Writings of Cyril - The Catechetical Lectures e

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The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem,

with a revised translation, introduction, notes, and indices,

by Edwin Hamilton Gifford, D.D.
formerly archdeacon of london, and canon of S. Paul's.

Under the editorial supervision of Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Semimary, New York, and Henry Wace, D.D., Principal of King's College, London

Published in 1893 by Philip Schaff, New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.

Lecture VII.

The Father.

Ephesians iii. 14, 15

For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father,...of whom all fatherhood in heaven and earth is named, &c.

1. Of God as the sole Principle we have said enough to you yesterday [960] : by "enough" I mean, not what is worthy of the subject, (for to reach that is utterly impossible to mortal nature), but as much as was granted to our infirmity. I traversed also the bye-paths of the manifold error of the godless heretics: but now let us shake off their foul and soul-poisoning doctrine, and remembering what relates to them, not to our own hurt, but to our greater detestation of them, let us come back to ourselves, and receive the saving doctrines of the true Faith, connecting the dignity of Fatherhood with that of the Unity, and believing In One God the Father: for we must not only believe in one God; but this also let us devoutly receive, that He is the Father of the Only-begotten, our Lord Jesus Christ.

2. For thus shall we raise our thoughts higher than the Jews [961] , who admit indeed by their doctrines that there is One God, (for what if they often denied even this by their idolatries?); but that He is also the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, they admit not; being of a contrary mind to their own Prophets, who in the Divine Scriptures affirm, The Lord said unto me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten thee [962] . And to this day they rage and gather themselves together against the Lord, and against His Anointed [963] , thinking that it is possible to be made friends of the Father apart from devotion towards the Son, being ignorant that no man cometh unto the Father but by [964] the Son, who saith, I am the Door, and I am the Way [965] . He therefore that refuseth the Way which leadeth to the Father, and he that denieth the Door, how shall he be deemed worthy of entrance unto God? They contradict also what is written in the eighty-eighth Psalm, He shall call Me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the helper of my salvation. And I will make him my first-born, high among the kings of the earth [966] . For if they should insist that these things are said of David or Solomon or any of their successors, let them shew how the throne of him, who is in their judgment described in the prophecy, is as the days of heaven, and as the sun before God, and as the moon established for ever [967] . And how is it also that they are not abashed at that which is written, From the womb before the morning-star have I begotten thee [968] : also this, He shall endure with the sun, and before the moon, from generation to generation [969] . To refer these passages to a man is a proof of utter and extreme insensibility.

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3. Let the Jews, however, since they so will, suffer their usual disorder of unbelief, both in these and the like statements. But let us adopt the godly doctrine of our Faith, worshipping one God the Father of the Christ, (for to deprive Him, who grants to all the gift of generation, of the like dignity would be impious): and let us Believe in One God the Father, in order that, before we touch upon our teaching concerning Christ, the faith concerning the Only-begotten may be implanted in the soul of the hearers, without being at all interrupted by the intervening doctrines concerning the Father.

4. For the name of the Father, with the very utterance of the title, suggests the thought of the Son: as in like manner one who names the Son thinks straightway of the Father also [970] . For if a Father, He is certainly the Father of a Son; and if a Son, certainly the Son of a Father. Lest therefore from our speaking thus, In One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of All Things Visible and Invisible, and from our then adding this also, And in One Lord Jesus Christ, any one should irreverently suppose that the Only-begotten is second in rank to heaven and earth,--for this reason before naming them we named God the Father, that in thinking of the Father we might at the same time think also of the Son: for between the Son and the Father no being whatever comes.

5. God then is in an improper sense [971] the Father of many, but by nature and in truth of One only, the Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ; not having attained in course of time to being a Father, but being ever the Father of the Only-begotten [972] . Not that being without a Son before, He has since by change of purpose become a Father: but before every substance and every intelligence, before times and all ages, God hath the dignity of Father, magnifying Himself in this more than in His other dignities; and having become a Father, not by passion [973] , or union, not in ignorance, not by effluence [974] , not by diminution, not by alteration, for every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, neither shadow of turning [975] . Perfect Father, He begat a perfect Son, and delivered all things to Him who is begotten: (for all things, He saith, are delivered unto Me of My Father [976] :) and is honoured by the Only-begotten: for, I honour My Father [977] , saith the Son; and again, Even as I have kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His love [978] . Therefore we also say like the Apostle, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and God of all consolation [979] : and, We bow our knees unto the Father from whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named [980] : glorifying Him with the Only-begotten: for he that denieth the Father, denieth the Son also [981] : and again, He that confesseth the Son, hath the Father also [982] ; knowing that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father [983] .

6. We worship, therefore, as the Father of Christ, the Maker of heaven and earth, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob [984] ; to whose honour the former temple also, over against us here, was built. For we shall not tolerate the heretics who sever the Old Testament from the New [985] , but shall believe Christ, who says concerning the temple, Wist ye not that I must be in My Father's house [986] ? and again, Take these things hence, and make not my Father's house a house of merchandise [987] , whereby He most clearly confessed that the former temple in Jerusalem was His own Father's house. But if any one from unbelief wishes to receive yet more proofs as to the Father of Christ being the same as the Maker of the world, let him hear Him say again, Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing, and not one of them shall fall on the ground without My Father which is in heaven [988] ; this also, Behold the fowls of the heaven that they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them [989] ; and this, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work [990] .

7. But lest any one from simplicity or perverse ingenuity should suppose that Christ is but equal in honour to righteous men, from His saying, I ascend to My Father, and your [991] Father, it is well to make this distinction beforehand, that the name of the Father is one, but the power of His operation [992] manifold. And Christ Himself knowing this has spoken unerringly, I go to My Father, and your Father: not saying `to our Father,' but distinguishing, and saying first what was proper to Himself, to My Father, which was by nature; then adding, and your Father, which was by adoption. For however high the privilege we have received of saying in our prayers, Our Father, which art in heaven, yet the gift is of loving-kindness. For we call Him Father, not as having been by nature begotten of Our Father which is in heaven; but having been transferred from servitude to sonship by the grace of the Father, through the Son and Holy Spirit, we are permitted so to speak by ineffable loving-kindness.

8. But if any one wishes to learn how we call God "Father," let him hear Moses, the excellent schoolmaster, saying, Did not this thy Father Himself buy thee, and make thee, and create thee [993] ? Also Esaias the Prophet, And now, O Lord. Thou art our Father: and we all are clay, the works of Thine hands [994] . For most clearly has the prophetic gift declared that not according to nature, but according to God's grace, and by adoption, we call Him Father.

9. And that thou mayest learn more exactly that in the Divine Scriptures it is not by any means the natural father only that is called father, hear what Paul says:--For though ye should have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I begat you through the Gospel [995] . For Paul was father of the Corinthians, not by having begotten them after the flesh, but by having taught and begotten them again after the Spirit. Hear Job also saying, I was a father of the needy [996] : for he called himself a father, not as having begotten them all, but as caring for them. And God's Only-begotten Son Himself, when nailed in His flesh to the tree at the time of crucifixion, on seeing Mary, His own Mother according to the flesh, and John, the most beloved of His disciples, said to him, Behold! thy mother, and to her, Behold! thy Son [997] : teaching her the parental affection due to him [998] , and indirectly explaining that which is said in Luke, and His father and His mother marvelled at Him [999] : words which the tribe of heretics snatch up, saying that He was begotten of a man and a woman. For like as Mary was called the mother of John, because of her parental affection, not from having given him birth, so Joseph also was called the father of Christ, not from having begotten Him (for he knew her not, as the Gospel says, until she had brought forth her first-born Son [1000] ), but because of the care bestowed on His nurture.

10. Thus much then at present, in the way of a digression, to put you in remembrance. Let me, however, add yet another testimony in proof that God is called the Father of men in an improper sense. For when in Esaias God is addressed thus, For Thou art our Father, though Abraham be ignorant of us [1001] , and Sarah travailed not with us [1002] , need we inquire further on this point? And if the Psalmist says, Let them be troubled from His countenance, the Father of the fatherless, and Judge of the widows [1003] , is it not manifest to all, that when God is called the Father of orphans who have lately lost their own fathers, He is so named not as begetting them of Himself, but as caring for them and shielding them. But whereas God, as we have said, is in an improper sense the Father of men, of Christ alone He is the Father by nature, not by adoption: and the Father of men in time, but of Christ before all time, as He saith, And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was [1004] .

11. We believe then In One God the Father the Unsearchable and Ineffable, Whom no man hath seen [1005] , but the Only-begotten alone hath declared Him [1006] . For He which is of God, He hath seen God [1007] : whose face the Angels do alway behold in heaven [1008] , behold, however, each according to the measure of his own rank. But the undimmed vision of the Father is reserved in its purity for the Son with the Holy Ghost.

12. Having reached this point of my discourse, and being reminded of the passages just before mentioned, in which God was addressed as the Father of men, I am greatly amazed at men's insensibility. For God with unspeakable loving-kindness deigned to be called the Father of men,--He in heaven, they on earth,--and He the Maker of Eternity, they made in time,--He who holdeth the earth in the hollow of His hand, they upon the earth as grasshoppers [1009] . Yet man forsook his heavenly Father, and said to the stock, Thou art my father, and to the stone, Thou hast begotten me [1010] . And for this reason, methinks, the Psalmist says to mankind, Forget also thine own people, and thy father's house [1011] , whom thou hast chosen for a father, whom thou hast drawn upon thyself to thy destruction.

13. And not only stocks and stones, but even Satan himself, the destroyer of souls, have some ere now chosen for a father; to whom the Lord said as a rebuke, Ye do the deeds of your father [1012] , that is of the devil, he being the father of men not by nature, but by fraud. For like as Paul by his godly teaching came to be called the father of the Corinthians, so the devil is called the father of those who of their own will consent unto him [1013] .

For we shall not tolerate those who give a wrong meaning to that saying, Hereby know we the children of God, and the children of the devil [1014] , as if there were by nature some men to be saved, and some to be lost. Whereas we come into such holy sonship not of necessity but by choice: nor was the traitor Judas by nature a son of the devil and of perdition; for certainly he would never have cast out devils at all in the name of Christ: for Satan casteth not out Satan [1015] . Nor on the other hand would Paul have turned from persecuting to preaching. But the adoption is in our own power, as John saith, But as many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the children of God, even to them that believe in His name [1016] . For not before their believing, but from their believing they were counted worthy to become of their own choice the children of God.

14. Knowing this, therefore, let us walk spiritually, that we may be counted worthy of God's adoption. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God [1017] . For it profiteth us nothing to have gained the title of Christians, unless the works also follow; lest to us also it be said, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham [1018] . For if we call on Him as Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, let us pass the time of our sojourning here in fear [1019] , loving not the world, neither the things that are in the world: for if any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him [1020] . Wherefore, my beloved children, let us by our works offer glory to our Father which is in heaven, that they may see our good works, and glorify our Father which is in heaven [1021] . Let us cast all our care upon Him, for our Father knoweth what things we have need of [1022] .

15. But while honouring our heavenly Father let us honour also the fathers of our flesh [1023] : since the Lord Himself hath evidently so appointed in the Law and the Prophets, saying, Honour thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee, and thy days shall be long in the land [1024] . And let this commandment be especially observed by those here present who have fathers and mothers. Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing to the Lord [1025] . For the Lord said not, He that loveth father or mother is not worthy of Me, lest thou from ignorance shouldest perversely mistake what was rightly written, but He added, more than Me [1026] . For when our fathers on earth are of a contrary mind to our Father in heaven, then we must obey Christ's word. But when they put no obstacle to godliness in our way, if we are ever carried away by ingratitude, and, forgetting their benefits to us, hold them in contempt, then the oracle will have place which says, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death [1027] .

16. The first virtue of godliness in Christians is to honour their parents, to requite the troubles of those who begat them [1028] , and with all their might to confer on them what tends to their comfort (for if we should repay them ever so much, yet we shall never be able to return their gift of life [1029] ), that they also may enjoy the comfort provided by us, and may confirm us in those blessings which Jacob the supplanter shrewdly seized; and that our Father in heaven may accept [1030] our good purpose, and judge us worthy to shine amid righteous as the sun in the kingdom of our Father [1031] : To whom be the glory, with the Only-begotten our Saviour Jesus Christ, and with the Holy and Life-giving Spirit, now and ever, to all eternity. Amen.


Footnotes

[960] See Lecture VI. 1, and 5. [961] "In Athanasius, Quæstio i. ad Antiochum, tom. II. p. 331, Monarchia is opposed to Polytheism: `If we worship One God, it is manifest that we agree with the Jews in believing in a Monarchia: but if we worship three gods, it is evident that we follow the Greeks by introducing Polytheism, instead of piously worshipping One Only God.'" (Suicer, Thesaurus, Monarchia.) [962] Ps. ii. 7. [963] Ib. ii. 2. [964] John xiv. 6. [965] Ib. x. 9. [966] Ps. lxxxix. 26, 27. [967] vv. 29, 36, 37. [968] Ps. cx. 3: "From the womb of the morning thou hast the dew of thy youth" (R.V.). [969] Ps. lxxii. 5. [970] Compare Athanasius (de Sententiâ Dionyssi, § 17): "Each of the names I have mentioned is inseparable and indivisible from that next to it. I spoke of the Father, and before bringing in the Son, I designated Him also in the Father. I brought in the Son, and even if I had not previously mentioned the Father, in any wise He would have been presupposed in the Son." [971] katachrestikos. A technical term in Grammar, applied to the use of a word in a derived or metaphorical sense. See Aristotle's description of the various kinds of metaphor, Poet. § xxi. 7-16. The opposite to katachrestikos is kurios, as used in a parallel passage by Athanasius, Oratio i. contra Arianos, § 21 fin. "It belongs to the Godhead alone, that the Father is properly (kurios) Father, and the Son properly Son." [972] "And in Them, and Them only, does it hold, that the Father is ever Father, and the Son ever Son." (Athan., as above.) [973] Compare vi. 6: ho gennetheis apathos. The importance attached to the assertion of a "passionless generation" arose from the objections offered by Eusebius of Nicomedia and others to the word homoousios when proposed by Constantine at Nicæa. We learn from Eusebius of Cæsarea (Epist ad suæ paroeciæ homines, § 4) that the Emperor himself explained that the word was used "not in the sense of the affections (pathe) of bodies," because "the immaterial, and intellectual, and incorporeal nature could not be the subject of any corporeal affection." Again, in § 7, Eusebius admits that "there are grounds for saying that the Son is `one in essence' with the Father, not in the way of bodies, nor like mortal beings, for He is not such by division of essence, or by severance, no, nor by any affection, or alteration, or changing of the Father's essence and power." (See the next note.) [974] Athanasius (Expos. Fidei, § 1): "Word not pronounced nor mental, nor an effluence of the Perfect, nor a dividing of the passionless nature." Also (de Decretis, § 11): "God being without parts is Father of the Son without partition or passion; for there is neither effluence of the Immaterial, nor influx from without, as among men." [975] James i. 17. [976] Matt. xi. 27. [977] John viii. 49. [978] John xv. 10. [979] 2 Cor. i. 3. [980] Eph. iii. 14, 15. [981] 1 John ii. 22: "This is the Antichrist, even he that denieth the Father and the Son" (R.V.). [982] v. 23, bracketed in the A.V. as spurious, but rightly restored in R.V. [983] Phil. ii. 11. [984] Ex. iii. 6. [985] Compare Lect. iv. 33. [986] Luke ii. 49. [987] John ii. 16. [988] Matt. x. 29. S. Cyril instead of "your Father" writes "my Father which is in heaven:" so Origen and Athanasius. [989] Matt. vi. 26. [990] John v. 17. [991] John xx. 17. On this text, quoted again in Cat. xi. 19, see the three Sermons of Bishop Andrewes On the Resurrection. [992] energeia, meaning here, the operation of God, by nature in begetting His Son, by adoption in making many sons. [993] Deut. xxxii. 6. [994] Is. lxiv. 8. [995] 1 Cor. iv. 15. [996] Job xxix. 16. [997] John xix. 26, 27. [998] philostorgia might be applied to the mutual affection of mother and son, but the context shews that it refers here to parental love only; see Polybius, V. § 74, 5; Xenoph. Cyrop. I. § 3, 2. [999] Luke ii. 33. [1000] Matt. i. 25. [1001] Is. lxiii. 16. [1002] Ib. li. 2. [1003] Ps. lxviii. 5. Cyril quotes as usual from the Septuagint (Ps. lxvii. 6), where the clause tarachthesontai apo prosopou autou, answering to nothing in the Hebrew, is evidently an interpolation, and may have crept in from a marginal quotation of Is. lxiv. 2. [1004] John xvii. 5. [1005] 1 Tim. ii. 16. [1006] John i. 18. [1007] John vi. 46: He hath seen the Father. The weight of authority is against the reading (ton theon) which Cyril follows. [1008] Matt. xviii. 10. [1009] Is. xl. 12 and 22. [1010] Jer. ii. 27. [1011] Ps. xlv. 10. [1012] John viii. 41. [1013] Ps. l. 18. [1014] 1 John iii. 10. [1015] Mark iii. 23. [1016] John i. 12. [1017] Rom. viii. 14. [1018] John viii. 39. [1019] 1 Pet. i. 17. [1020] 1 John ii. 15. [1021] Matt. v. 16. [1022] 1 Pet. v. 7; Matt. vi. 8. [1023] Heb. xii. 9. [1024] Deut. v. 16. [1025] Col. iii. 20. [1026] Matt. x. 37. [1027] Ex. xxi. 17; Lev. xx. 9; Matt. xv. 4. [1028] Compare for the thought Euripides, Medea, 1029-1035. [1029] antigennesai. Jeremy Taylor (Ductor Dubitantium, Book III. cap. ii. §17) mentions several stories in which a parent is nourished from a daughter's breast, who thus `saves the life she cannot give.' [1030] On the change of Moods, see Jelf, Greek Grammar, § 809. The second verb (kataxioseien) expresses a wish and a consequence which might follow, if the first (sterixosin) wish be realized, as it probably may be. Cf. Herod. ix. 51. [1031] Matt. xiii. 43.

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Lecture VIII.

Almighty.

Jeremiah xxxix. 18, 19 (Septuagint).

The Great, the strong God, Lord of great Counsel, and mighty in His works, the Great God, the Lord Almighty and of great name [1032] .

1. By believing In One God we cut off all misbelief in many gods, using this as a shield against Greeks; and every opposing power of heretics; and by adding, In One God the Father, we contend against those of the circumcision, who deny the Only-begotten Son of God. For, as was said yesterday, even before explaining the truths concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, we made it manifest at once, by saying "The Father," that He is the Father of a Son: that as we understand that God is, so we may understand that He has a Son. But to those titles we add that He is also "Almighty;" and this we affirm because of Greeks and Jews [1033] together, and all heretics.

2. For of the Greeks some have said that God is the soul of the world [1034] : and others that His power reaches only to heaven, and not to earth as well. Some also sharing their error and misusing the text which says, "And Thy truth unto the clouds [1035] ," have dared to circumscribe God's providence by the clouds and the heaven, and to alienate from God the things on earth; having forgotten the Psalm which says, If I go up into heaven, Thou art there, if I go down into hell, Thou art present [1036] . For if there is nothing higher than heaven, and if hell is deeper than the earth, He who rules the lower regions reaches the earth also.

3. But heretics again, as I have said before, know not One Almighty God. For He is Almighty who rules all things, who has power over all things. But they who say that one God is Lord of the soul, and some other of the body, make neither of them perfect, because either is wanting to the other [1037] . For how is he almighty, who has power over the soul, but not over the body? And how is he almighty who has dominion over bodies, but no power over spirits? But these men the Lord confutes, saying on the contrary, Rather fear ye Him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell [1038] . For unless the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has the power over both, how does He subject both to punishment? For how shall He be able to take the body which is another's and cast it into hell, except He first bind the strong man, and spoil his goods [1039] ?

4. But the Divine Scripture and the doctrines of the truth know but One God, who rules all things by His power, but endures many things of His will. For He rules even over the idolaters, but endures them of His forbearance: He rules also over the heretics who set Him at nought, but bears with them because of His long-suffering: He rules even over the devil, but bears with him of His long-suffering, not from want of power; as if defeated. For he is the beginning of the Lord's creation, made to be mocked [1040] , not by Himself, for that were unworthy of Him, but by the Angels whom He hath made. But He suffered him to live, for two purposes, that he might disgrace himself the more in his defeat, and that mankind might be crowned with victory. O all wise providence of God! which takes the wicked purpose for a groundwork of salvation for the faithful. For as He took the unbrotherly purpose of Joseph's brethren for a groundwork of His own dispensation, and, by permitting them to sell their brother from hatred, took occasion to make him king whom He would; so he permitted the devil to wrestle, that the victors might be crowned; and that when victory was gained, he might be the more disgraced as being conquered by the weaker, and men be greatly honoured as having conquered him who was once an Archangel.

5. Nothing then is withdrawn from the power of God; for the Scripture says of Him, for all things are Thy servants [1041] . All things alike are His servants, but from all these One, His only Son, and One, His Holy Spirit, are excepted; and all the things which are His servants serve the Lord through the One Son and in the Holy Spirit. God then rules all, and of His long-suffering endures even murderers and robbers and fornicators, having appointed a set time for recompensing every one, that if they who have had long warning are still impenitent in heart, they may receive the greater condemnation. They are kings of men, who reign upon earth, but not without the power from above: and this Nebuchadnezzar once learned by experience, when he said; For His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and His power from generation to generation [1042] .

6. Riches, and gold, and silver are not, as some think, the devil's [1043] : for the whole world of riches is for the faithful man, but for the faithless not even a penny [1044] . Now nothing is more faithless than the devil; and God says plainly by the Prophet, The gold is Mine, and the silver is Mine, and to whomsoever I will I give it [1045] . Do thou but use it well, and there is no fault to be found with money: but whenever thou hast made a bad use of that which is good, then being unwilling to blame thine own management, thou impiously throwest back the blame upon the Creator. A man may even be justified by money: I was hungry, and ye gave Me meat [1046] : that certainly was from money. I was naked, and ye clothed Me: that certainly was by money. And wouldest thou learn that money may become a door of the kingdom of heaven? Sell, saith He, that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven [1047] .

7. Now I have made these remarks because of those heretics who count possessions, and money, and men's bodies accursed [1048] . For I neither wish thee to be a slave of money, nor to treat as enemies the things which God has given thee for use. Never say then that riches are the devil's: for though he say, All these will I give thee, for they are delivered unto me [1049] , one may indeed even reject his assertion; for we need not believe the liar: and yet perhaps he spake the truth, being compelled by the power of His presence: for he said not, All these will I give thee, for they are mine, but, for they are delivered unto me. He grasped not the dominion of them, but confessed that he had been entrusted [1050] with them, and was for a time dispensing them. But at a proper time interpreters should inquire whether his statement is false or true [1051] .

8. God then is One, the Father, the Almighty, whom the brood of heretics have dared to blaspheme. Yea, they have dared to blaspheme the Lord of Sabaoth [1052] , who sitteth above the Cherubim [1053] : they have dared to blaspheme the Lord Adonai [1054] : they have dared to blaspheme Him who is in the Prophets the Almighty God [1055] . But worship thou One God the Almighty, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Flee from the error of many gods, flee also from every heresy, and say like Job, But I will call upon the Almighty Lord, which doeth great things and unsearchable, glorious things and marvellous without number [1056] , and, For all these things there is honour from the Almighty [1057] : to Whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen.


Footnotes

[1032] The text is translated from the Septuagint, in which S. Cyril found the title Almighty (Pantokrator), one of the usual equivalents in the Septuagint for Lord of Hosts (Sabaoth). In the English A.V. and R.V. the passage stands thus: Jer. xxxii. 18, 19: The Great, the Mighty God, the LORD of Hosts, is His name, Great in counsel, and mighty in work. [1033] "For even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for of them were...the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; and the Basmotheans, who deny providence and say that the world is made by spontaneous motion" (Apost. Const. VI. 6). Compare Euseb. (E.H. IV. 22.) [1034] Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Lib. I. 27: "Pythagoras thought that God was the soul pervading all nature." The doctrine was accepted both by Stoics and Platonists, and became very general. Cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 221: Deum namque ire per omnis Terrasque, tractusque maris, cælumque profundum. and Æn. vi. 726: Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus Meus agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet. [1035] Ps. xxxvi. 5. Cyril appears to have borrowed this statement from Clement of Alexandria, who states (Stromat. V. xiv. § 91) that from this Psalm the thought occurred to Aristotle to let Providence come down as far as to the Moon. [1036] Ps. cxxxix. 8. [1037] See note on Lect. IV. 4. [1038] Matt. x. 28. [1039] Ib. xii. 29. [1040] Job xl. 14, tout' estin arche plasmatos Kuriou, pepoiemenon enkatapaizesthai hupo ton angelon autou. In this description of Behemoth the Septuagint differs much from the Hebrew, which is thus rendered in our English Versions, xl. 19: He is the chief of the ways of God: he (only, R.V.) that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. Compare Job xli. 5: Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? and Ps. civ. 26: There is that Leviathan whom thou hast formed to play therein (Sept. to take thy pastime with him). See Baruch iii. 17, with the note in the Speaker's Commentary. [1041] Ps. cxix. 91. [1042] Dan. iv. 34. [1043] On this doctrine of the Manicheans see Archelaus (Disputatio, cap. 42), Epiphanius (Hæres. lxvi. § 81). Compare Clement. Hom. xv. cap. 9: "To all of us possessions are sins." Plato (Laws, V. 743): "I can never agree with them that the rich man will be really happy, unless he is also good: but for one who is eminently good to be also extremely rich is impossible." [1044] Prov. xvii. 6, according to the Septuagint. See note on Cat. V. 2, where the same passage is quoted. Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. II. 5) refers to it in connexion with the passage of Plato quoted in the preceding note. S. Augustine also quotes and explains it in Epist. 153, § 26. [1045] The former clause is from Haggai ii. 8; the latter, taken from the words of the Tempter in Luke iv. 6, is quoted both by Cyril and by other Fathers as if from Haggai. Chrysostom (Hom. xxxiv. § 5, in 1 Cor. xiii.) treats the use which some made of the misquotation as ridiculous. [1046] Matt. xxv. 35, 36. [1047] Ib. xix. 21. [1048] The connexion of somata with money and possessions suggests the not uncommon meaning "slaves." See Polyb. xviii. 18 § 6: kai ten endouchian apedonto kai ta somata, kai sun toutois eti tinas ton kteseon, "household furniture, and slaves, and besides these some also of their lands." See Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, "Slavery," where it is shewn that Christians generally and even Bishops still possessed slaves throughout the 4th Century. But here it is perhaps more probable that Cyril refers, as before, Cat. iv. § 23, to the Manichean doctrine of the body as the root of sin. [1049] Matt. iv. 9; Luke iv. 6. [1050] For enkecheiresthai, the reading of all the printed Editions, which hardly yields a suitable sense, we should probably substitute enkecheiristhai. A similar confusion of the two verbs occurs in Polybius (Hist. VIII. xviii. 6); the proper use of the latter is seen in Joh. Damasc. (De Fide Orthod. II. 4, quoted by Cleopas), who speaks of Satan as being "of these Angelic powers the chief of the earthly order, and entrusted by God with the guardianship of the earth" (tes ges ten phulaken encheiristheis para Theou). [1051] On this point compare Irenæus (Hær. V. xxi.-xxiv.), and Gregory of Nyssa (Orat. Catech. § 5). [1052] The reference is to Manes, of whom his disciple Turbo says (Archelai Disput. § 10), "the name Sabaoth, which is honourable and mighty with you, he declares to be the nature of man, and the parent of lust: for which reason the simple, he says, worship lust, and think it to be a god." [1053] Ps. lxxx. 1. [1054] 'Adonai, Heb. J+N+oD+¹#a, "the Lord," an old form of the Plural of majesty, used of God only. [1055] pantokratora, Heb. J+D+uaSh L+#", El-Shaddai, "God Almighty." [1056] Job v. 8, 9. Cyril's quotation agrees with the Codex Alexandrinus of the Septuagint, which has pantokratora , "Almighty," while the Vatican and other mss. read ton panton despoten. [1057] Job xxxvii. 23: God hath upon Him terrible majesty (R.V.). The Vatican and Alexandrine mss. of the Septuagint read epi toutois megale he doxa kai time pantokratoros. (For these things great is the glory and honour of the Almighty.) But Cyril's text is the same as the Aldine and Complutensian.

.


Lecture IX.

On the Words, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of All Things Visible and Invisible.

Job xxxviii. 2-3

Who is this that hideth counsel from Me, and keepeth words in his heart, and thinketh to hide them from Me [1058] ?

1. To look upon God with eyes of flesh is impossible: for the incorporeal cannot be subject to bodily sight: and the Only begotten Son of God Himself hath testified, saying, No man hath seen God at any time [1059] . For if according to that which is written in Ezekiel any one should understand that Ezekiel saw Him, yet what saith the Scripture? He saw the likeness of the glory of the Lord [1060] ; not the Lord Himself, but the likeness of His glory, not the glory itself, as it really is. And when he saw merely the likeness of the glory, and not the glory itself, he fell to the earth from fear. Now if the sight of the likeness of the glory brought fear and distress upon the prophets, any one who should attempt to behold God Himself would to a certainty lose his life, according to the saying, No man shall see My face and live [1061] . For this cause God of His great loving-kindness spread out the heaven as a veil of His proper Godhead, that we should not perish. The word is not mine, but the Prophet's. If Thou shalt rend the heavens, trembling will take hold of the mountains at sight of Thee, and they will flow down [1062] . And why dost thou wonder that Ezekiel fell down on seeing the likeness of the glory? when Daniel at the sight of Gabriel, though but a servant of God, straightway shuddered and fell on his face, and, prophet as he was, dared not answer him, until the Angel transformed himself into the likeness of a son of man [1063] . Now if the appearing of Gabriel wrought trembling in the Prophets, had God Himself been seen as He is, would not all have perished?

2. The Divine Nature then it is impossible to see with eyes of flesh: but from the works, which are Divine, it is possible to attain to some conception of His power, according to Solomon, who says, For by the greatness and beauty of the creatures proportionably the Maker of them is seen [1064] . He said not that from the creatures the Maker is seen, but added proportionably. For God appears the greater to every man in proportion as he has grasped a larger survey of the creatures: and when his heart is uplifted by that larger survey, he gains withal a greater conception of God.

3. Wouldest thou learn that to comprehend the nature of God is impossible? The Three Children in the furnace of fire, as they hymn the praises of God, say Blessed art thou that beholdest the depths, and sittest upon the Cherubim [1065] . Tell me what is the nature of the Cherubim, and then look upon Him who sitteth upon them. And yet Ezekiel the Prophet even made a description of them, as far as was possible, saying that every one has four faces, one of a man, another of a lion, another of an eagle, and another of a calf; and that each one had six wings [1066] , and they had eyes on all sides; and that under each one was a wheel of four sides. Nevertheless though the Prophet makes the explanation, we cannot yet understand it even as we read. But if we cannot understand the throne, which he has described, how shall we be able to comprehend Him who sitteth thereon, the Invisible and Ineffable God? To scrutinise then the nature of God is impossible: but it is in our power to send up praises of His glory for His works that are seen.

4. These things I say to you because of the following context of the Creed, and because we say, We Believe in One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of All Things Visible and Invisible; in order that we may remember that the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is the same as He that made the heaven and the earth [1067] , and that we may make ourselves safe against the wrong paths of the godless heretics, who have dared to speak evil of the All wise Artificer of all this world [1068] , men who see with eyes of flesh, but have the eyes of their understanding blinded.

5. For what fault have they to find with the vast creation of God?--they, who ought to have been struck with amazement on beholding the vaultings of the heavens: they, who ought to have worshipped Him who reared the sky as a dome, who out of the fluid nature of the waters formed the stable substance of the heaven. For God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water [1069] . God spake once for all, and it stands fast, and falls not. The heaven is water, and the orbs therein, sun, moon, and stars are of fire: and how do the orbs of fire run their course in the water? But if any one disputes this because of the opposite natures of fire and water, let him remember the fire which in the time of Moses in Egypt flamed amid the hail, and observe the all-wise workmanship of God. For since there was need of water, because the earth was to be tilled, He made the heaven above of water that when the region of the earth should need watering by showers, the heaven might from its nature be ready for this purpose.

6. But what? Is there not cause to wonder when one looks at the constitution of the sun? For being to the sight as it were a small body he contains a mighty power; appearing from the East, and sending forth his light unto the West: whose rising at dawn the Psalmist described, saying: And he cometh forth out of his chamber as a bridegroom [1070] . He was describing the brightness and moderation of his state on first becoming visible unto men: for when he rides at high noon, we often flee from his blaze: but at his rising he is welcome to all as a bridegroom to look on.

Observe also his arrangement (or rather not his, but the arrangement of Him who by an ordinance determined his course), how in summer he rises higher and makes the days longer, giving men good time for their works: but in winter contracts his course, that the period of cold may be increased, and that the nights becoming longer may contribute to men's rest, and contribute also to the fruitfulness of the products of the earth [1071] . See also how the days alternately respond each to other in due order, in summer increasing, and in winter diminishing; but in spring and autumn granting equal intervals one to another. And the nights again complete the like courses; so that the Psalmist also says of them, Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night proclaimeth knowledge [1072] . For to the heretics who have no ears, they all but cry aloud, and by their good order say, that there is none other God save the Creator who hath set them their bounds, and laid out the order of the Universe [1073] .

7. But let no one tolerate any who say that one is the Creator of the light, and another of darkness [1074] : for let him remember how Isaiah says, I am the God who made the light, and created darkness [1075] . Why, O man, art thou vexed thereat? Why art thou offended at the time that is given thee for rest [1076] ? A servant would have had no rest from his masters, had not the darkness necessarily brought a respite. And often after wearying ourselves in the day, how are we refreshed in the night, and he who was yesterday worn with toils, rises vigorous in the morning because of the night's rest [1077] ? And what more helpful to wisdom than the night [1078] ? For herein oftentimes we set before our minds the things of God; and herein we read and contemplate the Divine Oracles. And when is our mind most attuned to Psalmody and Prayer? Is it not at night? And when have we often called our own sins to remembrance? Is not at night [1079] ? Let us not then admit the evil thought, that another is the maker of darkness: for experience shews that this also is good and useful.

8. They ought to have felt astonishment and admiration not only at the arrangement of sun and moon, but also at the well-ordered choirs of the stars, their unimpeded courses, and their risings in the seasons due to each: and how some are signs of summer, and others of winter; and how some mark the season for sowing, and others shew the commencement of navigation [1080] . And a man sitting in his ship, and sailing amid the boundless waves, steers his ship by looking at the stars. For of these matters the Scripture says well, And let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for years [1081] , not for fables of astrology and nativities. But observe how He has also graciously given us the light of day by gradual increase: for we do not see the sun at once arise; but just a little light runs on before, in order that the pupil of the eye may be enabled by previous trial to look upon his stronger beam: see also how He has relieved the darkness of the night by rays of moonlight.

9. Who is the father of the rain? And who hath begotten the drops of dew [1082] ? Who condensed the air into clouds, and bade them carry the waters of the rain [1083] , now bringing golden-tinted clouds from the north [1084] , now changing these into one uniform appearance, and again transforming them into manifold circles and other shapes? Who can number the clouds in wisdom [1085] ? Whereof in Job it saith, And He knoweth the separations of the clouds [1086] , and hath bent down the heaven to the earth [1087] : and, He who numbereth the clouds in wisdom: and, the cloud is not rent under Him [1088] . For so many measures of waters lie upon the clouds, yet they are not rent: but come down with all good order upon the earth. Who bringeth the winds out of their treasuries [1089] ? And who, as we said before, is he that hath begotten the drops of dew? And out of whose womb cometh the ice [1090] ? For its substance is like water, and its strength like stone. And at one time the water becomes snow like wool, at another it ministers to Him who scattereth the mist like ashes [1091] , and at another it is changed into a stony substance; since He governs the waters as He will [1092] . Its nature is uniform, and its action manifold in force. Water becomes in vines wine that maketh glad the heart of man: and in olives oil that maketh man's face to shine: and is transformed also into bread that strengtheneth man's heart [1093] , and into fruits of all kinds which He hath created [1094] .

10. What should have been the effect of these wonders? Should the Creator have been blasphemed? Or worshipped rather? And so far I have said noticing of the unseen works of His wisdom. Observe, I pray you, the spring, and the flowers of every kind in all their likeness still diverse one from another; the deepest crimson of the rose, and the purest whiteness of the lily: for these spring from the same rain and the same earth, and who makes them to differ? Who fashions them? Observe, pray, the exact care: from the one substance of the tree there is part for shelter, and part for divers fruits: and the Artificer is One. Of the same vine part is for burning [1095] , and part for shoots, and part for leaves, and part for tendrils, and part for clusters.

Admire also the great thickness of the knots which run round the reed, as the Artificer hath made them. From one and the same earth come forth creeping things, and wild beasts, and cattle, and trees, and food; and gold, and silver, and brass, and iron, and stone. The nature of the waters is but one, yet from it comes the substance of fishes and of birds; whereby [1096] as the former swim in the waters, so the birds fly in the air.

11. This great and wide sea, therein are things creeping innumerable [1097] . Who can describe the beauty of the fishes that are therein? Who can describe the greatness of the whales, and the nature [1098] of its amphibious animals, how they live both on dry land and in the waters? Who can tell the depth and the breadth of the sea, or the force of its enormous waves? Yet it stays at its bounds, because of Him who said, Hitherto shalt thou come, and no further, but within thyself shall thy waves be broken [1099] . Which sea also clearly shews the word of the command imposed upon it, since after it has run up, it leaves upon the beach a visible line made by the waves, shewing, as it were, to those who see it, that it has not passed its appointed bounds.

12. Who can discern the nature of the birds of the air? How some carry with them a voice of melody, and others are variegated with all manner of painting on their wings, and others fly up into mid air and float motionless, as the hawk: for by the Divine command the hawk spreadeth out his wings and floateth motionless, looking towards the south [1100] . What man can behold the eagle's lofty flight? If then thou canst not discern the soaring of the most senseless of the birds, how wouldest thou understand the Maker of all?

13. Who among men knows even the names of all wild beasts? Or who can accurately discern the physiology of each? But if of the wild beasts we know not even the mere names, how shall we comprehend the Maker of them? God's command was but one, which said, Let the earth bring forth wild beasts, and cattle, and creeping things, after their kinds [1101] and from one earth [1102] , by one command, have sprung diverse natures, the gentle sheep and the carnivorous lion, and various instincts [1103] of irrational animals, bearing resemblance to the various characters of men; the fox to manifest the craft that is in men, and the snake the venomous treachery of friends, and the neighing horse the wantonness of young men [1104] , and the laborious ant, to arouse the sluggish and the dull: for when a man passes his youth in idleness, then he is instructed by the irrational animals, being reproved by the divine Scripture saying, Go to the ant, thou sluggard, see and emulate her ways, and become wiser than she [1105] . For when thou seest her treasuring up her food in good season, imitate her, and treasure up for thyself fruits of good works for the world to come. And again, Go to the bee, and learn how industrious she is [1106] : how, hovering round all kinds of flowers, she collects her honey for thy benefit: that thou also, by ranging over the Holy Scriptures, mayest lay hold of salvation for thyself, and being filled with them mayest say, How sweet are thy words unto my throat, yea sweeter than honey and the honeycomb unto my mouth [1107] .

14. Is not then the Artificer worthy the rather to be glorified? For what? If thou knowest not the nature of all things, do the things that have been made forthwith become useless? Canst thou know the efficacy of all herbs? Or canst thou learn all the benefit which proceeds from every animal? Ere now even from venomous adders have come antidotes for the preservation of men [1108] . But thou wilt say to me, "The snake is terrible." Fear thou the Lord, and it shall not be able to hurt thee. "A scorpion stings." Fear the Lord, and it shall not sting thee. "A lion is bloodthirsty." Fear thou the Lord, and he shall lie down beside thee, as by Daniel. But truly wonderful also is the action of the animals: how some, as the scorpion, have the sharpness in a sting; and others have their power in their teeth; and others do battle with their claws; while the basilisk's power is his gaze [1109] . So then from this varied workmanship understand the Creator's power.

15. But these things perhaps thou knowest not: thou wouldest have nothing in common with the creatures which are without thee. Enter now into thyself, and from thine own nature consider its Artificer. What is there to find fault with in the framing of thy body? Be master of thyself, and nothing evil shall proceed from any of thy members. Adam was at first without clothing in Paradise with Eve, but it was not because of his members that he deserved to be cast out. The members then are not the cause of sin, but they who use their members amiss; and the Maker thereof is wise. Who prepared the recesses of the womb for child-bearing? Who gave life to the lifeless thing within it? Who knitted us with sinews and bones, and clothed us with skin and flesh [1110] , and, as soon as the child was born, brought streams of milk out of the breasts? How grows the babe into a boy, and the boy into a youth, and then into a man; and, still the same, passes again into an old man, while no one notices the exact change from day to day? Of the food, how is one part changed into blood, and another separated for excretion, and another part changed into flesh? Who gives to the heart its unceasing motion? Who wisely guarded the tenderness of the eyes with the fence of the eyelids [1111] ? For as to the complicated and wonderful contrivance of the eyes, the voluminous books of the physicians hardly give us explanation. Who distributes the one breath to the whole body? Thou seest, O man, the Artificer, thou seest the wise Creator.

16. These points my discourse has now treated at large, having left out many, yea, ten thousand other things, and especially things incorporeal and invisible, that thou mayest abhor those who blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, and from what is spoken and read, and whatever thou canst thyself discover or conceive, from the greatness and beauty of the creatures mayest proportionably see the maker of them [1112] , and bending the knee with godly reverence to the Maker of the worlds, the worlds, I mean, of sense and thought, both visible and invisible, thou mayest with a grateful and holy tongue, with unwearied lips and heart, praise God and say, How wonderful are Thy works, O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made them all [1113] . For to Thee belongeth honour, and glory, and majesty, both now and throughout all ages. Amen.


Appendix to Lecture IX.

Note.--In the manuscripts which contain this discourse under the name of "A Homily of S. Basil on God as Incomprehensible," some portions are changed to suit that subject: but the conclusion especially is marked by great addition and variation, which it is well to reproduce here. Accordingly in place of the words in §15: ti mempton, "What is there to find fault with?" and the following, the manuscripts before mentioned have it thus:

"What is there to find fault with in the framing of the body? Come forth into the midst and speak. Control thine own will, and nothing evil shall proceed from any of thy members. For every one of these has of necessity been made for our use. Chasten thy reasoning unto piety, submit to God's commandments, and none of these members sin in working and serving in the uses for which they were made. If thou be not willing, the eye sees not amiss, the ear hears nothing which it ought not, the hand is not stretched out for wicked greed, the foot walketh not towards injustice, thou hast no strange loves, committest no fornication, covetest not thy neighbour's wife. Drive out wicked thoughts from thine heart, be as God made thee, and thou wilt rather give thanks to thy Creator.

Adam at first was without clothing, faring daintily in Paradise: and after he had received the commandment, but failed to keep it, and wickedly stretched forth his hand (not because the hand wished this, but because his will stretched forth his hand to that which was forbidden), because of his disobedience he lost also the good things he had received. Thus the members are not the cause of sin to those who use them, but the wicked mind, as the Lord says, For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, fornications, adulteries, envyings, and such like. In what things thou choosest, therein thy limbs serve thee; they are excellently made for the service of the soul: they are provided as servants to thy reason. Guide them well by the motion of piety; bridle them by the fear of God; bring them into subjection to the desire of temperance and abstinence, and they will never rise up against thee to tyrannise over thee; but rather they will guard thee, and help thee more mightily in thy victory over the devil, while expecting also the incorruptible and everlasting crown of the victory. Who openeth the chambers of the womb? Who, &c."

At the end of the same section, after the words "Wise Creator," this is found: "Glorify Him in His unsearchable works, and concerning Him whom thou art not capable of knowing, inquire not curiously what His essence is. It is better for thee to keep silence, and in faith adore, according to the divine Word, than daringly to search after things which neither thou canst reach, nor Holy Scripture hath delivered to thee. These points my discourse has now treated at large, that thou mayest abhor those who blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, and rather mayest thyself also say, How wonderful are Thy works O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made them all. To Thee be the glory, and power, and worship, with the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and throughout all ages. Amen."


Footnotes

[1058] The Septuagint, from which Cyril quotes the text, differs much from the Hebrew, and from the English Versions: Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now thy loins like a man: for I will demand of thee, and answer thou Me. [1059] John i. 18. [1060] Ezekiel i. 28. [1061] Exod. xxxiii. 20. [1062] Is. lxiv. 1, Septuagint. R.V. Oh that Thou wouldest rend the heavens, that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down. [1063] Dan. x. 9, 16, 18. [1064] Wisdom xiii. 5. Compare Theophilus of Antioch To Autolycus, I. 5, 6: "God cannot indeed be seen by human eyes, but is beheld and perceived through His providence and works....He is not visible to eyes of flesh, since He is incomprehensible." [1065] Song of the Three Children, 32. [1066] In Ezekiel i. 6-11, the four living creatures have each four wings, as also in x. 21 according to the Hebrew. But in the latter passage, according to the Vatican text of the Septuagint, each has eight wings, as Codd. R. and Casaub. read here. Cyril seems to have confused the number in Ezekiel with that in Is. vi. 2: each one had six wings. By "a wheel of four sides" Cyril explains Ez. i. 16: a wheel in the midst of a wheel, as meaning two circles set at right angles to each other, like the equator and meridian on a globe. [1067] Compare Cat. iv. 4. Irenæus (I. x. 1): "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, yet received from the Apostles and their disciples the Faith in One God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea and all that therein is." Tertullian (de Præscriptione Hæret. cap. xiii.) "The rule of faith is that whereby we believe that there is One God only, and none other than the Creator of the world, who brought forth all things out of nothing through His own Word first of all sent forth." [1068] Compare Cat. vi. 13, 27. [1069] Gen. i. 6. [1070] Ps. xix. 5. [1071] The common reading hina me tou psuchous pleion genetai ho chronos, all' hina hai nuktes, k.t.l. gives a meaning contrary to the facts. The translation follows the mss. Roe, Casaubon, which omit me and for alla read kai. Compare Whewell's Astromony, p. 22: "The length of the year is so determined as to be adapted to the constitution of most vegetables: or the construction of vegetables is so adjusted as to be suited to the length which the year really has, and unsuited to a duration longer or shorter by any considerable portion. The vegetable clock-work is so set as to go for a year." Ibid. p. 34: "The terrestrial day, and consequently the length of the cycle of light and darkness, being what it is, we find various parts of the constitution both of animals and vegetables, which have a periodical character in their functions, corresponding to the diurnal succession of external conditions, and we find that the length of the period, as it exists in their constitution, coincides with the length of the natural day." [1072] Ps. xix. 2. Compare a beautiful passage of Theophilus of Antioch (To Autolycus, vi.). [1073] Lucretius, V. 1182: "They saw the skies in constant order run, The varied seasons and the circling sun, Apparent rule, with unapparent cause, And thus they sought in gods the source of laws. [1074] See note 3 on Cat. iii. 33. [1075] Is. xlv. 7. Compare the Homily of Chrysostom on this text. [1076] Whewell, Astromomy. p. 38: "Animals also have a period in their functions and habits; as in the habits of waking, sleeping, eating, &c., and their well-being appears to depend on the coincidence of this period with the length of the natural day." [1077] Chrysostom, VI. p. 171: "As the day brings man out to his work, so the night succeeding releases him from his countless toils and thoughts, and lulling his weary eyes to sleep, and closing their lids, prepares him to welcome the sunbeam again with his force in full vigour." [1078] Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. IV. 22, E. Tr.): "And in this way they seem to have called the night Euphrone, since then the soul released from the perceptions of sense turns in on itself, and has a truer hold of intelligence (phronesis)." [1079] Chrysostom (Tom. II. p. 793): "We usually take the reckoning of our money early in the morning, but of our actions, of all that we have said and done by day, let us demand of ourselves the account after supper, and even after nightfall, as we lie upon our bed, with none to trouble, none to disturb us. And if we see anything done amiss, let us chastise our conscience, let us rebuke our mind, let us so vehemently impugn our account, that we may no more dare to rise up and bring ourselves to the same pit of sin, being mindful of the scourging at night." [1080] Clem. Alex. (Stromat. VI. 11): "The same is true also of Astronomy, for being engaged in the investigation of the heavenly bodies, as to the form of the universe, and the revolution of the heaven, and the motion of the stars, it brings the soul nearer to the Creative Power, and teaches it to be quick in perceiving the seasons of the year, the changes of the atmosphere, and the risings of the stars; since navigation also and husbandry are full of benefit from this science." Compare Lactantius (De Irâ Dei, cap. xiii.). [1081] Gen. i. 14. [1082] Job xxxviii. 28. [1083] Whewell, Astronomy, p. 88: "Clouds are produced by aqueous vapour when it returns to the state of water." p. 89: "Clouds produce rain. In the formation of a cloud the precipitation of moisture probably forms a fine watery powder, which remains suspended in the air in consequence of the minuteness of its particles: but if from any cause the precipitation is collected in larger portions, and becomes drops, these descend by their weight and produce a shower." Compare Aristotle, Meterologica, I. ix. 3; Ansted, Physical Geography, p. 210. [1084] Job xxxvii. 22: "Out of the north cometh golden splendour" (R.V.). [1085] Job xxxviii. 37. [1086] Job xxxvii. 16: "Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds?" In the Septuagint diakrisin nephon may mean "the separate path of the clouds" (Vulg. "semitas nubium,") or "the dissolving," as in Aristotle (Meteorol. I. vii. 10: diakrinesthai kai dialuesthai to diatmizon hugron hupo tou plethous tes thermes anathumiaseos, hoste me sunistasthai rhadios eis hudor. "The moist vapour is separated and dissolved by the great heat of the evaporation, so that it does not easily condense into water." Cf. Plato, Sophistes 243 B: diakriseis kai sunkriseis. [1087] Job xxxviii. 37 (according to the Septuagint): "And who is he that numbereth the clouds by wisdom, and bent down the heaven to the earth?" A.V., R.V. "Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven?" [1088] Job xxvi. 8: "He bindeth up the waters in His thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them." [1089] Ps. cxxxv. 7. [1090] Job xxxviii. 28. [1091] Ps. cxlvii. 16: "He scattereth the hoar frost like ashes." The Hebrew D+W+:P+K+u is rendered by pachne, "hoar frost," in Job xxxviii. 29, but here by omichle, "mist." [1092] Job xxxvii. 10: "the breadth of the waters is straitened" (Marg. R.V. "congealed"). The word oiakizei in the Septuagint means to "steer," Lat. "gubernare" to "turn as by a helm." [1093] Ps. civ. 15. [1094] There is a similar passage on the various effects of water in Cat. xvi. 12. Chrysostom (de Statuis, Hom. xii. 2), Epiphanius (Ancoratus, p. 69), and other Fathers, appear to reproduce both the thoughts and words of Cyril. [1095] For kausin, "burning," Morel and Milles, with Cod. Coisl., read kaustin, a rare word explained by Hesychius as the "growth" or "foliage" of the vine: but this is fully expressed in what follows, and the reading kausin is confirmed by Virgil (Georg. ii. 408): "Primus devecta cremato sarmenta" (Reischl). [1096] For the construction of hina with the Indicative hiptantai, see Bernhardy, Syntax, p. 401. Winer (Gram. N. T. III. sect. xli. c). [1097] Ps. civ. 25. [1098] Gr. hupostasin, literally "substance." [1099] Job xxxviii. 11. [1100] Ib. xxxix. 26. [1101] Gen. i. 24. [1102] Instead of phones (Milles), or peges (Bened. Roe, Casaub.) the recent Editors have restored tes ges with the Jerusalem and Munich mss., and Basil. [1103] Gr. kineseis "movements," "impulses." Aristotle (Historia Animalium. IX. vii. 1) remarks that many imitations of man's mode of life may be observed in the habits of other animals. [1104] Jer. v. 8. [1105] Prov. vi. 6. Instead of the epithet "laborious" (georgotatos ) some mss. have "agile" or "restless" (gorgotatos). [1106] After the description of the ant, Prov. vi. 6-8, there follows in the Septuagint a similar reference to the bee: "Or go to the bee, and learn how industrious she is, and how comely she makes her work, and the produce of her labours kings and commons adopt for health, and she is desired and esteemed by all, and though feeble in strength has been exalted by her regard for wisdom." The interpolation is supposed to be of Greek origin, as containing "idiomatic Greek expressions which would not occur to a translator from the Hebrew" (Delitzsch). [1107] Ps. cxix. 103. [1108] Compare Bacon (Natural Hist. 965): "I would have trial made of two other kinds of bracelets, for comforting the heart and spirits: one of the trochisch of vipers, made into little pieces of beads; for since they do great good inwards (especially for pestilent agues), it is like they will be effectual outwards, where they may be applied in greater quantity. There would be trochisch likewise made of snakes; whose flesh dried is thought to have a very good opening and cordial virtue." Ib. 969: "The writers of natural magic commend the wearing of the spoil of a snake, for preserving of health." Thomas Jackson (On the Creed, VIII. 8, § 4): "The poisonous bitings of the scorpion are usually cured by the oil of scorpions." [1109] Shakespeare (Richard III. Act. i. Sc. ii.). Glo. "Thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine." Anne. "Would they were basilisks to strike thee dead." Compare Bacon (De Augmentis, VII. cap. ii): "The fable goes of the basilisk, that if he see you first, you die for it, but if you see him first, he dies." Bacon refers to Pliny (Nat. Hist. viii. 33). [1110] Job x. 11. [1111] Xenophon (Memor. Socratis. I. cap. iv): "And moreover does not this also seem to thee like a work of providence, that, whereas the sight is weak, the Creator furnished it with eyelids for doors, which are opened whenever there is need to use the sight, but are closed in sleep." [1112] Wisdom xiii. 5. [1113] Ps. civ. 24.

.


Lecture X.

On the Clause, and in One Lord Jesus Christ, with a Reading from the First Epistle to the Corinthians

For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or on earth [1114] ; yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him.

1. They who have been taught to believe "In One God the Father Almighty," ought also to believe in His Only-begotten Son. For he that denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father [1115] . I am the Door [1116] , saith Jesus; no one cometh unto the Father but through Me [1117] . For if thou deny the Door, the knowledge concerning the Father is shut off from thee. No man knoweth the father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son shall reveal Him [1118] . For if thou deny Him who reveals, thou remainest in ignorance. There is a sentence in the Gospels, saying, He that believeth not on the Son, shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him. [1119]For the Father hath indignation when the Only-begotten Son is set at nought. For it is grievous to a king that merely his soldier should be dishonoured; and when one of his nobler officers or friends is dishonoured, then his anger is greatly increased: but if any should do despite to the king's only-begotten son himself, who shall appease the father's indignation on behalf of his only-begotten son?

2. If, therefore, any one wishes to shew piety towards God, let him worship the Son, since otherwise the Father accepts not his service. The Father spake with a loud voice from heaven, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased [1120] . The Father was well pleased; unless thou also be well pleased in Him, thou hast not life. Be not thou carried away with the Jews when they craftily say, There is one God alone; but with the knowledge that God is One, know that there is also an Only-begotten Son of God. I am not the first to say this, but the Psalmist in the person of the Son saith, The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My Son [1121] . Heed not therefore what the Jews say, but what the Prophets say. Dost thou wonder that they who stoned and slew the Prophets, set at nought the Prophets' words?

3. Believe thou In One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God. For we say "One Lord Jesus Christ," that His Sonship may be "Only-begotten:" we say "One," that thou mayest not suppose another: we say "One," that thou mayest not profanely diffuse the many names [1122] of His action among many sons. For He is called a Door [1123] ; but take not the name literally for a thing of wood, but a spiritual, a living Door, discriminating those who enter in. He is called a Way [1124] , not one trodden by feet, but leading to the Father in heaven; He is called a Sheep [1125] , not an irrational one, but the one which through its precious blood cleanses the world from its sins, which is led before the shearers, and knows when to be silent. This Sheep again is called a Shepherd, who says, I am the Good Shepherd [1126] : a Sheep because of His manhood, a Shepherd because of the loving-kindness of His Godhead. And wouldst thou know that there are rational sheep? the Saviour says to the Apostles, Behold, I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves [1127] . Again, He is called a Lion [1128] , not as a devourer of men, but indicating as it were by the title His kingly, and stedfast, and confident nature: a Lion He is also called in opposition to the lion our adversary, who roars and devours those who have been deceived [1129] . For the Saviour came, not as having changed the gentleness of His own nature, but as the strong Lion of the tribe of Judah [1130] , saving them that believe, but treading down the adversary. He is called a Stone, not a lifeless stone, cut out by men's hands, but a chief corner-stone [1131] , on whom whosoever believeth shall not be put to shame.

4. He is called Christ, not as having been anointed by men's hands, but eternally anointed by the Father to His High-Priesthood on behalf of men [1132] . He is called Dead, not as having abode among the dead, as all in Hades, but as being alone free among the dead [1133] . He is called Son of Man, not as having had His generation from earth, as each of us, but as coming upon the clouds To Judge Both Quick and Dead [1134] . He is called Lord, not improperly as those who are so called among men, but as having a natural and eternal Lordship [1135] . He is called Jesus by a fitting name, as having the appellation from His salutary healing. He is called Son, not as advanced by adoption, but as naturally begotten. And many are the titles of our Saviour; lest, therefore, His manifold appellations should make thee think of many sons, and because of the errors of the heretics, who say that Christ is one, and Jesus another, and the Door another, and so on [1136] , the Faith secures thee beforehand, saying well, In One Lord Jesus Christ: for though the titles are many, yet their subject is one.

5. But the Saviour comes in various forms to each man for his profit [1137] . For to those who have need of gladness He becomes a Vine; and to those who want to enter in He stands as a Door; and to those who need to offer up their prayers He stands a mediating High Priest. Again, to those who have sins He becomes a Sheep, that He may be sacrificed for them. He is made all things to all men [1138] , remaining in His own nature what He is. For so remaining, and holding the dignity of His Sonship in reality unchangeable, He adapts Himself to our infirmities, just as some excellent physician or compassionate teacher; though He is Very Lord, and received not the Lordship by advancement [1139] , but has the dignity of His Lordship from nature, and is not called Lord improperly [1140] , as we are, but is so in verity, since by the Father's bidding [1141] He is Lord of His own works. For our lordship is over men of equal rights and like passions, nay often over our elders, and often a young master rules over aged servants. But in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ the Lordship is not so: but He is first Maker, then Lord [1142] : first He made all things by the Father's will, then, He is Lord of the things which were made by Him.

6. Christ the Lord is He who was born in the city of David [1143] . And wouldest thou know that Christ is Lord with the Father even before His Incarnation [1144] , that thou mayest not only accept the statement by faith, but mayest also receive proof from the Old Testament? Go to the first book, Genesis: God saith, Let us make man, not `in My image,' but, in Our image [1145] . And after Adam was made, the sacred writer says, And God created man; in the image of God created He him [1146] . For he did not limit the dignity of the Godhead to the Father alone, but included the Son also: that it might be shewn that man is not only the work of God, but also of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is Himself also Very God. This Lord, who works together with the Father, wrought with Him also in the case of Sodom, according to the Scripture: And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven [1147] . This Lord is He who afterwards was seen of Moses, as much as he was able to see. For the Lord is loving unto man, ever condescending to our infirmities.

7. Moreover, that you may be sure that this is He who was seen of Moses, hear Paul's testimony, when he says, For they all drank of a spiritual rock that followed them; and the rock was Christ [1148] . And again: By faith Moses forsook Egypt [1149] , and shortly after he says, accounting the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt [1150] . This Moses says to Him, Shew me Thyself. Thou seest that the Prophets also in those times saw the Christ, that is, as far as each was able. Shew me Thyself, that I may see Thee with understanding [1151] . But He saith, There shall no man see My face, and live [1152] . For this reason then, because no man could see the face of the Godhead and live, He took on Him the face of human nature, that we might see this and live. And yet when He wished to shew even that with a little majesty, when His face did shine as the sun [1153] , the disciples fell down affrighted. If then His bodily countenance, shining not in the full power of Him that wrought, but according to the capacity of the Disciples, affrighted them, so that even thus they could not bear it, how could any man gaze upon the majesty of the Godhead? `A great thing,' saith the Lord, `thou desirest, O Moses: and I approve thine insatiable desire, and I will do this thing [1154] for thee, but according as thou art able. Behold, I will put thee in the clift of the rock [1155] : for as being little, thou shalt lodge in a little space.'

8. Now here I wish you to make safe what I am going to say, because of the Jews. For our object is to prove that the Lord Jesus Christ was with the Father. The Lord then says to Moses, I will pass by before thee with My glory, and will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee [1156] . Being Himself the Lord, what Lord doth He proclaim? Thou seest how He was covertly teaching the godly doctrine of the Father and the Son. And again, in what follows it is written word for word: And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, both keeping righteousness and shewing mercy unto thousands, taking away iniquities, and transgressions, and sins [1157] . Then in what follows, Moses bowed his head and worshipped [1158] before the Lord who proclaimed the Father, and said: Go Thou then, O Lord, in the midst of us [1159] .

9. This is the first proof: receive now a second plain one. The Lord said unto my Lord, sit Thou on My right hand [1160] . The Lord says this to the Lord, not to a servant, but to the Lord of all, and His own Son, to whom He put all things in subjection. But when He saith that all things are put under Him, it is manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things under Him, and what follows; that God may be all in all [1161] . The Only-begotten Son is Lord of all, but the obedient Son of the Father, for He grasped not the Lordship [1162] , but received it by nature of the Father's own will. For neither did the Son grasp it, nor the Father grudge to impart it. He it is who saith, All things are delivered unto Me of My Father [1163] ; "delivered unto Me, not as though I had them not before; and I keep them well, not robbing Him who hath given them."

10. The Son of God then is Lord: He is Lord, who was born in Bethlehem of Judæa, according to the Angel who said to the shepherds, I bring you good tidings of great joy, that unto you is born this day in the city of David Christ the Lord [1164] : of whom an Apostle says elsewhere, The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching the gospel of peace by Jesus Christ: He is Lord of all [1165] . But when he says, of all, do thou except nothing from His Lordship: for whether Angels, or Archangels, or principalities, or powers, or any created thing named by the Apostles, all are under the Lordship of the Son. Of Angels He is Lord, as thou hast it in the Gospels, Then the Devil departed from Him, and the Angels came and ministered unto Him [1166] ; for the Scripture saith not, they succoured Him, but they ministered unto Him, that is, like servants. When He was about to be born of a Virgin, Gabriel was then His servant, having received His service as a peculiar dignity. When He was about to go into Egypt, that He might overthrow the gods of Egypt made with hands [1167] , again an Angel appeareth to Joseph in a dream [1168] . After He had been crucified, and had risen again, an Angel brought the good tidings, and as a trustworthy servant said to the women, Go, tell His disciples that He is risen, and goeth before you into Galilee; lo, I have told you [1169] : almost as if he had said, "I have not neglected my command, I protest that I have told you; that if ye disregard it, the blame may not be on me, but on those who disregard it." This then is the One Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the lesson just now read speaks: For though there be many that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, and so on, yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him [1170] .

11. And He is called by two names, Jesus Christ; Jesus, because He saves,--Christ, because He is a Priest [1171] . And knowing this the inspired Prophet Moses conferred these two titles on two men distinguished above all [1172] : his own successor in the government, Auses [1173] , he renamed Jesus; and his own brother Aaron he surnamed Christ [1174] , that by two well-approved men he might represent at once both the High Priesthood, and the Kingship of the One Jesus Christ who was to come. For Christ is a High Priest like Aaron; since He glorified not Himself to be made a High Priest, but He that spake unto Him, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek [1175] . And Jesus the son of Nave was in many things a type of Him. For when he began to rule over the people, he began from Jordan [1176] , whence Christ also, after He was baptized, began to preach the gospel. And the son of Nave appoints twelve to divide the inheritance [1177] ; and twelve Apostles Jesus sends forth, as heralds of the truth, into all the world. The typical Jesus saved Rahab the harlot when she believed: and the true Jesus says, Behold, the publicans and the harlots go before you into the kingdom of God [1178] . With only a shout the walls of Jericho fell down in the time of the type: and because Jesus said, There shall not be left here one stone upon another [1179] , the Temple of the Jews opposite to us is fallen, the cause of its fall not being the denunciation but the sin of the transgressors.

12. There is One Lord Jesus Christ, a wondrous name, indirectly announced beforehand by the Prophets. For Esaias the Prophet says, Behold, thy Saviour cometh, having His own reward [1180] . Now Jesus in Hebrew is by interpretation Saviour. For the Prophetic gift, foreseeing the murderous spirit of the Jews against their Lord [1181] , veiled His name, lest from knowing it plainly beforehand they might plot against Him readily. But He was openly called Jesus not by men, but by an Angel, who came not by his own authority, but was sent by the power of God, and said to Joseph, Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceivedin her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call His name Jesus [1182] . And immediately he renders the reason of this name, saying, for He shall save His people from their sins. Consider how He who was not yet born could have a people, unless He was in being before He was born [1183] . This also the Prophet says in His person, From the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of My name [1184] ; because the Angel foretold that He should be called Jesus. And again concerning Herod's plot again he says, And under the shadow of His hand hath He hid Me [1185] .

13. Jesus then means according to the Hebrew "Saviour," but in the Greek tongue "The Healer;" since He is physician of souls and bodies, curer of spirits, curing the blind in body [1186] , and leading minds into light, healing the visibly lame, and guiding sinners' steps to repentance, saying to the palsied, Sin no more, and, Take up thy bed and walk [1187] . For since the body was palsied for the sin of the soul, He ministered first to the soul that He might extend the healing to the body. If, therefore, any one is suffering in soul from sins, there is the Physician for him: and if any one here is of little faith, let him say to Him, Help Thou mine unbelief [1188] . If any is encompassed also with bodily ailments, let him not be faithless, but let him draw nigh; for to such diseases also Jesus ministers [1189] , and let him learn that Jesus is the Christ.

14. For that He is Jesus the Jews allow, but not further that He is Christ. Therefore saith the Apostle, Who is the liar, but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ [1190] ? But Christ is a High Priest, whose priesthood passes not to another [1191] , neither having begun His Priesthood in time [1192] , nor having any successor in His High-Priesthood: as thou heardest on the Lord's day, when we were discoursing in the congregation [1193] on the phrase, After the Order of Melchizedek. He received not the High-Priesthood from bodily succession, nor was He anointed with oil prepared by man [1194] , but before all ages by the Father; and He so far excels the others as with an oath He is made Priest: For they are priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him that said, The Lord sware, and will not repent [1195] . The mere purpose of the Father was sufficient for surety: but the mode of assurance is twofold, namely that with the purpose there follows the oath also, that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong encouragement [1196] for our faith, who receive Christ Jesus as the Son of God.

15. This Christ, when He was come, the Jews denied, but the devils confessed. But His forefather David was not ignorant of Him, when he said, I have ordained a lamp for mine Anointed [1197] : which lamp some have interpreted to be the brightness of Prophecy [1198] , others the flesh which He took upon Him from the Virgin, according to the Apostle's word, But we have this treasure in earthen vessels [1199] . The Prophet was not ignorant of Him, when He said, and announceth unto men His Christ [1200] . Moses also knew Him, Isaiah knew Him, and Jeremiah; not one of the Prophets was ignorant of Him. Even devils recognised Him, for He rebuked them, and the Scripture says, because they knew that He was Christ [1201] . The Chief-priests knew Him not, and the devils confessed Him: the Chief Priests knew Him not, and a woman of Samaria proclaimed Him, saying, Come, see a man which told me all things that ever I did. Is not this the Christ [1202] ?

16. This is Jesus Christ who came a High-Priest of the good things to come [1203] ; who for the bountifulness of His Godhead imparted His own title to us all. For kings among men have their royal style which others may not share: but Jesus Christ being the Son of God gave us the dignity of being called Christians. But some one will say, The name of "Christians" is new, and was not in use aforetime [1204] : and new-fashioned phrases are often objected to on the score of strangeness [1205] . The prophet made this point safe beforehand, saying, But upon My servants shall a new name be called, which shall be blessed upon the earth [1206] . Let us question the Jews: Are ye servants of the Lord, or not? Shew then your new name. For ye were called Jews and Israelites in the time of Moses, and the other prophets, and after the return from Babylon, and up to the present time: where then is your new name? But we, since we are servants of the Lord, have that new name: new indeed, but the new name, which shall be blessed upon the earth. This name caught the world in its grasp: for Jews are only in a certain region, but Christians reach to the ends of the world: for it is the name of the Only-begotten Son of God that is proclaimed.

17. But wouldest thou know that the Apostles knew and preached the name of Christ, or rather had Christ Himself within them? Paul says to his hearers, Or seek ye a proof of Christ that speaketh in me [1207] ? Paul proclaims Christ, saying, For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves your servants for Jesus' sake [1208] . Who then is this? The former persecutor. O mighty wonder! The former persecutor himself preaches Christ. But wherefore? Was he bribed? Nay there was none to use this mode of persuasion. But was it that he saw Him present on earth, and was abashed? He had already been taken up into heaven. He went forth to persecute, and after three days the persecutor is a preacher in Damascus. By what power? Others call friends as witnesses for friends but I have presented to you as a witness the former enemy: and dost thou still doubt? The testimony of Peter and John, though weighty, was yet of a kind open to suspicion: for they were His friends. But of one who was formerly his enemy, and afterwards dies for His sake, who can any longer doubt the truth?

18. At this point of my discourse I am truly filled with wonder at the wise dispensation of the Holy Spirit; how He confined the Epistles of the rest to a small number, but to Paul the former persecutor gave the privilege of writing fourteen. For it was not because Peter or John was less that He restrained the gift; God forbid! But in order that the doctrine might be beyond question, He granted to the former enemy and persecutor the privilege of writing more, in order that we all might thus be made believers. For all were amazed at Paul, and said, Is not this he that was formerly a persecutor [1209] ? Did he not come hither, that he might lead us away bound to Jerusalem? Be not amazed, said Paul, I know that it is hard for me to kick against the pricks: I know that I am not worthy to be called an Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God [1210] ; but I did it in ignorance [1211] : for I thought that the preaching of Christ was destruction of the Law, and knew not that He came Himself to fulfil the Law and not to destroy it [1212] . But the grace of God was exceeding abundant in me [1213] .

19. Many, my beloved, are the true testimonies concerning Christ. The Father bears witness from heaven of His Son: the Holy Ghost bears witness, descending bodily in likeness of a dove: the Archangel Gabriel bears witness, bringing good tidings to Mary: the Virgin Mother of God [1214] bears witness: the blessed place of the manger bears witness. Egypt bears witness, which received the Lord while yet young in the body [1215] : Symeon bears witness, who received Him in his arms, and said, Now, Lord, lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people [1216] . Anna also, the prophetess, a most devout widow, of austere life, bears witness of Him. John the Baptist bears witness, the greatest among the Prophets, and leader of the New Covenant, who in a manner united both Covenants in Himself, the Old and the New. Jordan is His witness among rivers; the sea of Tiberias among seas: blind and lame bear witness, and dead men raised to life, and devils saying, What have we to do with Thee, Jesus? we know Thee, who Thou art, the Holy One of God [1217] . Winds bear witness, silenced at His bidding: five loaves multiplied into five thousand bear Him witness. The holy wood of the Cross bears witness, seen among us to this day, and from this place now almost filling the whole world, by means of those who in faith take portions from it [1218] . The palm-tree [1219] on the ravine bears witness, having supplied the palm-branches to the children who then hailed Him. Gethsemane [1220] bears witness, still to the thoughtful almost shewing Judas. Golgotha [1221] , the holy hill standing above us here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulchre bears witness, and the stone which lies there [1222] to this day. The sun now shining is His witness, which then at the time of His saving Passion was eclipsed [1223] : the darkness is His witness, which was then from the sixth hour to the ninth: the light bears witness, which shone forth from the ninth hour until evening. The Mount of Olives bears witness, that holy mount from which He ascended to the Father: the rain-bearing clouds are His witnesses, having received their Lord: yea, and the gates of heaven bear witness [having received their Lord [1224] ], concerning which the Psalmist said, Lift up your doors, O ye Princes, and be ye lift up ye everlasting doors; and the King of Glory shall come in [1225] . His former enemies bear witness, of whom the blessed Paul is one, having been a little while His enemy, but for a long time His servant: the Twelve Apostles are His witnesses, having preached the truth not only in words, but also by their own torments and deaths: the shadow of Peter [1226] bears witness, having healed the sick in the name of Christ. The handkerchiefs and aprons bear witness, as in like manner by Christ's power they wrought cures of old through Paul [1227] . Persians [1228] and Goths [1229] , and all the Gentile converts bear witness, by dying for His sake, whom they never saw with eyes of flesh: the devils, who to this day [1230] are driven out by the faithful, bear witness to Him.

20. So many and diverse, yea and more than these, are His witnesses: is then the Christ thus witnessed any longer disbelieved? Nay rather if there is any one who formerly believed not, let him now believe: and if any was before a believer, let him receive a greater increase of faith, by believing in our Lord Jesus Christ, and let him understand whose name he bears. Thou art called a Christian: be tender of the name; let not our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, be blasphemed through thee: but rather let your good works shine before men [1231] that they who see them may in Christ Jesus our Lord glorify the Father which is in heaven:To whom be the glory, both now and for ever and ever. Amen.


Footnotes

[1114] 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6. Cyril omits the clause: as there be gods many and lords many. [1115] 1 John ii. 23. [1116] Ib. x. 9. [1117] Ib. xiv. 6. [1118] Matt. xi. 27. [1119] John iii. 36. [1120] Matt. iii. 17. [1121] Ps. ii. 7. [1122] to poluonumon, a word used by the Greek Poets of their gods, as by Homer (Hymn to Demeter, 18, 32) of Zeus, Kronou poluonumos huios. Cf. Soph. Ant. 1115; Æschyl. Prom. V. 210. [1123] John x. 7, 9. Cyril calls Christ a "spiritual," or "rational" (logike) door, and applies the same term to His sheep, below. Origen (In Evang. Joh. Tom. i. cap. 29): Thura ho Soter anagegraptai, ibid. philanthropos de on...poimen ginetai. [1124] John xiv. 6. [1125] Ib. i. 29; Is. liii. 7, 8; Acts viii. 32. [1126] John x. 11. [1127] Matt. x. 10, 16. [1128] Gen. xlix. 9; Apoc. v. 5. [1129] 1 Pet. v. 8. [1130] Ps. cxviii. 22. [1131] Is. xxviii. 16; 1 Pet. ii. 4-6. [1132] The reading of the earlier Editions huper anthropon is free from all difficulty, and so the more likely to have been substituted for what is at first sight more difficult huper anthropon, the reading of Cod. Coislin. adopted by the Benedictine and subsequent Editors. The idea of a super-human Priesthood to which the Son in His Divine nature was anointed by the Father from eternity is repeated by Cyril in § 14 of this Lecture, and in Cat. xi. 1, 14. See Index, "Priesthood," and the reference there given to a fuller consideration of the subject in the Introduction. [1133] Ps. lxxxviii. 5. [1134] John v. 27. Comparing what Cyril says here with Cat. iv. 15, and xv. 10, we see that he means to explain why Christ is called the "Son of Man" when "He cometh again from heaven," and "no more from earth." The preceding clause refers to His first coming in the flesh, as differing in the manner of His conception and birth from other men. [1135] Cf. Athanas. (c. Arian. II. xv. 14), "That very Word who was by nature Lord, and was then made man, hath by means of a servant's form been made Lord of all and Christ." [1136] Cf. Irenæus (III. xvi. 8): "All therefore are outside the Dispensation, who under pretence of knowledge understand that Jesus was one, and Christ another, and the Only-begotten another (from whom again is the Word), and the Saviour another." The Cerinthians, Ebionites, Ophites, and Valentinians are mentioned by Irenæus as thus separating the Christ from Jesus. [1137] Cf. Athanas. (Epist. X.): "Since He is rich and manifold, He varies Himself according to the individual capacity of each soul." [1138] 1 Cor. ix. 22. [1139] ek prokopes. We learn from Athanasius (c. Arian. i. 37, 38, 40), that from St. Paul's language Philipp. ii. 9: "Wherefore also God highly exalted Him, &c.," and from Ps. xlv. 7: "Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows," the Arians argued that Christ first received Divine honour as Son and Lord as the reward of His obedience as Man. Athanasius replies (c. 40): "He was not from a lower state promoted; but rather, existing as God, He took the form of a servant, and in taking it was not promoted but humbled Himself. Where then is there here any reward of virtue, or what advancement (prokope) and promotion in humiliation?" The same doctrine had been previously held by the disciples of Paul of Samosata, who said that Christ was not originally God, but after His Incarnation was by advance (ek prokopes) made God, from being made by nature a mere man: see Athanas. (de Decretis, § 24, c. Arian. i. 38). S. Cyril refers to the error and uses the same word, in xi. 1, 7, 13, 15, 17, and xiv. 27. [1140] katachrestikos, i.e. in a secondary or metaphorical sense. Cf. vii. 5. [1141] neumati, "command" or "bidding," as expressed by nodding the head. [1142] Origen (De Principiis, I. ii. 10) had argued that "even God cannot be called omnipotent, unless there exist those over whom He may exercise His power," and therefore creation must have been eternal, or God could not have been eternally Omnipotent. In other passages Origen declares it an impiety to hold that matter is co-eternal with God (De Princip. II. i. 4), and yet maintains that there were other worlds before this, and that there was never a time when there was no world existing. Methodius, in a fragment of his work On things Created, preserved by Photius, and quoted by Bishop Bull (Def. Fid. Nic. II. xiii. 9), argues against these theories of Origen, that in John i. 2 the words "The same was in the beginning with God" indicate the authority (to exousiastikon) of the Word which He had with the Father before the world came into existence; since from all eternity God the Father, together with His Word, possessed the Almighty power whereby whenever He would He could create worlds to rule over. Dean Church remarks that "On the other hand Tertullian, contra Hermog. 3, considering the attributes in question to belong not to the Divine Nature, but Office, denies that God was Almighty (Lord?) from eternity; while the Greeks affirmed this (vid. Cyril Alex. in Joann. xvii. 8, p. 963; Athan. Orat. ii. 12-14), as understanding by the term the inherent but latent attribute of doing what He had not yet done, to exousiastikon." Cleopas, the Jerusalem Editor, regards the passage as directed against Paul of Samosata, who asserted that Christ had become God, and received His kingdom and Lordship only after His Incarnation, and remarks:--"S. Cyril evidently regards the Lordship of Jesus Christ as twofold: one that which from eternity belonged to Him as God, which he calls natural, according to which `He was ever both Lord and King, as being by nature God' (Cyril Alex. in Johann. cap. xvii.); and the other the Lordship in time relative to the creatures, by which He exercises dominion over the works created by Him, as being their Maker." [1143] Luke ii. 11. [1144] Among those who denied the Divine præ-existence of Christ Cleopas enumerates Ebion, Carpocrates, Theodotus, Artemon, Paul of Samosata, Marcellus, and Photinus. [1145] Gen. i. 26. [1146] Ib. i. 27. [1147] Ib. xix. 24. [1148] 1 Cor. x. 4. [1149] Heb. xi. 27. [1150] Heb. xi. 26. Quoting from memory Cyril mistakes the order of the two sentences. [1151] Ex. xxxiii. 13. Cyril means that even before His Incarnation Christ was seen as far as was possible by Prophets such as Moses. This view was held by many of the Fathers before Cyril. See Justin M. (Tryph. § 56 ff.); Tertull. (adv. Praxean, § 16); Euseb. (Demonstr. Evang. V. 13-16). [1152] Ex. xxxiii. 20. [1153] Matt. xvii. 2. [1154] Ex. xxxiii. 17. Gr. logon, "word," in imitation of the Hebrew idiom. [1155] Ex. xxxiii. 22. [1156] Ex. xxxiii. 19. Literally "will call in the name of the Lord (Jehovah):" compare Gen. iv. 26. [1157] Ex. xxxiv. 5-7. For "keeping righteousness and shewing mercy," the Hebrew has only "keeping mercy." [1158] Ex. xxxiv. 8. [1159] Ib. xxxiv. 9. [1160] Ps. cx. 1. Heb. "An oracle of Jehovah unto my lord." Cyril's argument is based upon the common mistake of supposing that Kurios represents the same Hebrew word in both parts of the sentence. [1161] 1 Cor. xv. 27, 28. [1162] Cyril evidently alludes to Philip. ii. 6, "Who being in the form of God thought it not a prize to be on an equality with God:" for the right interpretation of which passage, see Dean Gwynn's notes in the Speaker's Commentary. [1163] Matt. xi. 27; Luke x. 22. On this text Athanasius wrote a special treatise (In illud `Omnia,' &c.), against the arguments of Arius, Eusebius, and their fellows, who said,--"If all things were delivered (meaning by `all' the Lordship of Creation), there was once a time when He had them not. But it He had them not, He is not of the Father, for if He were, He would on that account have had them always." Again (contr. Arian. Orat. III. cap. xxvii. § 36), Athanasius argues: "Lest a man, perceiving that the Son has all that the Father hath, from the exact likeness and identity of what He hath, should wander into the impiety of Sabellius, considering Him to be the Father, therefore He has said, Was given unto Me, and I received, and Were delivered to Me, only to shew that He is not the Father, but the Father's Word, and the Eternal Son, who, because of His likeness to the Father, has eternally what He has from Him, and because He is the Son, has from the Father what eternally He hath." [1164] Luke ii. 10, 11. [1165] Acts x. 36. [1166] Matt. iv. 11. [1167] Isa. xix. 1. "Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and cometh unto Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence." The prophecy was supposed by many of the Fathers to have been fulfilled by the flight into Egypt. Cf. Athanas. (Ep. LXI. ad Maximum, § 4): "As a child He came down to Egypt, and brought to nought its idols made with hands:" and (de Incarn. § 36): "Which of the righteous men or kings went down into Egypt, so that at his coming the idols of Egypt fell?" On the passage of Isaiah see Delitzsch, and Kay (Speaker's Commentary). [1168] Matt. ii. 13. [1169] Ib. xxviii. 7. [1170] 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6. [1171] Compare Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. I. cap. iii.), a passage which Cyril seems to have followed in his explanation of the names `Jesus' and `Christ.' [1172] For the common reading enkritois panton Cod. Mon. I. has ekkritois p. which is required both by the construction and the sense. The change may have been caused by the occurrence of enkriton just below. [1173] Eusebius (u.s): "His successor, therefore, who had not hitherto borne the name Jesus, but had been called by another name, Auses, which had been given him by his parents, he now called Jesus, bestowing the name upon him as a gift of honour far greater than any kingly diadem." Auses is a common corruption of the name Oshea. See the note on the passage of Eusebius in this series. [1174] Eusebius: "He consecrated a man high-priest of God, in so far as that was possible, and him he called Christ." Cf. Lev. iv. 5, 16; vi. 22: ho hiereus ho Christos [1175] Heb. v. 4, 5, 6. Cyril omits from his quotation the reference to Ps. ii. 7: "Thou art My Son: this day have I begotten Thee." [1176] Josh. iii. 1. [1177] Ib. xiv. 1. [1178] Matt. xxi. 31. [1179] Matt. xxiv. 2. [1180] Isa. lxii. 11: "Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward is with him." [1181] to kurioktonon ton 'Ioudaion. [1182] Matt. i. 20. [1183] The Anathema appended to the Creed of Nicæa condemns those who said prin gennethenai ouk en. On this Eusebius of Cæsarea (Epist. § 9) remarks: "Moreover to anathematize `Before His generation He was not,' did not seem preposterous, in that it is confessed by all, that the Son of God was before the generation according to the flesh." [1184] Isa. xlix. 1. [1185] Ib. xlix. 2. [1186] tuphlon aistheton. [1187] John v. 14, 8. [1188] Mark ix. 24. [1189] Compare the fragment of the Apology of Quadratus presented to Hadrian 127 a.d., preserved by Eusebius (H.E. IV. iii.): "But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were genuine:--those that were healed, and those that arose from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Saviour was on earth, but also after His death they were alive for a long while, so that some of them survived even to our times." See the notes on the passage of Eusebius, in this series. [1190] 1 John ii. 22. [1191] Heb. vii. 24. [1192] On the opinion that Christ was from all eternity the true High Priest of the Creation, see Index, Priesthood, and the reference there given to the Introduction. Cf. x. 4: xi. 1. Athan (c. Arian. Or. ii. 12, J. H. N.). [1193] The word `synaxis' was used by the early Christians to distinguish their assemblies from the Jewish `synagogue,' a word formed from the same root and more regularly. `Synaxis' came to be used more especially of a celebration of the Eucharist. See Suicer, Thesaurus, Sunaxis. [1194] skeuasto, Ex. xxx. 22-25: "a perfume compounded (murepsikon ) after the art of the perfumer" (R.V.). [1195] Heb. vii. 21. [1196] Ib. vi. 18. [1197] Ps. cxxxii. 17. The "lamp for the Anointed" was commonly applied by the Fathers to John the Baptist. Compare John v. 35, and Bishop Westcott's note there. [1198] 2 Pet. i. 19. The supposed reference in the Psalm to the lamp of prophecy is mentioned by Eusebius (Demonstr. Evang. IV. cap. 16). [1199] 2 Cor. iv. 7. The reference of the `lamp' to Christ's Incarnation is mentioned by Eusebius (u.s.) and other Fathers. [1200] Amos. iv. 13: "and declareth unto man what is his thought." For W+&x#o@"¾H+M+, `what is his thought,' the LXX. read W+:X+J+Sh¹iM+°, `His Anointed,' ton Christon autou. [1201] Luke iv. 41. [1202] John iv. 29. [1203] Heb. ix. 11. [1204] ouk epoliteueto, "was not in citizenship," "not naturalised." Cf. Sueton. Nero. cap. 16: "Christiani, genus hominum superstitionis novae et maleficae." [1205] to xenon. [1206] Isa. lxv. 15, 16. The LXX. here depart from the meaning of the Hebrew: "He shall call His servants by another name: so that he who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth" (R.V.). [1207] 2 Cor. xiii. 3. [1208] Ib. iv. 5. [1209] Acts ix. 21. [1210] 1 Cor. xv. 9. [1211] 1 Tim. i. 13. [1212] Matt. v. 17. [1213] 1 Tim. i. 14. [1214] he theotokos-- Deipara. Gibbon (Chap. xlvii. 34) says, "It is not easy to fix the invention of this word, which La Croze (Christianisme des Indes, tom. i. p. 16) ascribes to Eusebius of Cæsarea and the Arians. The orthodox testimonies are produced by Cyril (of Alexandria) and Petavius (Dogmat. Theolog. tom. v. L. v. cap. 15, p. 254, &c.), but the veracity of the Saint is questionable, and the epithet of theotokos so easily slides from the margin to the text of a Catholic ms." This passage is justly described as "Gibbon's calumny" by Dr. Newman: see his notes on the title theotokos (Athan. c. Arian. Or. ii. cap. 12, n.; Or. iii. capp. 14, 29, 33). The word is certainly used by Origen (Deut. xxii. 13, Lommatzch. Tom. x. p. 378): "She that is already betrothed is called a wife, as also in the case of Joseph and the Theotokos." Cf. Archelaus (Disput. cum Mane, cap. xxxiv. "qui de Maria Dei Genetrice natus est"); Eusebius (de Vita Constantini, III. cap. 43: "The pious Empress adorned with rare memorials the place of the travail of the Theotokos"). For other examples see Suicer's Thesaurus, theotokos, Pearson, Creed, Art. iii. notes l, m, n, o, and Routh, Reliq. Sacr. ii. p. 332. [1215] "Chrysostom describing the flourishing state of the Church in Egypt in those times, says: `Egypt welcomes and saves Him when a fugitive and plotted against, and receives a beginning as it were of its appropriation to Him, in order that when it shall hear Him proclaimed by the Apostles, it may in their day also be honoured as having been first to welcome Him'" (Cleopas). [1216] Luke ii. 29, 30. [1217] Mark i. 24. [1218] See Cat. iv. 10, note 7. [1219] The Bordeaux Pilgrim, who visited the Holy Places of Jerusalem, a.d. 333, c. speaks of this palm-tree as still existing. The longevity of the palm was proverbial: cf. Aristot. (De Longitudine Vitæ, c. iv. 2). [1220] The same Pilgrim (as quoted by the Benedictine Editor) says, "There is also the rock where Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ." Compare Cat. xiii. 38. [1221] See Index, Golgotha. [1222] See the passage of the Introduction referred to in Index, Sepulchre. [1223] See Cat. ii. 15, note 8, and xiii. 25, 34, 38. On the supernatural character of the darkness mentioned in the Gospels see Meyer, Commentary, Matt. xxvii. 45. An eclipse of the sun was of course impossible, as the moon was full. Mr. J. R. Hind (Historical Eclipses, "Times," 19th July, 1872) states that the solar eclipse, mentioned by Phlegon the freedman of Hadrian, which occurred on Nov. 24, a.d. 29, and was partial at Jerusalem, is "the only solar eclipse that could have been visible at Jerusalem during the period usually fixed for the ministry of Christ." He adds, "The Moon was eclipsed on the generally received date of the Crucifixion, 3 April, a.d. 33. I find she had emerged from the earth's dark shadow a quarter of an hour before she rose at Jerusalem (6:36 p.m.), but the penumbra continued upon her disc for an hour afterwards." Thus the "darkness from the sixth hour unto the ninth" cannot be explained as the natural effect of an eclipse either solar or lunar. [1224] This clause is omitted in Codd. Mon. 1, 2, Roe, Casaub., and is probably repeated from the preceding line: such repetitions, however, are not uncommon in Cyril's style. [1225] Ps. xxiv. 7. The first clause is mistranslated by the LXX. from whom Cyril quotes. [1226] Acts v. 15. [1227] Ib. xix. 12. [1228] The persecution of the Christians in Persia by Sapor II. is described at length by Sozomen (E.H. II. cc. ix.-xv., in this Series). It commenced in a.d. 343, and was going on at the date of these Lectures and long after. "During fifty years the Cross lay prostrate in blood and ashes" (Dict. Bib. `Sassanidæ'). Compare Neander, Church History, Tom. III. p 148, Bohn.) [1229] The Goths here mentioned are the Gothi minores dwelling on the north of the Danube, where Ulfilas, "the Apostle of the Goths" (311-381), converted many of his countrymen to Christianity. After suffering severe persecution, he was allowed by the Constantius to take refuge with his Arian converts in Moesia and Thrace. This migration took place in 348 a.d., the same year in which Cyril's Lectures were delivered. [1230] See Index, Exorcism. [1231] Matt. v. 16.

.


Lecture XI.

On the Words, the Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father Very God Before All Ages, by Whom All Things Were Made.

Hebrews i. 1

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in times past unto the Fathers by the Prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by His Son.

1. That we have hope in Jesus Christ has been sufficiently shewn, according to our ability, in what we delivered to you yesterday. But we must not simply believe in Christ Jesus nor receive Him as one of the many who are improperly called Christs [1232] . For they were figurative Christs, but He is the true Christ; not having risen by advancement [1233] from among men to the Priesthood, but ever having the dignity of the Priesthood from the Father [1234] . And for this cause the Faith guarding us beforehand lest we should suppose Him to be one of the ordinary Christs, adds to the profession of the Faith, that we believe In One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God.

2. And again on hearing of a "Son," think not of an adopted son but a Son by nature [1235] , an Only-begotten Son, having no brother. For this is the reason why He is called "Only-begotten," because in the dignity of the Godhead, and His generation from the Father, He has no brother. But we call Him the Son of God, not of ourselves, but because the Father Himself named Christ [1236] His Son [1237] : and a true name is that which is set by fathers upon their children [1238] .

3. Our Lord Jesus Christ erewhile became Man, but by the many He was unknown. Wishing, therefore, to teach that which was not known, He called together His disciples, and asked them, Whom do men say that I, the Son of Man, am [1239] ? --not from vain-glory, but wishing to shew them the truth, lest dwelling with God, the Only-begotten of God [1240] , they should think lightly of Him as if He were some mere man. And when they answered that some said Elias, and some Jeremias, He said to them, They may be excused for not knowing, but ye, My Apostles, who in My name cleanse lepers, and cast out devils, and raise the dead, ought not to be ignorant of Him, through whom ye do these wondrous works. And when they all became silent (for the matter was too high for man to learn), Peter, the foremost of the Apostles and chief herald [1241] of the Church, neither aided by cunning invention, nor persuaded by human reasoning, but enlightened in his mind from the Father, says to Him, Thou art the Christ, not only so, but the Son of the living God. And there follows a blessing upon his speech (for in truth it was above man), and as a seal upon what he had said, that it was the Father who had revealed it to him. For the Saviour says, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but My Father which is in heaven [1242] . He therefore who acknowledges our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, partakes of this blessedness; but he who denies the Son of God is a poor and miserable man.

4. Again, I say, on hearing of a Son, understand it not merely in an improper sense, but as a Son in truth, a Son by nature, without beginning [1243] ; not as having come out of bondage into a higher state of adoption [1244] , but a Son eternally begotten by an inscrutable and incomprehensible generation. And in like manner on hearing of the First-born [1245] , think not that this is after the manner of men; for the first-born among men have other brothers also. And it is somewhere written, Israel is My son, My first-born [1246] . But Israel is, as Reuben was, a first-born son rejected: for Reuben went up to his father's couch; and Israel cast his Father's Son out of the vineyard, and crucified Him.

To others also the Scripture says, Ye are the sons of the Lord your God [1247] : and in another place, I have said, Ye are gods, and ye are all sons of the Most High [1248] . I have said, not, "I have begotten." They, when God so said, received the sonship, which before they had not: but He was not begotten to be other than He was before; but was begotten from the beginning Son of the Father, being above all beginning and all ages, Son of the Father, in all things like [1249] to Him who begat Him, eternal of a Father eternal, Life of Life begotten, and Light of Light, and Truth of Truth, and Wisdom of the Wise, and King of King, and God of God, and Power of Power [1250] .

5. If then thou hear the Gospel saying, The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham [1251] , understand "according to the flesh." For He is the Son of David at the end of the ages [1252] , but the Son of God Before All Ages, without beginning [1253] . The one, which before He had not, He received; but the other, which He hath, He hath eternally as begotten of the Father. Two fathers He hath: one, David, according to the flesh, and one, God, His Father in a Divine manner [1254] . As the Son of David, He is subject to time, and to handling, and to genealogical descent: but as Son according to the Godhead [1255] , He is subject neither to time nor to place, nor to genealogical descent: for His generation who shall declare [1256] ? God is a Spirit [1257] ; He who is a Spirit hath spiritually begotten, as being incorporeal, an inscrutable and incomprehensible generation. The Son Himself says of the Father, The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My Son, to-day have I begotten Thee [1258] . Now this to-day is not recent, but eternal: a timeless to-day, before all ages. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee [1259] .

6. Believe thou therefore on Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, and a Son Only-Begotten, according to the Gospel which says, For God so loved the world, that He gave His Only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish, but have everlasting life [1260] . And again,He that believeth on the Son is not judged, but hath passed out of death into life [1261] . But he that believeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him [1262] . And John testified concerning Him, saying, And we beheld His glory, glory as of the only-begotten from the father,--full of grace and truth [1263] : at whom the devils trembled and said, Ah! what have we to do with Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of the living God [1264] .

7. He is then the Son of God by nature and not by adoption [1265] , begotten of the Father. And he that loveth Him that begat, loveth Him also that is begotten of Him [1266] ; but he that despiseth Him that is begotten casts back the insult upon Him who begat. And whenever thou hear of God begetting, sink not down in thought to bodily things, nor think of a corruptible generation, lest thou be guilty of impiety. God is a Spirit [1267] , His generation is spiritual: for bodies beget bodies, and for the generation of bodies time needs must intervene; but time intervenes not in the generation of the Son from the Father. And in our case what is begotten is begotten imperfect: but the Son of God was begotten perfect; for what He is now, that is He also from the beginning [1268] , begotten without beginning. We are begotten so as to pass from infantile ignorance to a state of reason: thy generation, O man, is imperfect, for thy growth is progressive. But think not that it is thus in His case, nor impute infirmity to Him who hath begotten. For if that which He begot was imperfect, and acquired its perfection in time, thou art imputing infirmity to Him who hath begotten; if so be, the Father did not bestow from the beginning that which, as thou sayest, time bestowed afterwards [1269] .

8. Think not therefore that this generation is human, nor as Abraham begat Isaac. For in begetting Isaac, Abraham begat not what he would, but what another granted. But in God the Father's begetting there is neither ignorance nor intermediate deliberation [1270] . For to say that He knew not what He was begetting is the greatest impiety; and it is no less impious to say, that after deliberation in time He then became a Father. For God was not previously without a Son, and afterwards in time became a Father; but hath the Son eternally, having begotten Him not as men beget men, but as Himself only knoweth, who begat Him before all ages Very God.

9. For the Father being Very God begat the Son like unto Himself, Very God [1271] ; not as teachers beget disciples, not as Paul says to some, For in Christ Jesus I begat you through the Gospel [1272] . For in this case he who was not a son by nature became a son by discipleship, but in the former case He was a Son by nature, a true Son. Not as ye, who are to be illuminated, are now becoming sons of God: for ye also become sons, but by adoption of grace, as it is written, But as many as received Him, to them gave He the right to become children of God, even to them that believe on His name: which were begotten not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God [1273] . And we indeed are begotten of water and of the Spirit, but not thus was Christ begotten of the Father. For at the time of His Baptism addressing Him, and saying, This is My Son [1274] , He did not say, "This has now become My Son," but, This is My Son; that He might make manifest, that even before the operation of Baptism He was a Son.

10. The Father begat the Son, not as among men mind begets word. For the mind is substantially existent in us; but the word when spoken is dispersed into the air and comes to an end [1275] . But we know Christ to have been begotten not as a word pronounced [1276] , but as a Word substantially existing [1277] and living; not spoken by the lips, and dispersed, but begotten of the Father eternally and ineffably, in substance [1278] . For, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God [1279] , sitting at God's right hand;--the Word understanding the Father's will, and creating all things at His bidding: the Word, which came down and went up; for the word of utterance when spoken comes not down, nor goes up; the Word speaking and saying, The things which I have seen with My Father, these I speak [1280] : the Word possessed of power, and reigning over all things: for the Father hath committed all things unto the Son [1281] .

11. The Father then begat Him not in such wise as any man could understand, but as Himself only knoweth. For we profess not to tell in what manner He begat Him, but we insist that it was not in this manner. And not we only are ignorant of the generation of the Son from the Father, but so is every created nature. Speak to the earth, if perchance it may teach thee [1282] : and though thou inquire of all things which are upon the earth, they shall not be able to tell thee. For the earth cannot tell the substance of Him who is its own potter and fashioner. Nor is the earth alone ignorant, but the sun also [1283] : for the sun was created on the fourth day, without knowing what had been made in the three days before him; and he who knows not the things made in the three days before him, cannot tell forth the Maker Himself. Heaven will not declare this: for at the Father's bidding the heaven also was like smoke established [1284] by Christ. Nor shall the heaven of heavens declare this, nor the waters which are above the heavens [1285] . Why then art thou cast down, O man, at being ignorant of that which even the heavens know not? Nay, not only are the heavens ignorant of this generation, but also every angelic nature. For if any one should ascend, were it possible, into the first heaven, and perceiving the ranks of the Angels there should approach and ask them how God begat His own Son, they would say perhaps, "We have above us beings greater and higher; ask them." Go up to the second heaven and the third; attain, if thou canst, to Thrones, and Dominions, and Principalities, and Powers: and even if any one should reach them, which is impossible, they also would decline the explanation, for they know it not.

12. For my part, I have ever wondered at the curiosity of the bold men, who by their imagined reverence fall into impiety. For though they know nothing of Thrones, and Dominions, and Principalities, and Powers, the workmanship of Christ, they attempt to scrutinise their Creator Himself. Tell me first, O most daring man, wherein does Throne differ from Dominion, and then scrutinise what pertains to Christ. Tell me what is a Principality, and what a Power, and what a Virtue, and what an Angel: and then search out their Creator, for all things were made by Him [1286] . But thou wilt not, or thou canst not ask Thrones or Dominions. What else is there that knoweth the deep things of God [1287] , save only the Holy Ghost, who spake the Divine Scriptures? But not even the Holy Ghost Himself has spoken in the Scriptures concerning the generation of the Son from the Father. Why then dost thou busy thyself about things which not even the Holy Ghost has written in the Scriptures? Thou that knowest not the things which are written, busiest thou thyself about the things which are not written? There are many questions in the Divine Scriptures; what is written we comprehend not, why do we busy ourselves about what is not written? It is sufficient for us to know that God hath begotten One Only Son.

13. Be not ashamed to confess thine ignorance, since thou sharest ignorance with Angels. Only He who begat knoweth Him who was begotten, and He who is begotten of Him knoweth Him who begat. He who begat knoweth what He begat: and the Scriptures also testify that He who was begotten is God [1288] . For as the Father hath life in Himself, so also hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself [1289] ; and, that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father [1290] ; and, as the Father quickeneth whom He will, even so the Son quickeneth whom He will [1291] . Neither He who begat suffered any loss, nor is anything lacking to Him who was begotten (I know that I have said these things many times, but it is for your safety that they are said so often): neither has He who begat, a Father, nor He who was begotten, a brother. Neither was He who begat changed into the Son [1292] , nor did He who was begotten become the Father [1293] . Of One Only Father there is One Only-begotten Son: neither two Unbegotten [1294] , nor two Only-begotten; but One Father, Unbegotten (for He is Unbegotten who hath no father); and One Son, eternally begotten of the Father; begotten not in time, but before all ages; not increased by advancement, but begotten that which He now is.

14. We believe then In the Only-Begotten Son of God, Who Was Begotten of the Father Very God. For the True God begetteth not a false god, as we have said, nor did He deliberate and afterwards beget [1295] ; but He begat eternally, and much more swiftly than our words or thoughts: for we speaking in time, consume time; but in the case of the Divine Power, the generation is timeless. And as I have often said, He did not bring forth the Son from non-existence into being, nor take the non-existent into sonship [1296] : but the Father, being Eternal, eternally and ineffably begat One Only Son, who has no brother. Nor are there two first principles; but the Father is the head of the Son [1297] ; the beginning is One. For the Father begot the Son Very God, called Emmanuel; and Emmanuel being interpreted is, God with us [1298] .

15. And wouldest thou know that He who was begotten of the Father, and afterwards became man, is God? Hear the Prophet saying, This is our God, none other shall be accounted of in comparison with Him. He hath found out every way of knowledge, and given it to Jacob His servant, and to Israel His beloved. Afterwards He was seen on earth, and conversed among men [1299] . Seest thou herein God become man, after the giving of the law by Moses? Hear also a second testimony to Christ's Deity, that which has just now been read, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever [1300] . For lest, because of His presence here in the flesh, He should be thought to have been advanced after this to the Godhead, the Scripture says plainly, Therefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows [1301] . Seest thou Christ as God anointed by God the Father?

16. Wouldest thou receive yet a third testimony to Christ's Godhead? Hear Esaias saying, Egypt hath laboured, and the merchandise of Ethiopia: and soon after, In Thee shall they make supplication, because God is in Thee, and there is no God save Thee. For Thou art God, and we knew it not, the God of Israel, the Saviour [1302] . Thou seest that the Son is God, having in Himself God the Father: saying almost the very same which He has said in the Gospels: The Father is in Me, and I am in the Father [1303] . He says not, I am the Father, but the Father is in Me, and I am in the Father. And again He said not, I and the Father am [1304] one, but, I and the Father am one, that we should neither separate them, nor make a confusion of Son-Father [1305] . One they are because of the dignity pertaining to the Godhead, since God begat God. One in respect of their kingdom; for the Father reigns not over these, and the Son over those, lifting Himself up against His Father like Absalom: but the kingdom of the Father is likewise the kingdom of the Son. One they are, because there is no discord nor division between them: for what things the Father willeth, the Son willeth the same. One, because the creative works of Christ are no other than the Father's; for the creation of all things is one, the Father having made them through the Son: For He spake, and they were made; He commanded, and they were created, saith the Psalmist [1306] . For He who speaks, speaks to one who hears: and He who commands, gives His commandment to one who is present with Him.

17. The Son then is Very God, having the Father in Himself, not changed into the Father; for the Father was not made man, but the Son. For let the truth be freely spoken [1307] . The Father suffered not for us, but the Father sent Him who suffered. Neither let us say, There was a time when the Son was not; nor let us admit a Son who is the Father [1308] : but let us walk in the king's highway; let us turn aside neither on the left hand nor on the right. Neither from thinking to honour the Son, let us call Him the Father; nor from thinking to honour the Father, imagine the Son to be some one of the creatures. But let One Father be worshipped through One Son, and let not their worship be separated. Let One Son be proclaimed, sitting at the right hand of the Father before all ages: sharing His throne not by advancement in time after His Passion, but by eternal possession.

18. He who hath seen the Son, hath seen the Father [1309] : for in all things the Son is like to Him who begat Him [1310] ; begotten Life of Life and Light of Light, Power of Power, God of God; and the characteristics of the Godhead are unchangeable [1311] in the Son; and he who is counted worthy to behold Godhead in the Son, attains to the fruition of the Father. This is not my word, but that of the Only-begotten: Have I been so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father [1312] . And to be brief, let us neither separate them, nor make a confusion [1313] : neither say thou ever that the Son is foreign to the Father, nor admit those who say that the Father is at one time Father, and at another Son: for these are strange and impious statements, and not the doctrines of the Church. But the Father having begotten the Son, remained the Father and is not changed. He begat Wisdom, yet lost not wisdom Himself; and begat Power, yet became not weak: He begat God, but lost not His own Godhead: and neither did He lose anything Himself by diminution or change; nor has He who was begotten any thing wanting. Perfect is He who begat, Perfect that which was begotten: God was He who begat, God He who was begotten; God of all Himself, yet entitling the Father His own God. For He is not ashamed to say, I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God [1314] .

19. But lest thou shouldest think that He is in a like sense Father of the Son and of the creatures, Christ drew a distinction in what follows. For He said not, "I ascend to our Father," lest the creatures should be made fellows of the Only-begotten; but He said, My Father and your Father; in one way Mine, by nature; in another yours, by adoption. And again, to my God and your God, in one way Mine, as His true and Only-begotten Son, and in another way yours, as His workmanship [1315] . The Son of God then is Very God, ineffably begotten before all ages (for I say the same things often to you, that it may be graven upon your mind). This also believe, that God has a Son: but about the manner be not curious, for by searching thou wilt not find. Exalt not thyself, lest thou fall: think upon those things only which have been commanded thee [1316] . Tell me first what He is who begat, and then learn that which He begat; but if thou canst not conceive the nature of Him who hath begotten, search not curiously into the manner of that which is begotten.

20. For godliness it sufficeth thee to know, as we have said, that God hath One Only Son, One naturally begotten; who began not His being when He was born in Bethlehem, but Before All Ages. For hear the Prophet Micah saying, And thou, Bethlehem, house of Ephrata, art little to be among the thousands of Judah. Out of thee shall come forth unto Me a Ruler, who shall feed My people Israel: and His goings forth are from the beginning, from days of eternity [1317] . Think not then of Him who is now come forth out of Bethlehem [1318] , but worship Him who was eternally begotten of the Father. Suffer none to speak of a beginning of the Son in time, but as a timeless Beginning acknowledge the Father. For the Father is the Beginning of the Son, timeless, incomprehensible, without beginning [1319] . The fountain of the river of righteousness, even of the Only-begotten, is the Father, who begat Him as Himself only knoweth. And wouldest thou know that our Lord Jesus Christ is King Eternal? Hear Him again saying, Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad [1320] . And then, when the Jews received this hardly, He says what to them was still harder, Before Abraham was, I am [1321] . And again He saith to the Father, And now, Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was [1322] . He says plainly, "before the world was, I had the glory which is with Thee." And again when He says, For Thou lovedst Me before the foundation of the world [1323] , He plainly declares, "The glory which I have with thee is from eternity."

21. We believe then In One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of His Father Very God Before All Worlds, by Whom All Things Were Made. For whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers, all things were made through Him [1324] , and of things created none is exempted from His authority. Silenced be every heresy which brings in different creators and makers of the world; silenced the tongue which blasphemes the Christ the Son of God; let them be silenced who say that the sun is the Christ, for He is the sun's Creator, not the sun which we see [1325] . Silenced be they who say that the world is the workmanship of Angels [1326] , who wish to steal away the dignity of the Only-begotten. For whether visible or invisible, whether thrones or dominions, or anything that is named, all things were made by Christ. He reigns over the things which have been made by Him, not having seized another's spoils, but reigning over His own workmanship, even as the Evangelist John has said, All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made [1327] . All things were made by Him, the Father working by the Son.

22. I wish to give also a certain illustration of what I am saying, but I know that it is feeble; for of things visible what can be an exact illustration of the Divine Power? But nevertheless as feeble be it spoken by the feeble to the feeble. For just as any king, whose son was a king, if he wished to form a city, might suggest to his son, his partner in the kingdom, the form of the city, and he having received the pattern, brings the design to completion; so, when the Father wished to form all things, the Son created all things at the Father's bidding, that the act of bidding might secure to the Father His absolute authority [1328] , and yet the Son in turn might have authority over His own workmanship, and neither the Father be separated from the lordship over His own works, nor the Son rule over things created by others, but by Himself. For, as I have said, Angels did not create the world, but the Only-begotten Son, begotten, as I have said, before all ages, By Whom All Things Were Made, nothing having been excepted from His creation. And let this suffice to have been spoken by us so far, by the grace of Christ.

23. But let us now recur to our profession of the Faith, and so for the present finish our discourse. Christ made all things, whether thou speak of Angels, or Archangels, of Dominions, or Thrones. Not that the Father wanted strength to create the works Himself, but because He willed that the Son should reign over His own workmanship, God Himself giving Him the design of the things to be made. For honouring His own Father the Only-begotten saith, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father do; for what things soever He doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise [1329] . And again, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work [1330] , there being no opposition in those who work. For all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine, saith the Lord in the Gospels [1331] . And this we may certainly know from the Old and New Testaments. For He who said, Let us make man in our image and after our likeness [1332] , was certainly speaking to some one present. But clearest of all are the Psalmist's words, He spake and they were made; He commanded, and they were created [1333] , as if the Father commanded and spake, and the Son made all things at the Father's bidding. And this Job said mystically, Which alone spread out the heaven, and walketh upon the sea as on firm ground [1334] ; signifying to those who understand that He who when present here walked upon the sea is also He who aforetime made the heavens. And again the Lord saith, Or didst Thou take earth, and fashion clay into a living being [1335] ? then afterwards, Are the gates of death opened to Thee through fear, and did the door-keepers of hell shudder at sight of Thee [1336] ? thus signifying that He who through loving-kindness descended into hell, also in the beginning made man out of clay.

24. Christ then is the Only-begotten Son of God, and Maker of the world. For He was in the world, and the world was made by Him; and He came unto His own, as the Gospel teaches us [1337] . And not only of the things which are seen, but also of the things which are not seen, is Christ the Maker at the Father's bidding. For in Him, according to the Apostle, were all things created that are in the heavens, and that are upon the earth, things visible and invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things have been created by Him and for Him; and He is before all, and in Him all things consist [1338] . Even if thou speak of the worlds, of these also Jesus Christ is the Maker by the Father's bidding. For in these last days God spake unto us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made the worlds [1339] . To whom be the glory, honour, might, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.


Footnotes

[1232] Compare x. 11, 15; xvi. 13: xxi. 1. [1233] ek prokopes. See x. 5. note 8. [1234] Compare x. 14, note 9. [1235] theton. Athanasius (de Sententiâ Dionysii, § 23), represents Arius as saying that the Word "is not by nature (kata phusin) and in truth Son of God, but is called Son, He too, by adoption (kata thesin), as a creature." Again (c. Arian. Orat. iii. 19), he says, "This is the true God and the Life eternal, and we are made sons through Him by adoption and grace (thesei kai chariti)." Cf. vii. 10, and § 4, below. [1236] The mss. all read auton Christon which might mean "Christ and no other." But Christon is probably a gloss introduced from the margin. [1237] Compare the passages in which Cyril quotes Ps. ii. 7, as Cat. vii. 2; x. 2; xi. 5; xii. 18. [1238] "It was one of the especial rights of a father to choose the names for his children, and to alter them if he pleased" (Dict. Greek and Roman Antiq. "Nomen. 1 Greek.") The right to the name given by the father is the subject of one of the Private Orations of Demosthenes (Pros Boioton peri tou onomatos). [1239] Matt. xiii. 16. [1240] Compare iv. 7: "God of God begotten;" xiii. 3 and 13: "God the Son of God." Here however, the mss. vary, and the reading of Cod. Coisl. Huio Theou monogenei is approved by the Benedictine Editor, though not adopted. The confusion of Huio and Theo is like that in John i. 18. [1241] ho protostates ton 'Apostolon kai tes 'Ekklesias koruphaios kerux. Cf. ii. 19. [1242] Matt. xvi. 17. [1243] Athanasius (de Synodis, § 15) quotes a passage from the Thalia of Arius, in which he says: "We praise Him as without beginning, because of Him who has a beginning: and adore Him as eternal, because of Him who in time has come to be. He who is without beginning made the Son a beginning of things created." It is important, therefore, to notice the sense in which Cyril here calls the Son anarchos. The word has two meanings, which should be clearly distinguished, (i) unoriginate, (ii) without beginning in time. The former referring to origin, or cause, can properly be applied to the One true God, or to God the Father only, as it is used by Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. cap. v. § 65: ton panton poieten...agnoountes, ton anarchon Theon. [Strom. IV. cap. xxv. § 164: ho Theos de anarchos arche ton holon panteles arches poietikos]. [Stromat. V. cap. xiv. § 142: ex arches anarchou]. Methodius (ob. 312 a.d. circ.) in a fragment (On things created, § 8, English Trans. Clark's Ante-Nic. Libr.) comments thus on John i. 1-3: "And so after the peculiar unbeginning beginning, who is the Father, He (the Word) is the beginning of other things, `by whom all things are made.'" In this sense Cyril has said (iv. 4) that God alone is "unbegotten, unoriginate:" and in xi. 20 he explains this more fully,--"Suffer none to speak of a beginning of the Son in time (chrhoniken archen), but as a timeless beginning acknowledge the Father. For the Father is the beginning of the Son, timeless, incomprehensible, without beginning." From a confusion of the two meanings the word came to be improperly applied in the sense of "unoriginate" to the Son, and to the Spirit; and this improper usage is condemned in the 49th Apostolic Canon, which Hefele regards as amongst the most ancient Canons, and taken from the Apostolic Constitutions, vi. 11: "If any Bishop or Presbyter shall baptize not according to our Lord's ordinance into the Father, and Son, and Spirit, but into three Unoriginates, or three Sons, or three Paracletes let him be deposed." (ii.) Athanasius frequently calls the Son anarchos in the sense of `timeless,' as being the co-eternal brightness (apaugasma) of the Eternal Light: see de Sent. Dionys. §§ 15, 16, 22; "God is the Eternal Light, which never either began or shall cease: accordingly the Brightness is ever before Him, and co-exists with Him, without beginning and ever-begotten (anarchon kai aeigenes)." [1244] eis prokopen huiothesias. Cf. § 2, note 4. [1245] Prototokon. The word occurs in Heb. i. 6, which had been read in the Lesson before this Lecture. The exact dogmatic sense of the word is carefully explained by Athanasius (c. Arian. Or. ii. 62): "The same cannot be both Only-begotten and Firstborn, except in different relations;--that is, Only-begotten, because of His generation from the father, as has been said; and First-born, because of His condescension to the creation, and His making the many His brethren." See Mr. Robertson's discussion of the word prototokos (Athan. p. 344, in this series), and Bp. Bull (Def. Fid. Nic. iii. 5-8). [1246] Ex. iv. 22. [1247] Deut. xiv. 1. [1248] Ps. lxxxii. 6. [1249] en pasin homoios. See the note on iv. 7. That the phrase was not equivalent to homoousios, and did not adequately express the relation of the Son to the Father is clearly shewn by Athanasius (de Synodis, cap. iii. § 53). [1250] The additions which the Benedictine Editor has here made to the earlier text, as represented by Milles, may be conveniently shewn in brackets. alla Huios [tou Patros]* ex arches egennethe, [huperano pases arches kai aionon tunchanon]*, Uios tou Patros [en pasin]/- homoios to gegennekoti; [aidios ex aidiou Patros,]* zoe ek zoes gegennemenos. ...kai Theos ek Theou, [kai dunamis ek dunameos]/=. * Codd. Coisl. Ottob. Mon. 2. /- Coisl. Ottob. Roe, Casaub. Mon. 1, 2. /= Coisl. Ottob. Mon. 1, 2. [1251] Matt. i. 1. [1252] Heb. ix. 26. [1253] See § 4, note 3. [1254] Theikos. [1255] to men kata ton Dabid....to de kata ten Theoteta. [1256] Isa. liii. 8. Compare § 7, below. [1257] John iv. 24. [1258] Ps. ii. 7. [1259] Ps. cx. 3. "From the womb of the morning thou hast the dew of thy youth" (R.V.). There is a remarkable various reading in Codd. Roe, Casaub. To ei su, achronon kai aidion; to de semeron prosphaton, all' ouk aidion, oikeioumenou tou Patros kai ten kato gennesin. Kai palin legei; 'Ek gastros pro heosphorou gegenneka se; touto monon tes Theotetos; Pisteuson, k.t.lThe words "Thou art My Son," are thus referred to the eternal generation, and "This day" to the birth in time: whereas in the received text, followed in our translation, semeron refers to the timeless and eternal generation of the Son. The former interpretation of Ps. ii. 7 is found in many Fathers, as for example in Tertullian (adv. Prax. vii. xi.), and Methodius (Conviv. Virg. VIII. cap. ix.): "He says `Thou art,' and not `Thou hast become,' shewing that He had not recently attained to the position of Son....But the expression, `This day have I begotten Thee,' signifies that He willed that existing already before the ages in heaven He should also be begotten for the world, that is that He who was before unknown should be made known.' The same interpretation was held by many Fathers, some referring semeron to the Nativity, as Cyprian (adv. Judæos Testim. ii. 8), others to the Baptism (Justin M. Dialog. cap. lxxxviii.; Tertullian. adv. Marcion. iv. 22). Athanasius (c. Arian. iv. § 27), has a long discussion on the question whether Ps. cx. 3, ek gastros pro heosphorou gegenneka se, refers to the eternal generation of the Son, or to His Nativity. [1260] John iii. 16. [1261] Ib. iii. 18; v. 24. [1262] Ib. iii. 36. [1263] Ib. i. 14. [1264] Luke iv. 34. [1265] phusei kai ou thesei. Cf. § 2, note 4. [1266] 1 John v. 1. [1267] John iv. 24. Cf. § 5. [1268] gegennemenos anarchos. Cf. § 5, note 4. [1269] ho chronos. Bened. c. Codd. Roe, Casaub. Coisl. ho chronois Ottob. Mon. 1, 2. A. With the latter reading, the meaning will be--"if He did not bestow from the beginning, as thou sayest, what He bestowed in after times." Cyril does not here address his auditor, but an imaginary opponent,--"O man." Compare Athan. (de Synodis, § 26). [1270] The Arians appear to have made use of a dilemma: If God begat with will and purpose, these preceded the begetting, and so en pote hote ouk en, there was a time when the Son was not: if without will and purpose, then He begat in ignorance and of necessity. The answer is fully given by Athanasius (c. Arian. iii. 58-67, pp. 425-431 in this Series). [1271] Athanasius (ad Episcopos Ægypti, § 13), referring to 1 John v. 20, This is the true (halethinos) God, writes: "But these men (the Arians), as if in contradiction to this, allege that Christ is not the true God, but that He is only called God, as are other creatures, in regard of His participation in the Divine nature." Again (c. Arian. iii. 9), "He gave us to know that of the true Father He is the true Offspring (alethinon gennema). [1272] 1 Cor. iv. 15. [1273] John i. 12, 13. [1274] Matt. iii. 17. [1275] Compare Athanasius (de Sententiâ Dionysii, § 23): "the mind creates the word, being manifested in it, and the word shews the mind, having originated therein." Tertullian (adv. Prax. vii.): "You will say what is a word but a voice and sound of the mouth, and (as the Grammarians teach) air when struck against, intelligible to the ear, but for the rest a sort of void, empty, and incorporeal thing." Cf. Athan. (de Synodis, § 12): anupostaton. [1276] prophorikon. See Cat. iv. 8, note 9. [1277] enupostaton. ibid. So the Spirit is described in Cat. xvii. 5 "not uttered or breathed by the mouth and lips of the Father and the Son, nor dispersed into the air, but personally subsisting (enupostaton)." [1278] en hupostasei. [1279] John i. 1. [1280] John viii. 38. [1281] Matt. xi. 27; John v. 22. [1282] Job xii. 8. [1283] In saying that the earth, the sun, and the heavens know not their Maker, Cyril is simply using figurative language like that of the passage of Job just quoted. There is no reason to suppose that he accepted Origen's theory (de Principiis, II. cap. 7), that the heavenly bodies are living and rational beings, capable of sin. [1284] Isa. li. 6: the heavens shall vanish away like smoke. [1285] Ps. cxlviii. 4. [1286] John i. 3. [1287] 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. [1288] I have followed the reading of Codd. Coisl. Roe, Casaub. Mon. A., which is approved though not adopted by the Benedictine Editor. The common text is manifestly interpolated: "And the Holy Spirit of God testifies in the Scriptures, that He who was begotten without beginning is God. For what man knoweth, &c." This insertion of 1 Cor. ii. 11 interrupts the argument, and is a useless repetition of the allusion to the same passage in § 12. [1289] John v. 26. [1290] Ib. v. 23. [1291] Ib. v. 21. [1292] See iv. 8, note 8, on the Sabellian doctrine, and Athanas. (de Synodis, § 16, note 10 in this series). [1293] The doctrine of Sabellius might be expressed in two forms, either the Father became the Son, or the Son became the Father. Both forms are here denied. The Jerusalem Editor thinks there is an allusion to the Arian argument mentioned by Athanasius (c. Arian. Or. I. cap. vi. 22): "If the Son is the Father's offspring and Image, and is like in all things to the Father, then it necessarily holds that as He is begotten so He begets, and He too becomes father of a son." But the close connexion of the two clauses is in favour of the reference to the Sabellian huiopatoria. [1294] agennetoi. The context shews that this, not agenetoi, is here the right form. Athanasius seems to have used agennetos in both senses "Un-begotten," as here, and "unoriginate." Thus (c. Arian. Or. i. cap. ix. § 30) he says of the Arians: "Their further question `whether the Unoriginate be one or two,' shews how false are their views." Compare Bp. Lightfoot's Excursus on Ignatius, Ephes. § 7, and Mr. Robertson's notes on Athanasius in this Series. [1295] See above, § 8, note 3. [1296] Athan. (c. Arian. I. ix. 31) "speaking against the Lord, `He is of nothing,' and `He was not before His generation.'" [1297] 1 Cor. xi. 3. [1298] Matt. i. 23. [1299] Baruch iii. 35-37. The last verse was understood by Cyril, as by many of the Greek and Latin Fathers, to be a prophecy of the Incarnation: but in reality it refers to "knowledge" (episteme, v. 36), and should be translated "she was seen upon earth." See notes on the passage in the Speaker's Commentary. [1300] Heb. i. 8. [1301] Ib. i. 9. See x. 14, note 9. [1302] Isa. xlv. 14, 15: "They shall make supplication unto thee, saying, surely God is in thee." The words are addressed to Jerusalem as the city of God. Cyril applies them to the Son, misled by the Septuagint. [1303] John xiv. 11. [1304] Athanasius (c. Arian. Or. iv. § 9), arguing for the homoousion says: "These are two, because there is Father and Son, that is the Word; and one, because one God. For if this is not so, He would have said, I am the Father, or, I and the Father am." [1305] See iv. 8, notes 7 and 8. [1306] Psa. xxxiii. 9; cxlviii. 5. S. Cyril explains the creative "Fiat" in Gen. i. as addressed by the Father to the Son. [1307] We learn from Socrates (Eccl. Hist. I. 24), that after the Nicene Council "those who objected to the word homoousios conceived that those who approved it favoured the opinion of Sabellius." Marcellus of Ancyra, who was deposed on a charge of Sabellianism, and who did not in fact make clear the distinct personality of the Son, had been warmly supported by the friends of Athanasius. Cyril apparently fears to incur their censure, if he too strongly condemned the Sabellian view. [1308] Cyril here rejects both the opposite errors, Arianism, "There was a time when the Son was not," and Sabellianism, "a Son who is the Father." [1309] John xiv. 9. [1310] See above, § 4, note 9. [1311] aparallaktoi. The word was used by the Orthodox Bishops at Nicæa, who said that "the Word must be described as the True power and Image of the Father, in all things like the Father and Himself incapable of change." See the notes of Dr. Newman and Mr. Robertson on Athanasius (de Decretis, § 20). [1312] John xiv. 9. [1313] See iv. 8, note 8. [1314] John xx. 17. [1315] Compare Cat. vii. 7. The Jerusalem Editor observes that the expression "My God" is understood by the Fathers generally as spoken by Christ in reference to His human nature, but Cyril applies this, as well as the other expression "My Father," to the Divine nature. So Hilary (de Trinit. iv. 53): "idcirco Deus ejus est, quia ex eo natus in Deum est." Compare Epiphanius (Hær. lxix. 55). [1316] Ecclus. iii. 22. [1317] Micah v. 2; on the various readings olgiostos ei, me ol, ei ouk ol. ei, found in the mss. of Cyril, see the Commentaries on the quotation of the passage in Matt. ii. 6. [1318] Codd. Roe, Casaub. have a different reading--"Think not then of His having now been born in Bethlehem, and (nor) suppose Him as the Son of Man to be altogether recent, but worship, &c." This is rightly regarded by the Benedictine and other Editors as an interpolation intended to avoid the apparent tendency of Cyril's language in the received text to separate the Virgin's Son from the Eternal Word. Had Cyril so written after the Nestorian controversy arose, he would have appeared to favour the Nestorian formula that "Mary did not give birth to the Deity." Compare Swainson (Nicene Creed, Ch. ix. § 7.) What Cyril really means is that we are not to think of Christ simply as man, but to worship Him as God. [1319] Compare § 4, note 3. [1320] John viii. 56. [1321] Ib. viii. 58. [1322] Ib. xvii. 5. [1323] John xvii. 24. [1324] Col. i. 16. [1325] Compare Cat. vi. 13, and xv. 3: "Here let converts from the Manichees gain instruction, and no longer make those lights their gods; nor impiously think that this sun which shall be darkened is Christ." [1326] The creation of the world was ascribed to Angels by the Gnostics generally, e.g. by Simon Magus (Irenæus, adv. Hæres. I. xxiii. § 2), Menander (ibid. § 5), Saturninus (ibid. xxiv. 1), Basilides (ibid. § 3), Carpocrates (ibid. xxv. 1). [1327] John i. 3. [1328] On the doctrine of Creation by the Son as held by Cyril, see the reference to the Introduction in the Index, Creation. [1329] John v. 19. [1330] Ib. v. 17. [1331] Ib. xvii. 10. [1332] Gen. i. 26. [1333] Ps. cxlviii. 5. [1334] Job ix. 8. [1335] Ib. xxxviii. 14. [1336] Ib. xxxviii. 17. [1337] John i. 10, 11. [1338] Col. i. 16, 17. [1339] Heb. i. 2.


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