Neutrinos do not exist (1963)
Like all other nuclear objects, neutrinos must necessarily be Vector quantities, as they all have Nuclear Spin, that is, Angular Momentum. They must add as Vector quantities and not as (directionless) Scalar Quantities. Angular Momentum must always be Conserved.
As shown here, a Vector Addition Diagram of the Nuclear Spin of a Neutron's Beta-Decay happens to be an equilateral triangle. A Neutron's Spin of 1/2 unit is one (blue) side of that triangle with a Proton's Spin of 1/2 unit (green) and an Electron's Spin of 1/2 unit (red) being the other two Vector sides. (as shown in this Vector Addition graphic). There is no issue of any problem with Conservation of Angular Momentum regarding the Spin Vector of a Neutron and the consequent Spin Vectors of a Proton and Electron.
In 1930, Wolfgang Pauli had erred in thinking that another particle must also exist which had nuclear spin. Pauli wrongly assumed that a (new) fourth particle must also exist, his neutrino, so his (incorrect, Scalar) addition could work. A proper understanding of how Vector Addition works (as in the graphic above) shows that was very wrong.
Pauli had proposed the ONLY reason that his neutrino must exist was to solve a problem of a failure in the Conservation of Angular Momentum, a problem which did not actually even exist!
As of yet, 2022, no experiment has ever been done which has actually confirmed that Neutrinos actually exist. It took 25 years after Wolfgang Pauli had (incorrectly) speculated that Neutrinos must exist, before the first claim of an experimental confirmation was made. In 1956, some creative assumptions were made by Reines and Cowan. They devised their own unique detector, which involved detecting protons, neutrons, positrons and electrons (in order to try to prove the existence of a neutral Neutrino). A Nuclear Reactor was found to have produced a handful of unexpected responses in their detector and they announced it as proving the Neutrino. No actual Neutrinos were ever found but instead only a microscopic number of creative sequences of nuclear processes. One of their favorite processes resulted in a burst of gamma radiation, and then, later, another second burst of gamma radiation. Based on a lot of assumptions, Reines and Cowan calculated the time delay they expected between the two gamma radiation bursts. On this, an assumed sequence of nuclear events which resulted in two unique gamma radiation bursts, Reines and Cowan announced that they had proven the existence of a Neutrino. All their experiment had actually proved was that some (unknown) process took place where two gamma ray bursts occurred, where no reference to any Neutrino at all was ever involved. By the way, no neutral Neutrino could ever cause even one gamma ray burst (due to the Conservation of Energy Law). But that specific experiment, inside a nuclear reactor, is still considered the "absolute proof of Neutrinos". No actual experiment, during the following 60 years has ever (yet) even detected even a single Neutrino.
And even the many assumptions that have been made are incredibly weak. It is acknowledged that a Neutrino has no electric charge. But one of the primary claims of having detected Neutrinos is that Cherenkov Radiation had been observed. I have certainly done (different) experiments which created Cherenkov Radiation, and it is a unique experience. But only charged particles can create Cherenkov Radiation. That would logically eliminate neutral Neutrinos from the picture. A very bizarre assumption was made where an (electrically neutral) neutrino somehow waves a magic wand to create a negatively charged electron. We Physicists know that such silliness is simply impossible. We know that Electric Charge Must Be Conserved. But that assumption, where a neutral Neutrino somehow creates a negatively charged electron (in order to then cause the observed Cherenkov Radiation), is somehow simply absolutely accepted by Physicists and the world, which then, they declare proves that Neutrinos exist. No they don't.
Not only have they adopted impossible assumptions, which everyone simply accepts as valid, but even if such a process could occur, they claim that Neutrinos pass through the entire Earth without actually interacting with any atom or object along the way is supposedly only one chance in 2,000,000,000,000. Yet, they claim that in their experiment, the Neutrino didn't just collide with something big, like a Uranium nucleus, but in the tiniest available target, an electron. To then do a process which violates the Conservation Laws.
The only other experiments that allegedly prove that Neutrinos exist are essentially enormous tanks of liquid Chlorine very deep in mines. In a given year, around three atoms of Chlorine can convert to Argon atoms. The "deep in a mine" phrase is to claim that surface events then could not affect their tank of Chlorine. But they neglect the fact that each of those deep mines are relatively near even deeper concentrations of Radium and Uranium and other radioactive ores in the Earth, which do (directly) cause Cherenkov Radiation and also do interact with Chlorine atoms to create a few Argon atoms. The results they see in their underground experiments may just be absolutely natural events.
Solution: A Forensic Police DNA Rape Prevention Method (2018)
Around 3,000 girls and women are raped every day in America. And no one seems to know how to protect them from this crime. There is a very simple way to protect all those girls and women (and children). Every time any man ejaculates, he sends out 250,000,000 separate sperm, each of which contains his unique complete set of DNA molecules. Modern Forensic Police can examine any crime scene and if they can identify even just ten of a man's unique DNA molecules in the crime scene, they know WHO the criminal was. This is now done every day in identifying criminals.
If a rape victim girl or woman carefully preserves her underwear and clothing, possibly in a sealed Tupperware container, any modern Police Laboratory or Hospital Laboratory can easily find far more than ten of his DNA molecules from a rape crime scene, on her underwear or clothing, out of the 250,000,000 DNA of the man who committed the rape. Think about it. How else can the unique DNA of a man's sperm get on a girl's underwear in a Police Evidence container?
Once men realized how impossible it is for them to secure all their 250,000,000 of personally identifiable DNA molecules from a rape crime, even the dumbest man will realize that they cannot get away with the crime of rape. All women and girls and children will suddenly be extremely safe from ever being raped again.
Earth's Perfect Energy Source (1990)
Earth's Kinetic Spinning Energy (advanced) (1990)
The Earth has Immense Rotational Kinetic Energy. The published value of that energy is 2.137 * 1029 Joules or watt-seconds. IF we might put some effort into trying to capture some of that immense amount of available energy, we already have an awesome source of more energy than we could ever need for a million years, and absolutely no pollution would ever exist! Hundreds of Soviet scientists began to try to capture some of this energy around 1970 in extremely secret research. I did not know what the Soviets were trying to do, but around 1990, I tried an entirely different method to try to recover some of it.
So far, the Soviets have never captured more than about 0.0004 watt of such power, and during the 1990s and 2000s, the best I ever did was to capture about ten times better, where I extracted about 0.006 watt. Both of our very different methods relied on the Vector nature of the rotational kinetic energy of the Earth spinning, along with using the sets of three Euler Differential Equations.
All of the Soviet (and later, Ukranian) experiments were based on the gyroscopic spinning of the Earth once every day. So all their experiments required massive gear trains to speed that up by a factor of about a million to one, so they could get a final wheel turning at about 700 rpm, to be able to drive an alternator to produce electricity. Unfortunately, their impressive experiments had so much friction in all their gears that they wasted most of the energy they had extracted.
I used a very different approach, where I focused on the Precessional motion of any gyroscope, including the Earth. I believe that my approach might have some serious potential, based on some very complex Riemannian Vector Calculus math. Nothing in any of my five prototype devices ever moved faster than walking speed, so I did not need all those impressive gears of the Soviets. I also discovered an unusual man named Orfyrreus of about 300 years ago that brought several of his 'wheels' to county fairs, who realized much of what I had found. Around 2006, I had to travel to the New York Public Library to read the only book in America that discussed his devices. It was the only time when I was not allowed to touch a valuable book, where a woman in gloves turned the pages for me!
I believed that I just needed to adjust the dimensions of my prototype's 27 component parts to maximize the performance.
After a few years of trying, I concluded that my brain is not capable of sufficient Riemannian Fourth-Degree Tensor Calculus to simultaneously solve 27 very complex equations to enhance the milli-watt performance of my 2004 tabletop devices up to the 10 kilowatts of energy extraction that I believe my approach could produce for each family.
I still have hope that some really excellent mathematician can solve really advanced Tensor Riemannian Calculus math to provide this wonderful (clean) energy answer for humanity.
You can help eliminate the world market for Natural Gas (2021)
Greta Thunberg and you can help eliminate the world market for Natural Gas (2007)
Greta Thunberg is Seeking a Climate Change Solution . (2018)
For 14 years, I have demonstrated a wonderful natural source of energy! During the summer, when I mow my lawn, I save the cut grass, in bags, and I dry it, like farmers do to store their wheat and hay and straw (they do it in bales, I do it in bags).
All that cut grass (and weeds and leaves and even sawdust and junk mail!) has a collection of the massive solar energy collected during the photosynthesis chemistry of the growth of the millions of blades of grass, as Glucose molecules.
In the winter, I add back a little of the water I had removed in the drying process. Then, in either of two simple, inexpensive devices which I freely describe to everyone, the Glucose molecules (C6H12O6) naturally decompose (which science calls respiration), where they release all that amazing amount of the stored solar energy (686 kcal/mole) to totally heat my large (11-room) house in the cold Chicago climate.
In the previous 14 years (1992-2006), I had paid the local utility, $2,000 every winter to buy Natural Gas (CH4 ) which I had burned in my furnace to heat my house. That was about $28,000 I had paid that Utility (which was actually, in 2007, the rather selfish reason why I invented this Natural Carbon Cycle method to heat my house!)
So now, in the following 14 winters, I have not paid that (giant corporation) Utility a dime!
And then, later, when Greta Thunberg taught the world about Global Warming, I also realized that in these recent 14 years, I have not burned any fossil fuels (CH4) (Chemistry: C + O2 → CO2 and H + O2 → H2O) to create 192.5 tons of brand new carbon dioxide which everyone else permanently sends up into the atmosphere, where the burning of fossil fuels adds more than 100 billion tons of new carbon dioxide up into the atmosphere every year. (I add NONE!)
I have also, as a research scientist, discovered that I do not need to permanently remove the 20 tons of oxygen from the atmosphere each winter, which I used to have to do (1992-2006) to oxidize the Natural Gas in the process of burning that fossil fuel. So, without even realizing it, I have now left 280 tons of oxygen in the atmosphere that I used to have to remove to burn the (previous) Natural Gas.
I would rather be able to breathe that oxygen anyway!
I am somewhat concerned what Greta's millions of followers will BREATHE when they are later 80 years old. I am concerned that all that burning of fossil fuels, by then, will have permanently removed more than 12,000,000,000,000 tons of oxygen from the atmosphere. I will be long gone by then, but her followers may enjoy breathing.
Is all that good enough evidence for you? And I have scientifically proven that this works (for 14 years so far). In addition, it is free!
While the impressive COP26 politicians bragged about promising each other billions of dollars but did not eliminate a single ton of CO2 from the atmosphere, if Greta got her 10 million followers to each use my method to each get rid of 13.75 tons, she could have eliminated 137.5 million tons of CO2 this year!
And the world market for Natural Gas might disappear!
True Origin of the Universe (1961, internet 1998)
We need to examine Einstein's E = m * c2. It turns out that there is only one experiment that we scientists can be involved in that involves this famous Einstein energy conversion formula. Sadly, it is not an experiment that we can actually do! We can only hope to watch! No other experiment, which we can actually do can do Einstein's conversion of energy to mass. We call this unique experiment Pair Production.
Consider a single Photon of light which begins to cross the room you are in, or a single photon of light emitted from a Wisconsin lighthouse on Lake Michigan. I am not mentioning the millions of other Photons of light that were emitted in the following second of time. If that Photon is "bright enough", that is, if it contains at least 1.2 MeV of energy in it, then at any moment in the following thousandth of a second, as that Photon crosses over Lake Michigan on its way to a boat moored in Michigan, it could (spontaneously) do an Einstein Energy Conversion event. If that occurred, that Photon (and the light) would disappear and an Electron and an anti-Electron would suddenly appear! Fortunately, these appear to be really rare events, so the boat would still see most of the light of the lighthouse.
But what about a brilliant flash of light of a Pulsar of an object a billion light years away from us. Will that Photon cruise along for a billion years in getting to us so we might see it? How many such Photons will actually get the full billion-year trip to us on Earth? How many instead will "disappear along that very long way as Pair Production events"? No one knows!
In my long career as a Physicist, I had been involved in this unique experiment around 35 times, which we Physicists call the Pair Production Experiment. It is quite weird to do, as it seems to violate things that high school science teachers had taught all of us! It is likely that anyone who has not performed a Pair Production Experiment may not be able to grasp the immense importance of this experiment. First, it is a spontaneous experiment, of Einstein's E = m * c2 energy conversion where the Physicist actually has NO control whether it will work or not. A Physicist must be remarkably patient, usually taking tens of thousands of photographs of a tiny space in a Cloud Chamber or a Bubble Chamber, where absolutely nothing happens! We actually hire many housewives to examine all those photos so that we (Graduate) Physics students only have to spend time looking at photos such as this one here where something interesting happens! Usually, in all the tens of thousands of photos, the only thing(s) that are seen are straight lines (or nothing at all) of neutral photons crossing the photos.
A successful Pair Production Experiment begins with (Einstein energy) a single (really tiny, absolutely massless) object we call a Photon (one which contains at least 1.2 MeV of energy in it) going in a straight line across the photo (on the left here). If the experiment is successful, the Photon (that Einstein energy) suddenly disappears (and we do not know why!) (as in this photo here) and instead, we are left with a photograph of two brand-new actual particles (Einstein mass), each making opposite spirals in the magnetic field! One is an Electron (which has a Rest-Mass of 0.5109989461 MeV) and the other is an Anti-electron (which also has a Rest-Mass of 0.5109989461 MeV) (which is commonly also called a Positron). I will personally always remember my first photograph of the 1960s of the first brand-new particles which "I" was involved in creating!
Pair Production Magnetic Field Photo
This is not my original photo from 55 years ago. But it is one of the actual black-and-white photos that we Physicists get in magnetic fields from Pair Production Experiments. I see hundreds of speculative drawings on the Internet. This is what we Physicists actually get and analyze. (Some Physics talk here!) A Photon (gamma, Einstein energy) comes in from the left. The Photon is electrically neutral so it goes straight in the magnetic field. Then, in this successful experiment, the Photon (of Einstein energy) spontaneously disappears, into becoming an Einstein Electron and a Positron (both Einstein mass, both of which are electrically charged so their paths are curved by the magnetic field. Since we know the strength of the magnetic field that we used, we spent our lives in measuring our photos for the curvature of the two (new) charged particles circling around. For this photo, the lower object rotates around the correct way to confirm that it is charged negatively. Then the curvature of that spiral tells us the Newtonian movements to tell us that in that magnetic field, the object must have the mass of an Electron! The other object rotates the opposite direction in that magnetic field, so it must be positively charged. Curvature tells us that it was a Positron, an e+. If a Physicist looks really carefully at this photo, there are two details. We Physicists notice that the pattern of the negative and positive spirals are noticeably different. This is because each of the two new objects also have some Kinetic Energy. In this case the initial photon had much more energy, and the experiment ended with yet another negative object, a very gradually curving line off to the right. Careful analysis shows that this was another Electron, which had some of its own kinetic energy. But the total of the energy in the negative objects (existence of mass plus kinetic energy) exactly matched the total energy of the positive object, as a Pair Production experiment must have, to properly Conserve Energy.
Yes, these are incredibly tiny objects which I had created (out of "nothing"), but if you have 13.8 billion years and an entire enormous Universe to work in, a gazillion Pair Production Experiments might occur. I sort of call these "the Big Dribble" in possibly describing how the entire Universe might have been gradually created! For the record, the vast majority of the photons that go through our area do not do the "spontaneous event" and they simply pass through as straight lines across our photos, and there is no "Pair Production" event which usually occurs. We do not know why an occasional photon spontaneously does this. But we have learned that it is a good idea to take at least 30,000 photographs in each attempt to observe an Einstein Photon Electron anti-Electron event. I actually never asked my Professor just how many photos he would schedule in each experiment. All of my 35 lifetime experiments resulted in at least one successful photo, although some also resulted in a second success and one even resulted in three successful photos. But by brute force, apparently Professors learned to schedule at least 30,000 photos.
The claim here is just that with so many jillions of Photons passing through enormous volumes of space of the Universe, in 13.8 billion years, enough photons have done this peculiar event that the entire Universe may have gradually been populated to result in all the Protons and Electrons which arose and which created the whole works of what we call the Universe! These 'spontaneous events' did not all occur 'at one instant' and 'in one specific location'. They regularly occur, maybe even now, all over the entire Universe!
For the record, in the room you are now sitting in, countless millions of Photons pass through every second, of all sorts of colors (energies) and wavelengths, although very few of them probably have any Pair Production events occur. (You don't have the Cloud Chamber or magnetic field generator or cameras to detect whatever does or does not occur in your room!) But the point being made here is that there are lots of brand new Electrons and Positrons which are coming into existence right there with you, now! And also, everywhere else as well! A far more rare version of the Pair Production event is if the Photon has a lot more energy (at least 1850 times as much energy), including Cosmic Rays. Instead of the Photon vanishing to create a brand-new Electron and Anti-Electron, it vanishes to create a brand-new Proton and Anti-Proton. In my entire lifetime, I have only witnessed this once! But again, if we have the entire Universe to work in, and 13.8 billion years, I feel it is possible for all the Protons and Electrons and Neutrons and Atoms in the Universe may have been created in this manner.
This is clearly a far more logical explanation than the 'Big Bang' that is accepted as credible.
When a new Proton electrostatically joins up with a new Electron, a brand new atom of Hydrogen can become created! This can be standard operating procedure. It is not clear how Photons can travel billions of light years, but maybe this explains how and why visible light is all over the Universe, that maybe many of those Photons do not contain enough energy to do a Pair Production event along the way.
In the Big Bang, allegedly, the entire creation of the Universe occurred in a blink of an eye, 10-32 second. How could anyone believe that the entire 10+54 kilograms of particles of the entire Universe could each accelerate, then cruise, and then decelerate at many trillions of times faster than the speed of light?
Safely Opening schools during the COVID-19 Pandemic
There may only be one safe method where we can open schools for children and teachers during the COVID-19 virus pandemic.
Why do school parents want to send their kids into a building which has 3,000 other students in it, hundreds of which have deadly COVID-19 virus? Just to play football or basketball? I do not understand parents intentionally endangering their own children's lives.
On November 18, 2020 the Chicago School District admitted that they had already had 72,000 children test Positive with the COVID-19 virus. Three days earlier, the AAP Nightly News announced that a million children had already tested Positive for COVID-19 virus in America. On January 4, 2021, Nightly News said that Colleges and Universities have already had 400,000 American students test Positive for Covid-19. On January 19, 2021, AAP News announced that the United States has already gotten 2.5 million children and adolescents to test Positive for Covid-19, with 211,000 of those children newly tested Positive in just this recent week! As a parent, do you STILL want to send your child into a traditional school?
Just WHO is doing the thinking here? The Chicago School District is VERY pleased with themselves that their proposed school environment is "safer than the overall community, so send the children in!" I see. In a year, America has killed off over 400,000 people with COVID-19. So as long as the schools only kill off 100,000 children, they can BRAG about that??? NO! If even ONE child dies of COVID-19 in a year, how dare any school administration BRAG that they ONLY had 211,000 children infected with COVID-19 THIS WEEK?
None of those news reports mentioned how many Teachers have already been infected, but already more than one-third of all Teachers have decided to Retire due to the serious COVID-19 danger.
This is actually a rather old-fashioned idea, but it is amazingly safe. A hundred years ago, public schools were nearly all the same, one-room school houses. There was one Teacher and 6 to 12 children of various Grade levels.
A modern variant of this can make wonderful sense. Several local small vacant homes and some chain link fencing could separate groups of children and their Teacher from external disease carriers and even local bullies and gangs. Nice Recess playground, too!
The children can each live at home and walk each day to spend the school day with a trusted Teacher.
This one-room-school-house approach also includes a beautiful method of Contract Tracing. Since The Teacher checks all the students' forehead temperatures every morning, even if a student is found to have become infected with COVID-19 from an uncle, a few phone calls to members of that family can invite them all in to be Contract Traced within a day! Not just the students, but their hundred relatives can also be continually safe from COVID-19!
It might make sense that a dozen local parents meet in one of their houses, to discuss this possibility, and the safety of all of their children in school. A local School District may even buy and install chain-link fencing, and do cleaning and updating of an old house.Computers are involved for some subjects and some Grade levels. A Teacher may not need to Teach some subjects, such as Geography or History or Art, where most of the available information would be provided by computers during "Geography Hour" and "History Hour". The Teacher might be most suited to Teaching English and Spelling and Math (essentially "reading, writing and arithmetic"). The students would still each have their own personal computers in school, which might be different for Second Grade Spelling or Seventh Grade Composition. The Teacher may provide very unique personal Lessons for specific children. A School District could distribute the students in a variety of ways, like K-12 or K-6 and 7-12 or K-8 and 9-12. Students who shared similar interests, like in math or science or Nurse/Doctor could benefit socially by attending school around other students who had similar interests.
This might be very advantageous to the children. When I Taught Ninth-Grade High School Science, to 150 students in Classes of 35 children, I found it really a problem that a quarter of my students only had Reading Scores of 2.0 (they could only read at Second-Grade level). None of them could understand the Ninth-Grade Science textbook and few of them could follow even the pictures in the textbook! In one class, I sometimes found myself teaching toward the one girl who had a 7.0 Reading Score, as she could actually read and understand much of the textbook. Other times, I had to try to Teach toward my 2.0 or 3.0 level students, who had no chance of understanding the High School General Science textbook. One of my Ninth-Grade girls only had a Reading Score of 0.7 (she could not even read at First-Grade level!)
If I only had 6 to 12 students, of virtually any age or Reading Score level, and we could rely on many modern computer software programs much of the time, they could each call me over to get a clarification of a subject at their own level.
At 9 am, I might take temperature readings of their foreheads, where a student might be sent home if any danger of COVID-19 was present. Every few days, all year, I would take COVID-19 mouth swabs to confirm or deny any virus presence. The students and the Teacher(s) could all be assured of excellent health safety, at all times. Each student would benefit from both computer learning and the personal touch of a very familiar Teacher at all times.
I don't think that any other approach has any realistic possibility of both health safety and educational advancement of each student.
In any School District, there are many vacant, small homes which might be used for this purpose.
Modern corporate thinking of schools which have thousands of students could still exist, possibly for Shop Class and Music Class. Both this "one-room school house" approach and a more modern "corporate mega-school operation" could simultaneously be operated (in different locations). Individual parents could select from several possibilities for their children. The students of the one-room-school house, along with all of their relatives, are pretty certainly clear of COVID-19! A few phone calls to each of the (few) students' families would make Contact Tracing of all the relatives quick and easy.Each parent could receive a student list and even a Teacher list of the prospective attendees, where they (or the student) could request a change to a different school. For example, a student who was into math could select a school where the Teacher was also math-friendly. Students who hoped to become Nurses or Doctors could select a school that emphasized appropriate classes and students.
Each School District can make many unique decisions. For example, could a District arrange to have a specific one-room schoolhouse which intentionally has students who enjoy playing basketball? That school might have a basketball coach as Teacher, where the computers are even more important regarding History and Geography and Math and Science. The idea would be that a full education would be provided, even better than in traditional high schools.
I had taught High School science at Thornridge High School in Dolton, Illinois for four years.
My experience makes me nervous about operating a High School, which has 3500 students and 320 Teachers and 250 Maintenance people in the same giant building. Sure, if absolutely everyone behaved properly, the Medical safety of the occupants might be acceptable. But in 2020, we have watched thousands of young people getting together to party, like on beaches or at giant house parties. Doesn't anyone realize that if and when even one person encounters the COVID-19 virus, then very suddenly, thousands of community residents, including elderly people, may all come down with it. Or, will each School District decide to completely close down for 14 days of quarantine? After a few weeks, will the School Boards decide that they have to transition to computer-centered home schooling, possibly for years? I have a feeling that after a few such episodes, many School Districts may see the merits in this computer-centered, one-room school house approach to Public Education.
In the first few days of trying to open schools in late summer 2020, we are already seeing horrific news casts. After just two days of a school in Georgia being open, they are saying that already, they have 900 positive tests of COVID-19 tests. Think about this. How will they ever do Contact Tracing tests, where they will ever know exactly who is infected and who will be infected tomorrow. A huge modern school of many thousands of students will simply become an infection source, until they have to close the whole school down for 14 days and probably longer.
In contrast, consider any one of a multitude of one-room-school houses. Each morning, the one Teacher checks the forehead temperatures of each of the ten students (and also himself/herself). If one student shows a high forehead temperature, or a positive mouth swab, then that one student will instantly become the center of Contact Tracing efforts. A few phone calls and every person who has been in that house will be invited for mouth swab tests. On any given day, a total of maybe 50 people (relatives) might have potential COVID-19 danger, and this Immediate Contact Tracing will narrow it down to the half-dozen people who live in that one house. The other students of the one-room-school house, along with all of their relatives, are pretty certainly clear of COVID-19!
If a same student is noted as positive more than once, then it might be evidence that the student may not safely belong in the School District. Since nearly all of the students would likely wear their mask and observe social distancing, all of those other students in the one-room-schoolhouse can probably have a pretty normal social life while within the one-room-schoolhouse. That is not possible with any of the other plans being considered.
Neutrinos - Olbers Paradox Means Neutrinos from Everywhere (2004)
Many people believe that neutrinos can easily pass through the entire Earth or through you. Two hundred years ago, a brilliant man named Olbers realized that if the Universe is endless, then no matter what direction you could look, there must be the brilliant face of a star, so Olbers asked why the night sky is not brilliantly bright.
Somehow, many Physicists think that all of astounding numbers of neutrinos are only created in the core of our Sun. They neglect that their neutrinos must be coming at us from 210,000 times that many directions, from every other star in the Universe. Since their neutrinos cannot be blocked by anything along the way, their disappointing focus on "only the Sun as the source of neutrinos" is clearly wildly wrong. Then when they argue that their experiments can only count 1/3 as many neutrinos as they expect (a few per year), they make a wild speculation that their neutrinos are of three varieties, which can (somehow) change from one to another. Strangely, they think that their experiments can only detect one of their three varieties! But if there are actually 210,000 times as many incoming neutrinos as they expect, all of their reasoning is horribly wrong.
Precession of Gyroscopes and of the Earth (1998)
Earth Energy Flow Rates due to Precessional Effects. (63,000 MW) (2006)
The Earth's Equinoxes. When you were a child, you were taught that the Earth "wobbles" once every 26,000 years. That is scientifically wildly wrong! In fact, due to the Sun's Vector Gravitation, we actually stop "wobbling" for a moment twice every year, on March 20 and on September 21. And we then "wobble" more intensely to maximize at a moment on June 21 and again on December 21. And the Moon's Vector Gravitation causes even more extensive wobbling, where we again stop "wobbling" 26 times every year! This is all due to our Earth having an Equatorial Bulge (of mass) which constantly (gravitationally) tries to get the Earth to tilt more vertically upward (exactly the opposite [Vector] effect as all gyroscopes do, which try to fall over!)
There is an amazing amount of energy involved in both these processes, and if we humans can ever figure out how to capture that energy, we might have 63,000 Megawatts available to us! This energy constantly gets shifted back and forth between the Earth and Moon. Another 1250 Megawatts might also be available which goes between the Earth and Sun.
General Relativity Time Dilation Logical Error (2006)
In 1971, NASA intentionally made a huge blunder by totally neglecting General Relativity in trying to do a Hafele-Keating experiment. They thought that only Special Relativity applied, and so their sets of four precise Cesium atomic clocks on their east-to-west and west-to-east airliners did not prove their speculation that only Special Relativity actually was valid.
NASA assumed that the Time Dilation effect of their experiment's Lorentz equation calculation of the Time Dilation they had expected to detect could only have been one part in a trillion at best. But since NASA never bothered to even consider the effects of General Relativity, they never realized that Einstein's "Equivalency" Principle calculation happened to have the exact same but opposite mathematical effect, where the two Relativity time-rate effects exactly cancel each other. The strict Lorentz and FitzGerald math gives an Apparent Time Dilation Factor to 18-digit accuracy σ = 0.999 999 999 998 796 560 .
The spinning Earth's surface is also radially accelerating (straight downward) with a Centripetal Acceleration due to our downward curved circular path around the Earth.
The centripetal acceleration seems to be an unfamiliar concept to some people, but it is a standard concept for anything which travels in a circular path (such as us as we go around the Earth every day). That "central acceleration" is simply v2/r, which explained the sideways leaning that many High School students learned and which got used when they did donuts in their cars in a parking lot.
The resulting math Equivalency formula regarding circling gives us an Apparent Relativistic Equivalency Factor of 1.000 000 000 001 203 440
If you multiply this 18-digit accuracy General Relativity value by the 18-digit accuracy Special Relativity value, they exactly, exactly cancel each other out, and time actually passes for each if us at precisely 1.000 000 000 000 000 000 times the expected rate!
When calculations are done to such extreme precision, it becomes critically important to make such observations from a location that Physicists call an "Inertial Rest Frame of Reference". NASA and Physics never bothered to realize that there are only two locations in the Universe where that is true, the North Pole and the South Pole of the Earth.
Understanding Special Relativity (2006)
Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction. Isaac Newton mathematically proved that gravitation is a Vector quantity, that it has direction as well as amplitude.
Therefore, both forms of Gravitational Relativity are also Vector quantities. It is therefore somewhat illogical to try to understand Special Relativity by its Time Dilation effect, as the Vector direction that time flows is not that obvious. It is also usually an extremely minimal time effect, generally only a few thousandths of a second per year for us on Earth. A different result of Special Relativity, discovered about 1880 by researchers Lorentz and FitzGerald, of an apparent mechanical physical contraction is a lot easier to understand. But both of these are actually not real effects, they are perceived effects by a distant observer at a person or process which is occurring on a location which is moving toward or away from the observer at high speed.
There are some stars and therefore probably planets which are very distant but moving away from Earth at extremely high speed, such as 0.6 of c (which is the speed of light). If we should ever see any people on such a planet, we would see both Time Dilation and Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction apparent effects, and the residents there would see the same apparent effects on us here on Earth.
For example, during a day here, they would see YOU to start out to be 6 feet tall but as their planet rose in Earth's sky, 6 hours later you would appear to them to only appear to be 4 foot 10 inches tall! You would not actually change in your body height! The Contraction and Time Dilation effects would only be visible along one specific direction, due to the Vector nature of gravitation, and you would not actually physically change in height or time rate at all, these would merely be perceptions due to the Vector nature of gravitation. Even the universally accepted idea of Time Dilation would not be constant and it would only be apparent along a single direction. A clock on his distant planet would appear (to us) to slow down to 80% of its rate for a few hours and then appear to speed back up a few hours later. The man's clock would not ever change to him on his planet!
Reality is not affected at all, for either us on Earth or him on his receding planet. These are just perceptions, which are tough to quantify when time rates are involved, but which are much more obvious to detect when mechanical dimensions are involved. By the way, both observers, he and us, would clearly see that the other planet was clearly very egg-shaped, seemingly flattened along our line of sight, while we each see that our own planet was perfectly normal shaped!
Nuclear Physics may be Fairly Simple (2003)
Nuclear Physics may be Fairly Simple (Advanced) (2003)
Nuclear Physics - Statistical Analysis of Isotope Masses Structure (2003)
Modern Physics seems to love to keep adding new nuclear particles, often without any logical justification. Someone decides to want to try to promote a career with a new speculation, of a "string theory" or "dark matter" or "wormholes" or "black holes". But nobody bothers to check if the math or physics is still valid. When the neutron was first invented about 1930, it was quickly assumed that the very common Beta-Decay apparently established that the very existence of a neutron (apparently) requires a new significant amount of binding energy which was called the Neutron Self-Binding Energy, and which involved a lot of energy to hold every neutron together, (0.78235 MeV) (nearly the very existence energy of 1.5 electrons. No one seemed to care that the Conservation of Energy seemed to no longer apply! For the following 80 years, no physicist seems to even care that Energy Conservation is no longer valid!
But in the 1990s, NIST collected really accurate Rest-Mass values for all atomic particles and isotopes. I spent 7 years in studying that NIST data, and I found some amazing conclusions. To an accuracy of better than ten digits, it appears that a far simpler explanation may exist. A really simple example seems to be that every Tritium atom (Hydrogen-3) will do a beta-decay over 12.33 years, where it becomes a Helium-3 atom, where all the component parts are accounted for, regarding mass and energy and everything else. According to NIST data, every decaying Hydrogen/Tritium atom, 3H1, has a precise atomic rest-mass of 3.0160492779 AMU (Atomic Mass Units). The resulting Helium-3 atom, 3He2, has a precise NIST atomic rest-mass of 3.0160293201 AMU. This beta-decay gives off a precise amount of radiation +0.0000199578 AMU, with a half-life of 12.33 years (where the resulting new electron simply begins to revolve around the new Helium nucleus to maintain it as un-ionized.)
Do the math!
Using the NIST data, if the Neutron Self-Binding Energy is neglected, then the Conservation of all Conservation Laws are true, to better than 10-digit precision. The consequences of this are staggering! Inside atomic nuclei, the electrons and protons must whiz around separaterly and they are not bound together as neutrons, as there are no Neutron Self-Binding Energy in there to hold the neutrons together!
This amazing precision in every nuclear process seems to be true, always to better than 10-digit precision.
Neutrinos - Where Did they all Come From? (2004)
Each alleged neutrino must be created by a single nuclear object in a beta-decay process, which necessarily creates other particles at the same time. Some people claim that many times more neutrinos exist than all the other particles in the Universe. Where did they learn to do math?
Violation of the Conservation of Angular Momentum . (2006)
Conservation of Angular Momentum - An Exception or Violation. (2006)
Have you ever started a child's gyroscope on its pedestal? When you first release it, it has no Precessional spin at all. Then, a few seconds later, it is precessing around. Where did the rotational kinetic energy and the rotational momentum come from? The kinetic energy is actually easy to explain, since it is a Scalar quantity (which has no Vector direction) and it is Conserved Energy, which started out as Potential Energy due to the height of the body of the gyroscope in the Gravitational Field of the Earth.
As the body of the gyroscope sinks about a thousandth of a millimeter vertically, that Potential Energy becomes a different form of Energy, Rotational Kinetic Energy of the Precession. I have personally measured these tiny dimensions many times, where Conservation of Energy IS Conserved.
But in trying to explain how the (new) Rotational Momentum comes from, which is a Vector Quantity, there is no logical explanation where the Conservation of Momentum can be explained. It just starts Precessing!
Possible New Approach to Experimentally Creating Fusion Energy . (2017)
We may misunderstand just what nuclear Fusion is. We believe that the incredible mass of the Sun (330,000 times that of the Earth) causes the center of the Sun to be gravitationally collapsed, which then crushes the center of the Sun to create incredibly high temperatures. Then that multi-million-degree temperature causes such high velocity of the Hydrogen nuclei that they crash into each other to fuse together to create Helium nuclei.
But three hundred years ago, Isaac Newton invented Calculus, where he then showed in his Shell Theorems that the Vector Gravitation effects cause the Gravitational attraction to cancel each other out, where much of the interior of the (symmetric) Earth or Sun or any stars mathematically has NO interior gravitation at all. This appears to be mathematically true, which implies that the conditions inside the Sun must not be valid. In that case, the temperature inside the core of the Sun must not be hot enough to cause nuclear fusion. In that case, we really do not know how or why the Sun or any star generates such intense heat and light.
Newtonian Gravitational Constant Accuracy . (2017)
Careful scientists have performed 13 separate experiments during the past 30 years, which have not agreed with their separate values for Newton's Big G. We only have very approximate values for just how powerful gravitation is. The fact that gravitation is a Vector Force, and it easily penetrates the body of the Earth, the Gravitation of the Moon seems to provide a far more precise value of Big G.
It seems that those previous 13 experiments need to be corrected, for the Vector gravitational effects. For each experiment, the exact time of the experiment and the exact longitude and latitude of where the experiment was performed might correct the value of G to be more correct, by knowing the exact Vector gravitation due to the Moon, direction and strength.
Moon's Vector Gravitation Sets Precise Gravitational Constant . (2016)
If a kilometer deep borehole is made, anywhere near the Equator of the Earth, and a massive pendulum is hung down into it, at the moment of Moonrise, the sideways Vector Gravitational Force of the Moon (through the body of the Earth) must cause the pendulum to hang exactly 3.38561456 millimeters eastward of normal. About 12 hours later, at the moment of Moonset, the sideways Vector Gravitational Force of the Moon (again through the body of the Earth) must cause the pendulum to hang exactly 3.38561456 millimeters westward of normal. We have very accurate equipment to monitor these exact locations, and we can know Big G to better than a thousand times more accurately than today.
We Probably Can Never Live on Mars . (2013)
The many trips made to the Russian Mir and the ISS have discovered that the Microgravity which exists there cause many very serious Medical problems in the astronauts and cosmonauts that have stayed there more than a few months.
An 18-month trip to Mars may cause such serious medical problems in the astronauts that a Hospital may be needed on Mars just to try to enable the astronauts to survive on Mars. In addition, both Mars and the space during the trip there do not have the protective atmosphere and radiation to keep deep-space Cosmic Rays from causing cancer in most of the astronauts. Very few or none may survive the Mars adventure.
Microwave Method of Instantly Locating a Girl Who Is in Danger . (1980)
In 1980, I worked with the University of Florida and several Police Departments to apply a unique method of electronics to nearly instantly locate any girl or woman who felt she was a potential target of a rape crime. The Technology is actually an opposite application of the Marine Navigation Loran-C system where small boats can determine exactly where they are. This PSST system has each girl or woman wear a bracelet, anklet or necklace which contains a very simple transmitter where three different fixed location receivers detect the exact time of signal reception at each of the three locations, and the known precise location of each of the three receiver antennas, along with the known velocity of light, uses a similar method to Loran-C to precisely know the girl's location to better than one foot accuracy. Even if a criminal is driving around the city to hide the girl, every second, the Police will know exactly where she is, even regarding which lane the vehicle was in, and regarding any traffic turns made.
A simple analogy example can explain this PSST system.
Imagine that you go down to the bottom of the Grand Canyon to do a sleepout overnight. And you only have a wrist watch and a crude tape recorder (and a map of your area of the Canyon.) You go to sleep and during the night a really valuable rare meteorite crashes somewhere in the Canyon. When you wake up and listen to your tape recorder, you can immediately walk to exactly where the valuable meteorite is waiting for you to pick it up! On your tape recorder, you hear three sounds of the crash, the direct sound and two echoes off the two sidewalls of the Canyon, which each arrive a little later, since the sound of each echo arrives a little later, because those sound paths are a little longer. On your map of the Canyon, each pair of those sounds define a hyperbolic line, and the three hyperbolic lines only cross at exactly one specific location. And that is where the valuable meteorite is waiting for you.
The PSST system determines three mathematical hyperbolas to locate the intersection point of the three hyperbolas on a city map in the Police Department. The girl does not know her exact location but the Police Department will constantly monitor her precise location to immediately save her.
What are your personal plans for the year 2041? (2020)
The experts at Mobil Oil recently said (November 2019) that all of the petroleum in the Earth will be completely found and used up (burned) by the year 2040. The experts at BP (British Petroleum) agree, but they think that all of the petroleum will be gone by the year 2045. The experts at Exxon agree with that 2045 assessment. The experts at OGJ (Oil and Gas Journal) also think that it will be all gone by 2045.
All vehicles and buses and trucks and trains and airplanes will then never have any more fuel ever again, so everything will be parked after that.
Time is Passing on Earth Faster than it is on the Moon . (2006)
Time Passes Faster on Earth than on the Moon (Advanced) (2009)
General Relativity - A Moon Experiment to Confirm It. Simple. (2009)
General Relativity and Time Dilation. Does Time Dilation Result? (2009)
Our clocks here on the surface of the Earth actually run slightly, slightly faster than they would on the surface of the Moon, but only a really tiny amount faster (about 0.001 second / year). This is due to an effect of Einstein's General Relativity.
Calculations, based on Einstein, indicate that the Earth clock should count about 10,976 extra ticks every hour than the identical clock on the Moon, entirely due to the difference in our gravitational field strengths on the surface of the Earth and Moon, and on Einstein's General Relativity and his Equivalency Principle of gravitation and acceleration. It is a really obvious experiment!
NASA or ESA could do an inexpensive scientific experiment to soft-land a precise cesium clock on the surface of the Moon and then use radio communication to compare that precise clock's time with an identical clock running on the surface of the Earth. Such an experiment would immediately prove the truth of the validity of General Relativity. Einstein's General Relativity math indicates that the Earth cesiun clock probably will count 10,976 more times every hour than its identical brother clock sitting on the surface of the Moon. A pretty obvious scientific experiment.
Galaxy Spiral Arms (1998)
A purely Newtonian gravitational explanation. A hundred years before Isaac Newton lived, Johannes Kepler did amazing observational astronomy and mathematics. He created some " Kepler Laws" regarding the Solar System where he assumed that essentially all the mass in the Solar System happens to be inside the Sun. That was a good assumption for the Solar System, as Newton confirmed a hundred years later with his much better math (including Fluxions, which we now call Calculus). At that time of Newton's death, no one yet knew what a galaxy was or even that we happened to be in one, the Milky Way). More recently, scientists have simply accepted Kepler's math regarding our Milky Way Spiral Galaxy, and they have been wrong in that assumption. Newton's later Fluxions (calculus math) showed him that gravitational force is affected when mass is distributed over a large area, rather than where all the mass is localized as it is in the Sun in our Solar System. People still use Kepler's equation regarding our Galaxy when they try to calculate distances and velocities of the Sun inside our Galaxy, and Newton totally proved that such calculations are quite wrong. No one seems willing to use the more correct Newton's Fluxions in doing such calculations, as they are a lot more complex to do. Still, it is sad that our scientific Community chooses to use Kepler's earlier and simpler math and logic, where many of the popular accepted calculations regarding our Galaxy are simply not accurate.
We need to look in very different ways regarding the math for these two situations. Yes, those many billions of stars in our Core are relatively close to each other and far from us where Kepler's simple math is decently accurate. But in the opposite direction within the Orion Spiral Arm which we happen to be in, it is critically necessary to use Newton's far more precise math, essentially by individually calculating the Newtonian gravitational force of each separate (nearby) star and the Sun. This happens to be some really involved math, where modern high-speed computers are needed to calculate the Summation of all those local gravitational forces, which is essentially a Summation which represents the Integral Calculus total force.
Simple Newtonian gravitation is sufficient to explain the entire existence and behavior of Galaxy Spiral Arms, including their long-term stability. The well-known Keplerian centripetal force effect certainly dominates even though Isaac Newton downplayed its importance, but a tapering-shaped Spiral Arm also has complex internal mutual local gravitation, which has surprisingly strong local effects!
Some really obvious logical errors exist in the understanding of the structure of our Milky Way Galaxy. For example, there is much evidence that the Sun and Earth are currently about 250 light years "above" the centerline of our Galaxy, and for more than 200 years, we have known that the Sun and Earth are currently traveling "upward at an angle"toward a spot in the sky we call the Apex of the Sun's Way. We know that the Galaxy is very "thin", less than one- hundredth as thick as it is in diameter. Prior to the math presented below, no one seemed to notice that at the rate we are moving "upward" we now can expect to entirely leave the Galaxy in only around 9 million years. Which means that our understanding is extremely wrong when the Sun and Earth are certainly 500 times older than that. This current reasoning establishes and mathematically proves that the Sun and Earth oscillate up and down in our Galaxy, likely around 150 complete cycles so far. This gravitational reasoning also establishes and mathematically proves that the Sun and Earth also oscillate radially in our (Orion) Arm, apparently doing around 100 complete radial cycles so far. This radial cycling has resulted in the Solar System having passed through a very crowded region of our Arm's Centerline about every 26 million years, where we may have been intensely pounded by many massive asteroids on a regular basis. One and one-fourth-cycle ago, about 65 million years ago, we had passed through that congested region of our Arm Centerline, and we wonder if debris that we encountered might have resulted in the final dinosaurs dying off. While we were passing through (inward) at our greatest possible inter-Arm velocity, we also must have passed countless objects of various mass which were oscillating and then headed the other direction across our Arm. This would result in "head-on collisions" between the Earth and those many other objects, all at extremely high impact velocity. Other possible "mass extinctions" have apparently occurred on a schedule which agrees with this. We also find it interesting that the most recent time we passed through that "junkyard", about 13 million years ago, the orientation of the Solar System was apparently severely tilted at around 63 degrees, such that the southern hemispheres of the Moon, of Mars, of Mercury and even of our Earth may have been leading us into intense bombarded by large objects which we encountered at very high head-on velocity. I have not noticed that anyone had tried to explain why our Moon has a LOT of craters in its southern hemisphere and relatively few in the northern hemisphere. Mercury looks similar. This reasoning also implies that most of the current craters on the Moon may have occurred just 13 million years ago, and not four billion years ago.
I suggest carefully looking at close up photos of the Moon. Many of the craters are impressively clean and undusty. Young craters seem likely.
Twins Paradox of Relativity Is Absolutely Wrong (2004)
Around 1960, shortly after Einstein had died, some of my fellow Physicists came up with several very illogical ideas. Specifically, they totally ignored the existence of Einstein's General Relativity and only focused instead of his Special Relativity (which is a lot easier to calculate and to understand). One of the silliest ideas was their "Twins Paradox" idea. They realized that at extremely high (radial) velocity, Special Relativity has the consequence of something we call Time Dilation, where there is a (fictitious) appearance that time slows down to an observer. The idea became publicly popular, and no one seemed to do any of the sophisticated math that we Physicists normally love to do. So they dreamed up a story of two identical twins, one of whom stayed on Earth and the other of whom zoomed outward at near the speed of light. They partly got some of their story right, where, while the traveling brother was cruising, the Earth brother would see that his brother seemed to be aging and living more slowly than himself. Which developed the popular Twins Paradox, where two identical brothers were apparently (briefly) aging at different rates!
However, their story was always wildly wrong, as they had overlooked an enormous part of their own story, the ACCELERATION that their traveling brother would have to do (which more normally would be described at ferocious G forces, 500,000 Gs), which that brother could not possibly have ever survived, just after he took off from having lunch with his identical twin brother on Earth, to accelerate up to near the speed of light. (By the way, human jet pilots have difficulty surviving even 10 Gs of acceleration). It turns out that Einstein's (ignored) General Relativity, and the Equivalence Principle Math, actually is intimately due to enormous acceleration (all of which had to occur before the traditional start of their Twins Paradox story).
If anyone would tell the entire story they proposed, it actually would make excellent sense, and if the brothers ever met again, they would both see that they were still exactly the same age! But their separate stories of what they had seen and experience would be really different!
The Earth observer would live a normal life, but through his telescope he would watch his accelerating brother initially rapidly appear to age more than 2 years (on a trip to a planet orbiiting Alpha Centauri) He, on Earth, would only experience aging for a few weeks, so he would definitely watch his twin brother celebrate two birthdays (during that two weeks of watching him accelerate), so there would be no doubt in his mind that they were now more than 2 years different in age, with the traveling brother appearing older. After the traveller shut down his rocket motor and stopped acclerating and started cruising at constant velocity, he would then see his traveling brother appear to virtually stop moving (which is the popular Time Dilation aspect of the story!) The brother who remained on Earth would age normally, celebrating two of his own birthdays here on Earth, while the traveling brother would be aging so slowly to not be having any of his own birthdays. As the spaceship approached the halfway point of the trip, his Earth age would have caught up and they would momentarily be exactly the same age again!
Then the traveller would turn his rocket around and he would start decelerating. The Earth observer would again see him age very quickly. The Earth Twin would only watch this for a few weeks, but he would see the traveler age another two years, so he would see the traveler have two more birthdays. So the Earth observer would experience 4 years of aging and birthdays during the whole trip, and he would also see the traveler also age 4 years and celebrate 4 birthdays. When the traveller arrived at the planet at Alpha Centauri, he would swear that he experienced and watch the two live the exact same 4 years (which the trip to AC takes.
If the travelling brother had a rear view window, his description would be very different. But they would end up in perfect agreement with each other at the end, both being exactly the same age when they migh ever again meet.
Origin of the Earth. (Dec 2001)
Planetary Gravitational Resonances. I believe that it was critically important that there was a really massive planet near the Sun, Jupiter, possibly having gravitational prior to any of the smaller planets. Jupiter's gravitation would then cause tiny particles to resonate into many small rings that might have appeared like Saturn's rings or the Sun's asteroid belt. The way resonance works, the particles would gradually attract each other into larger and larger particles and eventually into a full planet-sized masses. In the case of the Earth, there might logically be two rings, one just inside of an orbit that would have a 1:12 orbit with Jupiter and the other just outside that 1:12 orbit. The resonance math seems to suggest that these two proto-planets may have been around 3/4 million miles inside and outside of that 1:12 orbit. And for many millions of years, the larger (Earth) and smaller (Moon) both orbited the Sun in very similar orbits. Every few years, the two would make a near-miss pass, where both of their orbits resonated and wiggled. Eventually, a near-miss pass occurred so close that the Moon's orbit became centered on orbiting the Earth rather than the Sun. This may explain why the Earth and Moon are so chemically different.
Origin of the Moon - A New Theory. (June 2000)
For centuries, scientists have struggled to try to understand how our Moon came into being. The theory that has become most popular in recent decades can be shown to be clearly impossible!This description may be a logical extension of the two-planet Jupiter gravitational resonance discussed just above.
Sundial Clock - Equation of Time. (2009)
Sundial to Clock Correction. The actual movement and rotation of the Earth is not as precisely repeatable as the motion of a mechanical or electronic clock, so there is a slight but precise adjustment of the shadow of the gnomon of a sundial. This correction, to about a thousandth of a second accuracy, is calcuated here, every day, throughout history. This also includes really precise math calculation regarding the Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit and the Obliquitity of the Ecliptic (the Tilt of the Earth's rotation). This discusssion also includes the values of these variables for thousands of years, and to a precision which is better than normally available anywhere else. The moment of the beginning of each Season of the Earth is also provided very precisely.
Earth's Magnetic Field. (1996)
A very logical explanation seems available to explain essentially everything about the immensely complex and peculiar magnetic field of the Earth. The traditional Dynamo Theory which claims to have enormous masses of ionized iron atoms rotating with the Earth is shown to be clearly incorrect, but close. Instead, there are pairs of counter-rotating convective circulations inside the molten liquid Core, where the net effect of the pair of iron circulations tends to cancel out at a large distance such as at the surface of the Earth.
The Earth has a very complex magnetic field, not just a bifold field, or even a 4-plex field, but it even includes 8-plex fields. This all develops inside the Core of the Earth which is primarily rotating charged liquid iron.
Global Warming - The Physics of the Process. (June 2004, June 2008)
A careful examination of the Physics and math involved indicates that we are confronted with immensely bad climatic situations. You can see from the official records, by early 1997, we may even have already set in motion a course, which seems to have a built-in delay of 143 years, which might end all life on Earth in maybe a hundred forty years. All of the impressive political words we might hear during the next hundred years, may not matter (This Paper was first published in 2004)
Every (6 pound) gallon of gasoline or diesel burned adds 18.3 pounds of CO2 to the Earth's atmosphere, essentially permanently.Billions of us have been doing such things for 200 years. (Chemistry: C + O2 → CO2)
Asphalt Pavement (2007)
Black Surfaces and Sunlight. Roofs, Pavements. A company in India makes white pavement paint, which is normally sold to decorate highway lane markers and such. If entire traffic lanes might be economically painted white, then the hundred thousand square miles of 95% heat absorbant black asphalt pavements in America might become 80% solar reflective white highways to help improve the Global Warming crisis.
Global Warming and Climate Change - The Physics. (2007)
The importance and effects of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere are becoming better realized.
That amazingly fast increase (shown above) is primarily due to us burning fossil fuels! Actually, the enormous amounts of fossil fuels we burn (coal, petroleum and natural gas) produce and release nearly twice this amount of increase, and we just happen to be lucky that (cold) ocean water is extremely good at absorbing a lot of the carbon dioxide we are sending into the atmosphere! (this number is metric tonnes, and the same number in American short tons would be about 10% higher)
Solar Electricity Safe (2000)
Unlimited Source of Solar by Safe Fully Enclosed Artificial Tornadoes. This solar technology is actually a three-stage system. The first stage has a small insulated pond collect solar energy to warm the pond water up to at least 85°F or 30°C. As needed, some of this warm warm water gets moved into a nearby farm silo, to provide a pond on the interior floor of the silo. Some of that warm water evaporates and rises. That converts the heat of the warm water into mechanical energy of the air rising. As this warm air rises and rotates, it naturally becomes the spinning air circulation of a 'dust devil' or a 'tornado', by the normal process which creates tornadoes from rising, rotating air.
There are ultraviolet lights inside the upper silo which ionizes this rising, spinning air. On all the walls of the inner silo, there are coils of wire mounted. As the ionized (electrically charged) air moves past each coil, Faraday's Law creates an electric current inside every one of those coils. They are wired together to produce a very reliable 9 kilowatts of electricity for the nearby house. This works even during the night!
Commonly, alternate energy has a problem of irregularity, where wind sometimes does not blow and solar is not available during the night. This technogy is very different, where as long as the outdoor pond is warmer than 85°F or 30°C, this system will continuously produce 9 kw of electricity, day or night!
Solar Heated House (1979)
Totally 100% Solar Heated House - Version 1. This is a unique concept of solar heating which actually has two separate sections. First, the house collects solar heat during every minute that it is available, and it sends all that heat down into a very well-insulated (hidden) massive underground heat storage chamber, where at least three full weeks for fully heating the entire house is always available.
At any time when any room in the house has its wall thermostat call for heat, no actual 'solar' heat is obtained but instead a conventional furnace blower sends the required heat for that room from the massive storage. This allows each room in the house to always remain at exactly whatever temperature is desired! A bathroom could be always kept at 85°F, while a Wine Cellar could always be at 42°F, and a bedroom could always be 72°F (or 68°F if the occupant preferred). Even a Sauna could be available at 105°F if desired. All this heat is always available without needing to buy or burn any fossil fuel, as it is all free solar heat.
The (invisible) underground insulated heat storage can also include a separate chamber for storing coolness, by using the 'Free Deep Earth Air Conditioning' we describe in another page, where while any of the house rooms can be heated per their separate wall thermostats, other rooms could be simultaneously cooled as desired! This system is even more efficient and more centered on the residents' comfort, as the upper part of the house has one nearly completely glass (solar) wall but it can even rotate with the Sun's movement (much like some rotating restaurants do on top of tall buildings). Such restaurants generally rotate once-per-hour, which is not noticeable by the diners, since they are promoting the scenery that passes by during a one-hour meal. We use a much slower house rotation rate, once per 24 hours, to maximize solar collection efficiency by always following the Sun (when desirable or needed). We also have a 'solar avoidance mode where the glass wall constantly faces north or elswhere to maximize occupant comfort. It is a remarkably technological system, which still does not cost much more to build than any other stick-build houses.
200 mph, Safe, Self-Driving Cars, Trucks, Economical (1989)
Transport which is durable for 40 years since it is primarily built of 5-foot diameter reinforced concrete sewer culvert sections. It works essentially like the pneumatic tubes that many banks use to rapidly transfer papers and money from drive through drivers to tellers inside a bank, but even much faster.
An Interstate Highway version of this concept uses solar power and wind power to drive constant 240 mph airspeed inside of networks of such culverts. None of the vehicles inside have any engines, as they move, like the pneumatic cylinders do from the air pressure on the rear wall due to that moving air. Each such 'pod' contains a small computer which lets a very precise flow of excess air to go past the 'pod' such that every 'pod' always travels at exactly 200.0 mph. No collisions can ever happen since all traffic always travels at exactly the same speed. Since all traffic is always inside the very sturdy reinforced concrete culverts, no driver is ever necessary, and various 'air switches' move each 'pod' into the best passageway in the network for each individual or family. Each 'pod' is comparable to a 145 cubic foot large SUV for 1 to 6 people to ride in. The overall efficiency is nearly 100%, far better than the 21% efficiency of modern automobiles or trucks or buses or trains. Since they travel city-to-city and actually door-to-door at 200 mph, they actually provide passenger or freight transportation between cities that is comparable to airliners, but with only 1/10 the fare or freight cost!
Wind Power, Practical Windmills (1975, 1998)
Residential windmills for single applications of supplying electricity for single houses or businesses. We also discuss the very primitive Savonius Rotors which are commonly made from oil drums which are cut apart. I have personally made around 40 Savonius Rotors, which are incredibly noisy but which each can extract a couple hundred watts of electricity to store in car batteries. Neighbors do not like the noise of the spinning bearings and the ugliness of many spinning Savonius oil barrels, but they certainly work at capturing electricity power from the 5 watts per square foot in ambient wind.
Commercial Wind Electricity (2007)
This unique set of large cone-shaped ambient air passagerways collects millions of square feet of 5-watts-per square foot of moving air to rotate very large 'revolving doorway' VAWT (vertical-axis-wind-turbines) to drive large electrical alternators to supply 1200 KiloWatts of electricity (for a thousand homes). The reinforced concrete structure is reliable for 40 years, not like the very tall tower windmills that are so complex (800 component parts) that they require nearly daily maintenance on the 300-foot-tall towers, and which often overheat and catch fire and burn down, or that overspin in storm winds and exceed the speed of sound and destroy themselves.
Ice Melter - Safe Streets and Sidewalks with No Snow
Safe Streets and Roads With No Road Salt and no potholes
Safe Sidewalks with never any need for Shoveling
Safe clear Airport Runways with no need for Plowing
Self-Melting Sidewalks, Driveways, warm Garages and more!
warm Snow-Free Football and Soccer Fields, Forever!
Say you are in a climate where winters are cold, and that the outdoor air temperature now happens to be 10°F or -12°C. The pavement of a sidewalk or a driveway or a street is probably slightly warmer than that, at 15°F or -10°C. Any rain that falls on that 15°F or -10°C pavement will immediately freeze into Black Ice, where people might fall down or cars skid off the street. Any snow that falls will stay there and accumulate, which also creates safety issues.
Now consider the fact that the deep soil (eight feet below or 2.5 meters deep) in a Chicago-like climate never drops below around 52°F or 11°C. We have invented a very simple hollow-tube device, which is scientifically called a ThermoSiphon, which naturally brings that 52°F deep-soil warmth up to the underside of your sidewalk or driveway or garage floor. Our ThermoSiphon Version device does not have any moving parts and does not need any motors or pumps or anything else, because that device works on a natural process called ThermoSiphon.
Home Air Conditioning. (1978, 2000)
Natural, Green and Free! At nearly any location on Earth, there is so many billions of tons of mass of Earth nearby that the average temperature is really surprisingly constant. In the Chicago region, if you dig just 8 feet deep, the constant temperature down there is about 51°F or 11°C. Since the summer temperature of millions of buildings is often much hotter than that, we are faced with five obvious choices. Two are technological and expensive, either a 'room air conditioner' or a 'central home air conditioner'. These two technologies are designed to use refrigants to eject air back out into the room or house at 62°F. We suggest three better choices, which are also far less expensive. The largest version involves about 500 feet of 4" plastic drain pipe, buried into the yard of a house, where a conventional furnace blower sends the deep-soil-cooled returned air to recirculate and to return to the house at at 58°F. We have taught around 24,000 people to install this $500 (to buy all that plastic PVC pipe and to rent a ditch digger to install it) since late 2000.
The other two versions are smaller and each mostly meant to provide air conditioning to just one or two rooms, although the cost is often just $20 for the two used car parts. One relies on the fact that most cities bury their municipal water supplies 3 feet deep, to avoid any winter pipe freezing danger, so the Municipal water supply pipe provides an endless supply of very economical water which arrives at about 51°F. A modest amount of tht very cool water can be run through a used car radiator, with a standard car radiator fan blowing the hot house air through the 51°F water in the radiator. There is only a modest cost of some additional water for the house and a little bit to power the fan which blows the air through the radiator. It works fantistically well!
The third economical version just uses a tractor-bored post hole to go 8 feet deep to obtain a lot of very cool (51°F ground water) to send it through the same car radiator(s). A slight extra cost is involved here as an electric motor needs to pump the ground water vertically up and through the radiator, but no new water is used.
Aerodynamic Lift - How Airplanes Fly (2003)
Bernoulli Lift and Reaction Lift.
There are two very different ways for airplanes to fly. One is a brute force method which we call Reaction Lift, which resembles what you do when you stick the palm if your hand out the window of a fast moving car. The other is a more sophisticated application of air pressure which we call Bernoulli Lift, which is based more on Isaac Newton's Laws of Motions and Bernoulli's study of those Laws on the motion in fluids.
Conservation of Angular Momentum - An Exception or Violation. (2006)
Global Warming (2009)
The Politics and Business
Leaders and Politicians seem to all have a very wrong understanding of the basic issue in global warming. Unless the Sun burns out, we are ALREADY destined for coming extreme increases in the Earth's temperature. The Sun will be the source of the coming enormous global warming. The leaders all seem to think that it is the heat produced as fossil fuels are burned, which is causing global warming. That is not the main problem.
They think they have an answer to the problem, but it is the wrong problem!
In other words, "discussing restraint " regarding future burning of fossil fuels is the wrong issue! It really will not matter whether the US can throw enough money at 200 other Nations to try to encourage them to reduce or control their burning of fossil fuels.
But with that wrong assumption, they believe that they can continue to burn fossil fuels at astounding rates. They think that whenever some absolute date for stopping would near, they would just stop then!
What is wrong with this attitude is that the heat created is essentially irrelevant. It is not the heat from burning fossil fuels that will cause future Global Warming, it is the Sun! No one seems to grasp that fact!
There is a valid possibility that the fossil fuels that we had already burned by January 1997, may have put so much new carbon dioxide into the atmosphere that we are doomed. But in an odd way. Not from burning up or anything like that, but by starvation! Linked web-pages provide the calculations which show that by around the year 2140, due to those gases already sent into our atmosphere, the Earth's average temperature may rise to about 83°F (28°C). That doesn't sound bad, except that many respected Botanists and Agronomists have said that if the Earth's average surface temperature ever rises to even 80°F (27°C), that no plants will be able to raise enough water from the soil to keep their leaves from drying out and dying. No plants means no food for any animals or people.
Energy from the Moon - 1 (2010)
Tidal Energy Collection
Artificial tides, a Moon-based Source of Energy
A method of having the Moon create artificial tides, for energy harvesting.
We have known for thousands of years that the Moon causes and creates spectacular amounts of energy that exist in the Oceans' Tides (every day). We know that this is due to some gravitational effects of the Moon on the Earth and on the waters of the oceans. In other words, If we could just figure out how to collect some of the effects of the Moon, we might easily collect enough energy to power modern civilization! This presentation is an example of one (of many) possible approaches we might try. If done effectively and efficiently, we probably could harvest spectacular amounts of energy which exists due to the Moon's existence orbiting our planet.
Energy from the Moon - (2010)
This is presented here as a lesson regarding alternative energy production and usage, but it happens to be a perfectly valid new method of creating energy for the production of electricity and other purposes. The concept is extremely simple and even obvious, and so I have been amazed that hundreds of people have not told me they thought of it! But unfortunately, even though it certainly works, the matter of being practical is a different matter!
The reason that the Moon causes tides is actually very simple. Imagine that you are an adult man who weighs exactly 200.0 pounds (where there is no Moon, exclusively due to the mass of the Earth attracting you downward (Newton, gravitation, all that stuff). [You might look at our Tides presentation for the math.] Now say that the Moon was directly over your head. Separate from the attraction of the Earth, the Moon also gravitationally attracts you to it, now exactly straight upward! The Moon is much less massive than the Earth and much farther away.
The Tides presentation gives the math to show that it causes a lifting effect on you by about one part in 8,700,000! (That is accurate only when the Moon is at its average distance from us [it varies due to an elliptical orbit] and we are also ignoring the [smaller] contribution of tides due to the gravitation of the Sun).
So you actually weight less when the Moon is overhead than six hours earlier or later when it is on the horizon! But not much! Your scale would show you lighter by about 1/2500 ounce (or 0.01 gram), way too small an amount for your bathroom scale to show!Just consider far greater mass than just one person's body. Put a million tons of weight up on a bunch of springs. You would now have variations of ten million times as much, twice every day.
Tidal Energy Collection 2 Harvesting
Electricity from Solar, Wind, Water, More. GREEN Electricity (2010)
The Cube device which can collect solar and/or wind and/or moving water natural energy to produce a modest amount of electricity for a home or small business.
Globular Clusters (1998)
We know that they are each near the very Core of our Galaxy and we have determined that they have each passed through the cluttered central Milky Way galaxy 200 times. And yet, they still each have impeccable symmetry. The many near misses certainly caused innumerable gravitational interactions that mix up the Galaxy's variety of stars with the pure group of the Globular's stars.
If you want to know about most of this math, you can Read More
Precise Phase of the Moon, location and distance from us Read More
The planets, their distance from us, and location in the sky Read More
If you want to calculate Pi to a thousand digits, you can.
3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097494459230781640628 6208998628034825342117067982148086513282306647093844609550582231725359408128 ...
How to make and throw a Boomerang is at Read More
An extensive guidebook for volleyball strategies is at Read More
Compare the efficiency of a human with machines is at Read More
Photosynthesis and Plant growth Read More
Practice hitting a baseball or softball at any skill level Read More
Binoculars and three observations and know an orbit Read More
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