Nuclear Spin is a Vector quantity, actually Angular Momentum, and
it is **not a Scalar quantity as Pauli had incorrectly assumed in 1930**.
As Vectors, both Amplitude and Direction are important. A **Vector
Addition Diagram** of Nuclear Spin of a Neutron's beta-decay happens
to be an **equilateral triangle**, which has a Neutron's Spin of 1/2
unit as one side of that triangle with a Proton's Spin of 1/2 unit
and an Electron's Spin of 1/2 unit being the other two Vector sides
(as shown in the graphic below). Wolfgang Pauli did not seem to know
that and in incorrectly thinking along Scalar lines (only considering
amplitude with no direction), he dreamed up the need for Neutrinos (with
another [Scalar] Spin of 1/2 unit). His (incorrect) Scalar Addition did
not add up correctly as Scalar quantities, and so he thought he
**needed** to invent a neutrino, **for a single purpose, that of
supplying an extra Scalar quantity of Nuclear Spin in order to meet the
Conservation of Angular Momentum**. He was smart and he certainly
should have known better than to try to apply Scalar thinking and logic
to Vectors.

There is additional statistical scientific and precise mathematical evidence that Neutrinos do not exist inside atomic nuclei in the highly respected NIST data resource. Here are two related articles.

*Nuclear Physics May be Fairly Simple *

*Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses*

Wolfgang Pauli was one of the most brilliant men ever, one of a handful of men who developed Nuclear Physics, but in 1930, it appears that he made an enormous logical blunder when he speculated that Neutrinos MUST be necessary inside atomic nuclei.

There is a curious simple but huge flaw in Nuclear Physics today regarding this
incorrect reasoning of Pauli (for which he even later received the
Nobel Prize in Physics in 1945.) **Nuclear Spin is a Vector
quantity, actually Angular Momentum, which every
beginning Physics student knows!** It is not a Scalar quantity
like most of the things we encounter in normal life. The difference is
that every Vector quantity has both an Amplitude and a Direction, while
all Scalar quantities only have an amplitude and they do not have
any defined direction. Examples are speed, which is a Scalar, and
velocity, which is a Vector, the difference being that velocity tells
you what direction the object is moving in, along with its speed.

Physicists (should) all know that any quantity like Nuclear Spin is necessarily a Vector, where both the rate of rotation is specified, as well as the defined direction, which is defined by the direction of the spin the orientation, which is defined by the direction of the spin axis. We say the Earth has a Spin Vector of "once a day" rotational speed and a direction of exactly due north. If the Earth's spin vector was pointed south instead, that would tell us the Earth was spinning the other way around.

During the 1920s, Physicists discovered that all nuclear particles have
Angular Momentum or Spin Vectors. **They were mostly concerned with one
specific object, the Neutron, which was known to spontaneously decay into a
Proton and an Electron with a half-life of around 15 minutes**.
More confusing yet, the Proton and Electron could soon fuse back together
to reform a Neutron.

Physics has long been based on several Conservation Laws, including one
of **Conservation of Angular Momentum**.

By about 1929, it was firmly known that each Proton, each Electron and each Neutron all had the exact same amount of "Nuclear Spin", which is described as being 1/2 unit of Spin, using an actual scientific quantity of Angular Momentum defined as Planck's Constant divided by (2 * Pi), or h / 2π

Many Physicists repeated the same experiment where a Neutron
spontaneously "beta decayed" into a Proton and an Electron, and
everyone was uncomfortable with the result. Pauli was one of the
leading Physicists who were troubled by a Neutron starting out with
a Spin of 1/2, and coming apart into two particles, a Proton with a
Spin of 1/2 and an Electron with a Spin of 1/2. **It was (incorrectly)
thought that this violated the Conservation of Angular Momentum.**
And so Wolfgang Pauli dreamed up a new particle, which became known as a
Neutrino (or, in this specific case, an Anti-Neutrino), which he said had
no electrical charge, no mass, no size and only a single characteristic,
its Spin of 1/2 unit.

**In other words, the ONLY reason that the Neutrino was even speculated
to exist was for the single purpose of trying to resolve a PROBLEM
WHICH DID NOT ACTUALLY EVEN EXIST. There has never been any other
reason suggested as to why Neutrinos should even exist!**

Therefore, Pauli announced that he had the explanation for how Angular
Momentum could be Conserved when a Neutron decayed. He explained (wrongly) that
the Neutron broke apart into **three** particles and not just the obvious two,
that is:

Neutron → Proton + Electron + (Anti)-Neutrino

He then explained that Nuclear Spin was conserved:

1/2 → 1/2 + 1/2 + -1/2

where the Neutrino involved was actually an Anti-Neutrino, meaning that it spins in the opposite direction so that the Spin Vector is in the opposite direction (and therefore the minus sign).

Everyone was thrilled that the brilliant Wolfgang Pauli had solved the biggest nuclear problem of the day! And, to this day, in 2017, everyone still absolutely accepts Pauli's explanation, as he was one of a handful of Physicists, with Einstein and Bohr, who was researching Nuclear Physics. Therefore, no one questions Pauli's announcement that there must be Neutrinos, in order to explain the Nuclear Spin Conservation issue of a Neutron's beta-decay.

**For bizarre reasons that are beyond me, the brilliant Wolfgang Pauli
and all Physicists since him seem to assume the Spin is a
Scalar quantity, which would require the speculation of a neutrino's
existence**, with a Spin of 1/2, to Conserve Spin by a Scalar 1/2 =
1/2 + 1/2 - 1/2.

**That is not remotely true!** Pauli had made an enormous logical
blunder in assuming that Nuclear Spin is a Scalar quantity! And so has every
Physicist today still bought into that wrong assumption!

**As an actual Vector quantity, it is clear that THERE IS NO NEED TO
DREAM UP A NEUTRINO IN ORDER TO CONSERVE NUCLEAR SPIN.**

Consider a (red) Spin vector of a Neutron which has an amplitude of "1/2 unit". (as shown in this graphic, to the upper right). The way Vector Addition works, is that two new Vectors can be formed from the original Vector, as long as they graphically add together, as the green (Proton Spin Vector) and blue (Electron Spin Vector) do in this graphic. In our example, the three lines form an equilateral triangle, meaning that all three Vectors shown have the same amplitudes.

This works the other way as well.
Specifically, two Spin Vectors (with identical amplitude of 1/2 unit)
(shown as green and blue arrows in our graphic) which happen to
be oriented at a space angle of 120 degrees from each other, can also add, as Vectors,
to become a new Spin Vector (shown as the red arrow in our graphic)
which has exactly the same amplitude
(1/2 unit) but now at an orientation of a third side of an equilateral
triangle. **There IS NO issue of any problem with Conservation of
Angular Momentum regarding the Spin Vector of a Neutron and the
consequent Spin Vectors of a Proton and Electron.**

Vector Addition therefore works both ways, and Vectors can point in either direction, so a Neutron Spin can spawn two Vectors for a Proton and an Electron, or a Proton Spin and an Electron Spin can add to form a Neutron Spin Vector.

**Note that the only reason that Neutrinos supposedly need to exist
is to Conserve Angular Momentum for beta decays such as when a
Neutron decays into a Proton and Electron (which we know happens!)
There has never been any other reason to speculate that Neutrinos
even exist! And since Wolfgang Pauli had made such an enormous
logical blunder in 1930 in his speculation, even that is not actually
the case.**

**How could any Physicist, then or now, believe
that it was even needed to dream up a Neutrino, for the single purpose
of Conserving Nuclear Spin?** Yes, a really smart Physicist, Wolfgang Pauli,
dreamed up the existence of Neutrinos to achieve this Scalar addition
of the quantities which are actually Vectors, so apparently everyone
just accepted that Pauli must be right! But he wasn't!

In fact, whether the Neutron is Free-Ranging across a room or within any atomic
nucleus, **the Vector nature of Nuclear Spin is such that the complete experimental
explanation of the beta decay of a Neutron is
simple and obvious! Just two objects are created, the Proton and the
Electron!** Much of the past 80 years of nuclear Physics has been centered
on all the complexities Pauli had made necessary by his wrong
explanation of a Neutron's decay and his wrong speculation of there
therefore needing to be Neutrinos!

Even as a First Year Physics student in 1963, I was bothered by one assumption that struck me as peculiar! If this is all just Scalar additions, are all Protons and Neutrons and Electrons all lined up with their Spin axes neatly like trillions of soldiers? Do physicists believe that a beta-decayed Neutron comes apart into two neatly lined up Proton and Electron objects? Because, 15 minutes later, it is assumed that the Proton and Electron re-combine to form a Neutron again! Do people think they stay lined up for all that time? Or do people just never think about such things? Apparently so!

In fact, Pauli and Hideki and other early Physicists extended this (incorrect) logic into requiring a Strong Nuclear Force, to try to explain how any atomic nucleus could contain a lot of positively-charged Protons very close to each other, knowing that such objects were clearly known to strongly repel each other due to the electrostatic force and its inverse-square-law distance dependency. So Hideki and Pauli dreamed up another really dumb idea, that there is an (invisible) even more powerful force which only acts at very short distances, in order to try to come up with some explanation for how the intense mutual electrostatic repulsion of Protons could be overcome. Hideki and Pauli and others also dreamed up an immense number of smaller particles (eventually called Pi-mesons or Pions), which supposedly whiz back and forth between Protons (and Neutrons) inside every atomic nucleus to (somehow) do this "Strong Nuclear Force".

As a Physics Major at the University of Chicago during the 1960s, I was told to always insist on absolute rigidity of my logic, but I was taught these very questionable speculations that seem to be rampant in the Physics community, then and now. Why don't other Physicists today see these same logical flaws which have troubled me during my whole career in Physics?

In any case, when I have examined such flaws as by Pauli (for which he was even given a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1945! Hideki got his in 1949), I see a far simpler explanation of nearly everything in nuclear physics. I spent several years studying the highly respected NIST data and I found many wonderful statistical patterns in various groupings of their Atomic Mass data for the thousands of Atomic Isotopes.

The implications are in many fields, and it took me several years (1996-2003)
to analyze and digest. A rather comprehensive web-page on the patterns and
results found is at **Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses**.

**One of the most powerful (and unexpected) results of that research is that
there appears to be no statistical evidence that Neutrons even exist within
atomic nuclei!** The materials are certainly there, but they appear to
exist as **separate Protons and Electrons** rather than as Neutrons! In fact,
there appear to be specific patterns of motion of the Electrons inside
atomic nuclei, where the **negative charge** of the Electrons provide
wonderful sources of nuclear stability! Specifically, where it is
certainly recognized that two Protons inside a specific atomic nucleus
are so close to each other that they exert immense repulsive electrical
force on each other, constantly trying to push each other out of the
nucleus, I found that if a single (negatively-charged) Electron happened to
be at a location exactly midway between those two Protons (at half the distsance to each), there is then an
attractive force on both Protons that is **four times as strong** (due to the
inverse square law of electrostatic force). The tiny Electron could not stay
at that exact midpoint for very long without collapsing the nucleus!
But I now believe that such intra-nuclear Electrons migrate between such
midpoint locations, where each two Protons inside an atomic nucleus
repel each other for around 3/4 of the time, while the brief presence
of the centerpoint Electron enables the two Protons to attract each other
four times as strongly, for the other 1/4 of the time. This results
in the Protons vibrating with a specific frequency, which I believe
is experimentally seen in some nuclei, and it therefore provides a
meta-stability of the nuclei's structure, purely due to electrostatic
forces of repulsion and attraction! **No Strong Nuclear Force is
necessary at all to provide nuclear stability!**

The result of all this is that atomic nuclei seem to logically not
contain Neutrinos at all, not to contain Neutrons at all, not to
contain any Strong Nuclear Force, and not to contain massive numbers
of Pions! **I believe that the NIST data clearly shows that atomic nuclei
only contain Protons and Migrating Electrons, and probably
nothing else!**

The full explanation of the NIST data analysis is rather complex, and probably not suitable for casual reading! But I believe it is strictly compliant with the Logic that Physics is supposed to demand.

The full analysis of the NIST data for all the activities within atomic
nuclei, is at **Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses**
which is a careful examination of the highly respected NIST data.

In the event that Neutrinos actually do exist, for many years I have been troubled by a variety of really bad assumptions that seem to have been made by my fellow Physicists regarding them!

In the 1820s, a brilliant scientist named Olbers realized a "Paradox" which has not yet been really resolved! He realized that with the astounding number of stars that we know exist in the Universe, then any precise direction we might ever look from Earth should eventually encounter the brilliant surface of some star! And so Olbers asked "Why is the sky dark at night?" The most acceptable answer has generally been that there is intervening gas which is somewhat opaque, which therefore blocks the light from many distant stars from ever getting to us. Opponents say that over billions of years, that should have resulted in heating of all that gas (due to absorbtion of the light and energy).

In any case, it is claimed that Neutrinos easily pass through the entire Earth, and so if Neutrinos are created in every fusion reaction in the core of every star in the Universe, then Neutrinos should likely get to us from every star in the Universe. Now, if the Sun generates all the countless billions of Neutrinos which my fellow Physicist experts claim constantly inundate us (in other words, from the specific direction of the Sun), then why are we not really inundated by 200,000 times as many Neutrinos which must be arriving from all those other directions and stars? But the "experts" totally ignore all this and apparently claim that only the Sun actually creates Neutrinos!

See anything lacking in such claims? Such as Logic?

See Neutrinos - Where Did they all Come From?

Also, there are Physicist "experts" who claim that the entire Universe is 20% or 80% or 90% made up of Neutrinos. I would ask "Where did they come from?" If each Neutrino is only created and emitted as a result of a nuclear beta decay of a Neutron, and they have at most a really tiny mass, how could anyone believe that even one one-millionth of the mass of each nucleon could become a Neutrino, then how could any more than one one-millionth of the Universe have ever become Neutrinos?

But an estimate can be made of the total number of galaxies that exist, and the total mass of each of them. The claims of really astounding amounts of (dark matter) Neutrinos mass is just totally silly!

See Neutrinos - Olbers Paradox Means Neutrinos from Everywhere How Many Neutrinos Could Exist?

Note that even separate from any concern about Pauli's logical flaw
regarding the existence of Neutrinos, it turns out that the highly
respected NIST data base provides another proof that Neutrinos cannot
and do not exist! From around 1996 through 2003, I studied the precise
Atomic Weights of every Isotope in the NIST data, and when I applied
statistical analysis to those values, I found amazing new patterns in
the data. There is no indication of any fifth-order or even third-order
patterns, which indicates that there may not be any Strong Nuclear
Force at all! But the patterns of same-mass Isotopes (from different
elements) are even more amazing, where no energy seems to exist in any
atomic nucleus to provide for 'energy for any Neutrino', none for any
"energy which such a Neutrino might carry away after a beta-decay",
no energy for any "Neutron self-binding energy", no energy for any "Pi-Mesons".
In fact, the NIST data and a strict statistical analysis makes very clear that
there is no energy inside any atomic nucleus other than the existence
of Protons and the existence of Electrons, and a tiny amount of remaining
energy which accounts for the kinetic energy of the movement of the
Protons and Electrons inside the nucleus! A rather comprehensive web-page
on the NIST patterns and results found in 1996-2003 is at **Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses**.

It really seems totally beyond any possible doubt that no Neutrinos actually exist anywhere! And so a Nobel Prize given in 2015 to scientists who claim to have found new Neutrino results, seems rather peculiar! They got a Nobel Prize for research on objects which do not even exist!

This presentation was first placed on the Internet in January 2014.

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C Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago