**Time is passing now, here on Earth, at a different rate than it is on the surface of the Moon! It is at an easily measurable fraction of a second per year faster!****The universally assumed idea that time is passing at exactly the same rate for everywhere in the Universe is certainly totally wrong!**The nearby presence of a large mass, such as the Earth, causes time to pass slightly more quickly! Albert Einstein taught us that, as a consequence of General Relativity, but no one has yet experimentally confirmed that he was right

One specific 'thought experiment' comment of Einstein became very well known. He proposed having two identical elevators. One of the elevators is in an extremely tall building on Earth, and he cut the cable supporting the elevator carriage, where the elevator carriage would then fall downward with ever increasing velocity, but with constant acceleration (of 9.8 m/s/s). Einstein noted that an occupant of that freely falling elevator would be floating in the elevator, along with everything else there (at least until it hit the bottom!). Einstein put his second, identical elevator carriage in deep outer space, by itself, where there was no gravity at all.

**Einstein then stated that the occupants of the two elevator carriages
would not be able to do any experiment to find anything to distinguish
these two very different situations.** Einstein called this General
Relativity. He had explained that 'gravity' (or actually gravitation) is
indistinguishable with 'inertial acceleration'. In the one case, there was
no net acceleration detected in the elevator cage because there were two
effects, one of them being the Earth's gravitational field and the other
being the acceleration of the entire elevator in free fall, which
Einstein said always exactly matched. The combination resulted in no net
acceleration effect inside the elevator cage. This gave
an environment inside the elevator cage which was indistinguishable from the
situation which is true in the deep outer space elevator cage.

Einstein's next General Relativity thought experiment showed a little more.
This involved having two identical rockets. One is sitting on a launch pad
on Earth, stationary, being subjected to the gravitational field of the Earth,
which we describe as 9.8 meters/second^{2} or 32
feet/second^{2}. The other space ship would again be in deep
space, away from any planets, but this one was constantly accelerating due
to an ever-running rocket engine at exactly 9.8 meter per second per second.
**Einstein noted here as well that the occupants of the two rockets
could never do any experiment to tell which situation was really their
case.** Again, **an Inertial Acceleration due to motion cannot be
distinguished from the effects of a Gravitational Field.**

**Einstein concluded from such thought experiments that an Inertial Acceleration
due to motion must be exactly interchangeable, and indistinguishable,
with an Acceleration due to the gravity of a planet.** We refer to
that as General Relativity. An equation referred to as the Equivalency
formula mathematically relates the two.

**As it turns out, the set of ten Tensor Calculus solution equations for General
Relativity are astoundingly complex, and NO ONE has yet fully solved them,
even a hundred years later!** Some assumptions were made and some
simplified approaches were developed around 1960, and some new conclusions
were presented after that. Because of those (questionable) assumptions,
which now appear to be obviously very wrong, virtually all Physicists today
agree that there must be the same Time Dilation Effect which must exist in
General Relativity, as is seen in Special Relativity. **The following
discussion will show that they are all certainly wrong in that
assumption and conclusion, and that the time passage effect of General
Relativity is opposite that of Special Relativity and its Time
Dilation.**

I consider a new Thought Experiment like Einstein's to provide yet another new insight of great importance.

Consider the second of the Einstein thought-experiments regarding the
rockets. Give each of the two occupants a precisely accurate
atomic clock. We will start the accelerating rocket out far past the edge
of the Solar System, where there is no gravitational effect, and we will
provide the rocket with an engine that consistently and reliably provides
the correct amount of thrust so that the rocket is able to accelerate at exactly
9.8 meters/second^{2}. We then have the exact circumstances in
Einstein's second thought experiment, where no experiment can ever discern
between the interior of the rocket still sitting on the launch pad on Earth
and the interior of the rocket that constantly accelerates at 9.8
m/sec^{2} in deep space.

This experiment continues for exactly two years. The occupant of the rocket sitting on the Earth is agreed as having aged exactly two (Earth) years, as proven by his Cesium clock. What about the other occupant? It might first seem that he should also age exactly two years, but there is another effect which must be considered.

During those two years, which is around 63,114,000 seconds, every one of
which he could measure that he accelerated exactly 9.8 m/sec^{2}.
He should certainly have had Log Book entries, the latest of which should
show him now traveling at a cumulative 618,000 km/sec.

Since the speed of light is about 299,792 km/sec, this is obviously not possible, as it would indicate that he would think that he had massively exceeded the velocity of light, which we know he could never experience! This shows that necessarily there is a relativistic effect regarding acceleration and time and distance, that is, General Relativity.

In fact, there is only one possibility which can explain this, and other similar problems. We know that his rocket engine thrust has not changed, so he believes it is still creating the same thrust every second, which could continue forever.

We know of Newton's F = m * a regarding the performance of his rocket
engine. The only explanation is that there are two effects of General
Relativity. The mass of his rocket is increasing at the exact same rate that
the acceleration of his ship is decreasing. He would not be aware of either
of these effects. **But the time interval which he sees as one second is
now actually taking a shorter real interval of time.** What he
sees as 9.8 m/sec^{2}, and will forever see, is now actually during
a shorter real time interval, and so his actual acceleration has become
less. If you think about that, the effect on him is that his Cesium clock
now passes more seconds of time than it used to, or that **he is now living
life faster than he used to!**

**That is the opposite effect from Time
Dilation!**

**Am Earth observer would see a traveler in (constant velocity) Special
Relativity to experience Time Dilation, that is, aging just a few weeks in a
year of observing. We are familiar with that. The actual Traveler would
not sense anything different.
In General Relativity, the traveler would be seen (from an Earth observer)
to experience exactly the opposite, such as aging a hundred years during
a year of observation from Earth (during ferocious acceleration).**

**No other description could describe his actual personal experience,
of having a rocket engine which could forever provide an
acceleration of 9.8 m/sec ^{2}, and still not ever think
that he would violate the speed of light.**

When looked at from the Earth observer, similar but different effects
are seen. Where the Traveler would never have had any sensation of
change in the rate of time passage, the Earth observer would certainly
see it. **The Earth observer might see him appear to travel (accelerate)
for a year, that Earth observer would see the occupant age by more than a year
during that year of acceleration!** During that one year of observed
trip, the rocket would have been seen to have traveled less than one
light-year in distance. Remember that the traveler would be seen to age
more than a year during that acceleration, (ensuring the compliance with
the speed of light) and
the consequence is that the Traveler would perceive that he has traveled
a greater distance than is seen by an Earth observer.

Consider a longer and faster trip.

There are four possible perspectives **(only analyzing during the ferocious acceleration)**:

- The traveler would record having traveled around 25 light-years
in distance during the acceleration in an interval of 50 of his measured years
of time, with an average velocity of around 0.5 c. He would see that
he had completed nearly half the trip during the acceleration.
He would become quite old during that acceleration. No Medical issues
since he only accelerated at 1.0 G. Nothing unusual.
- The Earth observer would not have traveled at all and would have
recorded exactly one measured year of time. He would see the spacecraft
only travel a very small fraction of the trip during that one year of
ferocious acceleration. Nothing unusual.
- The Earth observer would see the traveler to have accelerated
for exactly one year of time, and gotten up to near the speed of light,
with a trip average velocity of around 0.5 c. He would see the traveler
seem to accelerate at tremendous rates, which humans could not withstand,
for only one year, but he would also see the traveler appear to age
50 years during the one year of the observation, much faster than
himself. Nothing unusual.
- The traveler would look back and see the Earth and observer to have aged about 50 years and a few days during his own 50-year trip acceleration experience, slightly faster aging than himself. Nothing unusual.

**Note that both see the other one to seem to have aged faster than himself!
This is only during the acceleration (and deceleration phase(s) of the
trip.**

**
We remember here that during the constant velocity portion of the trip,
they both see each other appear to age slower than himself, per the
long-accepted Time Dilation of Special Relativity!**

The net effect of all this is that all perceptions agree that he arrives just over 100 years after he left Earth! (1) The Traveler would experience the trip to have been 50 years of acceleration, followed by a few days of constant velocity cruising, followed by 50 years of deceleration. He would have aged a total of just over 100 years during the trip. (2) The Earth observer would see the trip quite differently, maybe a year of extreme acceleration, followed by 98 years of constant velocity cruising, and then a year of severe deceleration. He would have lived a total of just over 100 years in watching the trip. (3) The Traveler, looking back at Earth, would see the Earth observer age just over fifty years during the acceleration, followed by a few hours less aging during the very brief cruising section, followed by seeing the Earth observer age just over fifty years during his deceleration. In all cases, there is total agreement that they both aged just over 100 years during the entire trip, and that they both saw the other person also age by just over 100 years during the trip and that both their calendars would have shown just over 100 years actually go by.

As is required in Relativity (when both are in the same Inertial Rest Frame), all perceptions have ultimate agreement! This requirement merely ensures that neither of them is experiencing any Acceleration at the beginning or end of the trip.

This presentation was first placed on the Internet in January 2013.

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C Johnson, Theoretical Physicist, Physics Degree from Univ of Chicago