Roman Catholic Church, Catholicism罗马天主教会,天主教 中文 - Zhong Wen

luómǎ tiānzhǔjiào huì

General Information一般信息

The Roman Catholic church, the largest of the Christian churches, although present in all parts of the world, is identified as Roman because of its historical roots in Rome and because of the importance it attaches to the worldwide ministry of the bishop of Rome, the pope.罗马天主教教堂,基督教教堂最大的,虽然目前在世界各地,被确定为罗马,因为罗马的历史根源,而且由于它非常重视的罗马,全球部的主教教皇。 Several Eastern Rite Churches , whose roots are in regional churches of the Eastern Mediterranean, are in full communion with the Roman Catholic church.一些东部成年礼教堂 ,其根源是地中海东部地区的教堂,是天主教教会的完全共融与罗马。

In 1980 there were some 783 million Roman Catholics, approximately 18% of the world's population.1980年大约有7.83亿罗马天主教徒,人口约18%的世界。The 51 million Roman Catholics in the United States (1982) constitute 22% of that country's population.罗马的5100万美元)的天主教徒在美国(1982年占人口22%的该国。These statistics are based on baptisms, usually conferred on infants, and do not necessarily imply active participation in the church's life nor full assent to its beliefs.这些统计数字是根据洗礼,通常婴儿授予,并不一定意味着积极参与教会的生活,也不完全同意我们的信念。

A growing estrangement between the Catholic church in the West and the Orthodox church of the East in the first millennium led to a break between them in the 11th century, and the two regions diverged in matters of theology, liturgy, and disciplinary practices. 阿天主教之间的隔阂越来越多的西方和东方的第一个千年的东正教教堂,导致一世纪打破它们之间的第11位,两个地区礼仪分歧,在神学事项和纪律的做法。 Within Western Christianity beginning with the 16th - century Reformation, the Roman Catholic church came to be identified by its differences with the Protestant churches.在西方基督教的改革首先是第16 -世纪,罗马天主教会后来被发现的新教教堂其分歧。

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Roman Catholic Beliefs罗马天主教信仰

The basic religious beliefs of Roman Catholics are those shared by other Christians as derived from the New Testament and formulated in the ancient Creeds of the early ecumenical councils, such as Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381). The central belief is that God entered the world through the Incarnation of his Son, the Christ or Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth. The founding of the church is traced to the life and teachings of Jesus, whose death is followed by resurrection from the dead after which he sends the Holy Spirit to assist believers. 罗马天主教会的基本信仰是基督徒的其他人分享,因为来自新约,并制定了早期基督教议会在古老的信条,如尼西亚(325)和君士坦丁堡(381)。 中央信仰是上帝进入世界上的拿撒勒通过的化身,他的儿子,基督耶稣的弥赛亚或。教会的创始是追溯到生命和耶稣的教义,其死亡后复活,是从死之后,他发出了圣灵协助信徒。 This triple mission within the Godhead is described doctrinally as the divine Trinity, God one in nature but consisting in three divine persons .这三重任务范围内的神性被描述为神圣的三位一体教义, 上帝的本质之一,但在3人组成的神圣

Roman Catholics attach special significance to the rites of Baptism and Eucharist. Baptism is sacramental entry into Christian life, and the Eucharist is a memorial of Christ's death and resurrection in which he is believed to be sacramentally present. 罗马天主教会特别重视的意义。洗礼仪式的洗礼和圣体圣事是基督徒生活的进入,以及圣体是一本纪念基督的死亡和复活,他被认为是圣事。 The Eucharist is celebrated daily in the Roman Catholic church. Catholics also regard as Sacraments the forgiveness of sins in reconciliation with the church (Confession), ordination to ministry (Holy Orders), marriage of Christians, postbaptismal anointing (Confirmation), and the Anointing of the Sick.庆祝圣体圣事是每天都在罗马天主教教堂。 天主教徒也视为圣礼教堂)(忏悔的罪孽的宽恕与和解,协调,部(圣令),基督徒婚姻,postbaptismal恩膏(确认)和恩膏出现病态。

Catholic ethical doctrines are based ultimately on the New Testament teachings but also on the conclusions reached by the church, especially by the popes and other teachers. In recent times the pope and bishops have formulated guidelines regarding social justice, racial equality, disarmament, human rights, contraception, and abortion. 天主教教义是基于道德上的新约最终教义,但也教会了得出的结论,特别是由教皇和其他教师。近来,教皇和主教们制订指引有关社会正义,种族平等,裁军,人权,避孕和流产。 The official opposition to artificial contraception is not accepted by a large number of practicing Catholics.这位官员反对人工避孕是不接受一个天主教徒大量执业。The Roman Catholic church's prohibition of remarriage after divorce is the strictest of the Christian churches, although the church does admit the possibility of annulments for marriages judged to be invalid.罗马天主教教会禁止离婚后再婚,是严格的基督教教堂,尽管教会不承认是非法的判断为结婚的可能性是无效的。

The Worship of the Church教会的崇拜

The public worship of the Roman Catholic church is its liturgy, principally the Eucharist, which is also called the Mass. After the recitation of prayers and readings from the Bible, the presiding priest invites the faithful to receive communion, understood as sharing in the sacramental presence of Christ. 天主教教会的公共崇拜罗马是它的礼仪,主要是圣体,又称祭司主持的弥撒后,朗诵的祈祷和阅读圣经,邀请教友们接受共融,在圣事的理解为共享在场的基督。 At the Sunday liturgy the priest preaches a sermon or homily, applying the day's biblical texts to the present lives of believers.在周日的礼仪神父布道说教或说教,运用一天的圣经文本,信徒的生命存在。The church observes a liturgical calendar similar to that of other Christians, following a cycle of Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, and Pentecost.观察一个礼拜的教堂日历,四旬期和,复活节,圣灵降临节类似的顿悟,与其他基督徒后,一个周期的来临,圣诞节等。 It also follows a distinctive cycle of commemoration of the saints. The worship of the church is expressed as well in rites of baptism, confirmation, weddings, ordinations, penitential rites, burial rites or funerals, and the singing of the Divine Office. A distinguishing mark of Catholic worship is prayer for the dead.它也遵循了圣人鲜明的循环纪念活动。教会崇拜的表现以及在仪式的洗礼,确认,婚礼,祝,悔罪的仪式,丧葬仪式或葬礼,办事处歌唱的神圣。 一个区别崇拜庆祝天主教祈祷是死的。

The Roman Catholic church also fosters devotional practices, both public and private, including Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament (a ceremony of homage to Christ in the Eucharist), the Rosary, novenas (nine days of prayer for some special intention), pilgrimages to shrines, and veneration of saints' relics or statues. The devotional importance attached to the Saints (especially the Virgin Mary) distinguishes Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy from the churches of the Reformation. In the last two centuries the Roman Catholic church has taught as official doctrine that Mary from her conception was kept free of original sin (the Immaculate Conception) and that at the completion of her life was taken up body and soul into heaven (the Assumption). Catholics are also encouraged to practice private prayer through meditation, contemplation, or spiritual reading. 罗马天主教教会也促进宗教习俗,公共和私营部门,包括圣体的圣体降福(一仪式在参拜基督),玫瑰,novenas(对于一些特殊的意向9天的祈祷),朝圣的圣地,和崇拜的圣人'文物或塑像。 重视的虔诚圣徒(特别是圣母玛利亚)区分教会的宗教改革罗马天主教和东正教来自东部。在过去的两个世纪的罗马天主教教义教会官员告诉作为玛丽从她的观念是保持自由的原罪(圣母无原罪)和生命,在她完成的被带到了身体和灵魂到天堂(升天)。天主教徒也鼓励的做法,通过沉思冥想私人祈祷,或精神阅读。 Such prayer is sometimes done in a retreat house with the assistance of a director.这样做祷告有时在撤退房子董事与援助。

The Organization of the Church教会组织

The Roman Catholic church is structured locally into neighborhood parishes and regional dioceses administered by bishops.罗马天主教会的结构局部到邻近教区主教和管理的区域教区。In recent times national episcopal conferences of bishops have assumed some importance.近来全国主教会议的主教承担部分的重要性。Catholic church policy is characterized, however, by a centralized government under the pope, who is regarded as the successor to the apostle Peter, entrusted with a ministry of unity and encouragement.天主教政策的特点,然而,由一个中央集权政府根据教皇,谁是鼓励视为宗徒的继承者和团结彼得,一个部的委托。 The First Vatican Council (1869 - 70) further enhanced the role of the papacy by declaring that the church's Infallibility (or inability to err on central issues of the Christian faith) can be exercised personally by the pope in extraordinary circumstances. This teaching of the pope's primacy and infallibility is a major stumbling block to the unification of the Christian churches.第一届梵蒂冈理事会(1869 - 70)进一步加强问题的信仰基督教的作用,教皇,宣布该教堂的中央犯错误宁可(或无法)可行使的情况下亲自非凡教皇英寸,这是教学教皇的首要地位,犯错误是一个重要的绊脚石统一的基督教教堂。

The pope is elected for life by the College of Cardinals (about 130).教宗当选为生活所)学院枢机(约130。He is assisted in the governance of the church by the bishops, especially through the World Synod of Bishops that meets every three years.他是在教会的协助治理由主教,特别是通过世界主教会议的主教,以满足每3年。More immediately in the Vatican City, the papal city - state within Rome, the pope is aided by the cardinals and a bureaucracy known as the Roman Curia.更多即时在罗马教皇的梵蒂冈城,内城-国家,教皇是资助由枢机主教和罗马教廷的一个官僚机构,称为。The Vatican is represented in many countries by a papal nuncio or apostolic delegate and at the United Nations by a permanent observer.梵蒂冈是一个永久观察员代表在许多国家的一个使徒,罗马教皇大使或代表,在联合国通过。

By tradition the all - male ordained clergy (bishops, priests, and deacons) are distinguished from the laity, who assist in the ministry of the church. In the Western (Latin) rite of the Catholic church, bishops and priests are ordinarily celibate. In many of the Eastern Rite churches, priests are allowed to marry. Some Catholics live together in Religious Orders, serving the church and the world under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Members of these orders of congregations include sisters (or Nuns), brothers, and priests. 由传统的一切-男性受戒神职人员(主教,神父,和执事)是区别于俗人,谁协助教会事工的。在西方(拉丁)的天主教教堂仪式,主教和神父通常独身。在许多教会的东方礼,牧师被允许结婚。 一些天主教徒的宗教生活在一起订单,为教会和世界下誓言贫穷,贞洁,服从。众委员的订单,这些包括姐妹(或修女)弟兄们,和祭司。 Priests who belong to religious orders are sometimes called regular clergy, because they live according to a rule (Latin regula).牧师谁属于宗教命令有时被称为定期神职人员,因为他们居住根据规则(拉丁文雷古拉)。Most priests, however, are ordained for ministry in a diocese under a bishop and are called diocesan or secular priests.大多数祭司,但是,在祝圣为部教区主教,下一个被称为教区神职人员或世俗。

Church discipline is regulated by a code of Canon Law.教会的纪律是受了教会法码。A revised code for the Latin rite went into effect in 1983.拉丁礼修改后的代码为1983年开始生效。A code for the Eastern Rite churches is in preparation.阿教堂代码为东部成年礼是在准备。

The Church in A Time of Change在一个变革的时代教会

To initiate renewal in the Roman Catholic church, the late Pope John XXIII convoked a general council, the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65).要启动重建教堂在罗马天主教,已故教皇约翰二十三世召集一个总理事会第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962 - 65)。This meeting of bishops and their advisors from around the world was also attended by Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant observers.这主教会议和世界各地的顾问也出席了东正教,圣公会和新教的观察员。The council initiated changes that are still being carried out in the postconciliar era. The chief reforms in church practices were: changes in liturgical language (from Latin to the vernacular) and reformulation of sacramental rituals; a new ecumenical openness toward other Christian churches; increased stress on the collective responsibility of bishops in the church's mission (collegiality); more acute concern for political and social issues, especially where moral questions are involved; attempts to adapt the Gospel to diverse cultural traditions; reform of priestly education; and partial acceptance of diversity in theology and local practices.该委员会发起的变化仍在进行中postconciliar时代了。 教堂里的主要改革措施包括:礼仪语言的变化(从拉丁美洲到白话)和礼仪圣事重新对,一个新的基督教教会合一的开放性对其他;增加应力对(合议集体责任的主教在教会的使命),更严重的问题关心的政治和社会,尤其是在道德问题涉及;试图适应福音各种不同的文化传统,教育的改革祭司;和部分接受多样性在神学和地方做法。

These changes led to uneasiness and concern in some who felt that innovation had gone too far.对这些变化导致的不安和关注,在一些谁认为创新已经走得太远了。For others the changes were seen as insufficient and painfully slow.对于其他人的变化被认为是不够的,痛苦的缓慢。Church leaders now recognize that implementation of the conciliar program will involve a long process of ongoing renewal.教会领导人现在认识到,实施重建计划将涉及的大公正在进行一个漫长的过程。

Michael A Fahey迈克尔阿法黑

Bibliography 书目
W Buhlmann, The Coming of the Third Church (1977); A Dulles, Models of the Church (1974); G Gallup and J Castelli, The American Catholic People: Their Beliefs, Practices, and Values (1987); EO Hanson, The Catholic Church in World Politics (1987); R Haughton, The Catholic Thing (1979); P Hebblethwaite, The Runaway Church (1978); H Kung, On Being a Christian (1976); R McBrien, Catholicism (1980); G Noel, The Anatomy of the Catholic Church (1980); K Rahner, The Shape of the Church to Come (1974)W Buhlmann先生,本)即将第三堂(1977年,一个杜勒斯)模型的教会(1974年; Ğ盖洛普和J卡斯泰利,美国天主教的人:他们的信仰,习俗,和值(1987年);行政主任汉森,该天主教会在世界政治(1987)与r霍顿,天主教的事(1979年); P吉百利出走的教会(1978年);黄乃,在作为一个基督教(1976)与r麦克布赖恩,天主教(1980年); Ğ诺埃尔,该)解剖天主教教会(1980年; k拉,教会形状来(1974)

Roman Catholicism罗马天主教

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term has been in general use since the Reformation to identify the faith and practice of Christians in communion with the pope. 这个词已经被普遍使用,因为确定的改革和实践信仰的基督徒的共融与教皇。

Although it has a reputation for conservatism and reaction, Roman Catholicism is a genuinely evolving religious system, valuing the deepening and development of its understanding of the Christian faith.虽然它有一个反应的保守主义和声誉,罗马天主教是一个真正的宗教系统不断发展,重视发展的深化和信仰基督教的理解的。 The Ignatian principles of accommodation and JH Newman's theory of development have been two expressions of this process. This development sometimes goes beyond biblical data, but Catholic scholars contend that the church's doctrines, eg, on the sacraments, the blessed Virgin Mary, and the papacy, are suggested by a "trajectory of images" in the NT; postbiblical developments are said to be consistent with the "thrust" of the NT.理论发展的依纳爵原则住宿和的JH纽曼有两个过程表达这一点。 这种发展有时超越了圣经的数据,但天主教学者争辩说,教会的教义,例如,在圣礼,圣母玛利亚,和教皇,是建议由图像“轨迹新台币”的; postbiblical发展据说是新台币符合“推力”的。

At other times this evolution has involved the rediscovery of truths that the church once possessed but which it subsequently lost in the course of its long history. The church has even at times recognized as error what it had earlier decreed authoritatively. Vatican Council II's Declaration on Religious Freedom is seen by reputable Catholic scholars to be in conflict with the condemnations of religious freedom in Gregory XVI's encyclical Mirari vos of 1832. The conflict was recognized by members of the council, but they supported the declaration on the principle of doctrinal development. Protestants hostile to Catholicism should be wary of attacking allegedly unalterable Catholic positions: the Catholic Church has reversed its position on basic issues.在其他时候这演变所涉及的关于重新发现宣言真理,教会曾经拥有,但它后来失去了它在这一过程中的悠久历史。 教堂已经认识到,有时甚至在因为错误是什么早先颁布的权威性。梵蒂冈理事会二世宗教自由是看到著名的天主教学者将在1832年冲突福斯与谕米拉里的谴责宗教自由的格雷戈里十六。冲突是理事会承认的成员,但他们支持发展宣言理论的原则。新教徒敌视天主教应警惕的问题攻击据称不可改变天主教的立场:天主教教会扭转其基本立场。

If, then, Roman Catholicism cannot be fixed within a single monolithic theological system, it is nevertheless helpful to distinguish between two tradition within Catholicism.如果,那么,罗马天主教不能被固定在一个单一的系统整体神学,但它仍然是有帮助的传统区分两个天主教内。

The mainstream tradition has stressed the transcendence of God and the church as a divinely commissioned institution (the "vertical church").强调传统主流教会“ 的超越的上帝和教会作为一个神圣的委托机构 (以下简称”垂直)。This authoritarian, centralizing tradition has been variously labeled, mainly by its critics as "medievalism," "Romanism," "Vaticanism," "papalism," "Ultramontanism," "Jesuitism," "Integralism," and "neoscholasticism."这种独裁,集权的传统有许多不同的标记neoscholasticism,主要是与“批评为”中世纪“,”浪漫主义“,”Vaticanism“,”papalism“,”至上主义“,”Jesuitism“,”整体论“。”

A minority reformist tradition has stressed the immanence of God and the church as community (the "horizontal church").阿少数改革派的传统,强调了内在的神与社区教堂 (以下简称“水平教会”)。Reform Catholicism has nourished such movements as Gallicanism, Jansenism, liberal Catholicism, and modernism.改革天主教,孕育,现代主义等动作,Gallicanism,詹森主义,自由主义天主教。

The two traditions coalesced at Vatican II, facilitated by John XXIII's dictum, "The substance of the ancient doctrine is one thing and the way in which it is presented is another."这两个传统在梵蒂冈第二合流,格言促进了约翰二十三世的“,该学说的实质内容是一回事 古老的表述方式,并在其所是另一回事。” An understanding, then, of modern - day Roman Catholicism requires a description of the characteristics of conservative Catholicism which dominated the church especially from the Council of Trent (1545 - 63) until Vatican II, plus an outline of the changes in emphasis inaugurated at Vatican II.一种理解,那么,现代-天梵蒂冈罗马天主教需要说明保守的特点是成立于天主教教会的控制,特别是从安理会的遄达(1545 - 63),直到梵二强调,变化加上大纲二。

The Church教会

The most distinctive characteristic of Roman Catholicism has always been its theology of the church (its ecclesiology). The church's role in mediating salvation has been emphasized more than in other Christian traditions. Supernatural life is mediated to Christians through the sacraments administered by the hierarchy to whom obedience is due.对罗马天主教最鲜明的特点一直是其)神学教会(其教会学。 教会的拯救作用,调解一直强调传统比其他基督徒。神仙生活是介导的基督徒通过层次的圣礼管理工作由他们服从,是因为。The church is monarchical as well as hierarchical since Christ conferred the primacy on Peter, whose successors are the popes.这座教堂是君主制以及分层自基督赋予的教皇至高无上的彼得,他的继任者是。Pre - Vatican II theology taught that the Roman Catholic Church is the only true church of Christ, since it alone has a permanent hierarchy (which is apostolic) and primacy (which is Petrine) to ensure the permanence of the church as Christ instituted it. All other churches are false churches insofar as they lack one of the four properties possessed by the Roman Catholic Church: unity, holiness, catholicity, and apostolicity.预-梵二神学教导说,罗马天主教会是唯一真正基督的教会,因为只有它有一个永久的层次结构(这是使徒)和首要地位(这是伯多禄),以确保持久性的教会作为基督提起它。 所有其他教会,宽容假教会,因为它们缺乏拥有一个由罗马的天主教教会的四个属性:团结,圣洁,和使徒。

The most important document of Vatican II, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, transformed rather than revolutionized the church's ecclesiology.二是梵蒂冈最重要的文件,该教会的教条式的宪法上,而不是革命性的转变教堂的教会学。The traditional emphasis on the church as means of salvation was supplanted by an understanding of the church as a mystery or sacrament, "a reality imbued with the hidden presence of God" (Paul VI).拯救的手段对传统的重点是为教会的圣事的理解所取代或教会作为一个谜,“上帝的存在现实充满了隐藏的”(保六)。The conception of the church as a hierarchical institution was replaced by a view of the church as the whole people of God.该机构的概念,教会作为一个层次是上帝所取代鉴于全民的教堂。To the traditional understanding of the church's mission as involving (1) the proclamation of the gospel and (2) the celebration of the sacraments, the council added (3) witnessing to the gospel and (4) service to all in need. The Tridentine emphasis on the church universal was supplemented by an understanding of the fullness of the church in each local congregation.为涉及传统理解的使命教会(1)和宣讲的福音(2)圣礼庆祝的,安理会将(3)见证的福音(4)服务向所有需要。该律但丁普遍强调教会是一个教会的理解补充了教会的丰满在每一个地方。

In the Decree on Ecumenism the council recognized that both sides were at fault in the rupture of the church at the Reformation, and it sought the restoration of Christian unity rather than a return of non - Catholics to "the true Church." For the church is greater than the Roman Catholic Church: other churches are valid Christian communities since they share the same Scriptures, life of grace, faith, hope, charity, gifts of the Spirit, and baptism.在普世法令的改革,安理会认识到,这两个破裂,双方都在故障时在教堂,并要求比非回报的恢复,而基督徒合一-天主教徒到“真正的教会。” 对于教会是教会大于罗马天主教:其他教会是有效的基督教社区,因为它们共享相同的圣经,精神生命的恩典,信仰,希望,慈善事业,礼物,和洗礼。

Further, the traditional identification of the kingdom of God with the church, into which everyone must therefore be brought or salvation will elude them, is replaced by an understanding of the church as the sign and instrument by which God calls and moves the world toward his kingdom.此外,躲避着他们传统的识别将神的王国与教会,在其中每个人都因此必须提出或拯救,被替换一个了解世界的走向教堂的签署和文书神通话和移动他王国。

The Pope教皇

The dogmas of papal primacy and infallibility were promulgated as recently as Vatican I (1869 - 70), but they have a long history which Roman Catholics trace ultimately to the will of Christ (Matt. 16:18 - 19; Luke 22:32; John 21:15 - 17) and the roles exercised by the apostle Peter (fisherman, shepherd, elder, rock, etc.) in the NT church. In succeeding centuries the prestige of the church of Rome increased since it was located at the Imperial capital and because of its association with the apostles Peter and Paul.教条的教皇的首要和犯错误的颁布是我最近在梵蒂冈(1869年- 70),但他们有一个历史悠久的罗马天主教徒跟踪最终将基督的(太16:18 - 19;路加福音22:32;约翰21:15 - 17)和NT教会的角色行使的使徒彼得(渔夫,牧羊人,老年人,在岩石等)。 在继承百年的罗马教会威信的提高,因为它是设在帝国由于其资本和结社的使徒彼得和保罗。It was increasingly looked to as the arbiter of orthodoxy. Pope Leo I maintained that Peter continues to speak to the whole church through the bishop of Rome, the first known such claim. 人们越来越期望作为正统的仲裁者。教皇利奥我认为,彼得继续说第一个已知的此类索赔的整个教会的主教罗马通过。The rise of the pope's temporal power, which for over a millennium buttressed his claims to supremacy, is commonly traced to the middle of the eighth century, when a vacuum in civil leadership was created by the collapse of the Western Empire.帝国的兴起,教皇的世俗权力,其中超过一千年来加强他声称至高无上,是西方的普遍追溯到八世纪中叶,在一个真空的时候是公民的领导创建的崩溃。

In 1234 Gregory IX combined and codified all previous papal decisions into the Five Books of Decretals.在1234年合并和格雷戈里九编纂五经的decretals所有决定把以前的教皇。By now the church was understood primarily as a visible hierarchical organization with supreme power vested in the pope. Bishops were required to take an oath of obedience to the pope similar to the feudal oath binding a vassal to his lord. The supreme pontiff was no longer only consecrated; he was also crowned with the triple tiara used originally by the deified rulers of Persia.现在教会的理解主要是作为一个有形的教皇层次赋予的权力组织,至高无上的。 主教们必须采取宣誓服从教宗的类似的封建宣誓绑定附庸他的主人。教宗的最高不再只有奉献,他也很好的波斯统治者的神化三重最初由头饰使用。 The coronation rite was continued until 1978, when John Paul I refused the crown, a symbolic action repeated by his successor, John Paul II.加冕仪式是一直持续到1978年,当约翰保罗我拒绝了皇冠,象征性的行动,二重复他的继任者,约翰保罗。The height of papal pretensions was reached in 1302 with Boniface VIII's bull, Unam Sanctam, which decreed that the temporal power was subject to the spiritual, and that submission to the Roman pontiff "is absolutely necessary to salvation."教皇的自负高度,终于在1302年与博尼法斯八世的牛市,乌南Sanctam法规,规定的世俗权力是受精神,并提交给罗马教皇“是绝对必要的救助。”

These papal claims were resisted not only by national rulers but by some scholars, notably William of Ockham and Marsilius of Padua, and by conciliarism, a movement in the church to subject the pope to the judgment and legislation of general councils.这些抵制罗马教皇的索赔,不仅国家的统治者,而是由一些学者,特别是奥卡姆的威廉和帕多瓦马西利乌斯的,由conciliarism,教会运动在向受教宗的判断和议会立法的一般。 Its greatest triumph was the Council of Constance (1414 - 15) with its law Haec Sancta, decreeing the supremacy of a general council and the collegiality of bishops.其最大的胜利是康斯坦茨理事会(1414 - 15)其法律勇夺Sancta,下令议会至上的一般和合议的主教。Conciliarism was condemned by succeeding popes until Vatican I declared that the pope's authoritative teachings are not subject to the consent of the entire church. Conciliarism谴责了成功梵蒂冈教皇,直到我宣布教皇的权威教导不受教会同意整个。The pope was declared to be infallible (immune from error) when he speaks ex cathedra (from the chair) on matters of faith and morals with the intention of binding the whole church.教宗被宣布为犯错(错误幸免)发言时,整个约束力的意图教会与教堂前(从道德的椅子和)事项的信念。

Vatican II stressed the role of the pope as "perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity of the bishops and of the multitude of the faithful," a role received sympathetically by some Protestant churches since the council (see, eg, RE Brown et al., Peter in the New Testament, sponsored by the United States Lutheran - Roman Catholic Dialogue).梵二强调的作用,作为教皇的“永恒的和可见的来源和忠实的团结基础的主教和众人的”同情的角色会收到一些教堂,因为新教(见,例如,布朗等可再生能源基地。彼得在新约,路德会主办的美国-罗马天主教对话)。 Vatican II also revived the collegiality of bishops, thus modifying the monarchical governance of the church: "Together with its head, the Roman Pontiff, and never without its head, the episcopal order is the subject of supreme and full power over the universal church."梵二也恢复了主教的合议,从而修改教会君主治理:“连同它的头部,罗马教皇,从来没有和它的头,教会主教秩序是受到充分的最高权力和在普遍。 “

The Sacraments圣礼

The sacramental principle is another characteristic tenet of Roman Catholicism. The sacramental system worked out especially in the Middle Ages by the schoolmen and subsequently at the Council of Trent envisaged sacraments primarily as causes of grace that could be received independent of the merit of the recipient. 圣事的原则是另一个罗马天主教宗旨的特点。制度制定的圣事,特别是在中世纪的经院哲学和特伦特随后在安理会的设想接受圣礼原因主要是为宽限期,可能收到价值的独立的。 Recent Catholic sacramental theology emphasizes their function as signs of faith.最近天主教圣神学强调信仰的标志功能。 Sacraments are said to cause grace insofar as they are intelligible signs of it, and that the fruitfulness, as distinct from the validity, of the sacrament is dependent on the faith and devotion of the recipient.圣礼据说造成的宽限期,因为它们是理解它的迹象,而且结实,有别于作为有效性圣礼,收件人的是依赖于信仰和献身精神的。 Sacramental rites are now administered in the vernacular, rather than in Latin, to increase the intelligibility of the signs.圣仪式现在管理的白话,而不是在拉丁美洲,增加的迹象可理解的。

Conservative Catholicism connected sacramental theology to Christology, stressing Christ's institution of the sacraments and the power of the sacraments to infuse the grace of Christ, earned on Calvary, to the recipient.保守的天主教神学基督圣事相连,强调基督圣礼机构的权力和圣礼的注入基督恩典,各各赚取到收件人。The newer emphasis connects the sacraments to ecclesiology.较新的重点连接到教会学圣礼。We do not encounter Christ directly, but in the church, which is his body. The church mediates the presence and action of Christ.我们不直接遇到基督,但在教堂,这是他的身体。 教会介导的存在和基督行动。

The number of sacraments was finally fixed at seven during the medieval period (at the councils of Lyons 1274, Florence 1439, and Trent 1547).圣礼数目终于固定在7 1547年在中世纪时期 (和特伦特在1274年议会的里昂,佛罗伦萨1439年)。In addition Roman Catholicism has innumerable sacramentals, eg, baptismal water, holy oil, blessed ashes, candles, palms, crucifixes, and statues.此外罗马天主教有无数sacramentals,例如,水的洗礼,圣油,祝福灰烬,蜡烛,棕榈树,十字架,和雕像。 Sacramentals are said to cause grace not ex opere operanto like the sacraments, but ex opere operantis, through the faith and devotion of those using them.Sacramentals据说导致前opere operantis宽限期,通过信仰和献身精神这些国家利用他们不要像前opere operanto但是,圣礼。

Three of the sacraments,三个圣礼,
baptism, confirmation, Eucharist,洗礼,确认,圣体,
are concerned with Christian initiation关注与基督教开始


The sacrament is understood to remit original sin and all personal sin of which the recipient sincerely repents.圣礼被理解为汇原罪和所有个人的罪而该收件人真诚悔改。All must be baptized or they cannot enter the kingdom of heaven. But not all baptism is sacramental baptism by water.所有人都必须接受洗礼或者是他们无法进入天国的。但不是所有的洗礼,是由水圣洗礼。There is also "baptism of blood," which is received by dying for Christ (eg, the "holy innocents," Matt. 2:16 - 18), and "baptism of desire," which is received by those who, implicitly or explicitly, desire baptism but are prevented from receiving it sacramentally. "Even those who through no fault of their own do not know Christ and his church may be counted as anonymous Christians if their striving to lead a good life is in fact a response to his grace, which is given in sufficient measure to all."此外,还有“血的洗礼,”这是收到的基督牺牲的(例如,“神圣的无辜者,”马特。2:16 - 18),和“欲望的洗礼,”这是谁收到的那些暗中或明确地说,希望洗礼,但它无法接受圣事的。“那些没有自己的故障,通过他们不知道基督和他的教会may be基督徒计算as匿名if他们努力过好生活就是为了在一件事上他宽限期,这是衡量给予足够的。“


A theology of confirmation was not developed until the Middle Ages.神学是一个确认没有发展到中世纪。Confirmation was said to be the gift of the Spirit for strengthening (ad robur) while baptismal grace is for forgiveness (ad remissionem).确认据说是)礼品的精神加强(公元罗尔),而洗礼的恩典是宽恕(广告remissionem。 This distinction has no basis in the Scriptures or the fathers, but has been retained to the present following ratification by the Council of Trent.这种区分是没有父亲的基础上或在圣经,但保留了由理事会的遄达本以下的批准。Today, however, the rite is sometimes administered at the same time as baptism and by the priest, not the bishop, to emphasize that both are really aspects of the one sacrament of initiation.然而,今天的仪式是因为有时在管理的洗礼,同时,由牧师,而不是主教,强调这两个方面都真正开始的圣事之一。


Distinctively Catholic doctrines on the Eucharist include the sacrificial nature of the Mass and transubstantiation. Both were defined at Trent and neither was modified at Vatican II. The unbloody sacrifice of the Mass is identified with the bloody sacrifice of the cross, in that both are offered for the sins of the living and the dead. 圣体圣事天主教教义,包括鲜明的祭祀性质和质变的群众。两人都是定义在特伦特,亦不是在梵蒂冈第二修订。群众unbloody的牺牲是提供确定的血腥与牺牲在十字架上,这两者都对于生活在罪恶和死亡。 Hence Christ is the same victim and priest in the Eucharist as he was on the cross.因此,基督是相同的受害者,在圣体祭司为他十字架上。Transubstantiation, the belief that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ, was first spoken of at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). The Eucharist is also known as Holy Communion.质变,基督信仰这种物质是面包和酒转变为身体和血液,首先发言的是在第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)。 圣体也被称为神圣的共融。

Two sacraments,两个圣礼,
penance and anointing the sick,忏悔和恩膏病人,
are concerned with healing所关注的愈合


By the Middle Ages the sacrament of penance had four components which were confirmed by the Council of Trent: satisfaction (the doing of an act of penance), confession, contrition, and absolution by a priest. All grave sins had to be confessed to a priest who acted as judge.到了中世纪的忏悔圣事的有四个组件,分别特伦特证实了本会: 满意(做了忏悔的行为),认罪,忏悔和赦免前,一位牧师。所有严重的罪过都必须承认一个祭司谁担任法官担任。Since Vatican II the role of the priest in penance is understood as healer, and the purpose of the sacrament is reconciliation with the church rather than the restoration of friendship with God.自梵二中的作用的忏悔神父被理解为医治者,和圣礼的目的,是友谊的和解与恢复的教堂,而不是与神。Through contrition the sinner's union with God is restored, but he is still required to seek forgiveness in the sacrament of penance because his sin compromises the mission of the church to be a holy people.通过悔过的罪人的工会与上帝恢复,但他仍然需要寻求宽恕的忏悔圣事,因为在他的罪恶的妥协,教会的使命是神圣的人。

Anointing the Sick恩膏的病态

During the Middle Ages the rite of anointing the sick was reserved increasingly for the dying, hence the description of Peter Lombard: extreme unctio (last anointing). Vatican II relabeled the sacrament "anointing of the sick," stating explicitly that it "is not a sacrament reserved for those who are at the point of death."在中世纪的患病仪式的恩膏的是保留日益垂死的,因此说明彼得伦巴:极端unctio(最后恩膏)。梵二重新标记的圣礼“病态的恩膏”明确指出它“是不1圣礼留给那些谁死亡是在这一点。“ The last sacrament is now known as viaticum, received during Mass if possible. Earlier, this was called Extreme Unction.最后圣礼是现在被称为viaticum,如果在可能收到的群众。 此前,这个被称为临终。

There are two sacraments有两个圣礼
of vocation and commitment:的使命和承诺:
marriage and orders婚姻和命令


The sacramentality of marriage was affirmed by the councils of Florence and Trent.在婚姻sacramentality特伦特肯定的是佛罗伦萨和安理会。Marriage is understood to be indissoluble, although dispensations, chiefly in the form of annulment (a declaration that a valid marriage never existed), are permitted.婚姻是牢不可破的理解为,虽然特许,主要是在废除形式(许可声明,表示从未存在一个有效的婚姻),是。The grounds of nullity so carefully delimited in the 1918 Code of Canon Law have now been broadened to embrace many deficiencies of character.婚姻无效的理由,以便仔细划定在1918年佳能法守则现在已经扩大到许多怀抱,性格缺陷。


Vatican II recognized that all the baptized participate in some way in the priesthood of Christ, but confirmed Catholic tradition on the clerical hierarchy by decreeing that there is a distinction between the priesthood conferred by baptism and that conferred by ordination. 梵二认识到,所有的洗礼方式参与一些基督的祭司,但证实文书天主教的传统层次上与实施,是有区别的洗礼赋予的神职人员,并赋予协调。

The ordained priesthood has three orders: bishops, priests, and deacons. The first and third are offices of the NT church. 在祝圣司铎有三个命令:主教,神父,和执事。第一和第三个是教会办事处新台币。The office of priest emerged when it was no longer practical to continue recognizing the Jewish priesthood (owing to the destruction of the temple and the great influx of Gentiles into the church) and with the development of a sacrificial understanding of the Lord's Supper.祭司办公室出现时,它已不再现实,继续承认犹太神职人员(由于寺庙的破坏和教会的大量涌入的外邦人进入),并与发展的主的晚餐是一个牺牲的认识。

Canon Law佳能法

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries a new branch of theological studies, canon law, emerged as an adjunct of papal supremacy. Legal decrees rather than the gospel became the basis for moral judgments. The church was understood primarily as an institution in its juridical aspect.在第十一届和第十二届世纪神学研究的新分支,教会法,形成一种至高无上的教皇的附属物。 福音的法律法规,而不是成为道德判断的依据。教堂被理解的方面主要是作为一个机构在其法律。The legal aspects of the sacraments and matrimony were paramount.圣礼和婚姻方面的法律是至高无上的。Until the post - Vatican II period a knowledge of canon law was the chief prerequisite for ecclesiastical advancement.直到后-梵蒂冈第二期法律知识是主要的教会教会发展的先决条件。

The Cult of the Blessed Virgin Mary作者:圣母玛利亚崇拜

At the Council of Ephesus (431) Mary was declared to be the Mother of God (Theotokos) and not only the mother of Christ (Christotokos). This gave an impetus to Marian devotion and by the seventh century four Marian feasts were being observed in Rome: the annunciation, the purification, the assumption, and the nativity of Mary. To these feasts the Eastern churches added the feast of the conception of Mary at the end of the same century. 在安理会的以弗所(431)玛丽被宣布为天主之母(圣母),而不是只)母亲基督(Christotokos。这推动了玛丽安奉献和七世纪四玛丽安宴被观察罗马:在报喜,净化,假设,玛丽和耶稣诞生的。对这些节日的东部教会将在本世纪最后的盛宴相同的玛丽的构想。 Bernard of Clairvaux influenced Mariology decisively by arguing that while Christ is our mediator he is also our judge, and that therefore we need a mediator with the mediator, so that in popular devotion the merciful Mary was contrasted with the fierce Christ. Marian devotion blossomed between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries. The rosary (three groups of fifty Hail Marys counted on beads) was in popular use by the twelfth century and the angelus also appeared (the recitation of prayers to Mary, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of a bell).伯纳德的克莱尔沃影响Mariology果断辩称,虽然基督是我们的调解员,他也是我们的判断,而且因此,我们需要一个调停的,因此在流行奉献的仁慈玛丽对比激烈的基督。 玛丽安奉献之间开花11和15世纪。珠(珠三组50对计算冰雹丽斯)三钟经是在流行和使用的12世纪也出现(诵经祈祷的圣母玛利亚,早上,中午,晚上,在声音一个钟)。

In 1854, following another revival of Marian spirituality, Pius IX promulgated the dogma of the immaculate conception, that Mary was free from original sin from the moment of her conception. In 1950 Pius XII defined the dogma of bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary, that on her death she was preserved from "the corruption of the tomb" and was "raised body and soul to the glory of heaven, to shine refulgent as Queen at the right hand of her Son." 1854年,随着另一个灵性复兴玛丽安,庇护九颁布了教条的完美无暇的概念,即玛丽罪摆脱原来从受孕她。1950年比约十二定义的,教条的圣母玛利亚的身体假设,认为在她死后,她被保留从“坟墓腐败的”,是“提高身体和灵魂升天荣耀,闪耀辉煌的女王在她的儿子的右手。”

Since Vatican II Catholic scholars have questioned if denial of these two Marian dogmas means exclusion from the Catholic Church, since that denial must be "culpable, obstinate, and externally manifested." Vatican II also tended to disassociate Mariology from Christology, thus removing an emphasis on her involvement in our redemption and attaching her to ecclesiology, so that Mary is seen rather as the type, model, mother, and preeminent member of the church.自梵二天主教学者质疑教条否认这两个玛丽安手段,排斥来自天主教会拒绝,因为这必须是“有罪,固执,和外部表现。” 梵二也往往要脱离基督Mariology从,从而消除了重她在我们的赎回参与和重视她的教会学,使玛丽的母亲,却并不是作为类型,型号,和教会杰出成员。


The Council of Trent declared tradition to be equally authoritative with Scripture and the definitive interpretation of both to be the preserve of the church. In its Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Vatican II sought to remove the sharp distinction perceived by Protestants between Scripture and tradition by defining tradition as the successive interpretations of the Scriptures given by the church throughout the ages. That the church somehow stood above both sources of revelation was specifically denied: "This teaching office is not above the word of God, but serves it. It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, sacred Scripture, and the teaching authority of the Church are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others." 遄达理事会宣布传统,同样都具有权威性和解释圣经的权威是维护教会。教条主义在其宪法中关于神的启示梵二试图删除的明显区分的传统认知和新教徒之间通过定义圣经传统,各个时期的教会对圣经的解释连续给予。某种程度上,教会站在上述两个来源的启示是专门否认:“这是不是教学办公室高于上帝的话的,但它是服务于它的 由此可见,这种神圣的传统,神圣的经文,和其他教学权威的教会 是如此的联系,联合起来,一个也离不开。“

The failure of post - Vatican II Catholicism to give a clear preeminence to the Bible leaves some Protestants dissatisfied, but there is no doubt that the scholarly and popular study of the Bible by Roman Catholics has increased markedly since 1965. 失败后的-梵二天主教要很清楚的圣经叶超群一些新教徒不满,但没有1965年的疑问,大众研究的学术和罗马天主教徒的圣经以来显着增加。 Roman Catholicism is no longer simply reacting and polemical, devoted to defending truth through the condemnation of error.罗马天主教不再是简单地反应和论辩,致力于捍卫真理,都是由错误的谴责。It is now an innovative and irenical movement, more devoted to illustrating the Christian faith than defining it.现在是和平主义的创新和运动,更致力于说明了确定它比基督教信仰。

FS Piggin财政司司长Piggin

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
WM Abbott and J Gallagher, eds., the Documents of Vatican II; L Boettner, Roman Catholicism; A New Catechism: Catholic Faith for Adults; G Daly, Transcendence and Immanence: A Study in Catholic Modernism and Integralism; J Delumeau, Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire; JP Dolan, Catholicism: An Historical Survey; JD Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; P Hughes, A Short History of the Catholic Church; B Kloppenberg, The Eclesiology of Vatican II; R Lawler, DW Wuerl, and TC Lawler, eds., The Teaching of Christ: A Catholic Catechism for Adults; RP McBrien, Catholicism.西医雅培和J加拉格尔,合编。下,非法入境文件梵蒂冈的L博特纳,罗马天主教,有一种新问答集锦:成人天主教信仰; Ğ达利,超越与内在性:一个整体论和现代主义的研究天主教; J Delumeau,天主教在路德和伏尔泰,太平绅士多兰,天主教:一个历史的调查,罗马教廷霍姆斯的法学博士,在凯旋的; P休斯,天主教教会的简史;乙Kloppenberg,在第二Eclesiology梵蒂冈与r劳勒,德国之声Wuerl,和训练班劳勒,合编。,在基督教学:一个成人天主教要理;反相麦克布赖恩,天主教。

Roman Catholic罗马天主教

Catholic Information天主教信息

A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claims of the One True Church.天主教资格的名称常用英语为母语的国家的那些不愿承认真教会的一个索赔。Out of condescension for these dissidents, the members of that Church are wont in official documents to be styled "Roman Catholics" as if the term Catholic represented a genus of which those who owned allegiance to the pope formed a particular species.出于对这些持不同政见者傲慢,正式文件的成员,在教会的习惯是被誉为“罗马天主教徒”,仿佛这个词所代表的天主教教皇的一个属,其中那些谁拥有效忠形成了独特的物种。 It is in fact a prevalent conception among Anglicans to regard the whole Catholic Church as made up of three principal branches, the Roman Catholic, the Anglo-Catholic and the Greek Catholic.它其实是在一间圣公会流行的概念把整个天主教会提出了三个主要分支,罗马天主教,盎格鲁天主教和希腊天主教。As the erroneousness of this point of view has been sufficiently explained in the articles CHURCH and CATHOLIC, it is only needful here to consider the history of the composite term with which we are now concerned.作为视图erroneousness的这点已足以解释和天主教教会的文章,它是这里唯一的needful考虑有关历史的复合词与我们现在的局势。

In the "Oxford English Dictionary", the highest existing authority upon questions of English philology, the following explanation is given under the heading "Roman Catholic".在“牛津英语词典”,英语语言文学的最高权力后,现有的问题,下面的解释是,由于在标题为“罗马天主教”。

The use of this composite term in place of the simple Roman, Romanist, or Romish; which had acquired an invidious sense, appears to have arisen in the early years of the seventeenth century.这,浪漫主义,或Romish使用罗马这种复合词有何简单,它已获得了令人反感的感觉,似乎已经出现在17世纪的最初几年。 For conciliatory reasons it was employed in the negotiations connected with the Spanish Match (1618-1624) and appears in formal documents relating to this printed by Rushworth (I, 85-89). After that date it was generally adopted as a non-controversial term and has long been the recognized legal and official designation, though in ordinary use Catholic alone is very frequently employed.对于1618年至1624年)和解的原因(它是采用西班牙匹配连接在谈判中出现的有关文件,并在此正式印刷拉什沃思(我,85-89)。日期之后,由于人们普遍采取了非争议长期和长期以来一直是公认的法律和官方指定,虽然仅仅是很普通的使用中经常采用天主教。 (New Oxford Dict., VIII, 766) (新牛津词典。,八,766)

Of the illustrative quotations which follow, the earliest in date is one of 1605 from the "Europae Speculum" of Edwin Sandys: "Some Roman Catholiques will not say grace when a Protestant is present"; while a passage from Day's "Festivals" of 1615, contrasts "Roman Catholiques" with "good, true Catholiques indeed". Although the account thus given in the Oxford Dictionary is in substance correct, it cannot be considered satisfactory.该说明报价,按照,日期最早的是1605年从“Europae反射镜”的埃德温桑迪斯:“一些罗马Catholiques不会说的宽限期时,新教存在”,而一个1615年通过由日的“节日” ,对比“实在”。从而获得该帐户,虽然在牛津词典罗马Catholiques“与Catholiques”好,真正的实质是正确的,它不能被认为是令人满意的。 To begin with the word is distinctly older than is here suggested.首先,这个词是明显早于在这里建议。When about the year 1580 certain English Catholics, under stress of grievous persecution, defended the lawfulness of attending Protestant services to escape the fines imposed on recusants, the Jesuit Father Persons published, under the pseudonym of Howlet, a clear exposition of the "Reasons why Catholiques refuse to goe to Church".在谈到1580年的某些英国天主教徒的迫害,严重的压力下,辩护recusants新教的合法性参加服务的罚款逃跑,耶稣会神父的人公布,根据原因的Howlet笔名,在“一个明确的论述,为什么Catholiques拒绝专家组的教会“。 This was answered in 1801 by a writer of Puritan sympathies, Percival Wiburn, who in his "Checke or Reproofe of M. Howlet" uses the term "Roman Catholic" repeatedly.这是1801年由一回答多次的清教徒作家同情,波斯富街Wiburn,谁在他的“Checke米或Reproofe的Howlet”使用的术语是“罗马天主教”。 For example he speaks of "you Romane Catholickes that sue for tolleration" (p. 140) and of the "parlous dilemma or streight which you Romane Catholickes are brought into" (p. 44).例如,他说的是“你罗曼Catholickes的控告tolleration”(第140页)和“危险的困境或streight你罗曼Catholickes被带入”(第44页)。 Again Robert Crowley, another Anglican controversialist, in his book called "A Deliberat Answere", printed in 1588, though adopting by preference the forms "Romish Catholike" or "Popish Catholike", also writes of those "who wander with the Romane Catholiques in the uncertayne hypathes of Popish devises" (p. 86).罗伯特再次克劳利,另一圣公会controversialist,在他的书,名为“阿Deliberat Answere”,1588年印中,虽然采取的形式惠“Romish Catholike”或“波皮什Catholike”,也Catholiques写的那些“罗曼与谁徘徊在hypathes的波皮什的uncertayne不可同日而语“(第86页)。 A study of these and other early examples in their context shows plainly enough that the qualification "Romish Catholic" or "Roman Catholic" was introduced by Protestant divines who highly resented the Roman claim to any monopoly of the term Catholic.一个上下文研究这些问题和其他早期的例子清楚地表明他们足够的资格“Romish天主教”或“罗马天主教”一词是由天主教介绍新教神学家谁是罗马的高度不满声称任何垄断。 In Germany, Luther had omitted the word Catholic from the Creed, but this was not the case in England.在德国,路德曾省略字天主教教义,但是这不是英国为例。Even men of such Calvinistic leanings as Philpot (he was burned under Mary in 1555), and John Foxe the martyrologist, not to speak of churchmen like Newel and Fulke, insisted on the right of the Reformers to call themselves Catholics and professed to regard their own as the only true Catholic Church.即使这些男人的菲尔波特加尔文倾向(他是玛丽正在燃烧1555),约翰福克斯的martyrologist,不要说Fulke牧师像纽尔,并坚持正确的改革者自称天主教徒,声称要把他们的自己作为唯一真正的天主教会。 Thus Philpot represents himself as answering his Catholic examiner: "I am, master doctor, of the unfeigned Catholic Church and will live and die therein, and if you can prove your Church to be the True Catholic Church, I will be one of the same" (Philpot, "Works", Parker Soc., p. 132).因此菲尔波特代表回答考官自己为他的天主教:“我是,硕士医生,慥天主教会和将其中生活和死亡,如果你能证明你的教会是真正的天主教会,我会同样之一“(菲尔波特,”工程“,帕克的SoC。,第132页)。 It would be easy to quote many similar passages.这将是容易列举许多类似的段落。The term "Romish Catholic" or "Roman Catholic" undoubtedly originated with the Protestant divines who shared this feeling and who were unwilling to concede the name Catholic to their opponents without qualification.术语“Romish天主教”或“罗马天主教”无疑起源于谁,谁新教divines共享这种感觉都不愿意承认自己的对手天主教没有资格的名称。 Indeed the writer Crowley, just mentioned, does not hesitate throughout a long tract to use the term "Protestant Catholics" the name which he applies to his antagonists. Thus he says "We Protestant Catholiques are not departed from the true Catholique religion" (p. 33) and he refers more than once to "Our Protestant Catholique Church," (p. 74)事实上,作家克罗利,刚才提到,不犹豫整个长道使用术语“新教教徒”的名字,他适用于他的对手。因此,他说:“我们是不是宗教新教Catholiques偏离了真正的天主教”(第。33),他不止一次地提到“我们的新教天主教教会”(第74页)

On the other hand the evidence seems to show that the Catholics of the reign of Elizabeth and James I were by no means willing to admit any other designation for themselves than the unqualified name Catholic.另一方面,这些迹象似乎表明,伊丽莎白天主教的统治和詹姆斯一世的天主教是绝不愿意承认的任何其他不合格的名称指定为自己比。 Father Southwell's "Humble Supplication to her Majesty" (1591), though criticized by some as over-adulatory in tone, always uses the simple word.父亲绍斯韦尔的“祈求她陛下”(1591),尽管一些批评,adulatory的口气结束,总是使用简单的词。What is more surprising, the same may be said of various addresses to the Crown drafted under the inspiration of the "Appellant" clergy, who were suspected by their opponents of subservience to the government and of minimizing in matters of dogma.更令人惊讶的是什么,同样可以说,各种官方教条地址下草拟的灵感的“上诉人”神职人员,谁是他们的对手怀疑由屈从于政府的事宜,以及最小化。 This feature is very conspicuous, to take a single example, in "the Protestation of allegiance" drawn up by thirteen missioners, 31 Jan., 1603, in which they renounce all thought of "restoring the Catholic religion by the sword", profess their willingness "to persuade all Catholics to do the same" and conclude by declaring themselves ready on the one hand "to spend their blood in the defence of her Majesty" but on the other "rather to lose their lives than infringe the lawful authority of Christ's Catholic Church" (Tierney-Dodd, III, p. cxc).此功能是非常突出,采取单一例如,在“,抗议剑”的效忠“制定了由13个传教士,1603年1月31日,在宗教中,他们放弃恢复天主教都以为”以信奉他们的愿意“说服所有天主教徒这样做”,并最后宣布自己是“准备一方面花费权威的血液合法的辩护女王陛下”,但对其他“而失去自己的生命不会侵害的基督天主教教会“(蒂尔尼,多德,三,第1725485)。 We find similar language used in Ireland in the negotiations carried on by Tyrone in behalf of his Catholic countrymen.我们发现类似的语言用在爱尔兰进行的谈判泰隆由他的同胞代表天主教。Certain apparent exceptions to this uniformity of practice can be readily explained.均匀实施的某些明显的例外,可这很容易解释。To begin with we do find that Catholics not unfrequently use the inverted form of the name "Roman Catholic" and speak of the "Catholic Roman faith" or religion.首先我们发现,天主教徒没有unfrequently使用的名称倒形式的“罗马天主教”,讲的“罗马天主教信仰”或宗教。 An early example is to be found in a little controversial tract of 1575 called "a Notable Discourse" where we read for example that the heretics of old "preached that the Pope was Antichriste, shewing themselves verye eloquent in detracting and rayling against the Catholique Romane Church" (p. 64).一个早期的例子是被称为1575年发现在一个小的争议道“一个显着的话语:”在我们的例子说,读异端旧“鼓吹,教皇是Antichriste,高抬自己verye雄辩的贬低和罗曼rayling反对天主教教会“(第64页)。 But this was simply a translation of the phraseology common both in Latin and in the Romance languages "Ecclesia Catholica Romana," or in French "l'Eglise catholique romaine".但是,这只是一个拉丁译本无论在措辞共同和罗曼语“埃克尔西亚Catholica协会”,或在法国“l'埃格斯罗曼天主教”。 It was felt that this inverted form contained no hint of the Protestant contention that the old religion was a spurious variety of true Catholicism or at best the Roman species of a wider genus.有人认为,这倒表格中没有争议暗示的新教,旧宗教是一个更广泛的多种属虚假或物种的真实天主教在罗马最好的。Again, when we find Father Persons (eg in his "Three Conversions," III, 408) using the term "Roman Catholic", the context shows that he is only adopting the name for the moment as conveniently embodying the contention of his adversaries.同样,当我们发现父亲的人(如转换在他的“三,”三,408)使用“罗马天主教”,上下文,说明他是通过他的对手只是暂时的名称体现在方便的争夺。

Once more in a very striking passage in the examination of one James Clayton in 1591 (see Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz., add., vol. XXXII, p. 322) we read that the deponent "was persuaded to conforme himself to the Romaine Catholique faith."一旦有更多非常引人注目克莱顿在1591年通过考试的詹姆斯中的一个(见卡尔。国家论文,大教堂。伊丽莎。,补充。,第一卷。三十二,第322页)我们读到,宣誓人“是他自己说服conforme罗曼天主教的信仰。“ But there is nothing to show that these were the actual words of the recusant himself, or that, if they were, they were not simply dictated by a desire to conciliate his examiners.但没有任何显示,这些人是recusant自己的实际话,或者说,如果他们,他们不只是考官出于自己的愿望进行调解。 The "Oxford Dictionary" is probably right in assigning the recognition of "Roman Catholic" as the official style of the adherents of the Papacy in England to the negotiations for the Spanish Match (1618-24). “牛津词典”可能是正确的指派)承认“罗马天主教”作为教皇在官方风格的追随者英国(1618年至1624年的谈判为西班牙比赛。In the various treaties etc., drafted in connection with this proposal, the religion of the Spanish princess is almost always spoken of as "Roman Catholic".在条约等多种,在这方面的建议起草的,宗教的公主,西班牙几乎总是说成“罗马天主教”。Indeed in some few instances the word Catholic alone is used. This feature does not seem to occur in any of the negotiations of earlier date which touched upon religion, eg those connected with the proposed d'Alencon marriage in Elizabeth's reign, while in Acts of Parliament, proclamations, etc., before the Spanish match, Catholics are simply described as Papists or Recusants, and their religion as popish, Romanish, or Romanist.事实上,在少数情况下一些单词天主教单独使用。这项功能似乎并没有发生任何涉及宗教的谈判后,其中较早的日期,如在位的那些连接亚伦孙婚姻伊丽莎白与建议的德,而在行为的议会,宣言等,在西班牙比赛之前,天主教是简单的描述为Papists或Recusants,他们的浪漫主义宗教作为波皮什,Romanish或。 Indeed long after this period, the use of the term Roman Catholic continued to be a mark of condescension, and language of much more uncomplimentary character was usually preferred.事实上,不久此期间,天主教罗马一词的使用仍然是一个恩赐标记,语言和性格更贬损通常是首选。It was perhaps to encourage a friendlier attitude in the authorities that Catholics themselves henceforth began to adopt the qualified term in all official relations with the government.这也许是鼓励当局友好的态度,天主教徒自己从此开始与政府采取的一切官方关系合格的任期。Thus the "Humble Remonstrance, Acknowledgment, Protestation and Petition of the Roman Catholic Clergy of Ireland" in 1661, began "We, your Majesty's faithful subjects the Roman Catholick clergy of Ireland".因此,“谦卑谏,承认,抗议和1661年的罗马天主教神职人员的”爱尔兰信访的开始:“我们,陛下的忠实臣民神职人员爱尔兰罗马Catholick”。 The same Practice seems to have obtained in Maryland; see or example the Consultation entitled "Objections answered touching Maryland", drafted by Father R Blount, SJ, in 1632 (B. Johnston, "Foundation of Maryland, etc., 1883, 29), and wills proved 22 Sep., 1630, and 19 Dec., 1659, etc., (in Baldwin, "Maryland Cat. of Wills", 19 vols., vol. i. Naturally the wish to conciliate hostile opinion only grew greater as Catholic Emancipation became a question of practical politics, and by that time it would appear that many Catholics themselves used the qualified form not only when addressing the outside public but in their domestic discussions. A short-lived association, organized in 1794 with the fullest approval of the vicars Apostolic, to counteract the unorthodox tendencies of the Cisalpine Club, was officially known as the "Roman Catholic Meeting" (Ward, "Dawn of Cath. Revival in England", II, 65). So, too, a meeting of the Irish bishops under the presidency of Dr. Troy at Dublin in 1821 passed resolutions approving of an Emancipation Bill then before a Parliament, in which they uniformly referred to members of their own communion as "Roman Catholics". Further, such a representative Catholic as Charles Butler in his "Historical Memoirs" (see eg vol. IV, 1821, pp. 185, 199, 225, etc.,) frequently uses the term "roman-catholic" [sic] and seems to find this expression as natural as the unqualified form.同样的做法似乎已经获得了马里兰;查看或咨询为例,题为“反对回答感人马里兰”,起草的父亲ṛ布朗特,律政司司长在1632年(二约翰斯顿,“29基金会马里兰等,1883)和遗嘱证明,1630年,和1659年12月19日,等,(在鲍德温9月22日,“马里兰猫第一卷和第二卷。遗嘱”,19。,第一卷。岛当然希望调解敌对意见仅增长较大天主教解放成为政治问题的实际,得到当时看来,许多天主教徒自己使用合格的形式,不仅在处理外界公开,但在其国内的讨论。短暂的协会,1794年组织了最充分的维卡斯批准的使徒,以抵消奇萨尔皮尼俱乐部非正统的倾向,正式会议被称为“天主教罗马”(区,“还魂蛋白酶。英格兰曙光”,第二章,65岁)。同样,1次会议爱尔兰主教的主持下,特洛伊在都柏林博士于1821年通过决议,批准了一项法案,然后解放议会前,他们在统一称为成员自己共融“罗马天主教徒”。此外,天主教等代表查尔斯巴特勒在他的“历史回忆录”(见如卷。四,1821年,页。185,199,225等)经常使用的术语是“罗马天主教”[原文如此],似乎觉得这是自然的表达作为不合格的表格。

With the strong Catholic revival in the middle of the nineteenth century and the support derived from the uncompromising zeal of many earnest converts, such for example as Faber and Manning, an inflexible adherence to the name Catholic without qualification once more became the order of the day.随着强劲复苏的资格再次天主教在中间的天主教没有名字的19世纪,坚持和支持派生从僵化的不妥协的热情,许多切实转换,如费伯和曼宁举例来说,一成为家常便饭了。 The government, however, would not modify the official designation or suffer it to be set aside in addresses presented to the Sovereign on public,但是,这不修改官方指定或受到它设置地址,一边在提交给公共场合主权。In two particular instances during the archiepiscopate of Cardinal Vaughan this point was raised and became the subject of correspondence between the cardinal and the Home Secretary.二是在特定的情况下提出的,在archiepiscopate枢机沃恩这一点,成为受民政司之间的枢机主教的信函和。 In 1897 at the Diamond Jubilee of the accession of Queen Victoria, and again in 1901 when Edward VII succeeded to the throne, the Catholic episcopate desired to present addresses, but on each occasion it was intimated to the cardinal that the only permissible style would be "the Roman Catholic Archbishop and Bishops in England".在维多利亚女王在1897年加入禧钻石的,后来又在1901年时,爱德华七世继承了王位,天主教主教团所需提交的地址,但每个人都可以一次是暗示的大是大非,唯一允许的风格会“罗马天主教大主教和英国主教”。 Even the form "the Cardinal Archbishop and Bishops of the Catholic and Roman Church in England" was not approved.即使是形式“的枢机主教和教会的主教和罗马天主教在英国”不获批准。On the first occasion no address was presented, but in 1901 the requirements of the Home Secretary as to the use of the name "Roman Catholics" were complied with, though the cardinal reserved to himself the right of explaining subsequently on some public occasion the sense in which he used the words (see Snead-Cox, "Life of Cardinal Vaughan", II, 231-41).在第一次提出了没有地址,但在1901年局长要求民政至于名称使用“罗马天主教徒”得到遵守,但保留给自己的大是大非的意思解释权利,后来在一些公共场合他在其中所用的字眼(见斯尼德-考克斯,“沃恩生活枢机”,二,231-41)。 Accordingly, at the Newcastle Conference of the Catholic Truth Society (Aug., 1901) the cardinal explained clearly to his audience that "the term Roman Catholic has two meanings; a meaning that we repudiate and a meaning that we accept."因此,在1901年纽卡斯尔会议的天主教真理学会(8月)的枢机解释清楚,他的听众说:“罗马天主教一词有两个含义,一个意思,我们否定和意义,我们接受。” The repudiated sense was that dear to many Protestants, according to which the term Catholic was a genus which resolved itself into the species Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, Greek Catholic, etc.该否定的感觉是,亲爱的许多新教徒,根据该术语天主教是一个解决该种属本身成为罗马天主教,英国天主教,希腊天主教等But, as the cardinal insisted, "with us the prefix Roman is not restrictive to a species, or a section, but simply declaratory of Catholic."但是,正如枢机强调,“与我们的前缀罗马不是限于某一物种或一个部分,而是天主教的宣示。”The prefix in this sense draws attention to the unity of the Church, and "insists that the central point of Catholicity is Roman, the Roman See of St. Peter."在这个意义上前缀提请注意教会的团结,以及“坚持认为,核心问题是罗马天主教,罗马的圣彼得见。”

It is noteworthy that the representative Anglican divine, Bishop Andrewes, in his "Tortura Torti" (1609) ridicules the phrase Ecclesia Catholica Romana as a contradiction in terms.值得注意的是,英国圣公会的代表神圣的主教安德鲁斯,在他的“伤神托尔蒂”(1609)嘲弄作为一个矛盾方面的短语埃克尔西亚Catholica协会。 "What," he asks, "is the object of adding 'Roman'? The only purpose that such an adjunct can serve is to distinguish your Catholic Church from another Catholic Church which is not Roman" (p. 368). “什么,”他问道,“是'对象添加罗马'?的唯一目的,这种辅助服务是可以区分你是不是罗马天主教教会从另一个天主教”(第368页)。It is this very common line of argument which imposes upon Catholics the necessity of making no compromise in the matter of their own name.正是这种他们自己的名字很常见线,论证规定的必要性时天主教徒的问题作出任何妥协的研究。The loyal adherents of the Holy See did not begin in the sixteenth century to call themselves "Catholics" for controversial purposes.罗马教廷的忠实信徒的才开始在16世纪把自己称为“天主教徒”为目的的争议。It is the traditional name handed down to us continuously from the time of St. Augustine.这是传统的名字传给我们不断从圣奥古斯丁的时间。We use this name ourselves and ask those outside the Church to use it, without reference to its signification simply because it is our customary name, just as we talk of the Russian Church as "the Orthodox Church", not because we recognize its orthodoxy but because its members so style themselves, or again just as we speak of "the Reformation" because it is the term established by custom, though we are far from owning that it was a reformation in either faith or morals.我们用这个名字,我们要求教会以外的人使用它,未经其意义仅仅因为它是我们习惯的名字,如同我们谈论的教会“俄罗斯教会为”东正教,并不是因为我们认识到它的正统,但因为它的成员,使作风,或者也只有as我们讲的“宗教改革”,因为它是由惯例确立的任期内,虽然我们顷道德far from认为它是拥有或改革,另一边in either信心。The dog-in-the manger policy of so many Anglicans who cannot take the name of Catholics for themselves, because popular usage has never sanctioned it as such, but who on the other hand will not concede it to the members of the Church of Rome, was conspicuously brought out in the course of a correspondence on this subject in the London "Saturday Review" (Dec., 1908 to March, 1909) arising out of a review of some of the earlier volumes of THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA.狗中,许多圣公会马槽政策,那么,谁不能照顾自己的天主教徒的名字,因为大众的使用从来没有认可罗马是这样,但谁另一方面也不会承认它教会的成员的,带出了明显的函授课程在一份关于这个主题在伦敦“星期六评论”(12月,1908年3月,1909年)所产生的一个百科全书审查天主教册的一些较早的。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息瑟斯顿写赫伯特。Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.转录由尼科莱特奥姆斯比。天主教百科全书,体积十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


The historical facts summarized in this article are given in an extended form in a paper contributed by the present writer to The Month (Sept. 1911).历史事实是总结本文给出了在一个扩展的形式作家捐出提交给本月(1911年9月)。See also "The Tablet" (14 Sept., 1901), 402, and Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, cited above.又见“平板”(1901年9月14日),402,和斯尼德-考克斯,沃恩生活枢机,上述。

Roman Catechism罗马问答

Catholic Information天主教信息

This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism.这不同于基督教的教义教理摘要为其他教学点中的两个人:它主要用于)祭司parochos有照顾的灵魂(广告,并享有其他教义的权力等于没有通过。 The need of a popular authoritative manual arose from a lack of systematic knowledge among pre-Reformation clergy and the concomitant neglect of religious instruction among the faithful.该手册需要一个受欢迎的权威产生于一个忠实之间缺乏系统的知识之间的前宗教改革的宗教教职人员忽视教学以及随之而来。

The Reformers had not been slow in taking advantage of the situation; their popular tracts and catechisms were flooding every country and leading thousands of souls away from the Church.改革者没有采取缓慢的情况下利用,其受欢迎的地段,要理问答是每一个国家和洪水导致成千上万的灵魂离开教堂。 The Fathers of Trent, therefore, "wishing to apply a salutary remedy to this great and pernicious evil, and thinking that the definition of the principal Catholic doctrines was not enough for the purpose, resolved also to publish a formulary and method for teaching the rudiments of the faith, to be used by all legitimate pastors and teachers" (Cat. praef., vii).遄达的父亲,因此,“有意申请一个有益的补救这个伟大的,有害的邪恶,并认为该理论的主要天主教的定义是不够的宗旨,决心也发表了一个处方教学的雏形和方法的信念,将使用一切合法的牧师和教师“(Cat. praef。,七)。This resolution was taken in the eighteenth session (26 February, 1562) on the suggestion of St. Charles Borromeo; who was then giving full scope to his zeal for the reformation of the clergy.这项决议是在考虑过18届会议(1562年2月26日)在圣查尔斯博罗密欧建议,谁给了当时改革的神职人员为充分发挥他的热情。 Pius IV entrusted the composition of the Catechism to four distinguished theologians: Archbishops Leonardo Marino of Lanciano and Muzio Calini of Zara, Egidio Foscarini, Bishop of Modena, and Francisco Fureiro, a Portuguese Dominican.碧岳四委托问答组成的4个杰出的神学家:多米尼加大主教莱昂纳多兰恰诺圣马力诺和葡萄牙Muzio Calini的扎拉,埃吉迪奥主教福斯卡里尼,摩德纳,和Francisco Fureiro,1。Three cardinals were appointed to supervise the work.三枢机主教被任命监督工作。St. Charles Borromeo superintended the redaction of the original Italian text, which, thanks to his exertions, was finished in 1564. Cardinal William Sirletus then gave it the final touches, and the famous Humanists, Julius Pogianus and Paulus Manutius, translated it into classical Latin.圣查尔斯博罗密欧superintended的Sirletus节录原意大利文,他的,由于卖力,在1564年完工。枢机主教威廉则给了它的最后润色,和著名的人文主义者,朱利叶斯Pogianus和保卢斯Manutius,它翻译成经典拉丁语。 It was then published in Latin and Italian as "Catechismus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini ad parochos Pii V jussu editus, Romae, 1566" (in-folio). Translations into the vernacular of every nation were ordered by the Council (Sess. XXIV, "De Ref.", c. vii).这在当时出版的拉丁文和意大利为“Catechismus前decreto Concilii Tridentini广告parochos Pii的V jussu editus,Romae,1566”(中,对开)。民族翻译成白话文的每一个被勒令由理事会达(sess. 24条,“德号。“角七)。

The Council intended the projected Catechism to be the Church's official manual of popular instruction.安理会打算预计问答是教会的官方指导手册受欢迎的。The seventh canon, "De Reformatione", of Sess.第七佳能,“德Reformatione”的塞斯。XXIV, runs: "That the faithful may approach the Sacraments with greater reverence and devotion, the Holy Synod charges all the bishops about to administer them to explain their operation and use in a way adapted to the understanding of the people; to see, moreover, that their parish priests observe the same rule piously and prudently, making use for their explanations, where necessary and convenient, of the vernacular tongue; and conforming to the form to be prescribed by the Holy Synod in its instructions (catechesis) for the several Sacraments: the bishops shall have these instructions carefully translated into the vulgar tongue and explained by all parish priests to their flocks . . .".第24条,运行:即“忠诚和奉献精神的做法可能更加崇敬的圣事,圣主教会议的主教们对所有收费向他们解释他们的管理和经营方法用在适应了人民的理解,看到的,而且,他们的教区神父虔诚地遵守同样的规则和审慎,使舌使用他们的解释,在必要和白话方便,对;和符合规定的形式,是由所)为圣主教在其指示(理数圣礼:主教应说明这些粗俗的舌头仔细译成。祭司解释他们的所有教区羊群。。“。 In the mind of the Church the Catechism, though primarily written for the parish priests, was also intended to give a fixed and stable scheme of instruction to the faithful, especially with regard to the means of grace, so much neglected at the time.在教会的脑海中的问答祭司,但主要是书面的教区,也是为了提供一个稳定的教学计划,固定和忠实的恩典,特别是考虑到的手段,那么多时间忽略了。 To attain this object the work closely follows the dogmatic definitions of the council.为了实现这一目标的工作密切关注安理会的教条式的定义。It is divided in four parts:它分为四个部分:

I. The Apostles' Creed;一,使徒信经;

II.二。The Sacraments;圣礼;

III.三。The Decalogue;十诫;

IV.四。Prayer, especially The Lord's Prayer.祈祷,特别是主祷文。

It deals with the papal primacy and with Limbo, points which were not discussed or defined at Trent; on the other hand, it is silent on the doctrine of Indulgences, which is set forth in the "Decretum de indulgentiis", Sess.它涉及的教皇的首要地位和明朗,遄达点,并没有讨论或定义,另一方面,它是沉默的塞斯主义的纵容,这是德中提出以“decretum indulgentiis”。XXV. The bishops urged in every way the use of the new Catechism; they enjoined its frequent reading, so that all its contents would be committed to memory; they exhorted the priests to discuss parts of it at their meetings, and insisted upon its being used for instructing the people.二十五。主教们呼吁每一个问答的方式使用新的,他们责成其经常阅读,所以其所有内容将被提交到内存,他们告诫祭司在他们的会议,讨论该地区,并坚持其正用于指导人民。

To some editions of the Roman Catechism is prefixed a "Praxis Catechismi", ie a division of its contents into sermons for every Sunday of the year adapted to the Gospel of the day.为罗马问答一些版本的前缀是一个“实践Catechismi”,即每年在一个星期天司对其的内容改编成布道福音的一天的。 There is no better sermonary.有没有更好的sermonary。The people like to hear the voice of the Church speaking with no uncertain sound; the many Biblical texts and illustrations go straight to their hearts, and, best of all, they remember these simple sermons better than they do the oratory of famous pulpit orators. The Catechism has not of course the authority of conciliary definitions or other primary symbols of faith; for, although decreed by the Council, it was only published a year after the Fathers had dispersed, and it consequently lacks a formal conciliary approbation.人们喜欢听教会声音说话的声音,没有不确定的;许多圣经的文本和插图直接进入他们的心中,所有最好的,他们记住这些简单的说教比他们做演讲的著名演说家讲坛。在问答的过程中,没有信仰的权威定义主要标志的conciliary或其他,因为,尽管安理会颁布的,它只是发表了一份一年后,父亲已经分散,因此,它缺乏一个正式的conciliary认可。 During the heated controversies de auxiliis gratiae between the Thomists and Molinists, the Jesuits refused to accept the authority of the Catechism as decisive.在Thomists和热烈的争论Molinists德auxiliis gratiae之间,耶稣会拒绝接受决定性的权力作为问答。Yet it possesses high authority as an exposition of Catholic doctrine.然而,它具有很高权威的天主教教义作为博览会。It was composed by order of a council, issued and approved by the pope; its use has been prescribed by numerous synods throughout the whole Church; Leo XIII, in a letter to the French bishops (8 Sept., 1899), recommended the study of the Roman Catechism to all seminarians, and the reigning pontiff, Pius X, has signified his desire that preachers should expound it to the faithful.这是组成一个由国务院令,发布和教皇批准的,它的使用已主教会议规定的许多贯穿整个教会;利奥十三),在1899年9月的一封信,向法国主教(8,建议的研究罗马问答所有修,以及在位教宗碧岳十,已经标志着他的愿望,即传教士应阐述它的信徒。

The earliest editions of the Roman Catechism are: "Romae apud Paulum Manutium", 1566; "Venetiis, apud Dominicum de Farrisö, 1567; "Coloniae", 1567 (by Henricus Aquensis); "Parisuis, in aedibus.罗马问答最早的版本的是:“Romae apud Paulum Manutium”,1566,“Venetiis,apud Dominicum德Farrisö,1567年,”Coloniae“,1567年Aquensis(由Henricus),”Parisuis,在aedibus。 Jac.江淮。Kerver", 1568; "Venetiis, apud Aldum", 1575; Ingolstadt, 1577 (Sartorius). In 1596 appeared at Antwerp "Cat.克弗“,1568年,”Venetiis,apud Aldum“,1575;因戈尔施塔特,1577(缝纫机)。猫在1596年出现在安特卫普”。Romanus . .罗曼努斯。。.quaestionibus distinctus, brevibusque exhortatiunculis studio Andreae Fabricii, Leodiensis". (This editor, A. Le Fevre, died in 1581. He probably made this division of the Roman Catechism into questions and answers in 1570). George Eder, in 1569, arranged the Catechism for the use of schools. He distributed the main doctrines into sections and subsections, and added perspicuous tables of contents. This useful work bears the title: "Methodus Catechismi Catholici". The first known English translation is by Jeremy Donovan, a professor at Maynooth, published by Richard Coyne, Capel Street, Dublin, and by Keating & Brown, London, and printed for the translator by W. Folds & Son, Great Shand Street, 1829. An American edition appeared in the same year. Donovan's translation was reprinted at Rome by the Propaganda Press, in two volumes (1839); it is dedicated to Cardinal Fransoni, and signed: "Jeremias Donovan, sacerdos hibernus, cubicularius Gregorii XVI, PM" There is another English translation by RA Buckley (London, 1852), which is more elegant than Donovan's and claims to be more correct but is spoiled by the doctrinal notes of the Anglican translator. The first German translation, by Paul Hoffaeus, is dated Dillingen, 1568.quaestionibus distinctus,brevibusque exhortatiunculis工作室Andreae Fabricii,Leodiensis“。(此编辑器,甲莱费弗里,死于1581年。他可能成为1570年问题和答案在该师的问答罗马)埃得,在1569年。乔治,安排要理的学校使用。他散发节和分节的主要学说进入,并补充内容明晰表。这项有益的工作的标题是:“Methodus Catechismi Catholici”。已知第一次在英文译本是由Jeremy多诺万,教授梅努斯,伦敦出版的理查德科因,卡佩尔街,都柏林,与布朗和基廷,并印制及儿子的翻译由W.褶皱,大尚德街,1829年。一个美国版本出现在同一年。多诺万的译本重印在罗马的新闻宣传,在两卷(1839年),它是专门用于枢机弗兰索尼,并签署了:“赫雷米亚斯多诺万,sacerdos hibernus,cubicularius Gregorii十六,下午”还有一个,1852年英译本由RA巴克利(伦敦),这是更多的索赔比多诺万优雅的和更正确的,但翻译是被宠坏了圣公会的理论说明。第一德语翻译Hoffaeus,由保罗,日期迪林根,1568。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息写了J.威廉。Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.转录由尼科莱特奥姆斯比。天主教百科全书,体积十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

The Roman Rite罗马礼

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Ritus romanus).(Ritus罗曼努斯)。

The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions (blessings, all kinds of Sacramentals, etc.) as used in the city and Diocese of Rome.罗马是祭祀仪式的方式庆祝圣,管理圣礼,朗诵神圣的办公室,并履行其他职能的罗马教会(愿种,所有Sacramentals等教区)的使用和城市。

The Roman Rite is the most wide-spread in Christendom.罗马礼是最广泛的传播基督教。That it has advantages possessed by no other -- the most archaic antiquity, unequalled dignity, beauty, and the practical convenience of being comparatively short in its services -- will not be denied by any one who knows it and the other ancient liturgies.它已拥有了其他任何好处-最古老的文物,无与伦比的尊严,美和实用方便的服务在比较短的是-不否认任何一个谁知道它与其他古代礼仪。 But it was not the consideration of these advantages that led to its extensive use; it was the exalted position of the see that used it.但是,这不是考虑使用这些优势,导致其广泛的,它是用它崇高的位置看到。The Roman Rite was adopted throughout the West because the local bishops, sometimes kings or emperors, felt that they could not do better than use the rite of the chief bishop of all, at Rome.罗马礼通过在整个西方,因为当地的主教,有时国王或皇帝,认为他们不能这样做比使用所有仪式的主教的首席,在罗马。And this imitation of Roman liturgical practice brought about in the West the application of the principle (long admitted in the East) that rite should follow patriarchate.而这种做法仿罗马礼仪带来了西方东方申请承认在长期的原则()的礼仪应遵循东正教。

Apart from his universal primacy, the pope had always been unquestioned Patriarch of the West.除了他的普遍至上,教宗一直不容置疑西牧的。It was then the right and normal thing that the West should use his liturgy.它当时是正确的和正常的事,西方国家应该利用自己的礼仪。 The irregular and anomalous incident of liturgical history is not that the Roman Rite has been used, practically exclusively, in the West since about the tenth or eleventh century, but that before that there were other rites in the pope's patriarchate.礼仪的历史事件和异常不规则不是罗马成年礼已被使用过,几乎完全是因为在西方关于第十次或11世纪,但在此之前,有在其他仪式在东正教教宗。 Not the disappearance but the existence and long toleration of the Gallican and Spanish rites is the difficulty (see RITES).没有消失,但长期存在和西班牙仪式容忍的高卢,是难度(见礼)。

Like all others, the Roman Rite bears clear marks of its local origin.所有其他人一样,罗马成年礼承担其本地来源明确标志。Wherever it may be used, it is still Roman in the local sense, obviously composed for use in Rome.无论它可能被使用,它仍然是罗马在当地的感觉,显然构成对罗马的使用研究。Our Missal marks the Roman stations, contains the Roman saints in the Canon (See CANON OF THE MASS), honours with special solemnity the Roman martyrs and popes.我们米索尔标志着罗马站,包含质)罗马圣徒在佳能佳能(见,教皇荣誉特别严肃的罗马和烈士。Our feasts are constantly anniversaries of local Roman events, of the dedication of Roman churches (All Saints, St. Michael, S. Maria ad Nives, etc.). The Collect for Sts.我们的节日不断周年活动的当地罗马教会,罗马的奉献(所有圣徒,圣迈克尔,第玛丽亚广告尼韦斯等)。STS的收集的。Peter and Paul (29 June) supposes that it is said at Rome (the Church which "received the beginnings of her Faith" from these saints is that of Rome), and so on continually.彼得和保罗(6月29日)这是假设在罗马说,(教会的“圣人她收到这些信”从开始的认为是罗马)等不断。 This is quite right and fitting; it agrees with all liturgical history.这是非常正确和装修,它的历史同意所有礼仪。No rite has ever been composed consciously for general use.从来没有仪式自觉组成一般用途。In the East there are still stronger examples of the same thing. The Orthodox all over the world use a rite full of local allusions to the city of Constantinople.在东部仍有较强的例子同样的事情了。东正教世界各地的使用礼仪典故充满本地到君士坦丁堡的城市。

The Roman Rite evolved out of the (presumed) universal, but quite fluid, rite of the first three centuries during the (liturgically) almost unknown time from the fourth to the sixth.罗马仪式演变出来的,但相当液,仪式前三个世纪(推定)普遍的,在(liturgically)几乎不知从第四次至第六。 In the sixth we have it fully developed in the Leonine, later in the Gelasian, Sacramentaries.在第六,我们也充分发展了莱奥妮恩,Sacramentaries后来在Gelasian。How and exactly when the specifically Roman qualities were formed during that time will, no doubt, always be a matter of conjecture (see LITURGY; LITURGY OF THE MASS).如何以及什么时候素质的具体罗马时期形成的时间会,毫无疑问,始终是一个问题的猜想(见礼仪中,量礼仪中)条。At first its use was very restrained.起初它的使用是很克制。It was followed only in the Roman province.其次是只在罗马省。North Italy was Gallican, the South, Byzantine, but Africa was always closely akin to Rome liturgically.北意大利的高卢,南,拜占庭,但非洲一直紧密合作,类似罗马liturgically。

From the eighth century gradually the Roman usage began its career of conquest in the West.从8世纪开始逐步使用罗马征服西方在其职业生涯。By the twelfth century at latest it was used wherever Latin obtained, having displaced all others except at Milan and in retreating parts of Spain.在最新的12世纪,它是用于哪里获得拉丁后,所有的人流离失所,除了在米兰和西班牙的地区撤退。That has been its position ever since.这一直以来的立场。As the rite of the Latin Church it is used exclusively in the Latin Patriarchate, with three small exceptions at Milan, Toledo, and in the still Byzantine churches of Southern Italy, Sicily, and Corsica.由于托莱多仪式的拉丁教会,它是专门用于在拉丁美洲,东正教,在米兰有三个小例外,在西西里岛,科西嘉岛和拜占庭式的教堂仍然南意大利。

During the Middle Ages it developed into a vast number of derived rites, differing from the pure form only in unimportant details and in exuberant additions.在中世纪,它已发展成为一个派生广大仪式,增添不同于纯粹的形式在不重要的细节,只在旺盛。Most of these were abolished by the decree of Pius V in 1570 (see LITURGY OF THE MASS).这些大部分已废除了1570年法令的庇护五世的(见大规模礼仪中)条。Meanwhile, the Roman Rite had itself been affected by, and had received additions from, the Gallican and Spanish uses it displaced.与此同时,罗马仪式本身也受到影响,并收到来自高卢增加,西班牙和使用它的流离失所。The Roman Rite is now used by every one who is subject to the pope's patriarchal jurisdiction (with the three exceptions noted above); that is, it is used in Western Europe, including Poland, in all countries colonized from Western Europe: America, Australia, etc., by Western (Latin) missionaries all over the world, including the Eastern lands where other Catholic rites also obtain. No one may change his rite without a legal authorization, which is not easily obtained.罗马成年礼是现在使用的每一个谁是受教宗的父权制管辖的例外情况(与3如上所述),也就是说,它是用来在西欧,包括波兰,澳大利亚,美国,在所有国家:殖民来自西欧等等,西方(拉丁)传教士在世界各地,包括东区的土地在其他地区的天主教仪式也获得。任何人不得轻易改变获得了一个未经合法授权仪式,这不是。 So the Western priest in Syria, Egypt, and so on uses his own Roman Rite, just as at home.因此,埃及,西方教士在叙利亚,等他以自己的罗马成年礼,就像在家里。On the same principle Catholics of Eastern rites in Western Europe, America, etc., keep their rites; so that rites now cross each other wherever such people live together.基于同样的原则等天主教徒美国,东欧仪式在西欧,保持礼仪,使礼仪相互交叉的地方现在这样的人生活在一起。The language of the Roman Rite is Latin everywhere except that in some churches along the Western Adriatic coast it is said in Slavonic and on rare occasions in Greek at Rome (see RITES).礼的语言是礼仪的罗马,希腊拉丁无处不在,除了在一些西方教会沿亚得里亚海海岸,是在说的,在斯拉夫罕有罗马(见)。 In derived forms the Roman Rite is used in some few dioceses (Lyons) and by several religious orders (Benedictines, Carthusians, Carmelites, Dominicans).在多米尼加)派生形式的罗马教区礼仪使用(在某些少数里昂)和加尔默罗会,由几个宗教命令(笃,Carthusians。 In these their fundamentally Roman character is expressed by a compound name.在这些他们根本罗马字符的名字所表达的化合物。 They are the "Ritus Romano-Lugdunensis", "Romano-monasticus", and so on.他们是“Ritus罗马Lugdunensis”,“罗马monasticus”,等等。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息福特斯丘写阿德里安。Transcribed by Catharine Lamb.转录由凯瑟琳羔羊。Dedicated to the memory of my mother, Ruth F. Hansen The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.致力于第十三记忆我的母亲,露丝楼汉森的天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


For further details and bibliography see BREVIARY; CANON OF THE MASS; LITURGY; MASS, LITURGY OF THE; RITES.如需进一步详情及参考书目见祈祷书;佳能的质量;礼仪中,质量,礼仪礼仪中作者;。

Roman Catholic Church罗马天主教会

Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

The term Catholic Church refers to those Churches (including the Eastern Catholic Churches and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.这个词是指那些天主教教会(包括东区天主教教会和其他非拉丁礼仪教会共融)与罗马主教,教宗。 It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 AD In 1054 a schism between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches.它产生于欧洲西部,欧洲东部地区,以及(部分中东地区,特别是在黎巴嫩的现代父权)后,其他的大分裂公元1054年和1054年罗马看到一个分裂之间日益扩大的差异造成的东方和西方教会。 The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term filioque , a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the Creed for use in its own particular liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops.在分裂事业的最初是一个主教争教会的权威和东欧的神学周围的健全任期filioque的,一个字是由使用插在了西方教会的信条自己特殊的礼仪没有同意。 Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.然而,分裂的影响并没有立即感受到无处不在,它是普遍的现象只是随着时间的推移,该教会和天主教目前缺乏完整的共融之间的东正教教堂成了。

Today, the main differences between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of filioque in the Creed and the scope of papal authority.今天,罗马天主教教会的主要分歧东正教教会和继续在信仰列入filioque和教皇的权力范围。 However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care.但是,大多数东正教还认为,有一个明显的区别关爱的精神和态度,其中差异表达的是这样做的方式以及具体的神学。Additionally, the Catholic Church has made pronouncements of dogma since the Great Schism (such as Purgatory, the Immaculate Conception, and papal infallibility), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false by some in the Eastern Orthodox Churches.此外,天主教教会的声明作出了炼狱的教条,如大分裂以来(圣母无原罪,和教皇犯错误),以及其他事项学说罪(如原件),哪些是假视为由一些在东部东正教教堂。 These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.这些言论,及其背后的神学理解,现在又统一的障碍,天主教和东正教。

See also参见


Also, see:此外,见:
Sacraments 圣礼
Popes 教皇
Papacy 教皇

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