Greenhouse which Creates Five Times as Much Food - Better Quality

  • During the late 1990s, some brilliant scientists did more than a thousand scientific studies due to their concerns of coming global warming. Specifically, they grew a wide assortment of plants in environments with varying amounts of higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than our atmosphere currently contains. Of those thousands of Research Studies, they tried concentrations of carbon dioxide which were 1.33x, 1.5x, 2x, 3x, 5x, 10x and more of current concentrations. Until those experiments, no one knew what the effects on plants might be!

    They generally found that with concentrations of 1.33x or 1.5x natural concentrations, there was minimal effect on most plants. They also found that with concentrations of 5x or 10x or higher than natural, most plants tended to die.

    But everyone was surprised to find that when the CO2 concentration was around three times current natural levels, most plants flourished beyond imagination! Nearly all types of plants, whether crops or trees or weeds, commonly grew at around FIVE TIMES expected growth rates, INCLUDING the fruits and vegetables which we all rely on as food for survival.

  • ALL the world leaders seem to ASSUME that IMMEDIATELY upon humans cutting back on fossil fuel consumption, that all will be well regarding global warming. Sadly, they are totally wrong in that assumption.

  • The failed assumption in all this is that the environment RESPONDS INSTANTLY to all stimuli. IF that were true, then the world leaders might get away with current thinking. Of merrily burning astounding amounts of fossil fuels up until some absolute last date (for maximum profits) and then stopping cold turkey. But that assumption is certainly intrinsically WRONG!

  • Right Now US Gov't data shows that the Earth's atmosphere contains
    of Carbon Dioxide note 48 That amazingly fast increase is primarily DUE TO US burning fossil fuels!
    Actually, we will calculate below that the enormous amounts of fossil fuels we burn (coal, petroleum and natural gas) produce and release nearly TWICE this amount of increase, and we just happen to be lucky that (cold) ocean water is extremely good at absorbing a lot of the carbon dioxide we are sending into the atmosphere! (this number is metric tonnes, and the same number in American short tons would be about 10% higher)

  • CO2 in the atmosphere absorbs OUTGOING heat from the Earth. That newly warmed atmosphere then re-radiates the heat as more infrared energy, only half of which is radiated upward and away from the Earth, while the other half is re-radiated downward to provide extra heating for the Earth's surface. This therefore acts as a blanket to warm up the Earth.

  • We do NOT have any practical way of REMOVING very much CO2 from the atmosphere.

  • There seems to be a rather obvious way to HELP this situation, which might be done IMMEDIATELY and at fairly moderate cost, which can then quickly even be recovered!

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This is NOT an ultimate solution to Global Warming. It is merely an idea which might HELP, to a small extent.

There are THOUSANDS of coal-burning electric power plants in the US, which make around half of the electricity that we use. Thousands of other powerplants do the same in other countries. There are also tens of thousands of factories which each burn coal or other fossil fuels to produce the energy to melt steel or do thousands of other industrial processes.

THOSE facilities all have giant CHIMNEYS to get rid of the effluent gases from that burning of fossil fuels. During the 1970s and 1980s, they were all required (in the US) to install SCRUBBERS to remove sulfur dioxide and other environmentally dangerous chemicals. The result is that nearly all those chimneys now dump primarily only three things into the atmosphere, HEAT, WATER VAPOR and CARBON DIOXIDE, all in impressively large quantities.

It seems obvious to me that an ENORMOUS GREENHOUSE should be built right near every one of those giant chimneys! They would not have to be clear-span domes, so interior support posts could be included, similar to the way large circus tents are erected and supported. But I am talking LARGE, maybe more than a MILE ACROSS where the interior area might be a full square mile (or 640 acres).

Each chimney would then be (slightly) modified where an industrial blower would be added to re-direct the gases which would have gone up and out the chimney to instead go through a large air duct into the greenhouse.

Why? Because any greenhouse only really needs five things: Soil or other growing medium, sunlight, warmth, humidity/water, and carbon dioxide. The re-directed chimney effluents can supply the last three of these in great quantity, and essentially continuously. The interior of the giant greenhouse can then EASILY be maintained at high humidity, warmth even during winter, and immense amounts of carbon dioxide. By having sensors in the greenhouse for humidity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration, the re-direction blower on the chimney can be activated as needed.

Consider some numbers. One acre of nearly any type of plants (including crops) produces about eight to ten tons of organic material each year due to photosynthesis. According to the well known laws of Biochemistry and what is called the Carbon Cycle, this requires REMOVING about 264 grams of carbon dioxide for every 180 grams of glucose (the initial organic material created by photosynthesis), for each gram-mole of the chemical reaction. This means that our ten tons of plants in the giant greenhouse would REMOVE around 15 TONS of carbon dioxide from the chimney's exhaust gases.

Actually, since the plants in the greenhouse grow at around five times the normal rate, this means that around 75 TONS of carbon dioxide can be removed from that chimney's effluent gas by that single giant greenhouse.

The BONUS of this is that we would then have 640 acres of greenhouse land which was producing FIVE TIMES the crop that normally can be produced! And it turns out that the taste and quality of the fruits and vegetables are noticeably BETTER than normal!

Granted that that single chimney dumps MANY THOUSANDS OF TONS of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year, removing only 75 tons of it might seem irrelevant. But, so far, no one else has even suggested any method of removing even ONE ton of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a year! So I see it as quite an improvement!

Now, the FARMERS who now get five times the crop from a given acreage (and effort) would like having five times as much fruit and vegetables TO SELL. Maybe food prices might go down, but at least food AVAILABILITY should be improved in the process.

But since there are hundreds of thousands of such chimneys even in just the United States, if this greenhouse addition was made to all of them, then we MIGHT start removing significant amounts of carbon dioxide! If 200,000 chimneys each had 15 tons of carbon dioxide removed from their effluent, that is around 3,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide which does NOT get released into the atmosphere! Still not comparable with the BILLIONS of tons we dump into the atmosphere (as evidenced by the running total shown above and also the yearly totals in this footnote) note 48, it still is a decent start at actually dealing with the problem.


There MIGHT even be some owner of a powerplant that wants to gain world-wide fame and awesome P/R by having a NUMBER of such giant greenhouses build on or near their powerplant.

Imagine how GREEN they could describe themselves as being if ALL of the carbon dioxide that would have been released into the atmosphere by their powerplant chimney was instead re-directed to a community of giant greenhouses!

Not only could they have big smiles on TV regarding being "the GREENEST electrical powerplant on Earth" but they would also be enabling tremendous abundance of food supplies (which they might generously send to starving people in Somalia and elsewhere???).

I would think that farmers might provide the funding to build the greenhouses, so the actual cost to the powerplant owner might be moderate.

And THAT powerplant owner would be seen, forever, as the most caring person on Earth, for providing this amazing powerplant which no longer gave off any more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere!



Footnotes


US South Pole Research

In 1957, The US government (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) began recording data at the South Pole regarding many atmospheric contaminants. That location was selected as being very distant from any human activities or factories and also from any vegetation growth or activity. It was felt that measurements at the South Pole would be accurate indications of the true condition of the Earth's atmosphere.

At bi-weekly intervals, air samples are collected in sets of three 5-liter evacuated glass flasks, at the South Pole (Lat. 89°59'S. Long. 24°48'W.). They are analyzed for CO2 at SIO (Scripps) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. Calibration gases are regularly tested as well to confirm accuracy. The three sample flasks must agree within 0.40 ppmv to be considered acceptable data. Scripps has more thorough description of their procedures and equipment.

The readings are averaged to obtain monthly and annual average values. Our running display uses the annual averaged figures from this South Pole data, interpolated for each 1/10 second.

If the specific interpolated value at the South Pole for that instant were 380.0 ppmv, this means that the atmosphere was then 0.000380 carbon dioxide (by volume). It is accurately known that the total Earth's atmosphere is 5.136 * 1015 metric tonnes. It is also necessary to apply a density factor of 1.529 (of carbon dioxide to the average atmospheric mixture of gases) to convert the ppm (volume) value to ppm (mass or weight).

Therefore, it is simply necessary to multiply these three numbers 5.136 * 1015 * 0.000380 * 1.529 to get 2984.12 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in the entire Earth's atmosphere at that instant. THIS is the value that is continuously displayed here. The value has NOTHING to do with actual usage or consumption figures of fossil fuels, which actually generally give larger numbers for the annual increases.

Regarding the total mass of the earth's atmosphere, YOU can calculate that number, too! You already know that atmospheric pressure (at sea level) is 14.7 pounds per square inch (or 10332 kilograms per square meter). This pressure is actually due to exactly that amount of weight of atmosphere stacked above that square inch or square meter up to the very top of the atmosphere. So all we have to do is multiply that (metric) number by the total area of the surface of the earth, which is 5.10 * 1014 square meters. So YOU can calculate that the total mass of the Earth's atmosphere is 5.269 * 1018 kg or 5.269 * 1015 metric tons. For purists, the actual total mass is slightly less because continents and mountains take up some volume where air might otherwise be!

(Published Data)

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ppmv) derived from flask and in situ air samples collected at the South Pole

Source: C.D. Keeling, T.P. Whorf, and the Carbon Dioxide Research Group
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
University of California, La Jolla, California USA 92093-0444

May 2005, August 2007

Month  Jan    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.    Ann.      Avg.
1957 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 313.37 -99.99 -99.99 313.87 -99.99 -99.99 314.48  -99.99    -99.99
1958 -99.99 -99.99 314.29 -99.99 -99.99 314.52 -99.99 -99.99 315.31 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99  -99.99    314.78
1959 315.09 315.14 315.09 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 315.96 316.22 -99.99 316.32 -99.99  -99.99    315.64
1960 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 316.38 316.69 316.75 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99  -99.99    316.45
1961 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 316.79 316.86 316.94 317.35 317.68 317.74 317.87 317.67  -99.99    317.08
1962 317.45 317.26 317.06 317.11 317.18 317.25 317.27 317.64 318.07 -99.99 -99.99 318.63 (317.62)   317.62
1963 318.13 317.87 317.47 317.90 318.26 318.22 318.26 318.64 318.56 319.02 -99.99 -99.99 (318.32)   318.35
1964 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99  -99.99    318.68
1965 -99.99 318.68 318.56 318.68 318.89 -99.99 319.38 319.67 -99.99 -99.99 320.17 320.27  -99.99    319.42
1966 320.34 319.99 320.05 320.31 320.44 320.46 -99.99 321.08 321.35 321.46 321.56 321.07 (320.74)   320.72
1967 -99.99 321.01 -99.99 320.86 321.00 320.96 321.06 321.83 322.08 321.80 321.82 321.77 (321.33)   321.32
1968 321.53 -99.99 -99.99 321.61 321.47 321.44 321.50 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 -99.99 322.65  -99.99    321.91
1969 322.37 -99.99 322.27 322.30 322.58 322.79 323.24 323.60 324.13 323.95 323.97 -99.99 (323.11)   323.12
1970 323.68 323.53 323.43 323.67 323.78 324.18 324.46 324.72 325.19 325.20 325.23 -99.99 (324.34)   324.32
1971 324.80 324.61 324.33 324.47 324.67 324.91 325.15 -99.99 325.77 -99.99 325.74 -99.99  -99.99    325.12
1972 -99.99 -99.99 325.05 325.17 325.31 325.82 326.13 326.85 326.54 326.79 326.94 326.82 (326.00)   326.00
1973 326.74 326.34 326.36 326.82 327.11 327.43 327.73 328.40 328.69 328.63 328.60 328.58  327.62    327.62
1974 328.30 328.08 328.09 327.90 328.01 327.88 328.46 328.68 328.94 329.04 329.12 328.99  328.46    328.49
1975 328.89 328.90 328.85 328.94 328.93 329.07 329.35 329.83 330.22 330.56 330.46 330.27  329.52    329.50
1976 330.30 330.01 329.91 329.63 329.93 329.98 330.46 331.01 331.39 331.71 331.74 331.43  330.62    330.60
1977 331.26 331.00 330.85 331.32 331.40 331.62 332.05 332.45 332.87 333.10 333.31 333.18  332.03    332.03
1978 332.83 332.71 332.83 332.98 -99.99 333.37 333.82 334.28 334.74 334.82 334.58 334.30 (333.70)   333.69
1979 334.01 334.03 333.82 334.17 334.34 334.54 335.15 335.71 335.88 336.00 336.37 336.04  335.01    335.03
1980 336.06 335.75 -99.99 336.10 336.21 336.90 337.45 337.54 337.87 337.90 337.97 338.04 (336.98)   336.98
1981 337.76 337.48 337.43 337.52 337.67 338.15 338.41 338.76 338.81 339.15 338.86 338.91  338.24    338.26
1982 -99.99 338.65 338.38 338.70 338.99 339.18 339.33 340.11 340.30 340.33 340.03 339.96 (339.39)   339.39
1983 339.86 339.84 339.85 340.31 340.63 341.00 341.41 341.88 342.33 342.29 342.54 342.35  341.19    341.17
1984 342.05 -99.99 341.71 341.84 341.87 342.01 342.80 343.20 343.46 343.50 343.32 343.15 (342.56)   342.58
1985 343.01 342.83 342.73 342.76 343.12 343.45 343.93 344.52 344.86 344.95 344.79 344.64  343.80    343.82
1986 344.63 344.57 344.50 344.62 344.69 345.02 345.54 345.93 346.18 346.16 346.17 346.04  345.34    345.32
1987 345.89 345.79 345.75 346.11 346.20 346.61 347.19 347.63 348.07 348.10 348.19 348.31  346.99    346.99
1988 348.29 348.06 347.87 348.20 348.33 348.58 349.07 349.58 349.75 349.89 349.85 349.83  348.94    348.95
1989 349.81 349.76 349.66 349.73 349.93 350.18 350.59 351.12 351.37 351.30 351.33 350.99  350.48    350.44
1990 350.76 350.40 350.64 350.90 351.36 351.59 352.05 352.55 352.75 352.57 352.83 352.63  351.75    351.77
1991 -99.99 352.34 352.28 352.44 352.54 352.96 353.39 353.67 354.09 353.89 353.95 353.77 (353.15)   353.12
1992 353.56 353.15 353.03 353.23 353.74 354.00 354.61 354.94 355.26 355.37 355.11 354.88  354.24    354.24
1993 354.72 354.49 354.22 354.42 354.50 354.84 355.20 355.70 356.04 356.05 356.02 355.69  355.16    355.16
1994 355.49 355.49 355.51 355.63 355.69 355.99 356.47 357.11 357.61 357.53 357.71 357.52  356.48    356.48
1995 357.45 357.36 357.36 357.63 357.81 357.95 358.34 358.75 359.15 359.29 359.43 359.47  358.33    358.35
1996 359.36 359.30 359.25 359.36 359.40 359.71 360.15 360.52 360.71 360.70 360.74 360.70  359.99    359.99
1997 360.56 360.46 360.32 360.48 360.58 360.90 361.24 361.52 361.95 362.01 362.11 362.15  361.19    361.20
1998 362.10 362.30 362.41 362.69 363.00 363.54 364.04 364.56 364.99 365.02 365.10 364.98  363.73    363.70
1999 364.96 364.75 364.81 364.99 365.05 -99.99 365.66 365.92 366.37 366.51 366.74 366.80 (365.66)   365.65
2000 366.46 366.49 366.76 366.45 366.58 366.78 367.10 367.53 367.65 367.75 367.88 367.83  367.10    367.05
2001 367.81 367.10 367.04 367.36 367.60 367.92 368.29 368.83 369.44 369.57 369.46 369.25  368.31    368.34
2002 369.31 369.50 369.61 369.68 369.99 370.38 370.87 371.46 371.69 371.83 371.81 371.61  370.64    370.66
2003 371.93 371.78 371.71 371.99 372.32 372.57 372.96 373.40 373.90 373.82 373.65 373.61  372.80    372.80
2004 373.59 373.41 373.85 373.88 374.06 374.46 374.85 375.35 375.52 375.60 375.51 375.25  374.61    374.61
2005 375.18 374.98 375.16 375.50 375.88 376.39 376.87 377.29 377.59 377.72 377.79 377.82  376.51    376.51
2006 377.76 377.58 377.65 377.91 378.16 378.43 378.82 379.24 379.48 379.60 379.63 379.58  378.65    378.65
2007 379.55 379.47 379.47 379.73 380.12 380.50 380.88 381.36 381.74 381.86 381.88 381.89  380.70    380.70
2008 381.77 381.71 381.80 381.92 382.04 382.33 382.87 383.32 383.56 383.70 383.66 383.59  382.69    382.69

(Published Data)

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ppmv) derived from flask and in situ air samples collected at the Mount Mauna Loa, Hawaii

Source: C.D. Keeling, T.P. Whorf, and the Carbon Dioxide Research Group
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
University of California, La Jolla, California USA 92093-0444

Oct 2009

(this Mauna Loa data is generally slightly higher than that at the South Pole. We have not been able to obtain extremely recent data from the South Pole yet.)

Month  Jan    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.    Ann.      Avg.
2006 381.10 381.35 381.15 381.96 381.86 381.67 381.64 382.04 382.05 382.40 382.27 382.65  381.85
2007 382.62 382.94 382.92 383.68 383.45 383.67 383.94 383.67 384.04 384.43 384.47 384.65  383.71
2008 385.15 384.90 384.45 384.50 385.40 385.55 385.86 385.88 386.30 386.33 386.20 386.36  385.58
2009 386.64 386.60 387.25 386.77 387.07 387.17 387.28 387.65 388.00                       387.18

Monthly values are expressed in parts per million (ppm) and reported in the 2003A SIO manometric mole fraction scale. The monthly values have been adjusted to the 15th of each month. Missing values are denoted by -99.99. The "annual" average is the arithmetic mean of the twelve monthly values. In years with one or two missing monthly values, annual values were calculated by substituting a fit value (4-harmonics with gain factor and spline) for that month and then averaging the twelve monthly values.

Calibration details are discussed by Francey et al. (2003). Monthly values are calculated as the mean of the daily values from a smooth curve fit to the data using curve-fitting routines described by Thoning et al., 1989, (J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8549-8565).










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