its operation, and though sown in a small space has a
circle of great branches, and when grown up is able even to shelter
the fowls  ; so, likewise, faith in the swiftest moment works the
greatest effects in the soul. For, when enlightened by faith, the
soul hath visions of God, and as far as is possible beholds God, and
ranges round the bounds of the universe, and before the end of this
world already beholds the Judgment, and the payment of the promised
rewards. Have thou therefore that faith in Him which cometh from
thine own self, that thou mayest also receive from Him that faith
which worketh things above man  .
12. But in learning the Faith and in professing it, acquire and keep
that only, which is now delivered  to thee by the Church, and
which has been built up strongly out of all the Scriptures. For since
all cannot read the Scriptures, some being hindered as to the
knowledge of them by want of learning, and others by a want of
leisure, in order that the soul may not perish from ignorance, we
comprise the whole doctrine of the Faith in a few lines. This summary
I wish you both to commit to memory when I recite it  , and to
rehearse it with all diligence among yourselves, not writing it out on
paper  , but engraving it by the memory upon your heart  ,
taking care while you rehearse it that no Catechumen chance to
overhear the things which have been delivered to you. I wish you also
to keep this as a provision  through the whole course of your
life, and beside this to receive no other, neither if we ourselves
should change and contradict our present teaching, nor if an adverse
angel, transformed into an angel of light  should wish to lead
you astray. For though we or an angel from heaven preach to you any
other gospel than that ye have received, let him be to you anathema
 . So for the present listen while I simply say the Creed 
, and commit it to memory; but at the proper season expect the
confirmation out of Holy Scripture of each part of the contents. For
the articles of the Faith were not composed as seemed good to men; but
the most important points collected out of all the Scripture make up
one complete teaching of the Faith. And just as the mustard seed in
one small grain contains many branches, so also this Faith has
embraced in few words all the knowledge of godliness in the Old and
New Testaments. Take heed then, brethren, and hold fast the
traditions  which ye now receive, and write them an the table of
your heart  .
13. Guard them with reverence, lest per chance the enemy despoil any
who have grown slack; or lest some heretic pervert any of the truths
delivered to you. For faith is like putting money into the bank 
, even as we have now done; but from you God requires the accounts of
the deposit. I charge you, as the Apostle saith, before God, who
quickeneth all things, and Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate
witnessed the good confession, that ye keep this faith which is
committed to you, without spot, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus
Christ  . A treasure of life has now been committed to thee, and
the Master demandeth the deposit at His appearing, which in His own
times He shall shew, Who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King
of kings, and Lord of lords; Who only hath immortality, dwelling in
light which no man can approach unto; Whom no man hath seen nor can
see. To Whom be glory, honour, and power  for ever and ever.
 1 Cor. i. 9.
 See Procatechesis 6, and Index, Faithful.
 Prov. xx. 6.
 1 Cor. iv. 3. See Index, Confession.
 Ps. vii. 9.
 Ps. xciv. 11.
 This sentence is a spurious addition to the text of the
Septuagint, variously placed after Prov. xvii. 4, and xvii. 6. The
thought is there completed by the antithesis, but to the faithless not
even an obol. The origin of the interpolation is unknown.
 1 Tim. vi. 8.
 It was a common objection of Pagan philosophers that the
Christian religion was not founded upon reason but only on faith.
Cyril's answer that faith is necessary in the ordinary affairs of life
is the same which Origen had employed against Celsus (I. 11): "Why
should it not be more reasonable, since all human affairs are
dependent upon faith, to believe God rather than men? For who takes a
voyage, or marries, or begets children, or casts seeds into the
ground, without believing that better things will result, although the
contrary might and sometimes does happen?" See also Arnobius,
adversus Gentes, II. 8; and Hooker's allusion to the scornful reproach
of Julian the Apostate, "The highest point of your wisdom is believe"
(Eccles. Pol. V. lxiii. 1.).
 By "aliens from the Church," and "those who are without," S.
Cyril here means Pagans: so Tertullian, de Idololatriâ, c. xiv. But
the latter term is applied to a Catechumen in Procatechesis. c. 12,
and was also a common description of heretics: see Tertullian, de
Baptismo, c. xv.
 By "aliens from the Church," and "those who are without," S.
Cyril here means Pagans: so Tertullian, de Idololatriâ, c. xiv. But
the latter term is applied to a Catechumen in Procatechesis. c. 12,
and was also a common description of heretics: see Tertullian, de
Baptismo, c. xv.
 Heb. xi. 6.
 1 Pet. v. 4.
 Is. vii. 9, according to the Septuagint. But A.V. and R.V. both
render: If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established.
 Heb. xi. 34.
 Dan. vi. 23.
 1 Pet. v. 9: Whom resist, stedfast in the faith.
 Ps. xi. 2, that they may shoot in darkness at the upright in
heart (R.V.). The Hebrew word L+P+¶#, signifying deep darkness (Job
iii. 6; x. 22) is vigorously rendered by the Seventy skotomene, which
is explained by the Scholiast on Homer (Od. xiv. 457: Nux d' ar'
epelthe kake skotomenios) to be the deep darkness of the night
preceding the new moon.
 Eph. vi. 16.
 James ii. 21. Casaubon omitted monon, which is found in every
ms., thus making the meaning to be, "He was justified not by works but
by faith," which directly contradicts the statement of S. James, and
is inconsistent with the following context in S. Cyril.
 James ii. 23; 2 Chron. xx. 7; Is. xli. 8; Gen. xv. 6.
 Heb. xi. 8-10.
 Rom. iv. 19.
 Heb. xi. 11, 12.
 Gen. xxi. 12; xxii. 2.
 Heb. xi. 19.
 Rom. iv. 11.
 Gen. xvii. 5.
 Rom. iv. 17, 18.
 Jer. iv. 4: Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away
the foreskins of your heart. The Septuagint agrees closely with the
Hebrew, but Cyril quotes freely from memory.
 Col. ii. 11, 12.
 Matt. xiv. 29.
 Mark xiv. 31.
 Ib. 32.
 Mark ii. 4.
 Matt. ix. 2, 6.
 John xi. 14-44.
 neura. "Sinews" is the original meaning, the application to
"nerves," as distinct organs of sensation, being later.
 For anastenai, retained by the Benedictine Editor and Reischl,
read anastesai, with Roe, Casaubon, and Alexandrides.
 Mark ix. 24.
 Luke xvii. 5.
 kata ten prosegorian. Compare Aristotle, Categories, V. 30: to
schemati tes prosegorias. Cyril's description of faith as twofold,
and of dogmatic faith as an assent (sunkatathesis) of the soul to
something as credible, seems to be derived from Clement of Alexandria,
Strom. II. c. 12. Compare by all means Pearson on the Creed, Art. I.
and his Notes a, b, c.
 John v. 24.
 Ib. iii. 18; v. 24.
 euaresteseos , Bened. and Reischl, with best mss. Milles and
the earlier editions have ereuneseos, "searching."
 Luke xxiii. 43; the argument is used again in Cat. xiii. 31.
 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9.
 Mark xi. 23.
 Matt. xvii. 20.
 Matt. xiii. 32.
 S. Chrysostom (Hom. xxix. in 1 Cor. xii. 9, 10) in like manner
distinguishes dogmatic faith from the faith which is "the mother of
miracles." The former S. Cyril calls our own, not meaning that God's
help is not needed for it, but because, as he has shewn in § 10, it
consists in the mind's assent, and voluntary approval of the doctrines
set before it: but the latter is a pure gift of grace working in man
without his own help. Compare Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. c. 1.
 This Lecture was to be immediately followed by a first
recitation of the Creed. See Index, Creed.
 ep' autes tes lexeos. "in ipsâ lectione" (Milles): "ipsis
verbis" (Bened.): "in the very phrase" (R.W.C.). See below, note 4.
 Compare S. August. Serm. ccxii., "At the delivery of the Creed,"
and Index, Creed.
 Compare Æschylus, Prometheus V. 789: hen engraphou su mnemosin
 ephodion, Viaticum, i.e. provision for a journey, and here for
the journey through this life. It is applied metaphorically by other
Fathers (a) in this general sense, to the reading of Holy Scripture,
Prayer, and Baptism, and (b) in a special sense to the Holy Eucharist
when administered to the sick and dying, as a preparation for
departure to the life after death. Council of Nicæa (a.d. 325), Canon
xiii. "With respect to the dying, the old rule of the Church should
continue to be observed, which forbids that any one who is on the
point of death should be deprived of the last and most necessary
 2 Cor. xi. 14.
 Gal. i. 8, 9.
 ep' autes tes lexeos. (Bened. Reischl. with best mss.). tautes
tes lexeos, "this my recitation," (Milles).
 2 Thess. ii. 15. Compare Cat. xxiii. 23.
 Prov. vii. 3. Note 9, above.
 Matt. xxv. 27; Luke xix. 23. See note on Catech. vi. 36: "Be
thou a good banker."
 1 Tim. v. 21; vi. 13, 14.
 1 Tim. vi. 15, 16.
Concerning the Unity of God  . On the Article, I Believe in One
God. Also Concerning Heresies.
Isaiah xlv. 16, 17. (Sept.)
Sanctify yourselves unto Me, O islands. Israel is saved by the Lord
with an everlasting salvation; they shall not be ashamed, neither
shall they be confounded for ever, &c.
1. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ  .
Blessed also be His Only-begotten Son  . For with the thought of
God let the thought of Father at once be joined, that the ascription
of glory to the Father and the Son may be made indivisible. For the
Father hath not one glory, and the Son another, but one and the same,
since He is the Father's Only-begotten Son; and when the Father is
glorified, the Son also shares the glory with Him, because the glory
of the Son flows from His Father's honour: and again, when the Son is
glorified, the Father of so great a blessing is highly honoured.
2. Now though the mind is most rapid in its thoughts, yet the tongue
needs words, and a long recital of intermediary speech. For the eye
embraces at once a multitude of the `starry quire;' but when any one
wishes to describe them one by one, which is the Morning-star, and
which, the Evening-star, and which each one of them, he has need of
many words. In like manner again the mind in the briefest moment
compasses earth and sea and all the bounds of the universe; but what
it conceives in an instant, it uses many words to describe  .
Yet forcible as is the example I have mentioned, still it is after all
weak and inadequate. For of God we speak not all we ought (for that
is known to Him only), but so much as the capacity of human nature has
received, and so much as our weakness can bear. For we explain not
what God is but candidly confess that we have not exact knowledge
concerning Him. For in what concerns God to confess our ignorance is
the best knowledge  . Therefore magnify the Lord with me, and
let us exalt His Name together  ,--all of us in common, for one
alone is powerless; nay rather, even if we be all united together, we
shall yet not do it as we ought. I mean not you only who are here
present, but even if all the nurslings of the whole Church throughout
the world, both that which now is and that which shall be, should meet
together, they would not be able worthily to sing the praises of their
3. A great and honourable man was Abraham, but only great in
comparison with men; and when he came before God, then speaking the
truth candidly he saith, I am earth and ashes  . He did not say
`earth,' and then cease, lest he should call himself by the name of
that great element; but he added `and ashes,' that he might represent
his perishable and frail nature. Is there anything, he saith, smaller
or lighter than ashes? For take, saith he, the comparison of ashes to
a house, of a house to a city, a city to a province, a province to the
Roman Empire, and the Roman Empire to the whole earth and all its
bounds, and the whole earth to the heaven in which it is
embosomed;--the earth, which bears the same proportion to the heaven
as the centre to the whole circumference of a wheel, for the earth is
no more than this in comparison with the heaven  : consider then
that this first heaven which is seen is less than the second, and the
second than the third, for so far Scripture has named them, not that
they are only so many, but because it was expedient for us to know so
many only. And when in thought thou hast surveyed all the heavens,
not yet will even the heavens be able to praise God as He is, nay, not
if they should resound with a voice louder than thunder. But if these
great vaults of the heavens cannot worthily sing God's praise, when
shall `earth and ashes,' the smallest and least of things existing, be
able to send up a worthy hymn of praise to God, or worthily to speak
of God, that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and holdeth the
inhabitants thereof as grasshoppers  .
4. If any man attempt to speak of God, let him first describe the
bounds of the earth. Thou dwellest on the earth, and the limit of
this earth which is thy dwelling thou knowest not: how then shalt
thou be able to form a worthy thought of its Creator? Thou beholdest
the stars, but their Maker thou beholdest not: count these which are
visible, and then describe Him who is invisible, Who telleth the
number of the stars, and calleth them all by their names  .
Violent rains lately came pouring down upon us, and nearly destroyed
us: number the drops in this city alone: nay, I say not in the city,
but number the drops on thine own house for one single hour, if thou
canst: but thou canst not. Learn then thine own weakness; learn from
this instance the mightiness of God: for He hath numbered the drops
of rain  , which have been poured down on all the earth, not only
now but in all time. The sun is a work of God, which, great though it
be, is but a spot in comparison with the whole heaven; first gaze
stedfastly upon the sun, and then curiously scan the Lord of the sun.
Seek not the things that are too deep for thee, neither search out the
things that are above thy strength: what is commanded thee, think
thereupon  .
5. But some one will say, If the Divine substance is
incomprehensible, why then dost thou discourse of these things? So
then, because I cannot drink up all the river, am I not even to take
in moderation what is expedient for me? Because with eyes so
constituted as mine I cannot take in all the sun, am I not even to
look upon him enough to satisfy my wants? Or again, because I have
entered into a great garden, and cannot eat all the supply of fruits,
wouldst thou have me go away altogether hungry? I praise and glorify
Him that made us; for it is a divine command which saith, Let every
breath praise the Lord  . I am attempting now to glorify the
Lord, but not to describe Him, knowing nevertheless that I shall fall
short of glorifying Him worthily, yet deeming it a work of piety even
to attempt it at all. For the Lord Jesus encourageth my weakness, by
saying, No man hath seen God at any time  .
6. What then, some man will say, is it not written, The little ones'
Angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven 
? Yes, but the Angels see God not as He is, but as far as they
themselves are capable. For it is Jesus Himself who saith, Not that
any man hath seen the Father, save He which is of God, He hath seen
the Father  . The Angels therefore behold as much as they can
bear, and Archangels as much as they are able; and Thrones and
Dominions more than the former, but yet less than His worthiness: for
with the Son the Holy Ghost alone can rightly behold Him: for He
searcheth all things, and knoweth even the deep things of God  :
as indeed the Only-begotten Son also, with the Holy Ghost, knoweth the
Father fully: For neither, saith He, knoweth any man the Father, save
the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him  . For He fully
beholdeth, and, according as each can bear, revealeth God through the
Spirit: since the Only-begotten Son together with the Holy Ghost is a
partaker of the Father's Godhead. He, who  was begotten knoweth
Him who begat; and He Who begat knoweth Him who is begotten. Since
Angels then are ignorant (for to each according to his own capacity
doth the Only-begotten reveal Him through the Holy Ghost, as we have
said), let no man be ashamed to confess his ignorance. I am speaking
now, as all do on occasion: but how we speak, we cannot tell: how
then can I declare Him who hath given us speech? I who have a soul,
and cannot tell its distinctive properties, how shall I be able to
describe its Giver?
7. For devotion it suffices us simply to know that we have a God; a
God who is One, a living  , an ever-living God; always like unto
Himself  ; who has no Father, none mightier than Himself, no
successor to thrust Him out from His kingdom: Who in name is
manifold, in power infinite, in substance uniform  . For though
He is called Good, and Just, and Almighty and Sabaoth  , He is
not on that account diverse and various; but being one and the same,
He sends forth countless operations of His Godhead, not exceeding here
and deficient there, but being in all things like unto Himself. Not
great in loving-kindness only, and little in wisdom, but with wisdom
and loving-kindness in equal power: not seeing in part, and in part
devoid of sight; but being all eye, and all ear, and all mind  :
not like us perceiving in part and in part not knowing; for such a
statement were blasphemous, and unworthy of the Divine substance. He
foreknoweth the things that be; He is Holy, and Almighty, and
excelleth all in goodness, and majesty, and wisdom: of Whom we can
declare neither beginning, nor form, nor shape. For ye have neither
heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape  , saith Holy
Scripture. Wherefore Moses saith also to the Israelites: And take ye
good heed to your own souls, for ye saw no similitude  . For if
it is wholly impossible to imagine His likeness, how shall thought
come near His substance?
8. There have been many imaginations by many persons, and all have
failed. Some have thought that God is fire; others that He is, as it
were, a man with wings, because of a true text ill understood, Thou
shalt hide me under the shadow of Thy wings  . They forgot that
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten, speaks in like manner
concerning Himself to Jerusalem, How often would I have gathered thy
children together even as a hen doth gather her chickens under her
wings, and ye would not  . For whereas God's protecting power
was conceived as wings, they failing to understand this sank down to
the level of things human, and supposed that the Unsearchable exists
in the likeness of man. Some again dared to say that He has seven
eyes, because it is written, seven eyes of the Lord looking upon the
whole earth  . For if He has but seven eyes surrounding Him in
part, His seeing is therefore partial and not perfect: but to say
this of God is blasphemous; for we must believe that God is in all
things perfect, according to our Saviour's word, which saith, Your
Father in heaven is perfect  : perfect in sight, perfect in
power, perfect in greatness, perfect in foreknowledge, perfect in
goodness, perfect in justice, perfect in loving-kindness: not
circumscribed in any space, but the Creator of all space, existing in
all, and circumscribed by none  . Heaven is His throne, but
higher is He that sitteth thereon: and earth is His footstool  ,
but His power reacheth unto things under the earth.
9. One He is, everywhere present, beholding all things, perceiving
all things, creating all things through Christ: For all things were
made by Him, and without Him was not anything made  . A fountain
of every good, abundant and unfailing, a river of blessings, an
eternal light of never-failing splendour, an insuperable power
condescending to our infirmities: whose very Name we dare not hear
 . Wilt thou find a footstep of the Lord? saith Job, or hast
thou attained unto the least things which the Almighty hath made 
? If the least of His works are incomprehensible, shall He be
comprehended who made them all? Eye hath not seen, and ear hath not
heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which
God hath prepared for them that love Him  . If the things which
God hath prepared are incomprehensible to our thoughts, how can we
comprehend with our mind Himself who hath prepared them? O the depth
of the riches, and wisdom, and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are
His judgments, and His ways past finding out  ! saith the
Apostle. If His judgments and His ways are incomprehensible, can He
Himself be comprehended?
10. God then being thus great, and yet greater, (for even were I to
change my whole substance into tongue, I could not speak His
excellence: nay more, not even if all Angels should assemble, could
they ever speak His worth), God being therefore so great in goodness
and majesty, man hath yet dared to say to a stone that he hath graven,
Thou art my God  ! O monstrous blindness, that from majesty so
great came down so low! The tree which was planted by God, and
nourished by the rain, and afterwards burnt and turned into ashes by
the fire,--this is addressed as God, and the true God is despised.
But the wickedness of idolatry grew yet more prodigal, and cat, and
dog, and wolf  were worshipped instead of God: the man-eating
lion  also was worshipped instead of God, the most loving friend
of man. The snake and the serpent  , counterfeit of him who
thrust us out of Paradise, were worshipped, and He who planted
Paradise was despised. And I am ashamed to say, and yet do say it,
even onions  were worshipped among some. Wine was given to make
glad the heart of man  : and Dionysus (Bacchus) was worshipped
instead of God. God made corn by saying, Let the earth bring forth
grass, yielding seed after his kind and after his likeness  ,
that bread may strengthen man's heart  : why then was Demeter
(Ceres) worshipped? Fire cometh forth from striking stones together
even to this day: how then was Hephæstus (Vulcan) the creator of
11. Whence came the polytheistic error of the Greeks  ? God has
no body: whence then the adulteries alleged among those who are by
them called gods? I say nothing of the transformations of Zeus into a
swan: I am ashamed to speak of his transformations into a bull: for
bellowings are unworthy of a god. The god of the Greeks has been
found an adulterer, yet are they not ashamed: for if he is an
adulterer let him not be called a god. They tell also of deaths 
, and falls  , and thunder-strokes  of their gods. Seest
thou from how great a height and how low they have fallen? Was it
without reason then that the Son of God came down from heaven? or was
it that He might heal so great a wound? Was it without reason that
the Son came? or was it in order that the Father might be
acknowledged? Thou hast learned what moved the Only-begotten to come
down from the throne at God's right hand. The Father was despised,
the Son must needs correct the error: for He Through Whom All Things
Were Made must bring them all as offerings to the Lord of all. The
wound must be healed: for what could be worse than this disease, that
a stone should be worshipped instead of God?
12. And not among the heathen only did the devil make these assaults;
for many of those who are falsely called Christians, and wrongfully
addressed by the sweet name of Christ, have ere now impiously dared to
banish God from His own creation. I mean the brood of heretics, those
most ungodly men of evil name, pretending to be friends of Christ but
utterly hating Him. For he who blasphemes the Father of the Christ is
an enemy of the Son. These men have dared to speak of two Godheads,
one good and one evil  ! O monstrous blindness! If a Godhead,
then assuredly good. But if not good, why called a Godhead? For if
goodness is an attribute of God; if loving-kindness, beneficence,
almighty power, are proper to God, then of two things one, either in
calling Him God let the name and operation be united; or if they would
rob Him of His operations, let them not give Him the bare name.
13. Heretics have dared to say that there are two Gods, and of good
and evil two sources, and these unbegotten. If both are unbegotten it
is certain that they are also equal, and both mighty. How then doth
the light destroy the darkness? And do they ever exist together, or
are they separated? Together they cannot be; for what fellowship hath
light with darkness? saith the Apostle  . But if they are far
from each other, it is certain that they hold also each his own place;
and if they hold their own separate places, we are certainly in the
realm of one God, and certainly worship one God. For thus we must
conclude, even if we assent to their folly, that we must worship one
God. Let us examine also what they say of the good God. Hath He
power or no power? If He hath power, how did evil arise against His
will? And how doth the evil substance intrude, if He be not willing?
For if He knows but cannot hinder it, they charge Him with want of
power; but if He has the power, yet hinders not, they accuse Him of
treachery. Mark too their want of sense. At one time they say that
the Evil One hath no communion with the good God in the creation of
the world; but at another time they say that he hath the fourth part
only. Also they say that the good God is the Father of Christ; but
Christ they call this sun. If, therefore according to them, the world
was made by the Evil One, and the sun is in the world, how is the Son
of the Good an unwilling slave in the kingdom of the Evil? We bemire
ourselves in speaking of these things, but we do it lest any of those
present should from ignorance fall into the mire of the heretics. I
know that I have defiled my own mouth and the ears of my listeners:
yet it is expedient. For it is much better to hear absurdities
charged against others, than to fall into them from ignorance: far
better that thou know the mire and hate it, than unawares fall into
it. For the godless system of the heresies is a road with many
branches, and whenever a man has strayed from the one straight way,
then he falls down precipices again and again.
14. The inventor of all heresy was Simon Magus  : that Simon,
who in the Acts of the Apostles thought to purchase with money the
unsaleable grace of the Spirit, and heard the words, Thou hast neither
part nor lot in this matter  , and the rest: concerning whom
also it is written, They went out from us, but they were not of us;
for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us  .
This man, after he had been cast out by the Apostles, came to Rome,
and gaining over one Helena a harlot  , was the first that dared
with blasphemous mouth to say that it was himself who appeared on
Mount Sinai as the Father, and afterwards appeared among the Jews, not
in real flesh but in seeming  , as Christ Jesus, and afterwards
as the Holy Spirit whom Christ promised to send as the Paraclete 
. And he so deceived the City of Rome that Claudius set up his
statue, and wrote beneath it, in the language of the Romans, "Simoni
Deo Sancto," which being interpreted signifies, "To Simon the Holy God
15. As the delusion was extending, Peter and Paul, a noble pair,
chief rulers of the Church, arrived and set the error right  ;
and when the supposed god Simon wished to shew himself off, they
straightway shewed him as a corpse. For Simon promised to rise aloft
to heaven, and came riding in a dæmons' chariot on the air; but the
servants of God fell on their knees, and having shewn that agreement
of which Jesus spake, that If two of you shall agree concerning
anything that they shall ask, it shall be done unto them  , they
launched the weapon of their concord in prayer against Magus, and
struck him down to the earth. And marvellous though it was, yet no
marvel. For Peter was there, who carrieth the keys of heaven  :
and nothing wonderful, for Paul was there  , who was caught up to
the third heaven, and into Paradise, and heard unspeakable words,
which it is not lawful far a man to utter  . These brought the
supposed God down from the sky to earth, thence to be taken down to
the regions below the earth. In this man first the serpent of
wickedness appeared; but when one head had been cut off, the root of
wickedness was found again with many heads.
16. For Cerinthus  made havoc of the Church, and Menander 
, and Carpocrates  , Ebionites  also, and Marcion  ,
that mouthpiece of ungodliness. For he who proclaimed different gods,
one the Good, the other the Just, contradicts the Son when He says, O
righteous Father  . And he who says again that the Father is
one, and the maker of the world another, opposes the Son when He says,
If then God so clothes the grass of the field which to-day is, and
to-morrow is cast into the furnace of fire  ; and, Who maketh His
sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just
and on the unjust  . Here again is a second inventor of more
mischief, this Marcion. For being confuted by the testimonies from
the Old Testament which are quoted in the New, he was the first who
dared to cut those testimonies out  , and leave the preaching of
the word of faith without witness, thus effacing the true God: and
sought to undermine the Church's faith, as if there were no heralds of
17. He again was succeeded by another, Basilides, of evil name, and
dangerous character, a preacher of impurities  . The contest of
wickedness was aided also by Valentinus  , a preacher of thirty
gods. The Greeks tell of but few: and the man who was called--but
more truly was not--a Christian extended the delusion to full thirty.
He says, too, that Bythus the Abyss (for it became him as being an
abyss of wickedness to begin his teaching from the Abyss) begat
Silence, and of Silence begat the Word. This Bythus was worse than
the Zeus of the Greeks, who was united to his sister: for Silence was
said to be the child of Bythus. Dost thou see the absurdity invested
with a show of Christianity? Wait a little, and thou wilt be shocked
at his impiety; for he asserts that of this Bythus were begotten eight
Æons; and of them, ten; and of them, other twelve, male and female.
But whence is the proof of these things? See their silliness from
their fabrications. Whence hast thou the proof of the thirty Æons?
Because, saith he, it is written, that Jesus was baptized, being
thirty years old  . But even if He was baptized when thirty
years old, what sort of demonstration is this from the thirty years?
Are there then five gods, because He brake five loaves among five
thousand? Or because he had twelve Disciples, must there also be
18. And even this is still little compared with the impieties which
follow. For the last of the deities being, as he dares to speak, both
male and female, this, he says, is Wisdom  . What impiety! For
the Wisdom of God  is Christ His Only-begotten Son: and he by
his doctrine degraded the Wisdom of God into a female element, and one
of thirty, and the last fabrication. He also says that Wisdom
attempted to behold the first God, and not bearing His brightness fell
from heaven, and was cast out of her thirtieth place. Then she
groaned, and of her groans begat the Devil  , and as she wept
over her fall made of her tears the sea. Mark the impiety. For of
Wisdom how is the Devil begotten, and of prudence wickedness, or of
light darkness? He says too that the Devil begat others, some of whom
created the world: and that the Christ came down in order to make
mankind revolt from the Maker of the world.
19. But hear whom they say Christ Jesus to be, that thou mayest
detest them yet more. For they say that after Wisdom had been cast
down, in order that the number of the thirty might not be incomplete,
the nine and twenty Æons contributed each a little part, and formed
the Christ  : and they say that He also is both male and female
 . Can anything be more impious than this? Anything more
wretched? I am describing their delusion to thee, in order that thou
mayest hate them the more. Shun, therefore, their impiety, and do not
even give greeting to  a man of this kind, lest thou have
fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness  : neither make
curious inquiries, nor be willing to enter into conversation with
20. Hate all heretics, but especially him who is rightly named after
mania  , who arose not long ago in the reign of Probus  .
For the delusion began full seventy years ago  , and there are
men still living who saw him with their very eyes. But hate him not
for this, that he lived a short time ago; but because of his impious
doctrines hate thou the worker of wickedness, the receptacle of all
filth, who gathered up the mire of every heresy  . For aspiring
to become pre-eminent among wicked men, he took the doctrines of all,
and having combined them into one heresy filled with blasphemies and
all iniquity, he makes havoc of the Church, or rather of those outside
the Church, roaming about like a lion and devouring. Heed not their
fair speech, nor their supposed humility: for they are serpents, a
generation of vipers  . Judas too said Hail! Master  , even
while he was betraying Him. Heed not their kisses, but beware of
21. Now, lest I seem to accuse him without reason, let me make a
digression to tell who this Manes is, and in part what he teaches:
for all time would fail to describe adequately the whole of his foul
teaching. But for help in time of need  , store up in thy memory
what I have said to former hearers, and will repeat to those now
present, that they who know not may learn, and they who know may be
reminded. Manes is not of Christian origin, God forbid! nor was he
like Simon cast out of the Church, neither himself nor the teachers
who were before him. For he steals other men's wickedness, and makes
their wickedness his own: but how and in what manner thou must hear.
22. There was in Egypt one Scythianus  , a Saracen  by
birth, having nothing in common either with Judaism or with
Christianity. This man, who dwelt at Alexandria and imitated the life
of Aristotle  , composed four books  , one called a Gospel
which had not the acts of Christ, but the mere name only, and one
other called the book of Chapters, and a third of Mysteries, and a
fourth, which they circulate now, the Treasure  . This man had a
disciple, Terebinthus by name. But when Scythianus purposed to come
into Judæa, and make havoc of the land, the Lord smote him with a
deadly disease, and stayed the pestilence  .
23. But Terebinthus, his disciple in this wicked error, inherited his
money and books and heresy  , and came to Palestine, and becoming
known and condemned in Judæa  he resolved to pass into Persia:
but lest he should be recognised there also by his name he changed it
and called himself Buddas  . However, he found adversaries there
also in the priests of Mithras  : and being confuted in the
discussion of many arguments and controversies, and at last hard
pressed, he took refuge with a certain widow. Then having gone up on
the housetop, and summoned the dæmons of the air, whom the Manichees
to this day invoke over their abominable ceremony of the fig  ,
he was smitten of God, and cast down from the housetop, and expired:
and so the second beast was cut off.
24. The books, however, which were the records of his impiety,
remained; and both these and his money the widow inherited. And
having neither kinsman nor any other friend, she determined to buy
with the money a boy named Cubricus  : him she adopted and
educated as a son in the learning of the Persians, and thus sharpened
an evil weapon against mankind. So Cubricus, the vile slave, grew up
in the midst of philosophers, and on the death of the widow inherited
both the books and the money. Then, lest the name of slavery might be
a reproach, instead of Cubricus he called himself Manes, which in the
language of the Persians signifies discourse  . For as he
thought himself something of a disputant, he surnamed himself Manes,
as it were an excellent master of discourse. But though he contrived
for himself an honourable title according to the language of the
Persians, yet the providence of God caused him to become a
self-accuser even against his will, that through thinking to honour
himself in Persia, he might proclaim himself among the Greeks by name
25. He dared too to say that he was the Paraclete, though it is
written, But whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, hath no
forgiveness  . He committed blasphemy therefore by saying that
he was the Holy Ghost: let him that communicates with those heretics
see with whom he is enrolling himself. The slave shook the world,
since by three things the earth is shaken, and the fourth it cannot
bear,--if a slave became a king  . Having come into public he
now began to promise things above man's power. The son of the King of
the Persians was sick, and a multitude of physicians were in
attendance: but Manes promised, as if he were a godly man, to cure
him by prayer. With the departure of the physicians, the life of the
child departed: and the man's impiety was detected. So the would-be
philosopher was a prisoner, being cast into prison not for reproving
the king in the cause of truth, not for destroying the idols, but for
promising to save and lying, or rather, if the truth must be told, for
committing murder. For the child who might have been saved by medical
treatment, was murdered by this man's driving away the physicians, and
killing him by want of treatment.
26. Now as there are very many wicked things which I tell thee of
him, remember first his blasphemy, secondly his slavery (not that
slavery is a disgrace, but that his pretending to be free-born, when
he was a slave, was wicked), thirdly, the falsehood of his promise,
fourthly, the murder of the child, and fifthly, the disgrace of the
imprisonment. And there was not only the disgrace of the prison, but
also the flight from prison. For he who called himself the Paraclete
and champion of the truth, ran away: he was no successor of Jesus,
who readily went to the Cross, but this man was the reverse, a
runaway. Moreover, the King of the Persians ordered the keepers of
the prison to be executed: so Manes was the cause of the child's
death through his vain boasting, and of the gaolers' death through his
flight. Ought then he, who shared the guilt of murder, to be
worshipped? Ought he not to have followed the example of Jesus, and
said, If ye seek Me, let these go their way  ? Ought he not to
have said, like Jonas, Take me, and cast me into the sea: for this
storm is because of me  ?
27. He escapes from the prison, and comes into Mesopotamia: but
there Bishop Archelaus, a shield of righteousness, encounters him
 : and having accused him before philosophers as judges, and
having assembled an audience of Gentiles, lest if Christians gave
judgment, the judges might be thought to shew favour,--Tell us what
thou preachest, said Archelaus to Manes. And he, whose mouth was as
an open sepulchre  , began first with blasphemy against the Maker
of all things, saying, The God of the Old Testament is the author of
evils, as He says of Himself, I am a consuming fire  . But the
wise Archelaus undermined his blasphemous argument by saying, "If the
God of the Old Testament, as thou sayest, calls Himself a fire, whose
Son is He who saith, I came to send fire on the earth  ? If thou
findest fault with Him who saith, The Lord killeth, and maketh alive
 , why dost thou honour Peter, who raised up Tabitha, but struck
Sapphira dead? If again thou findest fault, because He prepared fire,
wherefore dost thou not find fault with Him who saith, Depart from Me
into everlasting fire  ? If thou findest fault with Him who
saith, I am God that make peace, and create evil  , explain how
Jesus saith, I came not to send peace but a sword  . Since both
speak alike, of two things one, either both are good, because of their
agreement, or if Jesus is blameless in so speaking. why blamest thou
Him that saith the like in the Old Testament?"
28. Then Manes answers him: "And what sort of God causes blindness?
For it is Paul who saith, In whom the God of this world hath blinded
the minds of them that believe not, lest the light of the Gospel
should shine unto them  ." But Archelaus made a good retort,
saying, "Read a little before: But if our Gospel is veiled, it is
veiled in them that are perishing  . Seest thou that in them
that are perishing it is veiled? For it is not right to give the
things which are holy unto the dogs  . Again, Is it only the God
of the Old Testament that hath blinded the minds of them that believe
not? Hath not Jesus Himself said, For this cause speak I unto them in
parables, that seeing they may not see  ? Was it from hating
them that He wished them not to see? Or because of their
unworthiness, since their eyes they had closed  . For where
there is wilful wickedness, there is also a withholding of grace: for
to him that hath shall be given; but from him that hath not shall be
taken even that which he seemeth to have  .
29. "But if some are right in their interpretation, we must say as
follows  (for it is no unworthy expression)--If indeed He blinded
the thoughts of them that believe not he blinded them for a good
purpose, that they might look with new sight on what is good. For he
said not, He blinded their soul, but, the thoughts of them that
believe not  . And the meaning is something of this kind:
`Blind the lewd thoughts of the lewd, and the man is saved: blind the
grasping and rapacious thought of the robber, and the man is saved.'
But wilt thou not understand it thus? Then there is yet another
interpretation. The sun also blinds those whose sight is dim: and
they whose eyes are diseased are hurt by the light and blinded. Not
that the sun's nature is to blind, but that the substance of the eyes
is incapable of seeing. In like manner unbelievers being diseased in
their heart cannot look upon the radiance of the Godhead. Nor hath he
said, `He hath blinded their thoughts, that they should not hear the
Gospel:' but, that the light of the glory of the Gospel of our Lord
Jesus Christ should not shine unto them. For to hear the Gospel is
permitted to all: but the glory of the Gospel is reserved for
Christ's true children only. Therefore the Lord spoke in parables to
those who could not hear  : but to the Disciples he explained
the parables in private  : for the brightness of the glory is
for those who have been enlightened, the blinding for them that
believe not." These mysteries, which the Church now explains to thee
who art passing out of the class of Catechumens, it is not the custom
to explain to heathen. For to a heathen we do not explain the
mysteries concerning Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, nor before
Catechumens do we speak plainly of the mysteries: but many things we
often speak in a veiled way, that the believers who know may
understand, and they who know not may get no hurt  .
30. By such and many other arguments the serpent was overthrown:
thus did Archelaus wrestle with Manes and threw him. Again, he who
had fled from prison flees from this place also: and having run away
from his antagonist, he comes to a very poor village, like the serpent
in Paradise when he left Adam and came to Eve. But the good shepherd
Archelaus taking forethought for his sheep, when he heard of his
flight, straightway hastened with all speed in search of the wolf.
And when Manes suddenly saw his adversary, he rushed out and fled: it
was however his last flight. For the officers of the King of Persia
searched everywhere, and caught the fugitive: and the sentence, which
he ought to have received in the presence of Archelaus, is passed upon
him by the king's officers. This Manes, whom his own disciples
worship, is arrested and brought before the king. The king reproached
him with his falsehood and his flight: poured scorn upon his slavish
condition, avenged the murder of his child, and condemned him also for
the murder of the gaolers: he commands him to be flayed after the
Persian fashion. And while the rest of his body was given over for
food of wild beasts, his skin, the receptacle of his vile mind, was
hung up before the gates like a sack  . He that called himself
the Paraclete and professed to know the future, knew not his own
flight and capture.
31. This man has had three disciples, Thomas, and Baddas, and
Hermas. Let none read the Gospel according to Thomas  : for it
is the work not of one of the twelve Apostles, but of one of the three
wicked disciples of Manes. Let none associate with the
soul-destroying Manicheans, who by decoctions of chaff counterfeit the
sad look of fasting, who speak evil of the Creator of meats, and
greedily devour the daintiest, who teach that the man who plucks up
this or that herb is changed into it. For if he who crops herbs or
any vegetable is changed into the same, into how many will husbandmen
and the tribe of gardeners be changed  ? The gardener, as we
see, has used his sickle against so many: into which then is he
changed? Verily their doctrines are ridiculous, and fraught with
their own condemnation and shame! The same man, being the shepherd of
a flock, both sacrifices a sheep and kills a wolf. Into what then is
he changed? Many men both net fishes and lime birds: into which then
are they transformed?
32. Let those children of sloth, the Manicheans, make answer; who
without labouring themselves eat up the labourers' fruits: who
welcome with smiling faces those who bring them their food, and return
curses instead of blessings. For when a simple person brings them
anything, "Stand outside a while," saith he, "and I will bless thee."
Then having taken the bread into his hands (as those who have repented
and left them have confessed), "I did not make thee," says the
Manichee to the bread: and sends up curses against the Most High; and
curses him that made it, and so eats what was made  . If thou
hatest the food, why didst thou look with smiling countenance on him
that brought it to thee? If thou art thankful to the bringer, why
dost thou utter thy blasphemy to God, who created and made it? So
again he says, "I sowed thee not: may he be sown who sowed thee! I
reaped thee not with a sickle: may he be reaped who reaped thee! I
baked thee not with fire: may he be baked who baked thee!" A fine
return for the kindness!
33. These are great faults, but still small in comparison with the
rest. Their Baptism I dare not describe before men and women  .
I dare not say what they distribute to their wretched communicants
 ....Truly we pollute our mouth in speaking of these things. Are
the heathen more detestable than these? Are the Samaritans more
wretched? Are Jews more impious? Are fornicators more impure 
? But the Manichee sets these offerings in the midst of the altar as
he considers it  . And dost thou, O man, receive instruction
from such a mouth? On meeting this man dost thou greet him at all
with a kiss? To say nothing of his other impiety, dost thou not flee
from the defilement, and from men worse than profligates, more
detestable than any prostitute?
34. Of these things the Church admonishes and teaches thee, and
touches mire, that thou mayest not be bemired: she tells of the
wounds, that thou mayest not be wounded. But for thee it is enough
merely to know them: abstain from learning by experience. God
thunders, and we all tremble; and they blaspheme. God lightens, and
we all bow down to the earth; and they have their blasphemous sayings
about the heavens  . These things are written in the books of
the Manichees. These things we ourselves have read, because we could
not believe those who told of them: yes, for the sake of your
salvation we have closely inquired into their perdition.
35. But may the Lord deliver us from such delusion: and may there be
given to you a hatred against the serpent, that as they lie in wait
for the heel, so you may trample on their head. Remember ye what I
say. What agreement can there be between our state and theirs? What
communion hath light with darkness  ? What hath the majesty of
the Church to do with the abomination of the Manichees? Here is
order, here is discipline  , here is majesty, here is purity:
here even to look upon a woman to lust after her  is
condemnation. Here is marriage with sanctity  , here steadfast
continence, here virginity in honour like unto the Angels: here
partaking of food with thanksgiving, here gratitude to the Creator of
the world. Here the Father of Christ is worshipped: here are taught
fear and trembling before Him who sends the rain: here we ascribe
glory to Him who makes the thunder and the lightning.
36. Make thou thy fold with the sheep: flee from the wolves: depart
not from the Church. Hate those also who have ever been suspected in
such matters: and unless in time thou perceive their repentance, do
not rashly trust thyself among them. The truth of the Unity of God
has been delivered to thee: learn to distinguish the pastures of
doctrine. Be an approved banker  , holding fast that which is
good, abstaining from every form of evil  . Or if thou hast ever
been such as they, recognise and hate thy delusion. For there is a
way of salvation, if thou reject the vomit, if thou from thy heart
detest it, if thou depart from them, not with thy lips only, but with
thy soul also: if thou worship the Father of Christ, the God of the
Law and the Prophets, if thou acknowledge the Good and the Just to be
one and the same God. And may He preserve you all, guarding
you from falling or stumbling, stablished in the Faith, in Christ
Jesus our Lord, to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
 Peri Theou Monarchias. The word monarchia, as used by Plato
(Polit. 291 C), Aristotle (Polit. III. xiv. 11. eidos monarchias
basilikes), Philo Judæus (de Circumcisione, § 2; de Monarchia,
Titul.), means "sole government." Compare Tertullian (adv. Praxean.
c. iii.): "If I have gained any knowledge of either language, I am
sure that Monarchia has no other meaning than `single and individual
rule.'" Athanasius (de Decretis Nicænæ Synodi, § 26) has preserved
part of an Epistle of Dionysius, Bishop of Rome (259-269, a.d.),
against the Sabellians: "It will be natural for me now to speak
against those who divide, and cut into pieces, and destroy that most
sacred doctrine of the Church of God, the Monarchia, making it, as it
were, three powers and divided hypostases, and three Godheads;"
(ibid.): "It is the doctrine of the presumptuous Marcion to sever and
divide the Monarchia into three origins (archas)." We see here the
sense which Monarchia had acquired in Christian Theology: it meant
the "Unity of God," as the one principle and origin of all things.
"By the Monarchy is meant the doctrine that the Second and Third
Persons in the Ever-blessed Trinity are ever to be referred in our
thoughts to the First, as the Fountain of Godhead" (Newman, Athanas.
de Decretis Nic. Syn. § 26, note h). Justin Martyr (Euseb. H.E. IV.
18), and Irenæus (ibid. V. 20), had each written a treatise peri
Monarchias. On the history of Monarchianism see, in this Series,
Athanasius, Prolegomena, p. xxiii. sqq.
 2 Cor. i. 3.
 This clause is omitted in some mss. Various forms of the
Doxology were adopted in Cyril's time by various parties in the
Church. Thus Theodoret (Hist. Eccles. II. c. 19) relates that
Leontius, Bishop of Antioch, a.d. 348-357, observing that the Clergy
and the Congregation were divided into two parties, the one using the
form "and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost," the other "through the
Son, in the Holy Ghost," used to repeat the Doxology silently, so that
those who were near could hear only "world without end." The form
which was regarded as the most orthodox, and adopted in the Liturgies
ran thus: "Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy
Ghost, now and ever, and to the ages of the ages." See Suicer's
 Irenæus II. xxviii. 4: "But since God is all mind, all reason,
all active Spirit, all light, and always exists as one and the same,
such conditions and divisions (of operation) cannot fittingly be
ascribed to Him. For our tongue, as being made of flesh, is not able
to minister to the rapidity of man's sense, because that is of a
spiritual nature; for which reason our speech is restrained
(suffocatur) within us, and is not at once expressed as it has been
conceived in the mind but is uttered by successive efforts, just as
the tongue is able to serve it."
 Tertullian, Apologeticus, § 17: "That which is infinite is
known only to itself. This it is which gives some notion of God,
while yet beyond all our conceptions--our very incapacity of fully
grasping Him affords us the idea of what He really is. He is
presented to our minds in His transcendent greatness, as at once known
and unknown." Cf. Phil. Jud. de Monarch. i. 4: Hooker, Eccles. Pol.
I. ii. 3: "Whom although to know be life, and joy to make mention of
His name; yet our soundest knowledge is to know that we know Him not
as He is, neither can know Him."
 Ps. xxxiv. 3.
 Gen. xviii. 27.
 The opinion of Aristarchus of Samos, as stated by Archimedes
(Arenarius, p. 320, Oxon), was that the sphere of the fixed stars was
so large, that it bore to the earth's orbit the same proportion as a
sphere to its centre, or more correctly (as Archimedes explains) the
same proportion as the earth's orbit round the sun to the earth
itself. Compare Cat. xv. 24.
 Is. xl. 22.
 Ps. cxlvii. 4.
 Job xxxvi. 27: arithmetai de auto stagones huetou. R.V. For He
draweth up the drops of water.
 Ecclus. iii. 21, 22.
 Ps. cl. 6.
 John i. 18. They are the Evangelist's own words.
 Matt. xviii. 10.
 John vi. 46.
 1 Cor. ii. 10.
 Matt. xi. 27.
 The Benedictine and earlier printed texts read ho gennetheis
[apathos pro ton chronon aionion]: but the words in brackets are not
found in the best mss. The false grammar betrays a spurious
insertion, which also interrupts the sense. On the meaning of the
phrase ho gennetheis apathos, see note on vii. 5: ou pathei pater
 Gr. onta, aei onta.
 Iren. II. xiii. 3: "He is altogether like and equal to Himself;
since He is all sense, and all spirit, and all feeling, and all
thought, and all reason, and all hearing, and all ear, and all eye,
and all light, and all a fount of every good,--even as the religious
and pious are wont to speak of God."
 monoeide. A Platonic word. Phædo, 80 B: to men theio kai
athanato kai noeto kai monoeidei kai adialuto kai aei hosautos kata ta
auta echonti heauto homoiotaton einai psuchen. See Index,
 Iren. II. xxxv. 3: "If any object that in the Hebrew language
different expressions occur, such as Sabaoth, Elöe, Adonai, and all
other such terms, striving to prove from these that there are
different powers and Gods, let them learn that all expressions of this
kind are titles and announcements of one and the same Being."
 See the passages of Irenæus quoted above, § 2 note 4, and § 7
 John v. 37.
 Deut. iv. 15.
 Ps. xvii. 8.
 Matt. xxiii. 37.
 Zech. iv. 10.
 Matt. v. 48.
 Philo Judæus (Leg. Alleg. I. 14. p. 52). Theou gar oude ho
sumpas kosmos axion an eie chorion kai endiaitema, epei autos heauto
tepos. So Sir Isaac Newton, at the end of the Principia, asserts that
God by His eternal and infinite existence constitutes Time and Space:
"Non est duratio vel spatium, sed durat et adest, et existendo semper
et ubique spatium et durationem constituit."
 Is. lxvi. 1.
 John i. 3.
 The sacred name (H+W+H+J+) was not pronounced, but Adonai was
 Job xi. 7 (R.V.): Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst
thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? Cyril seems to have
understood ta eschata as "the least," not as "the utmost."
 1 Cor. ii. 9.
 Rom. xi. 33.
 Is. xliv. 17.
 The cat was sacred to the goddess Pasht, called by the Greeks
Bubastis, and identified by Herodotus (ii. 137) with Artemis or
Diana. Cats were embalmed after death, and their mummies are found at
various places, but especially at Bubastis (Herod. ii. 67). "The Dogs
are interred in the cities to which they belong, in sacred
burial-places" (Herod. ii. 67), but chiefly at Cynopolis ("City of
Dogs") where the dog-headed deity Anubis was worshipped. Mummies of
wolves are found in chambers excavated in the rocks at Lycopolis,
where Osiris was worshipped under the symbol of a wolf.
 The lion was held sacred at Leontopolis (Strabo, xvii. p. 812).
 "In the neighbourhood of Thebes there are sacred serpents
perfectly harmless to man. These they bury in the temple of Zeus, the
god to whom they are sacred." (Herod. ii. 74.) At Epidaurus in
Argolis the serpent was held sacred as the symbol of Æsculapius.
Clement of Alexandria (Exhort. c. ii.) gives a fuller list of animals
worshipped by various nations. Compare also Clement. Recogn. V. 20.
 Juvenal Sat. xv. 7. Illic aeluros, hic piscem fluminis, illic
Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. Possum et caepe nefas
violare et frangere morsu.
 Ps. civ. 15.
 Gen. i. 11.
 Ps. civ. 15.
 The early Creeds of the Eastern Churches, like that which
Eusebius of Cæsarea proposed at Nicæa, expressly declare the unity of
God, in opposition both to the heathen Polytheism, and to the various
heresies which introduced two or more Gods. See below in this
Lecture, §§ 12-18; and compare Athan. (contra Gentes, § 6, sqq.)
 Clement of Alexandria (Exhort. cap. ii. § 37), quotes a passage
from a hymn of Callimachus, implying the death of Zeus: "For even thy
tomb, O king, The Cretans fashioned." Adonis, or "Thammuz yearly
wounded," was said to live and die in alternate years.
 By the word "falls" (apoptoseis) Cyril evidently refers to the
story of Hephæstus, or Vulcan, to which Milton alludes (Paradise Lost,
I. 740):-- "Men call'd him Mulciber, and how he fell From heaven they
fabled, thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements: from
morn To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, A summer's day."
 The "thunder-strokes" refer to "Titan heaven's first-born, With
his enormous brood" (Par. Lost, I. 510). Cf. Virgil, Æn. vi. 580:--
"Hic genus antiquum Terræ, Titania pubes, Fulmine dejecti fundo
volvuntur in imo." Ibid. v. 585:-- "Vidi et crudeles dantem Salmonea
poenas, Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi." Clem. Alex.
(Exhort. II. § 37):--"Æsculapius lies struck with lightning in the
regions of Cynosuris." Cf. Virg. Æn. vii. 770 ss.
 The theory of two Gods, one good and the other evil, was held by
Cerdo, and Marcion (Hippolytus, Refut. omnium Hær. VII. cap. 17:
Irenæus, III. xxv. 3, quoted in note on Cat. iv. 4). The Manichees
also held that the Creator of the world was distinct from the Supreme
God (Alexander Lycop. de Manichæorum Sententiis, cap. iii.).
 2 Cor. vi. 14. Cyril's description applies especially to the
heresy of Manes. See § 36, note 3, at the end of this Lecture; also
Cat. xi. 21. and Cat. xv. 3.
 So Irenæus (I. xxiii. 2) says that "from this Simon of Samaria
all kinds of heresies derive their origin."
 Acts viii. 18-21.
 1 John ii. 19.
 Irenæus (I. xxiii. 2): "Having purchased from Tyre, a city of
Phoenicia, a certain harlot named Helena, he used to carry her about
with him, declaring that this woman was the first conception of his
mind, the mother of all, by whom in the beginning he conceived in his
mind the creation of Angels and Archangels."
 Cf. Epiphan. (Hæres. p. 55, B): "He said that he was the Son
and had not really suffered, but only in appearance (dokesei)."
 Irenæus (I. xxiii. 1): "He taught that it was himself who
appeared among the Jews as the Son, and descended in Samaria as the
Father, but came to other nations as the Holy Spirit." Cyril here
departs from his authority by substituting Mount Sinai for Samaria,
and thereby falls into error. Simon had first appeared in Samaria,
being a native of Gitton: moreover in claiming to be the Father he
meant to set himself far above the inferior Deity who had given the
Law on Sinai, saying that he was "the highest of all Powers, that is
the Father who is over all."
 "Justin Martyr in his first Apology, addressed to Antoninus
Pius, writes thus (c. 26): `There was one Simon a Samaritan, of the
village called Gitton, who in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, and in your
royal city of Rome, did mighty feats of magic by the art of dæmons
working in him. He was considered a god, and as a god was honoured
among you with a statue, which statue was set up in the river Tiber
between the two bridges, and bears this inscription in Latin: Simoni
Deo Sancto; which is, To Simon the holy God. "The substance of this
story is repeated by Irenæus (adv. Hær. I. xxiii. 1), and by
Tertullian (Apol. c. 13), who reproaches the Romans for installing
Simon Magus in their Pantheon, and giving him a statue and the title
`Holy God.' "In a.d. 1574, a stone, which had formed the base of a
statue, was dug up on the site described by Justin, the Island in the
Tiber, bearing an inscription--`Semoni Sanco Deo Fidio Sacrum, &c.'
Hence it has been supposed that Justin mistook a statue of the Sabine
God, `Semo Sancus,' for one of Simon Magus. See the notes in Otto's
Justin Martyr, and Stieren's Irenæus. "On the other hand Tillemont
(Memoires, t. ii. p. 482) maintains that Justin in an Apology
addressed to the emperor and written in Rome itself cannot reasonably
be supposed to have fallen into so manifest an error. Whichever view
we take of Justin's accuracy concerning the inscription and the
statue, there is nothing improbable in his statement that Simon Magus
was at Rome in the reign of Claudius." (Extracted by permission from
the Speaker's Commentary, Introduction to the Epistle to the Romans,
 "Justin says not one word about St. Peter's alleged visit to
Rome, and his encounter with Simon Magus." But "Eusebius in his
Ecclesiastical History (c. a.d. 325), quotes Justin Martyr's story
about Simon Magus (E. H. ii. c. 13), and then, without referring to
any authority, goes on to assert (c. 14) that `immediately in the same
reign of Claudius divine Providence led Peter the great Apostle to
Rome to encounter this great destroyer of life,' and that he thus
brought the light of the Gospel from the East to the West' (ibidem).
Eusebius probably borrowed this story "from the strange fictions of
the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies, and Apostolic
Constitutions." See Recogn. III. 63-65; Hom. I. 15, III. 58; Apost.
Constit. VI. 7, 8, 9. Cyril's account of Simon's death is taken from
the same untrustworthy sources.
 Matt. xviii. 19.
 Ib. xvi. 19.
 It is certain that S. Paul was not at Rome at this time. This
story of Simon Magus and his `fiery car' is told, with variations, by
Arnobius (adv. Gentes, II. 12), and in Apost. Constit. VI. 9.
 2 Cor. xii. 2, 4.
 Cerinthus taught that the world was not made by the supreme God,
but by a separate Power ignorant of Him. See Irenæus, Hær. I. xxvi.,
Euseb. E.H. iii. 28, with the notes in this Series.
 Menander is first mentioned by Justin M. (Apolog. I. cap. 26):
"Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetæa, a disciple of
Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he
was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those who adhered to
him that they should never die." Irenæus (I. xxiii. 5) adds that
Menander announced himself as the Saviour sent by the Invisibles, and
taught that the world was created by Angels. See also Tertullian (de
Animâ, cap. 50.)
 Carpocrates, a Platonic philosopher, who taught at Alexandria
(125 a.d. circ.), held that the world and all things in it were made
by Angels far inferior to the unbegotten (unknown) Father (Iren. I.
xxv. 1; Tertullian, Adv. Hær. cap. 3).
 Irenæus, I. 26: "Those who are called Ebionites agree that the
world was made by God; but their opinions with respect to the Lord are
like those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates."
 On Marcion, see note 5, on Cat. iv. 4.
 John xvii. 25.
 Luke xii. 28.
 Matt. v. 45.
 Marcion accepted only St. Luke's Gospel, and mutilated that
(Tertullian, Adv. Marcion. iv. 2). He thus got rid of the testimony
of the Apostles and eye-witnesses, Matthew and John, and represented
the Law and the Gospel as contradictory revelations of two different
Gods. For this Cyril calls him `a second inventor of mischief,' Simon
Magus (§ 14) being the first.
 Basilides was earlier than Marcion, being the founder of a
Gnostic sect at Alexandria in the reign of Hadrian (a.d. 117-138).
His doctrines are described by Irenæus (I. xxvii. 3-7), and very fully
by Hippolytus (Refut. omn. Hær. VII. 2-15). The charge of teaching
licentiousness attaches rather to the later followers of Basilides
than to himself or his son Isidorus (Clem. Alex. Stromat. III. cap.
1). Basilides wrote a Commentary on the Gospel in 24 books
(Exegetica), of which the 23rd is quoted by Clement of Alexandria
(Stromat. IV. cap. 12), and against which Agrippa Castor wrote a
refutation. Origen (Hom. I. in Lucam.) says that Basilides wrote a
Gospel bearing his own name. See Routh, Rell. Sacr. I. p. 85; V. p.
106: Westcott, History of Canon of N.T. iv. § 3.
 "The doctrines of Valentinus are described fully by Irenæus (I.
cap. i.) from whom S. Cyril takes this account. Valentinus, and
Basilides, and Bardesanes, and Harmonious, and those of their company
admit Christ's conception and birth of the Virgin, but say that God
the Word received no addition from the Virgin, but made a sort of
passage through her, as through a tube, and made use of a phantom in
appearing to men." (Theodoret, Epist. 145.)
 Luke iii. 23.
 Irenæus I. ii. 2.
 1 Cor. i. 24.
 Irenæus, l. c., and Hippolytus, who gives an elaborate account
of the doctrines of Valentinus (L. VI. capp. xvi.-xxxii.), both
represent Sophia, "Wisdom," as giving birth not to Satan, but to a
shapeless abortion, which was the origin of matter. According to
Irenæus (I. iv. 2), Achamoth, the enthymesis of Sophia, gave birth to
the Demiurge, and "from her tears all that is of a liquid nature was
formed." In Tertullian's Treatise against the Valentinians chap.
xxii., Achamoth is said as by Cyril to have given birth to Satan: but
in chap. xxiii. Satan seems to be identified (or interchanged) with
 The account in Irenæus (I. ii. 6) is rather different: "The
whole Pleroma of the Æons, with one design and desire, and with the
concurrence of the Christ and the Holy Spirit, their Father also
setting the seal of His approval on their conduct, brought together
whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and
preciousness; and uniting all these contributions so as skilfully to
blend the whole, they produced, to the honour and glory of Bythus, a
being of most perfect beauty, the very star of the Pleroma, and its
perfect fruit, namely Jesus." Tertullian, Against the Valentinians,
chap. 12, gives a sarcastic description of this strange doctrine,
deriving his facts (chap. 5) from Justin, Miltiades, "Irenæus, that
very exact inquirer into all doctrines," and Proculus.
 This statement does not agree with Irenæus (I. vii. 1), who says
that the Valentinians represented the Saviour, that is Jesus, as
becoming the bridegroom of Achamoth or Sophia.
 2 John 10, 11: "Neither bid him God speed" (A.V.): "give him
no greeting" (R.V.).
 Ephes. v. 11.
 Eusebius in his brief notice of the Manichean heresy (Hist.
Eccles. vii. 31) plays, like S. Cyril, upon the name Manes as well
suited to a madman.
 Marcus Aurelius Probus, Emperor a.d. 276-282, from being an
obscure Illyrian soldier came to be universally esteemed the best and
noblest of the Roman Emperors.
 Routh (R.S. V. p. 12) comes to the conclusion that the famous
disputation between Manes and Archelaus took place between July and
December, a.d. 277. Accordingly these Lectures, being "full 70 years"
later, could not have been delivered before the Spring of a.d. 348.
 Leo the Great (Serm. xv. cap. 4) speaks of the madness of the
later Manichees as including all errors and impieties: "all profanity
of Paganism, all blindness of the carnal Jews, the illicit secrets of
the magic art, the sacrilege and blasphemy of all heresies, flowed
together in that sect as into a sort of cess-pool of all filth." Leo
summoned those whom they called the "elect," both men and women,
before an assembly of Bishops and Presbyters, and obtained from these
witnesses a full account of the execrable practices of the sect, in
which, as he declares, "their law is lying, their religion the devil,
their sacrifice obscenity."
 Matt. iii. 7.
 Ib. xxvi. 49.
 Heb. iv. 16.
 Cyril takes his account of Manes from the "Acta Archelai et
Manetis Disputationis," of which Routh has edited the Latin
translation together with the Fragments of the Greek preserved by
Cyril in this Lecture and by Epiphanius. There is an English
translation of the whole in Clark's "Ante-Nicene Christian Library."
 The Saracens are mentioned by both Pliny and Ptolemy. See Dict.
of Greek and Roman Geography.
 There is no mention of Aristotle in the Acta Archelai, but
Scythianus is stated (cap. li.) to have founded the sect in the time
of the Apostles, and to have derived his duality of Gods from
Pythagoras, and to have learned the wisdom of the Egyptians.
 These four books are stated by Archelaus (Acta, cap. lii.), to
have been written for Manes by his disciple Terebinthus.
 In allusion to this name the history of the Disputation is
called (Acta, cap. i.) "The true Treasure."
 The true reading of this sentence, proairoumenon ton Skuthianon,
instead of ton proeiremenon Sk., has been restored by Cleopas from the
ms. in the Archiepiscopal library at Jerusalem. This reading agrees
with the statement in Acta Archel. cap. li.: "Scythianus thought of
making an excursion into Judæa, with the purpose of meeting all those
who had a reputation there as teachers; but it came to pass that he
suddenly departed this life, without having been able to make any
 This statement agrees with the reading of the Vatican ms. of the
Acta Archelai, "omnibus quæcunque ejus fuerunt congregratis."
 In the Acta there is no mention of Palestine, but only that he
"set out for Babylonia, a province which is now held by the Persians."
 Clem. Alex. (Strom. i. 15): "Some also of the Indians obey the
precepts of Boutta, and honour him as a god for his extraordinary
 Cf. Acta Arch. cap. lii.: "A certain Parcus, however, a
prophet, and Labdacus, son of Mithras, charged him with falsehood."
On the name Parcus and Labdacus, see Dict. Chr. Biogr., "Barcabbas,"
and on the Magian worship of the Sun-god Mithras, see Rawlinson
(Herodot. Vol. I. p. 426).
 See below, § 33.
 Cf. Acta Arch. cap. liii. "A boy about seven years old, named
 See a different account in Dict. Chr. Biogr., "Manes."
 Mark iii. 29.
 Prov. xxx. 21, 22.
 John xviii. 8.
 Jonah i. 12.
 The account of the discussion in this and the two following
chapters is not now found in the Latin Version of the "Disputation,"
but is regarded by Dr. Routh as having been derived by Cyril from some
different copies of the Greek. The last paragraph of § 29, "These
mysteries, &c.," is evidently a caution addressed to the hearers by
Cyril himself (Routh, Rell. Sac. V. 199).
 Ps. v. 9.
 Deut. iv. 24.
 Luke xii. 49.
 1 Sam. ii. 6.
 Matt. xxv. 41.
 Is. xlv. 7.
 Matt. x. 34.
 2 Cor. iv. 4, noemata, "thoughts."
 2 Cor. iv. 3.
 Matt. vii. 6.
 Matt. xiii. 13. Both A.V. and R.V. follow the better reading:
"because seeing they see not, &c."
 Matt. xiii. 15.
 Ib. xxv. 29; Luke viii. 18.
 Instead of the reading of the Benedictine and earlier editions,
ei de dei kai hos tines exegountai touto eipein, the mss. Roe and
Casaubon combine dei kai os into the one word dikaios, which is
probably the right reading. Something, however, is still wanted to
complete the construction, and Petrus Siculus (circ. a.d. 870) who
quotes the passage in his History of the Manichees, boldly conjectures
esti kai houtos eipein. A simpler emendation would be--ei de dikaios
tines exegountai, dei touto eipein--which both completes the
construction and explains the reading dei kai hos.
 noemata, 2 Cor. iv. 4.
 Matt. xiii. 13.
 Mark iv. 34.
 See the note at the end of Procatechesis.
 Disput. § 55. Compare the account of Manes in Socrates, Eccles.
Hist. I. 22, in this series.
 The Gospel of Thomas, an account of the Childhood of Jesus, is
extant in three forms, two in Greek and one in Latin: these are all
translated in Clark's Ante-Nicene Library. The work is wrongly
attributed by Cyril to a disciple of Manes, being mentioned long
before Hippolytus (Refutation of all Heresies, V. 2) and by Origen
(Hom. I. in Lucam): "There is extant also the Gospel according to
 In the Disputation, § 9, Turbo describes these transformations:
"Reapers must be transformed into hay, or beans, or barley, or corn,
or vegetables, that they may be reaped and cut. Again if any one eats
bread, he must become bread, and be eaten. If one kills a chicken, he
will be a chicken himself. If one kills a mouse, he also will be a
 See Turbo's confession, Disput. § 9: "And when they are going
to eat bread, they first pray, speaking thus to the bread: `I neither
reaped thee, nor ground thee, nor kneaded thee, nor cast thee into the
oven: but another did these things and brought thee to me, and I am
not to blame for eating thee.' And when he has said this to himself,
he says to the Catechumen, `I have prayed for thee,' and so he goes
 On the rites of Baptism and Eucharist employed by the Manichees,
see Dict. Chr. Biogr., Manicheans.
 The original runs: Ou tolmo eipein, tini embaptontes ten
ischada, didoasi tois athliois. dia sussemon de monon deloustho.
andres gar ta en tois enupniasmois enthumeisthosin, kai gunaikes ta en
aphedrois. Miainomen alethas to stoma k.t.l.
 ;;O men gar porneusas, pros mian horan d epithumian telei ten
praxin; kataginoskon de tes praxeos hos miantheis oide loutrou
epideomenos, kai ginoskei tes praxeos to musaron. ;;O de Manichaios
thusiasteriou meson, hou nomizei, tithesi tauta, kai miainei kai to
stoma kai ten glottan. para toioutou stomatos, anthrope k.t.l.
 hou nomizei. The Manichees boasted of their superiority to the
Pagans in not worshipping God with altars, temples, images, victims,
or incense (August. contra Faustum XX. cap. 15). Yet they used the
names, as Augustine affirms (l. c. cap. 18): "Nevertheless I wish you
would tell me why you call all those things which you approve in your
own case by these names, temple, altar, sacrifice."
 Kakeinoi peri ouranon tas dusphemous echousi glossas. 'Iesous
legei peri tou patros autou, ;'Ostis ton helion autou anatellei epi
dikaious kai adikous, kai brechei epi ponerous kai agathous. kakeinoi
legousin, hoti hoi huetoi ex erotikes manias ginontai, kai tolmosi
legein, hoti esti tis parthenos en ourano eueides meta neaniskou
eueidous, kai kata ten ton kamelon e lukon kairon, tous tes aischras
epithumias kairous echein, kai kata ten tou cheimonos kairon, maniodos
auton epitrechein te partheno, kai ten men pheugein phasi, ton de
epitrechein, eita epitrechonta hidroun, apo de ton hidroton autou
einai ton hueton. Tauta gegraptai en tois ton Manichaion bibliois;
tauta hemeis anegnomen, k.t.l.
 2 Cor. vi. 14.
 Gr. episteme. See note on Introductory Lect. § 4.
 Matt. v. 28.
 semnotatos is the reading of the chief mss. But the printed
editions have semnotetos, comparing it with such phrases as stoma
atheotetos (vi. 15), and metanoia tes soterias (xiv. 17).
 This saying is quoted three times in the Clementine Homilies as
spoken by our Lord. See Hom. II. § 51; III. § 50; XVIII. § 20:
"Every man who wishes to be saved must become, as the Teacher said, a
judge of the books written to try us. For thus He spake: Become
experienced bankers. Now the need of bankers arises from the
circumstance that the spurious is mixed up with the genuine." On the
same saying, quoted as Scripture in the Apostolic Constitutions (II. §
36), Cotelerius suggests that in oral tradition, or in some Apocryphal
book, the proverb was said to come from the Old Testament, and was
added by some transcriber as a gloss in the margin of Matt. xxv. 27,
or Luke xix. 23. Dionysius of Alexandria, Epist. VII., speaks of "the
Apostolic word, which thus urges all who are endowed with greater
virtue, `Be ye skillful money-changers,'" referring apparently as here
to 1 Thess. v. 21, 22, "try all things, &c." (See Euseb. E.H. VII.
ch. 6 in this series: Suicer. Thesaurus, Trapezites: and Resch.
(Agrapha, pp. 233-239.)
 1 Thess. v. 21, 22.
 Compare § 13 of this Lecture, where Cyril seems to refer
especially to the heresy of Manes, as described in the Disputatio
Archelai, cap. 6: "If you are desirous of being instructed in the
faith of Manes, hear it briefly from me. That man worships two gods,
unbegotten, self-originate, eternal, opposed one to the other. The
one he represents as good, and the other as evil, naming the one
Light, and the other Darkness."
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