Appendix. Against All Heresies - Tertullian
Afterwards, again, followed Saturninus: he, too, affirming that the
innascible  Virtue, that is God, abides in the highest regions, and
that those regions are infinite, and in the regions immediately above us;
but that angels far removed from Him made the lower world;  and
that, because light from above had flashed refulgently in the lower regions,
the angels had carefully tried to form man after the similitude of that
light; that man lay crawling on the surface of the earth; that this light
and this higher virtue was, thanks to mercy, the salvable spark in man,
while all the rest of him perishes;  that Christ had not existed in
a bodily substance, and had endured a quasi-passion in a phantasmal shape
merely; that a resurrection of the flesh there will by no means be.
Translated by the Rev. S. Thelwall.
Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and
first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional
introductionary material and notes provided for the American
edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.
Chapter I. Earliest Heretics:  Simon Magus, Menander, Saturninus,
Basilides, Nicolaus. [the Work Begins as a Fragment.]
Of which heretics I will (to pass by a good deal) summarize some few
particulars. For of Judaism's heretics I am silent'Dositheus the Samaritan,
I mean, who was the first who had the hardihood to repudiate the prophets,
on the ground that they had not spoken under inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
Of the Sadducees I am silent, who, springing from the root of this error,
had the hardihood to adjoin to this heresy the denial likewise of the
resurrection of the flesh.  The Pharisees I pretermit, who were
"divided" from the Jews by their superimposing of certain additaments to the
law, which fact likewise made them worthy of receiving this very name;
 and, together with them, the Herodians likewise, who said that Herod
was Christ. To those I betake myself who have chosen to make the gospel the
starting-point of their heresies.
Of these the first of all is Simon Magus, who in the Acts of the Apostles
earned a condign and just sentence from the Apostle Peter.  He had the
hardihood to call himself the Supreme Virtue,  that is, the Supreme
God; and moreover, (to assert) that the universe  had been originated
by his angels; that he had descended in quest of an erring dæmon, 
which was Wisdom; that, in a phantasmal semblance of God, he had not
suffered among the Jews, but was as if he had suffered. 
After him Menander, his disciple (likewise a magician  ), saying the
same as Simon. Whatever Simon had affirmed himself to be, this did Menander
equally affirm himself to be, asserting that none could possibly have
salvation without being baptized in his name.
Afterwards broke out the heretic Basilides. He affirms that there is a
supreme Deity, by name Abraxas,  by whom was created Mind, which in
Greek he calls that thence sprang the Word; that of Him issued
Providence, Virtue,  and Wisdom; that out of these subsequently were
made Principalities, powers,  and Angels; that there ensued infinite
issues and processions of angels; that by these angels 365 heavens were
formed, and the world,  in honour of Abraxas, whose name, if
computed, has in itself this number. Now, among the last of the angels,
those who made this world,  he places the God of the Jews latest,
that is, the God of the Law and of the Prophets, whom he denies to be a God,
but affirms to be an angel. To him, he says, was allotted the seed of
Abraham, and accordingly he it was who transferred the sons of Isreal from
the land of Egypt into the land of Canaan; affirming him to be turbulent
above the other angels, and accordingly given to the frequent arousing of
seditions and wars, yes, and the shedding of human blood. Christ, moreover,
he affirms to have been sent, not by this maker of the world,  but
by the above-named Abraxas; and to have come in a phantasm, and been
destitute of the substance of flesh: that it was not He who suffered among
the Jews, but that Simon  was crucified in His stead: whence, again,
there must be no believing on him who was crucified, lest one confess to
having believed on Simon. Martyrdoms, he says, are not to be endured. The
resurrection of the flesh he strenuously impugns, affirming that salvation
has not been promised to bodies.
A brother heretic  emerged in Nicolaus. He was one of the seven
deacons who were appointed in the Acts of the Apostles.  He affirms
that Darkness was seized with a concupiscence'and, indeed, a foul and
obscene one'after Light: out of this permixture it is a shame to say what
fetid and unclean (combinations arose). The rest (of his tenets), too, are
obscene. For he tells of certain Æons, sons of turpitude, and of
conjunctions of execrable and obscene embraces and per-mixtures, 
and certain yet baser outcomes of these. He teaches that there were born,
moreover, dæmons, and gods, and spirits seven, and other things sufficiently
sacrilegious. alike and foul, which we blush to recount, and at once pass
them by. Enough it is for us that this heresy of the Nicolaitans has been
condemned by the Apocalypse of the Lord with the weightiest authority
attaching to a sentence, in saying "Because this thou holdest, thou hatest
the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which I too hate." 
Chapter II. Ophites, Cainites, Sethites.
To these are added those heretics likewise who are called Ophites: 
for they magnify the serpent to such a degree, that they prefer him even to
Christ Himself; for it was he, they say, who gave us the origin of the
knowledge of good and of evil.  His power and majesty (they say)
Moses perceiving, set up the brazen serpent; and whoever gazed upon him
obtained health.  Christ Himself (they say further) in His gospel
imitates Moses' serpent's sacred power, in saying: "And as Moses upreared
the serpent in the desert, so it behoveth the Son of man to be upreared."
 Him they introduce to bless their eucharistic (elements). 
Now the whole parade and doctrine of this error flowed from the following
source. They say that from the supreme primary Æon whom men speak of
 there emanated several other inferior Æons. To all these, however,
there opposed himself an Æon who name is Ialdabaoth.  He had been
conceived by the permixture of a second Æon with inferior Æons; and
afterwards, when he  had been desirous of forcing his way into the
higher regions, had been disabled by the permixture of the gravity of matter
with himself to arrive at the higher regions; had been left in the midst,
and had extended himself to his full dimensions, and thus had made the
sky.  Ialdabaoth, however, had descended lower, and had made him
seven sons, and had shut from their view the upper regions by
self-distension, in order that, since (these) angels could not know what was
above,  they might think him the sole God. These inferior Virtues
and angels, therefore, had made man; and, because he had been originated by
weaker and mediocre powers, he lay crawling, worm-like. That Æon, however,
out of which Ialdaboath had proceeded, moved to the heart with envy, had
injected into man as he lay a certain spark; excited whereby, he was through
prudence to grow wise, and be able to understand the things above. So,
again, the Ialdaboath aforesaid, turning indignant, had emitted out of
himself the Virtue and similitude of the serpent; and this had been the
Virtue in paradise'that is, this had been the serpent'whom Eve had believed
as if he had been God the Son.  He  plucked, say they, from
the fruit of the tree, and thus conferred on mankind the knowledge of things
good and evil.  Christ, moreover, existed not in substance of flesh:
salvation of the flesh is not to be hoped for at all.
Moreover, also, there has broken out another heresy also, which is called
that of the Cainites.  And the reason is, that they magnify Cain as
if he had been conceived of some. potent Virtue which operated in him; for
Abel had been procreated after being conceived of an inferior Virtue, and
accordingly had been found inferior. They who assert this likewise defend
the traitor Judas, telling us that he is admirable and great, because of the
advantages he is vaunted to have conferred on mankind; for some of them
think that thanksgiving is to be rendered to Judas on this account: viz.,
Judas, they say, observing that Christ wished to subvert the truth, betrayed
Him, in order that there might be no possibility of truth's being subverted.
And others thus dispute against them, and say: Because the powers of this
world  were unwilling that Christ should suffer, lest through His
death salvation should be prepared for mankind, he, consulting for the
salvation of mankind, betrayed Christ, in order that there might be no
possibility at all of the salvation being impeded, which was being impeded
through the Virtues which were opposing Christ's passion; and thus, through
the passion of Christ, there might be no possibility of the salvation of
mankind being retarded.
But, again, the heresy has started forth which is called that of the
Sethites.  The doctrine of this perversity is as follows. Two human
beings were formed by the angels'Cain and Abel. On their account arose great
contentions and discords among the angels; for this reason, that Virtue
which was above all the Virtues'which they style the Mother'when they said
 that Abel had been slain, willed this Seth of theirs to be conceived
and born in place of Abel, in order that those angels might be escheated who
had created those two former human beings, while this pure seed rises and is
born. For they say that there had been iniquitous permixtures of two angels
and human beings; for which reason that Virtue which (as we have said) they
style the Mother brought on the deluge even, for the purpose of vengeance,
in order that that seed of permixture might be swept away, and this only
seed which was pure be kept entire. But (in vain): for they who had
originated those of the former seed sent into the ark (secretly and
stealthily, and unknown to that Mother-Virtue), together with those "eight
souls,"  the seed likewise of Ham, in order that the seed of evil
should not perish, but should, together with the rest, be preserved, and
after the deluge be restored to the earth, and, by example of the rest,
should grow up and diffuse itself, and fill and occupy the whole orb.
 Of Christ, moreover, their sentiments are such that they call Him
merely Seth, and say that He was instead of the actual Seth.
Chapter III. Carpocrates, Cerinthus, Ebion.
Carpocrates, futhermore, introduced the following sect. He affirms that
there is one Virtue, the chief among the upper (regions): that out of this
were produced angels and Virtues, which, being far distant from the upper
Virtues, created this world  in the lower regions: that Christ was
not born of the Virgin Mary, but was generated'a mere human being'of the
seed of Joseph, superior (they admit) above all others in the practice of
righteousness and in integrity of life; that He suffered among the Jews; and
that His soul alone was received in heaven as having been more firm and
hardy than all others: whence he would infer, retaining only the salvation
of souls, that there are no resurrections of the body.
After him brake out the heretic Cerinthus, teaching similarly. For he, too,
says that the world  was originated by those angels;  and
sets forth Christ as born of the seed of Joseph, contending that He was
merely human, without divinity; affirming also that the Law was given by
angels;  representing the God of the Jews as not the Lord, but an
His successor was Ebion,  not agreeing with Cerinthus in every
point; in that he affirms the world  to have been made by God, not
by angels; and because it is written, "No disciple above his master, nor
servant above his lord, "  sets forth likewise the law as binding,
 of course for the purpose of excluding the gospel and vindicating
Chapter IV. Valentinus, Ptolemy and Secundus, Heracleon.
Valentinus the heretic, moreover, introduced many fables. These I will
retrench and briefly summarize. For he introduces the Pleroma and the thirty
Æons. These Æons, moreover, he explains in the way of syzygies, that is,
conjugal unions  of some kind. For among the first,  he
says, were Depth  and Silence; of these proceeded Mind and Truth;
out of whom burst the Word and Life; from whom, again, were created Man
 and the Church. But (these are not all); for of these last also
proceeded twelve Æons; from Speech,  moreover, and Life proceeded
other ten Æons: such is the Triacontad of Æons, which is made up in the
Pleroma of an ogdoad, a decad, and a duodecad. The thirtieth Æon, moreover,
willed to see the great Bythus; and, to see him, had the hardihood to ascend
into the upper regions; and not being capable of seeing his magnitude,
desponded,  and almost suffered dissolution, had not some one,'he
whom he calls Horos, to wit,'sent to invigorate him, strengthened him by
pronouncing the word "Iao."  This Æon, moreover, which was thus
reduced to despondency, he calls Achamoth, (and says) that he was seized
with certain regretful passions, and out of his passions gave birth to
material essences.  For he was panic-stricken, he says, and
terror-stricken, and overcome with sadness; and of these passions he
conceived and bare. Hence he made the heaven, and the earth, and the sea,
and whatever is in them: for which cause all things made by him are infirm,
and frail, and capable of falling, and mortal, inasmuch as he himself was
conceived and produced from despondency. He, however, originated this
world  out of those material essences which Achamoth, by his panic,
or terror, or sadness, or sweat, had supplied. For of his panic, he says,
was made darkness; of his fear and ignorance, the spirits of wickedness and
malignity; of his sadness and tears, the humidities of founts, the material
essence of floods and sea. Christ, moreover, was sent by that First-Father
who is Bythus. He, moreover, was not in the substance of our flesh; but,
bringing down from heaven some spiritual body or other, passed through the
Virgin Mary as water through a pipe, neither receiving nor borrowing aught
thence. The resurrection of our present flesh he denies, but (maintains
that) of some sister-flesh.  Of the Law and the prophets some parts
he approves, some he disapproves; that is, he disapproves all in reprobating
some. A Gospel of his own he likewise has, beside these of ours.
After him arose the heretics Ptolemy and Secundus, who agree throughout with
Valentinus, differing only in the following point: viz., whereas Valentinus
had reigned but thirty Æons, they have added several more; for they first
added four, and subsequently four more. And Valentine's assertion, that it
was the thirtieth Æon which strayed out from the Pleroma, (as falling into
despondency, ) they deny; for the one which desponded on account of
disappointed yearning to see the First-Father was not of the original
triacontad, they say.
There arose, besides, Heracleon, a brother  -heretic, whose
sentiments pair with Valentine's; but, by some novelty of terminology, he is
desirous of seeming to differ in sentiment. For he introduces the notion
that there existed first what he terms (a Monad);  and then out of
that Monad (arose) two, and then the rest of the Æons. Then he introduces
the whole system of Valentine.
Chapter V. Marcus and Colarbasus.
After these there were not wanting a Marcus and a Colarbasus, composing a
novel heresy out of the Greek alphabet. For they affirm that without those
letters truth cannot be found; nay more, that in those letters the whole
plenitude and perfection of truth is comprised; for this was why Christ
said, "I am the Alpha and the Omega."  In fact, they say that Jesus
Christ descended,  that is, that the dove came down on Jesus;
 and, since the dove is styled by the Greek name
(peristera), it has in itself this number DCCCI.  These men run
through their Ō, Ps, Ch Ph U, T'through the whole alphabet, indeed, up to A
and B'and compute ogdoads and decads. So we may grant it useless and idle to
recount all their trifles. What, however, must be allowed not merely vain,
but likewise dangerous, is this: they feign a second God, beside the
Creator; they affirm that Christ was not in the substance of flesh; they say
there is to be no resurrection of the flesh.
Chapter VI. Cerdo, Marcion, Lucan, Apelles.
To this is added one Cerdo. He introduces two first causes,  that
is, two Gods'one good, the other cruel:  the good being the
superior; the latter, the cruel one, being the creator of the world.
 He repudiates the prophecies and the Law; renounces God the Creator;
maintains that Christ who came was the Son of the superior God; affirms that
He was not in the substance of flesh; states Him to have been only in a
phantasmal shape, to have not really suffered, but undergone a quasipassion,
and not to have been born of a virgin, nay, really not to have been born at
all. A resurrection of the soul merely does he approve, denying that of the
body. The Gospel of Luke alone, and that not entire, does he receive. Of the
Apostle Paul he takes neither all the epistles, nor in their integrity. The
Acts of the Apostles and the Apocalypse he rejects as false.
After him emerged a disciple of his, one Marcion by name, a native of
Pontus,  son of a bishop, excommunicated because of a rape committed
on a certain virgin.  He, starting from the fact that it is said,
"Every good tree beareth good fruit, but an evil evil,"  attempted
to approve the heresy of Cerdo; so that his assertions are identical with
those of the former heretic before him.
After him arose one Lucan by name, a follower and disciple of Marcion. He,
too, wading through the same kinds of blasphemy, teaches the same as Marcion
and Cerdo had taught.
Close on their heels follows Apelles, a disciple of Marcion, who after
lapsing, into his own carnality,  was severed from Marcion. He
introduces one God in the infinite upper regions, and states that He made
many powers and angels; beside Him, withal, another Virtue, which he affirms
to be called Lord, but represents as an angel. By him he will have it appear
that the world  . was originated in imitation of a superior world.
 With this lower world he mingled throughout (a principle of)
repentance, because he had not made it so perfectly as that superior world
had been originated. The Law and the prophets he repudiates. Christ he
neither, like Marcion, affirms to have been in a phantasmal shape, nor yet
in substance of a true body, as the Gospel teaches; but says, because He
descended from the upper regions, that in the course of His descent He wove
together for Himself a starry and airy  flesh; and, in His
resurrection, restored, in the course of His ascent, to the several
individual elements whatever had been borrowed in His descent: and thus'the
several parts of His body dispersed'He reinstated in heaven His spirit only.
This man denies the resurrection of the flesh. He uses, too, one only
apostle; but that is Marcion's, that is, a mutilated one. He teaches the
salvation of souls alone. He has, besides, private but extraordinary
lections of his own, which he calls "Manifestations  of one
Philumene,  a girl whom he follows as a prophetess. He has, besides,
his own books, which he has entitled books of Syllogisms, in which he seeks
to prove that whatever Moses has written about God is not true, but is
Chapter VII. Tatian, Cataphrygians, Cataproclans, Cathaeschinetans.
To all these heretics is added one Tatian, a brother-heretic. This man was
Justin Martyr's disciple. After Justin's death he began to cherish different
opinions from his. For he wholly savours of Valentinus; adding this, that
Adam cannot even attain salvation: as if, when the branches become
salvable,  the root were not!
Other heretics swell the list who are called Cataphrygians, but their
teaching is not uniform. For there are (of them) some who are called
Cataproclans;  there are others who are termed Catæschinetans.
 These have a blasphemy common, and a blasphemy not common, but
peculiar and special. The common blasphemy lies in their saying that the
Holy Spirit was in the apostles indeed, the Paraclete was not; and in their
saying that the Paraclete has spoken in Montanus more things than Christ
brought forward into (the compass of) the Gospel, and not merely more, but
likewise better and greater. But the particular one they who follow Æschines
have; this, namely, whereby they add this, that they affirm Christ to be
Himself Son and Father.
Chapter VIII. Blastus, Two Theodoti, Praxeas.
In addition to all these, there is likewise Blastus, who would latently
introduce Judaism. For he says the passover is not to be kept otherwise than
according to the law of Moses, on the fourteenth of the month. But who would
fail to see that evangelical grace is escheated if he recalls Christ to the
Add to these Theodotus the Byzantine, who, after being apprehended for
Christ's Name, and apostatizing,  ceased not to blaspheme against
Christ. For he introduced a doctrine by which to affirm that Christ was
merely a human being, but deny His deity; teaching that He was born of the
Holy Spirit indeed of a virgin, but was a solitary and bare human being,
 with no pre-eminence above the rest (of mankind), but only that of
After him brake out a second heretical Theodotus, who again himself
introduced a sister-sect, and says that the human being Christ Himself
 was merely conceived alike, and born, of the Holy Spirit and the
Virgin Mary, but that He was inferior to Melchizedek; because it is said of
Christ, "Thou art a priest unto eternity, after the order of Melchizedek."
 For that Melchizedek, he says, was a heavenly Virtue of pre-eminent
grace; in that Christ acts for human beings, being made their Deprecator and
Advocate: Melchizedek does so  for heavenly angels and Virtues. For
to such a degree, he says, is he better than Christ, that he is
(fatherless), (motherless), (without genealogy), of
whom neither the beginning nor the end has been comprehended, nor can be
But after all these, again, one Praxeas introduced a heresy which
Victorinus  was careful to corroborate. He asserts that Jesus Christ
is God the Father Almighty. Him he contends to have been crucified, and
suffered, and died; beside which, with a profane and sacrilegious temerity,
he maintains the proposition that He is Himself sitting at His own right
 [On p. 14, this volume, see nearly all that need be said, of this
spurious treatise. I add a few references to Routh, Opuscula, Vol. 1. p. 160
etc. His honouring it with a place in his work must be my apology for not
relegating it to the collection of spurious Tertulliana, sub fine.]
 [Routh says he inadvertently changed his title to read Advs.
Hoereticos, but that it is better after all, in view of the opening
 See Acts xxiii. 8, and the references there.
 Pharisees = Separatists.
 See Acts viii. 9-24.
 I use Virtue in this and similar cases in its Miltonic sense.
 Or, "intelligence."
 Or, "but had undergone a quasi-passion."
 Innascibilem;" but Fr. Junius' conjecture, "innoscibilem," is
agreeable to the Greek
 The text here is partially conjectural, and if correct, clumsy.
For the sense, see de Anima, c. xxiii. ad init.
 Or, Abraxes, or Abrasax.
 Or, Power.
 i.e. probably "Simon the Cyrenian." See Matt. xxvii. 32; Mark xv.
21; Luke xxiii. 26.
 Alter haereticus. But Fr. Junius suggests "aliter."
 See Acts vi. 1-6. [But the identity is doubtful.]
 So Oehler gives in his text. But his suggestion, given in a note,
is perhaps preferable: "and of execrable embraces and permixtures, and
 See Rev. ii. 6.
 Or, "Serpentarians," from ophis. a serpent.
 See Gen. iii. 1-7.
 See Num. xxi. 4-9.
 John iii. 14.
 Eucharistia (neut. pl.) = (Fr. Junius in Oehler):
perhaps "the place in which they celebrate the eucharist."
 These words are intended to give the force of the "illo" of the
 Roberston (Ch. Hist. i. p. 39, note 2, ed. 2. 1858) seems to take
this word to mean "Son of Darkness or Chaos."
 "Seque" Oehler reads here, which appears bad enough Latin, unless
his "se" after "extendisse" is an error.
 Or, "heaven."
 Or, "what the upper regions were."
 Filio Deo.
 Or, "she:" but perhaps the text is preferable.
 See Gen. iii. 1-7.
 See de Bapt. c. i.
 Or, Sethoites.
 "Dicerent;" but Routh (I think) has conjectured "disceret" "when
she learned," etc., which is very simple and apt.
 See 1 Pet. iii. 20.
 Cf. Gen. ix. 1, 2, 7, 19.
 "Ab illis" is perhaps an error for "ab angelis," by absorption of
the first syllable. So Routh has conjectured before me.
 "Ab illis" is perhaps an error for "ab angelis," by absorption of
the first syllable. So Routh has conjectured before me.
 "Ab angelis:" an erroneous notion, which professed probably to
derive support from John i. 17, Acts vii. 53, Gal. iii. 19, where, however,
the Greek prepositions should be carefully noted, and ought in no case to be
rendered by "ab."
 Al. Hebion.
 See Matt. x. 24; Luke iv. 40; John xiii. 16.
 See Matt. x. 24; Luke iv. 40; John xiii. 16.
 i.e., as Rig.'s quotation from Jerome's Indiculus (in Oehler)
shows, "because in so far as, Christ observed it."
 Conjugationes. Cowper uses our word "conjugation" in this sense in
one of his humorous pieces. ["Pairing-time."] The "syzygies" consisted of
one male and one female Aeon each.
 Oehler separates "in primis;" but perhaps they ought to be
united'"inprimis," or "imprimis"'and taken as = "primo ab initio."
 "Sermone:" he said "Verbum" before.
 In defectione fuisse.
 Cf. adv. Valent. cc. x. xiv. [Routh says that this IAO (see note
8) is wanting in the older editions. It was borrowed from the Adv. Valentin.
to eke out a defect.]
 Such appears to be the meaning of this sentence as Oehler gives
it. But the text is here corrupt; and it seems plain there must either be
something lost relating to this "Achamoth," or else some capital error in
the reading, or, thirdly, some gross and unaccountable confusion in the
writer: for the sentence as it stands is wholly irreconcilable with what
follows. It evidently makes "Achamoth" identical with "the thirtieth Aeon"
above-named; and yet, without introducing any fresh subject, the writer goes
on to state that this despondent Oeon, who "conceived and bare," was itself
the offspring of despondency, and made an infirm world out of the infirm
matierials which "Achamoth" supposed it with. Now it is apparent from other
sources'as, for instance, from Tert. adv. Valentin, above referred to'that
the "thirtieth Aeon" was supposed to be female, Sophia (Wisdom) by name, and
that she was said to be the parent of "Achamoth," or "Enthymesis" (see adv.
Valentin. cc. ix. x. xi. xiv. xxv.), while "Achamoth" herself appears by
some accounts to be also called . The name "Achamoth" itself,
which Tertullian (adv. Valentin. c. xiv. ad init.) calls an "uninterpretable
name," is believed to be a representation of a Hebrew word meaning
"wisdom;" and hence, possibly, some of the confusion may have arisen,'from
the promiscuous use, namely, of the titles "Achamoth" and "Sophia,"
Moreover, it would appear that some words lower down as to the production by
"Achamoth" of "Demiurgus," must have dropped out. Unless these two omissions
be supplied, the passage is wholly unintelligible. Can the fact that the
Hebrew word which "Achamoth" represents is a fem. pl. in any way explain
this confused medley, or help to reconcile conflicting accounts? The anō and
 Salvi. Perhaps if it be questionable whether this word may be so
rendered in a correct Latinist, it may be lawful to render it so in so
incorrect a one as our present author.
 i.e. followers of Proclus.
 i.e. followers of Aeschines. So this writer takes "Cataphryges" to
mean followers of the Phrygians."
 Negavit. See de Idol. c. xxiii. note 1.
 Hominem solitarium atque nudum. The words seems to mean, destitute
of anything superhuman.
 Et ipsum hominem Christum tantummodo. I rather incline to read, as
ni the preceding sentence, "et ipse": "and himself affirms Christ to have
been merely human, conceived alike," etc.
 See Ps. cx. 4, and the references there.
 The Latin here, is very careless, unless, with Routh, we suggest
"et" for "eo," and render: "and that what Christ does," etc., "Melchizedek
 See Heb. vii. 1-3.
 Who he is, no one knows. Oehler (following the lead of Fabricius
on Philaster, cap. 49, p. 102) believes the name to be a mistake for Victor,
a bishop of Rome, who (see Adv. Prax. c. i.) had held the episopate when
Praxeas was there. His successor was Zephyrinus; and it is an ingenious
conjecture of Oehler, that these two names, the one written as a correction
of the other, may have been confused: thus, Victor/Zephrynus; and thus of
the two may have been made Victorinus.
 The form and order of the words here used are certainly remarkably
similar to the expressions and order of the "Apostles' Creed."
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