There is a rare chance that this table will have a month start one day different than in Muslim practice. Muslims do not use the moment of the New Moon but the moment when the crescent Moon is first visible. That depends on many things, including the weather and the longitude on Earth, which has the general effect of causing time zones. The crescent Moon is only visible very shortly before sunrise in any location. For these table entries, we have assumed that the crescent Moon is first visible exactly 1.5 days after the moment of the New Moon. However, some locations on Earth will not have a sunrise and the opportunity to observe the crescent Moon for a number of extra hours, again due to their longitude.
The Muslim New Year is on Muharram 1. The Hajj pilgrimage is to be done during the first ten days of the last lunar month of the year, Dhu al-Hijja. The month of Ramadan involves fasting regarding eating, drinking and smoking, from dawn to the moment of sunset. The Night of Determination occurs on the night of Ramadan 26, during which, the Koran says that God/Allah determines the course of the world for the following year. Shawwal 1 to 3 is the Festival of the Fast-Breaking and is celebrated with special prayers and festivities. Dhu al-Hijja 10 to 12 is the Festival of the Sacrifice, which indicates the end of the Hajj period.
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1. Muharram ("Forbidden" - it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight)
2. Safar ("Empty" or "Yellow")
3. Rabia Awal ("First spring")
4. Rabia Thani ("Second spring")
5. Jumaada Awal ("First freeze")
6. Jumaada Thani ("Second freeze")
7. Rajab ("To respect" - this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited)
8. Sha'ban ("To spread and distribute")
9. Ramadan ("Parched thirst" - this is the month of daytime fasting)
10. Shawwal ("To be light and vigorous")
11. Dhul-Qi'dah ("The month of rest" - another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed)
12. Dhul-Hijjah ("The month of Hajj" - this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Makkah, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed)