Quantum Physics is Compatible with the Standard Model

This concept first arose around 2002. In Sept 2006, it got its final proof. This presentation was first placed on the Internet in October 2010.

There seems no doubt whatever that the approach in Physics that is called Quantum Dynamics is absolutely compatible with the older approach which is called the Standard Model. Any aspect which can be described in either system can also be described in the other system.

The key distinction has to do with the time scale of the observations.

And the reason that they are compatible is due to the fact that there is an Exception to the Conservation of Angular Momentum.


We will discuss a representative example, the one which was the initial cause for the development of Quantum Physics. In the 1930s, all experiments always resulted in observations where electrons orbited atomic nuclei in very specific orbits. In fact, Physicists like Pauli described "excluded orbits" as not being possible. Many experimental results like this resulted in the conclusion that phenomena in nuclear physics COULD only occur in quantum quantities.

Quantum Physics has been very handy in understanding many phenomena in atoms and within nuclei themselves.

But this discussion will show that what is SEEN as quantum processes are actually processes of Standard Model physics, with the important added fact of having the Exception of the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

The matter of that Exception is discussed in a different web-page, but an obvious example exists of it. If you take a normal child's gyroscope or top and get it spinning, when you release the axle of it, there is initially no precessional motion. That is, no kinetic energy of precession and no angular momentum of precession. But as soon as you release the axle, THE PRECESSIONAL MOTION ACCELERATES up to a fixed rate. The kinetic energy of the new precession is exactly provided by a slight lowering of the mass of the gyroscope/top in the gravitational field, which used to be potential energy. But the new angular momentum did not have any source of previous angular momentum. It just appears!

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This exception only occurs as a result of gyroscopic precessional changes. It happens to occur in the Solar System as planets perturb each other's orbital motions. Around 1850, the brilliant mathematicians LaPlace, Leverrier and others all concluded that planets cannot alter each other's semi-major axis dimension by perturbation, which is easily proven as long as both Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Angular Momentum are true. This Exception of Conservation of Angular Momentum permits very small and slow changes in the semi-major axis of both planets as a result of mutual perturbation.

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This is an effect which is quite subtle, and it is not significant in just a few hundred or a few thousand orbits. But it becomes important when millions of orbits have passed. As a result, the four Galilean Moons of Jupiter have orbits which have orbital periods which are clearly inter-related, and the solar system has many other examples where this effect has occurred. The rings of Saturn have voids where the orbital periods of the particles that would have been there would have been intimately related to a nearby moon of Saturn. The moons themselves have orbital periods which are similarly (nearly) synchronized. Jupiter and Saturn have a Long Inequality. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have a clear relationship. The asteroid belt has Kirkwood gaps which are related to the orbital period of Jupiter. And so on.

The claim here is that this same effect, of rather slow modifications of orbital periods of electrons, occur due to mutual perturbations of electrons.

Electrons and all nuclear processes occur at amazingly fast rates. Each electron orbits its nucleus many billions of times every second. So in one one-thousandth of a second, each electron does millions of orbits.

Therefore, IF we could observe electron motions in a trillionth of a second, we WOULD see motions which are in compliance with Newton's Laws and the Standard Model. But since we are not capable of that fast of observing, and we only see the situation after at least a millionth of a second has occurred after some disturbance, we only see the QUANTUM effect, where the electrons have mutually perturbed each other through millions of orbits, and therefore have resulted in the STABLE arrangements we are familiar with.

So BOTH the Quantum view and the Standard view are perfectly valid. The distinction has to do with the time scale available for observations. Since atomic and nuclear processes occur so very rapidly, we do not seem capable of doing any experiments where we see results of any disturbance we cause before at least a millionth or a billionth of a second has transpired, and so WE SEE results that always show the expected Quantum results.

This is essentially saying that IF we were capable of seeing experimental results a million times faster, we would see a GRADUAL CHANGE in the orbital radii of the affected electrons over a period of millions of orbits.

So in reality, there are no Excluded Orbits and there is no actual Quantum basis for Physics, but due to our limitations of observational abilities, experiments always SHOW effects that comply with Quantum Dynamics.


This presentation was first placed on the Internet in October 2010.

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C Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago