Known parameters of atomic nuclei provide a guideline regarding
how rapid such migration would have to occur. We know that atomic
nuclei are on the order of 10^{-13} cm in diameter. A proton
has a mass of 1.65 * 10^{-24} gm. We calculated above the
force of electrostatic repulsion, at 2.3 * 10^{+7} dynes.
Assuming non-relativistic motions, and for minimal variations in the
distances involved, F = m * a or a = F / m, will give
an approximation of the acceleration of the proton.
This solves to an acceleration of 1.4 * 10^{+31} cm/sec^{2}.

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This reasoning represents the longest interval that the proton-proton repulsion could be in effect without the electrostatic repulsion destroying the integrity of the nucleus. Therefore, it represents a guide to the longest possible cycle time for the process described above. As long as the electrons complete their entire migration pate in a shorter time than this, then the protons would not be de-stabilized, although they would likely experience a cyclic oscillation at that rate. If the cycle occurred more rapidly than that, the movements of the protons would be smaller and stability would be greater.

This situation suggests that the electrons, if described as moving,
would need to traverse a cycle of three segments, or around 2.5 *
10^{-13} cm in a period no longer than 1.2 * 10^{-22}
seconds, which implies a minimum velocity of around 2 * 10^{+9}
cm/sec, about 1/15 the speed of light. This is interesting in that,
should it be a higher velocity, then relativistic velocities of
the electrons would increase their mass and possibly affect the
reasoning regarding the mass defect and many other effects.

There are a variety of ways the electrons might actually move within the nucleus. A more generalized form of the above argument involves taking the time integral of the attraction between each proton and the electron during whatever path is followed. For most geometries of electron movement, the resulting effect is a slight reduction of the net attractive force. The initial (migrate) argument above would have had too much attractive force for stability, and effects such as this might ensure that the time-average of the attraction exactly equals the time-average of the proton-proton repulsion, in making a stable nucleus. A discussion below will consider the situations where there are more or less than an optimal number of electrons within the nucleus, and the effects on stability, on the half-life and the radioactive decay schemes.

Regarding beta- and beta+ decay, the graphs displayed below suggest that the half-life of any isotope might be predicted from the slope of the appropriate graph, and that the total energy (kinetic and radiation) might also be predicted for any isotopic beta decay.

In addition to this, the universal extreme symmetry preference for
isotopes with even numbers of protons and also even numbers of neutrons
seems to suggest a special stability of ^{4}He nuclei, which
is the alpha particle. This symmetry-based stability might suggest
that such structures exist within heavy nuclei, which might explain
why they leave the nucleus as a bundle as an alpha particle.
This might imply that within heavy nuclei there are distinct organized
structures, the simplest of which would be the alpha particle.

This presentation was first placed on the Internet in November 2003.

Atomic_Nuclei_2