Malikiyyah School, Maliki, Malikis, al-Muwatta, MuwattaAdvanced Information
Malik ibn-Arias, Malik ibn Anas (d. 796)
DoctrinesMalikiyyah is the second of the Islamic schools of jurisprudence. The sources of Maliki doctrine are the Qur'an, the Prophet's traditions (hadith), consensus (ijma'), and analogy (qiyas). (Over time, however, the school came to understand consensus to be that of the doctors of law, known as 'ulama.)
Imam Malik's major contribution to Islamic law is his book al-Muwatta (The Beaten Path). The Muwatta is a code of law based on the legal practices that were operating in Medina. It covers various areas ranging from prescribed rituals of prayer and fasting to the correct conduct of business relations. The legal code is supported by some 2,000 traditions attributed to the Prophet.
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The school spread westwards through Malik's disciples, becoming dominant in North Africa and Spain. In North Africa Malikiyyah gave rise to an important Sufi order, Shadhiliyyah, which was founded by Abu al-Hasan, a jurist in the Malikite school, in Tunisia in the thirteenth century.
During the Ottoman period Hanafite Turks were given the most important judicial in the Ottoman empire. North Africa, however, remained faithful to its Malikite heritage. Such was the strength of the local tradition that qadis (judges) from both the Hanafite and Malikite traditions worked with the local ruler. Following the fall of the Ottoman empire, Malikiyyah regained its position of ascendancy in the region. Today Malikite doctrine and practice remains widespread throughout North Africa, the Sudan and regions of West and Central Africa.
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Malik (715-795) worked on the assumption that the ways of the elders of Medina (the Companions of the Prophet and their descendants) should be uncorrupted either by the new converts or tribal ways, or by the influence of the subsequently developed garrison towns. The practice of Medina was the way of Muhammad and from this an idealized model of Medina emerged.
Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri
THE ELEMENTS OF ISLAM, Chapter 4
Unfortunately, we are not aware of any scholarly texts on this subject which have yet been translated into English. We know that a number of Arabic scholars have written wonderful texts in Arabic, and look for the day when we will be able to add higher quality texts to this presentation.
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