There seems no doubt whatever that the approach in Physics that is called Quantum Dynamics is absolutely compatible with the older approach which is called the Standard Model. Any aspect which can be described in either system can also be described in the other system.

The key distinction has to do with the time scale of the observations.

And the reason that they are compatible is due to the fact that there is an Exception to the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

We will discuss a representative example, the one which was the initial cause for the development of Quantum Physics. In the 1930s, all experiments always resulted in observations where electrons orbited atomic nuclei in very specific orbits. In fact, Physicists like Pauli described "excluded orbits" as not being possible. Many experimental results like this resulted in the conclusion that phenomena in nuclear physics COULD only occur in quantum quantities.

Quantum Physics has been very handy in understanding many phenomena in atoms and within nuclei themselves.

But this discussion will show that what is SEEN as quantum processes are actually processes of Standard Model physics, with the important added fact of having the Exception of the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

The matter of that Exception is discussed in a different web-page, but an obvious example exists of it. If you take a normal child's gyroscope or top and get it spinning, when you release the axle of it, there is initially no precessional motion. That is, no kinetic energy of precession and no angular momentum of precession. But as soon as you release the axle, THE PRECESSIONAL MOTION ACCELERATES up to a fixed rate. The kinetic energy of the new precession is exactly provided by a slight lowering of the mass of the gyroscope/top in the gravitational field, which used to be potential energy. But the new angular momentum did not have any source of previous angular momentum. It just appears!

This exception only occurs as a result of gyroscopic precessional changes. It happens to occur in the Solar System as planets perturb each other's orbital motions. Around 1850, the brilliant mathematicians LaPlace, Leverrier and others all concluded that planets cannot alter each other's semi-major axis dimension by perturbation, which is easily proven as long as both Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Angular Momentum are true. This Exception of Conservation of Angular Momentum permits very small and slow changes in the semi-major axis of both planets as a result of mutual perturbation.

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The claim here is that this same effect, of rather slow modifications of orbital periods of electrons, occur due to mutual perturbations of electrons.

Electrons and all nuclear processes occur at amazingly fast rates. Each electron orbits its nucleus many billions of times every second. So in one one-thousandth of a second, each electron does millions of orbits.

Therefore, IF we could observe electron motions in a trillionth of a second, we WOULD see motions which are in compliance with Newton's Laws and the Standard Model. But since we are not capable of that fast of observing, and we only see the situation after at least a millionth of a second has occurred after some disturbance, we only see the QUANTUM effect, where the electrons have mutually perturbed each other through millions of orbits, and therefore have resulted in the STABLE arrangements we are familiar with.

So BOTH the Quantum view and the Standard view are perfectly valid. The distinction has to do with the time scale available for observations. Since atomic and nuclear processes occur so very rapidly, we do not seem capable of doing any experiments where we see results of any disturbance we cause before at least a millionth or a billionth of a second has transpired, and so WE SEE results that always show the expected Quantum results.

This is essentially saying that IF we were capable of seeing experimental results a million times faster, we would see a GRADUAL CHANGE in the orbital radii of the affected electrons over a period of millions of orbits.

So in reality, there are no Excluded Orbits and there is no actual Quantum basis for Physics, but due to our limitations of observational abilities, experiments always SHOW effects that comply with Quantum Dynamics.

This presentation was first placed on the Internet in October 2010.

Conservation of Angular Momentum - An Exception or Violation (Sept 2006)

**Galaxy Spiral Arms** **Stability and Dynamics** A purely Newtonian gravitational explanation (Nov 1997, Aug 1998)

**Twins Paradox of Relativity Is Absolutely Wrong** (research 1997-2004, published Aug 2004)

Perturbation Theory. Gravitational Theory and Resonance (Aug 2001, Dec 2001)

Origin of the Earth. **Planetary Gravitational Resonances** (Dec 2001)

Rotation of the Sun (Jan 2000)

**Origin of the Universe**. Cosmogony - Cosmology (more logical than the Big Bang) (devised 1960, internet 1998)

**Time Passes Faster Here on Earth than on the Moon** (but only a fraction of a second per year!) (Jan 2009)

Globular Clusters. All Globulars Must Regularly Pass Through the cluttered Galaxy Plane, which would be very disruptive to their pristine form. (Nov 1997, Aug 1998)

Existence of Photons. A Hubble Experiment to Confirm the Existence of Individual Photons (experimental proof of quanta) (Feb 2000)

**Origin of the Moon - A New Theory** (June 2000)

**Planetary Rotation of Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth** (Jupiter has a lot of gaseous turbulence which should have slowed down its rapid rotation over billions of years) (March 1998)

Cepheid Variable Stars. Velocity Graph Analysis (Feb 2003)

Compton Effect of Astrophysics. A Possible New Compton Effect (Mar 2003)

Olbers Paradox Regarding Neutrinos (Oct 2004)

Kepler and Newton. Calculations (2006)

Pulsars. Pulsars May Be Quite Different than we have Assumed (June 2008)

Sun and Stars - How the Sun Works - Nuclear Fusion in Creating Light and Heat (Aug 2006)

Stars - How They Work - Nuclear Fusion. Lives of Stars and You (Aug 2004)

Sundial Time Correction - Equation of Time. Sundial to Clock-Time Correction Factor (Jan 2009)

General Relativity - A Moon Experiment to Confirm It. Confirming General Relativity with a simple experiment. (Jan 2009)

General Relativity and Time Dilation. Does Time Dilation Result? (Jan 2009)

Geysers on Io. Source of Driving Energy (June 1998)

Mass Extinction, a New Explanation. A New Explanation for Apparent Periodicity of Mass Extinctions (May 1998, August 2001)

Precession of Gyroscopes and of the Earth. **Gyroscope Precession and Precession of the Earth's Equinoxes** (Apr 1998)

Ocean Tides - The Physics and Logic. Mathematical Explanation of Tides (Jan 2002)

Earth's Spinning - Perfect Energy Source (1990, Dec. 2009)

**Earth's Magnetic Field - Source and Logic**. Complex nature of the magnetic field and its source (March 1996)

**Earth Spinning Energy - Perfect Energy Source** From the Earth's Spinning (1990, Nov. 2002)

**Nuclear or Atomic Physics Related Subjects:**

**Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses** Nuclear Structure. (research 1996-2003, published Nov 2003)

Quantum Defect is NOT a Mathematical Defect- It Can Be Calculated **The Quantum Defect is a Physical Quantity and not a Fudge Factor**(July 2007)

Atomic Physics - NIST Atomic Ionization Data Patterns **Surprising Patterns in the NIST Data Regarding Atomic Ionization** (June 2007)

Nuclear Physics - Logical Inconsistencies (August 2007)

Neutrinos - Where Did they all Come From? (August 2004)

Neutrinos - Olbers Paradox Means Neutrinos from Everywhere (Oct 2004)

Quantum Nuclear Physics. A Possible Alternative (Aug 2001, Dec 2001, Jan 2004)

Quantum Physics - Quantum Dynamics. A Potential Improvement (2006)

Quantum Physics is Compatible with the Standard Model (2002, Sept 2006, Oct 2010)

Quantum Dynamics (March 2008)

Ionization Potential - NIST Data Patterns. Surprising patterns among different elements (March 2003)

Mass Defect Chart. (calculation, formula) (research 1996-2003, published Nov 2003)

**Assorted other Physics Subjects:**

Precession of Gyroscopes and of the Earth. **Gyroscope Precession and Precession of the Earth's Equinoxes** (Apr 1998)

**Earth's Magnetic Field - Source and Logic**. Complex nature of the magnetic field and its source (March 1996)

**Earth Spinning Energy - Perfect Energy Source** (1990, Nov. 2002)

Earth Energy Flow Rates due to Precessional Effects (63,000 MegaWatts) (Sept 2006)

Accurate Mass of the Earth. Gravitational Constant - An Important Gravitation Experiment. (Feb 2004)

Tornadoes - The Physics of How They Operate, including How they Form. **Solar Energy, an Immense Source of Energy, Far Greater than all Fossil Fuels** (Feb 2000, Feb 2006, May 2009)

Radiometric Age Dating - Carbon-14 Age Determination. Carbon-14, C-14 (Dec 1998)

Mass Extinction, an Old Explanation. An Old Explanation for Apparent Periodicity of Mass Extinctions (Aug 2003)

**Hurricanes, the Physics and Analysis** **A Credible Approach to Hurricane Reduction** (Feb 2001)

Sundial Time Correction - Equation of Time. Sundial to Clock-Time Correction Factor (Jan 2009)

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C Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago