We Probably Can Never Live on Mars

Man May Never Actually Survive the 18-month MicroGravity Trip of Even Getting to Mars

Once on Mars, Cosmic Rays may double cancer risks

Doctors have found that all Astronauts and Cosmonauts who have spent six months in space on Mir or ISS have discovered that the MicroGravity has caused their bones to lose from 16% to 30% of their strength and other physiology such as cardio-vascular and muscles and eyes to become degraded. A six-month stay in MicroGravity requires a follow-up period of one and a half years of Recovery on Earth. No one may be able to survive a three-times-longer 18-month MicroGravity trip to Mars, or to recover from it. The astronauts who arrived on Mars may never recover enough there to be able to do any productive work on Mars. If some or all of the Astronauts find that their bones had degraded by 90% in getting to Mars, they may simply need an Advanced Hospital there!

By around 2004, Doctors had already found that Cosmonauts and Astronauts who had spent six months on the Mir orbiting spacecraft and returned to Earth seemed to act somewhat disabled, as though they were very old people! A NASA article from 2004 is presented below which explained that healthy people on Earth constantly regrow bone tissues to replace old bone tissues which constantly break down. In an environment of MicroGravity, that re-growing of bone tissue apparently does not occur. Even by 2004, it was noted that Astronauts who returned to Earth after six-month assignments in the ISS seem destined to spend the remainder of their Earth lives as somewhat broken-down people whose bodies never fully recover.

In 2017, a study at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas has noted an additional medical problem in addition to the MicroGravity issue:

Study: Collateral Damage from Cosmic Rays Increases Cancer Risk for Mars Astronauts

New predictive model shows radiation from cosmic rays extends from damaged to otherwise healthy "bystander" cells, effectively doubling cancer risk.

Former NASA scientist Francis Cucinotta is a professor for the department of health physics and diagnostic sciences within the School of Allied Health Sciences. (Aaron Mayes / UNLV Creative Services)

The cancer risk for a human mission to Mars has effectively doubled following a UNLV study predicting a dramatic increase in the disease for astronauts traveling to the red planet or on long-term missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetic field.

The findings appeared in the May issue of Scientific Reports and were presented by UNLV scientist Francis Cucinotta, a leading scholar on radiation and space physics.

Previous studies have shown the health risks from galactic cosmic ray exposure to astronauts include cancer, central nervous system effects, cataracts, circulatory diseases and acute radiation syndromes. Cosmic rays, such as iron and titanium atoms, heavily damage the cells they traverse because of their very high rates of ionization.

Conventional risk models used by NASA and others assume DNA damage and mutation are the cause of radiation cancers. This is based on studies at high doses where all cells are traversed by heavy ions one or more times within much shorter-time periods than will occur during space missions.

"Exploring Mars will require missions of 900 days or longer and includes more than one year in deep space where exposures to all energies of galactic cosmic ray heavy ions are unavoidable," Cucinotta explained. "Current levels of radiation shielding would, at best, modestly decrease the exposure risks."

In these new findings, a non-targeted effect model "where cancer risk arises in bystander cells close to heavily damaged cells" is shown to lead to a two-fold or more increase in cancer risk compared to the conventional risk model for a Mars mission.

"Galactic cosmic ray exposure can devastate a cell's nucleus and cause mutations that can result in cancers," Cucinotta explained. "We learned the damaged cells send signals to the surrounding, unaffected cells and likely modify the tissues' microenvironments. Those signals seem to inspire the healthy cells to mutate, thereby causing additional tumors or cancers."

Cucinotta said the findings show a tremendous need for additional studies focused on cosmic ray exposures to tissues that dominate human cancer risks, and that these should begin prior to long-term space missions outside the Earth's geomagnetic sphere.

He also acknowledged the need to address a moral conundrum.

"Waiving or increasing acceptable risk levels raises serious ethical flags, if the true nature of the risks are not sufficiently understood."

News Center, UNLV, June 7, 2017

It appears that the Earth's magnetic field protects us Earthbound people from Cosmic Rays. The Mir and ISS spacecraft have been close enough to the surface of the Earth to also be protected by the Magnetic field of the Earth. However, the excitement regarding proposed human colonies on Mars and on the Moon has not considered that such astronauts would not have such protection from Cosmic Rays. Even if humans survived the trip to Mars, and their bones had not become degraded by up to 90% by the 18-month trip in MicroGravity, and they are somehow still able to walk around on Mars, Mars does not have a protective Magnetic field as we have on Earth, and they may be extremely subject to cancer risks due to Cosmic Rays.

These Cosmic Ray cancer dangers may also make any future Moon colony too dangerous to consider.

Many sci-fi writers talk about people traveling to Mars in spaceships. People in NASA claim the same thing, and NASA and the government talk about spending many billions of dollars to soon send manned rockets to Mars.

But that is foolish and probably impossible! The human body seems unlikely to be able to survive the trip to Mars, and probably could not survive living there. Everyone is overlooking some important after-effects of the people who have spent extended time in the Mir and ISS (International Space Station). Everyone who has spent six months in space has discovered that the MicroGravity has caused their bones to lose from 16% to 30% of their strength and other physiology such as cardio-vascular to become degraded. Even their eyes and vision are badly affected. A follow-up period of one and a half years of Recovery on Earth is then required. A year on the ISS seems to require three years of Medical recovery on Earth. We should know more about this as Doctors watch how Scott Kelly recovers from his 11 months on the ISS (landing in March 2016). Doctors will have an ideal situation to constantly monitor as Scott has an identical twin brother who has remained here on Earth. The rest of their lives here on Earth will be able to be carefully monitored.



Here are two NASA medical articles about those Astronauts.



NASA - Bones in Space

Published - August 19, 2004 - Mostly about Mir Cosmosauts

Life in the MicroGravity environment of space brings many changes to the human body. The loss of bone and muscle mass, change in cardiac performance, variation in behavior, and body-wide alterations initiated by a changing nervous system are some of the most apparent and potentially detrimental effects of MicroGravity. Changes to bone are particularly noticeable because they affect an astronaut's ability to move and walk upon return to Earth's gravity.

Structure and Function of Bone

Bone is a living tissue. It is dynamic, responsive to disease and injury, and self-repairing. Bone has both an organic component and an inorganic component. The organic component is composed mainly of collagen, long chains of protein that intertwine in flexible, elastic fibers. Hydroxyapatite, the inorganic component, is a calcium-rich mineral that stiffens and strengthens the collagen. Together, the interwoven organic and inorganic components of bone create a sturdy yet flexible skeletal structure.

The body is constantly breaking down old bone, and replacing it with new bone. Bone is formed by cells called osteoblasts. These cells lay down new mineral along the surface of bone. Osteoclasts, large multinucleate cells, breaks down old bone, and are in part responsible for releasing calcium into the bloodstream. In a healthy individual on Earth, bone is formed at the same rate at which it is broken down, so there is never an overall loss of bone mass. This process changes as a person grows older, or enters MicroGravity for an extended period of time.

On Earth, bones perform four basic functions:

Mechanical support: The skeleton supports soft tissue and the body's weight. Many bones also act as levers for muscles, enabling movement.

Storage of essential nutrients: Bone stores much of the calcium received from the diet. The calcium is stored inhydroxapatite (the principal bone salt which provides thecompressional strength of vertebrate bone). Between meals, the body maintains a constant concentration of calcium by absorbing it from bone and releasing it into the bloodstream. This constant calcium level in the bloodstream allows proper neural, muscular, and endocrine (hormone) functioning, as well as other cellular activities (e.g., blood clotting). From the bloodstream, the calcium is taken up by different organs and systems of the body. When the body absorbs too much calcium from bones the skeleton can become thin and weak. Bone is also a good source of phosphate, hydrogen, potassium, and magnesium. Like calcium, these minerals are used by many systems of the body for a wide range of purposes.

Production of blood: In addition to essential minerals, bone is also the storage site of marrow. Marrow is important for the formation and development of red and white blood cells and platelets.

Protection: The skeleton houses and protects the brain, spinal column, and nerves. Many bones, especially the ribs, also protect the internal organs.

Bone and MicroGravity

Some of the processes and functions of bones change after the astronaut has lived in MicroGravity for several days. In space, the amount of weight that bones must support is reduced to almost zero. At the same time, many bones that aid in movement are no longer subjected to the same stresses that they are subjected to on Earth. Over time, calcium normally stored in the bones is broken down and released into the bloodstream. The high amount of calcium found in astronaut's blood during spaceflight (much higher than on Earth) reflects the decrease in bone density, or bone mass. This drop in density, known as disuse osteoporosis, leaves bone weak and less able to support the body's weight and movement upon return to Earth, putting the astronaut at a higher risk of fracture.

This bone loss begins within the first few days in space. The most severe loss occurs between the second and fifth months in space, although the process continues throughout the entire time spent in MicroGravity. Extended stays on Mir have resulted in losses of bone mass of as much as 20%. Astronauts regain most of their bone mass in the months following their return from space, but not all of it.

The exact mechanism that causes the loss of calcium in MicroGravity is unknown. Many scientists believe that MicroGravity somehow causes bone to break down at a much faster rate than it is built up. However, the exact trigger for this rate change has not been found. Researchers are currently pursuing multiple lines of research, including hormone level, diet, and exercise, in order to determine exactly what causes -- and may control or prevent -- osteoporosis during space flight.

Another type of osteoporosis is a problem on Earth. As we grow older, the body begins to absorb bone much faster than it produces new bone. This leads to a lowered bone density, the same effect that MicroGravity has on astronauts. As a result, bones become more fragile and are more susceptible to fractures, especially in the hip, spine, and wrist. In many cases, people do not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so weak that an accidental bump or fall causes a fracture.

Just as astronauts eat a careful diet and get plenty of special exercise in space to prevent disuse osteoporosis, steps can be taken to prevent osteoporosis on Earth. A balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercise, a lifestyle free of smoking and alcohol, bone density testing, and medication all prevent or alleviate osteoporosis.

NASA Home

Excerpted from Virtual Astronaut's Bag of Bones

from NASA

ISS Astronauts Lose Bone Strength Fast - Softpedia

The loss happens faster than anticipated

Author: Tudor Vieru - January 27, 2009 - Mostly about 13 ISS Astronauts

stronauts who spend tours of duty on the International Space Station (ISS) for the average of six months are at a very high risk of losing a high percentage of their bone mass, doctors have recently announced. According to the report, >bone loss in those who have stood onboard the ISS can amount to anything between 14 and 30 percent. The latter case puts spacemen and women who return to Earth in the same situation as seniors suffering from osteoporosis, an age-related disease. The new paper shows that the risk of hip fracture is the largest, and also the most dangerous, from a medical point of view.

>The researchers have focused their efforts on 13 astronauts that spent the 6 month-long tour on the space station, and have determined that the minimum amount of bone loss has been of 14 percent. This is a very large figure by all accounts, and makes people coming back from orbit suffer the effects of old age decades ahead of their times.

"If preventive measures are not taken, some of our astronauts may be at increased risk for age-related fractures decades after their missions," orthopedic surgery and biomedical engineering professor Joyce Keyak from the University of California, Irvine, who is also the leader of the new paper, says.

Working together with colleagues from the UC San Francisco and the Universities of Space Research Assn,Keyak has analyzed the astronauts' bone mineral density, which was known to decrease at a rate between 0.4 percent and 1.8 percent each month. >Following their study of 12 male and 1 female astronaut, the team has decided that the actual drop rate is between 0.6 percent and 5 percent each month.

>The main culprit for the loss in minerals and muscle strength while in orbit is MicroGravity, which, as opposed to gravity, doesn't force the body to produce the minerals in order for it to stand up straight. >Due to the fact that we have adapted to our planet in order to survive, our bodies are only constructed to function properly here.

Content-Location: http://news.softpedia.com/news/ISS-Astronauts-Lose-Bone-Strength-Fast-102979.shtml

Even though the people on the ISS regularly do exercises, it appears that their bones get seriously weak, and other Medical issues arise as well. Necessary Recovery on Earth takes a LONG time to again become healthy. Some NASA medical experts believe that those astronauts may be susceptible to broken hips and other broken bones for the rest of their lives.

A trip to Mars would likely take around eighteen months of flight. Even if there was enough gravitation on Mars for Recovery, it seems likely that the bone degradation of possibly 5% per month may continue for the entire eighteen month trip. >Would this mean that they might arrive at Mars after having sustained bone degradation of 48% to 90%? How long would the pioneers need to have their bones recover from such extreme weakness? The best they might hope for might be four and a half years of recovery on Mars, but since Mars has much weaker gravity (about 1/3 that of Earth), recovery might take even longer!

Could the pioneers on Mars do all the work at construction and farming and everything else, with such serious medical problems for at least the first few years of being on Mars? It seems nearly certainly impossible, where survival of an extended trip on Mars seems very unlikely.

NASA and others seem to be incredibly enthusiastic about sending a manned trip to Mars, but EVERYONE seems to agree that it would be a ONE WAY TRIP. That seems even more certain to be true with the Medical results described here. Why doesn't anyone see how incredibly grisly it is certain to be for Earth radio receivers to get daily messages about the Mars pioneers NOT being able to be strong enough to build any houses or grow any food, where everyone will realize that we will just be listening to a 'Death March' until all of them have died. And given that, the chance that there will EVER be a following space flight to Mars seems permanently out of the question.


The ISS has been having some people staying in the ISS for longer times more recently. Peggy Whitson recently (April 24, 2017) set a new record of 534 days. She seems strong and active in interviews from the ISS. It seems obvious that we want to look forward to what Medical Doctors will say regarding her condition once she has returned to the strong gravitational field here on Earth. I fear that she may wind up spending the remainder of her life in a wheelchair in a Hospital here on Earth. Currently, her clear vitality is seen as cause for encouragement for us to get to Mars. Such a one-way trip to Mars would take about the interval during which she has been in MicroGravity. However, if it should turn out that Ms. Whitson becomes incapable of doing any manual labor back here on Earth and/or if she has to spend extended time under Doctor's maintenance, the idea of making any trip to Mars may go down the drain. In her recent interviews, Ms. Whitson predicts that a realistic trip to Mars might be made during the 2030s (twenty years or more in the future).

People also imagine StarTrek style trips to even farther than Mars, and Medical effects of even longer trips like that seem even more certain to not survive.

People, including NASA, also optimistically claim that we will be building colonies on the Moon. But the Moon only has 1/6 the gravity on Earth and there seems a possibility that months of MicroGravity on the Moon may cause the same bone degradation after some months. What if we come to learn that astronauts cannot survive more than six months or a year on the Moon?

Does NASA intend to do such minimal planning to discover these things only after we have a lot of stranded astronauts dying on Mars or in Moon colonies? Yes, it is a romantic idea to imagine that we have explorers in exciting adventures? But the ISS experiences seem to suggest that we humans are quite probably destined to only ever remain on our Earth.

On a related issue, a lot of allegedly intelligent people assume that the Universe is chock full of spaceships with aliens in them, traveling everywhere. They are nearly certainly totally wrong about that! It seems realistic that humanoid aliens might have similar MicroGravity problems which we have experienced in the ISS, so such extended trips may be impossible for that reason. Robots, sure! In addition, we certainly know that humans generally need to be in an environment of around 1.0 G, and if high speed human space travelers intended to ever get up to a speed of half the speed of light (in order to get to the nearest possible planet near Proxima Centari during a 20 year trip) that spacecraft would have to continually be accelerating at around 2.0 G for half the trip and then decelerating at around 2.0 G for the second half. Occupants of that spacecraft would not have muscles and bones and blood vessels dealing with a 200-pound Earth weight but instead a 400-pound body during that twenty-year trip. It is hard to imagine how many serious Medical issues would arise among the 400-pound crew of the spaceship during those twenty years!


This presentation was first placed on the Internet in January 2013.

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C Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago