Another major issue that concerned all three schools was the
relationship between human freedom and divine omnipotence. Maturidiyyah
claims that although humanity has a free will God is still all-powerful
and in control of history. It is humanity's ability to distinguish
between good and evil that means that humanity is responsible for whatever
good or evil actions are performed.
Maturidiyyah Theology, Maturidi School, Maturidites
Maturidiyyah, along with
Ash'ariyyah, forms the basis of orthodox Sunni theology. Maturidi
theology can best be understood in comparison with that of Mu'tazilah and
One of the principal theological questions with which each of these
schools engaged concerned the role of human reason in the development of
religious faith. Unlike the school of al-Ash'ari which claimed that
knowledge of God derives from revelation through the prophets,
Maturidiyyah argues that knowledge of God's existence can be derived
through reason alone.
The third major issue concerned God's attributes. Ash'ariyyah
teaches that what the Qur'an says about God's attributes must be accepted
as correct even though we do not properly understand the meaning of many
of the statements about God.
Maturidiyyah is a Sunni
theological school named after its founder Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d.944).
In the Mamluk age the school came to be widely recognised as the second
orthodox Sunni theological school beside Ash'ariyyah. Resident in
Samarqand in Central Asia, al-Maturidi had little impact on mainstream
Islamic intellectual life during his lifetime. Maturidiyyah only came to
be important as a result of its acceptance by the Turkish tribes of
Central Asia. The Maturidi school of theology gradually came to prevail
among the Hanafite communities everywhere. Because the Turks were mostly
Hanafite the Turkish expansion through the Ottoman empire enabled the
Hanafite and Maturidite schools to spread throughout western Persia, Iraq,
Anatolia, and Syria.
As a school of law Maturidiyyah has no symbols.
Today nearly 53% of
Sunni Muslims are Hanafites, and the majority of Hanafites are
Maturidites. Maturidiyyah is now present in Turkey, the Balkans, Central
Asia, China, India, Pakistan and Eritrea.
Headquarters / Main Centre
The school has no headquarters or main centre.
Overview of World Religions Project
Unfortunately, we are not aware of any scholarly texts on this
subject which have yet been translated into English. We know
that a number of Arabic scholars have written wonderful texts
in Arabic, and look for the day when we will be able to add
higher quality texts to this presentation.
Pillars of Faith
Testament of Abraham
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)
Early Islamic History Outline
Kaaba, Black Stone
Interactive Muslim Calendar
The individual articles presented here were generally first published
in the early 1980s. This subject presentation was first placed
on the Internet in December 1997.
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