Abbasids阿巴斯王朝 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The Abbasids were the dynasty of caliphs who ruled the Islamic Empire from 750 until the Mongol conquest of the Middle East in 1258.在阿巴斯王朝哈里发王朝的统治,直至中东的蒙古征服伊斯兰帝国从1258年的750。The dynasty takes its name from its ancestor al-Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.其祖先,先知穆罕默德的叔叔,阿巴斯王朝从它的名字。In 750 the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads and transferred the capital of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdâd, thereby shifting the empire's center from Syria to Iraq.在750年的阿巴斯王朝打败了倭马亚王朝和转移资本从大马士革到巴格达的哈里发帝国的中心,从而将来自叙利亚向伊拉克。

The regime reasserted the theocratic concept of the caliphate and continuity with orthodox Islam as the basis of unity and authority in the empire.该制度在帝国的权威和团结的基础上与正统伊斯兰教哈里发和连续性,重申了政教合一的概念。The Abbasid "revolution" also made Islam and the fruits of power accessible to non-Arabs.阿巴斯王朝的“革命”也取得了伊斯兰教和非阿拉伯人的权力访问的成果。A strong Persian influence persisted in the government and culture of the Abbasid period, and Hellenistic ideas led to the rapid growth of intellectual life.一个强大的波斯影响,坚持在政府和阿巴斯王朝时期的文化,希腊文化的思想导致的智力生活的快速增长。

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The Abbasid period may be divided into two parts.阿巴斯王朝时期,可分为两部分。In the period from 750 to 945 the authority of the caliphs gradually declined, while the Turkish military leaders gained increasing influence.从750到945期间在哈里发的权威逐渐下降,而土耳其军方领导人获得了越来越大的影响。The dynasty's power peaked in the reign (786-809) of Harun Al-Rashid.在哈伦拉希德王朝(786-809)王朝的权力达到顶峰。In the later period, from 945 to 1258, the caliphs generally held no more than nominal suzerainty; real power, even in Baghdâd, passed to dynasties of secular sovereigns.在后期,从945到1258,哈里发一般不超过名义宗主国举行;实权,甚至在巴格达,通过世俗君主的朝代。

Michael W. Dols迈克尔W。DOLS

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Ahsan, MM, Social Life under the Abbasids (1979); Goldschmidt, A., Jr., A Concise History of the Middle East, 3d rev.阿赫桑,在阿巴斯王朝的社会生活(1979)MM,施密特,A.,小,一个中东,3D版本的简史。ed.编辑。(1988); Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs, 10th ed.(1988年);希提,菲利普K,阿拉伯人的历史,第10版。(1970); Lassner, J., The Shaping of Abbasid Rule (1980); Mansfield, Peter, The Arab World: A Comprehensive History (1976); Shaban, MA, The Abbasid Revolution (1970; repr. 1979).(1970年); Lassner,J.,塑造的阿拔斯王朝的规则(1980年);文辉,阿拉伯世界的彼得:一个综合的历史(1976年),沙班,马,阿拔斯王朝的革命(1970年,再版1979年)。


General Information一般资料

The Abbasids was a dynasty of caliphs who ruled the caliphate of Islam from 750 until 1258.阿巴斯王朝是一个王朝的哈里发伊斯兰哈里发的统治从750直到1258。All of these caliphs were descended from Abbas, a member of the tribe of Quraysh of Mecca who was an uncle of the prophet Muhammad.所有这些哈里发阿巴斯的古莱什族的麦加是先知穆罕默德的叔叔部落成员的后代。The Abbasids seized the caliphate following the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs, and held it until the Mongols sacked Baghdâd and killed the last caliph of the line.缴获的阿巴斯王朝哈里发的倭马亚王朝的哈里发被推翻后,举行了它,直到蒙古人落马巴格达,并杀害了该行的最后哈里发。For most of this time their court was in Baghdâd, a town founded at the command of the second Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur (754-775) in 762.对于大多数这个时候,他们的法院是在巴格达,在第二阿拔斯王朝的哈里发,AL -曼苏尔(754-775)762命令成立一个小镇。

For the first century or so of their caliphate, the Abbasids acted as the leaders of Islam both religiously and politically, despite the fact that during this period their authority was rejected by some.对于他们的哈里发的第一个世纪左右,作为伊斯兰教的两个宗教和政治领导人的阿巴斯王朝,尽管在此期间,他们的权力是由一些拒绝的事实。 The peak of their power probably occurred in the reign of Harun ar-Rashid, who relied heavily on the Barmakid family of administrators.他们的权力高峰期可能发生在哈伦拉希德,很大程度上依赖于管理员的Barmakid家庭王朝。Following Harun's death there was a period of civil war between his two sons, al-Amin and al-Mamun.哈伦的死亡有一段时间他的两个儿子,阿明和AL -马蒙之间的内战。Al-Mamun finally triumphed but the prestige of the family was damaged.马蒙终于取得了胜利,但家庭的威信受损。

By the end of the 9th century the Abbasids were unable to exercise real religious or political authority.到9世纪的阿巴斯王朝无法行使真正的宗教或政治权威。Their religious authority had been taken over by the religious scholars of Sunni Islam following the failure of the caliphs' attempt to impose their will over them in the trial of strength known as the Mihna (833-847).他们的宗教权威的逊尼派伊斯兰宗教学者已采取以下的哈里发“企图强加自己的意志,对他们在被称为Mihna(833-847)的强度试验的失败。 As a result of this episode the caliphs were restricted to a largely symbolic role as merely nominal leaders of Sunni Islam.作为这个情节而受到限制的哈里发作为有名无实伊斯兰教逊尼派领导人很大程度上只是象征性的作用。Followers of Shiism rejected the Abbasids completely.的什叶派追随者拒绝了阿巴斯王朝完全。

Politically the caliphs had become puppets in the hands of their Turkish soldiers, who were able to remove and install caliphs as they wished.政治上,哈里发已成为他们的土耳其士兵,谁能够拆卸和安装,因为他们希望的哈里发手中的傀儡。In 908 one caliph held office for one day only.之一哈里发在908只举行一天的办公室。The process culminated with the institution in 935 of the title Amir al-Umara (Commander of the Commanders), which was taken by the real political power, the chief of the Turkish soldiers.这个过程与标题阿米尔AL - Umara(指挥官指挥官),这是真正的政治权力,行政土耳其士兵935的机构达到了高潮。

At the same time, territories that the Abbasids controlled fell apart as independent states arose in regions previously under Abbasid rule.与此同时,控制的领土,阿巴斯王朝土崩瓦解,作为独立的国家产生以前阿巴斯王朝的统治下的地区。Some of the rulers of these states recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasids, but this was merely a token.这些国家的统治者承认的阿巴斯王朝的宗主国,但是这仅仅是一个令牌。In 945 the Shiite Buwayhid family conquered Baghdâd itself, and for the next century the Abbasid caliphate survived mainly because the Buwayhids found it useful in various ways.在945征服巴格达什叶派Buwayhid家庭,并为下个世纪的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发幸存下来,主要是因为Buwayhids发现它以各种方式。

Although the 9th and 10th centuries saw a decline in the power of the caliphs, the period was one of great religious and cultural importance.虽然在第9和第10世纪出现在哈里发的权力下降,期间是一个伟大的宗教和文化的重要性。The trial of strength between the caliphs and the Sunni religious scholars sealed the rise of the Sunni form of Islam.哈里发和逊尼派宗教学者之间的实力较量密封伊斯兰逊尼派形式的兴起。It prepared the way for the appearance of the great books of Sunni law and the collections of hadiths (reports about Muhammad).它编写的方式,为逊尼派的法律和圣训(关于穆罕默德的报告)的集合伟大的书籍的外观。Only slightly later, the Shiite form of Islam achieved its definitive form when the line of the 12 Imams came to an end in 873, an event followed by the appearance of books of Shiite law and distinctive collections of hadiths.只有略晚,伊斯兰教什叶派的形式实现其最终形成12伊玛目在873结束时,一个事件其次是什叶派法律和鲜明的圣训集合的书籍的外观。

Philosophy, medicine, mathematics, and other sciences flourished as the Islamic world appropriated and developed the knowledge and wisdom of earlier and surrounding cultures.哲学,医学,数学和其他科学作为伊斯兰世界的拨款和发展的早期和周边文化的知识和智慧的蓬勃发展。Particularly important was the science and philosophy of the Hellenistic Near East, and the 9th and 10th centuries saw the translation into Arabic of several works by (or attributed to) figures like Aristotle, Plato, Euclid, Galen, and others.尤其重要的是科学和近东的古希腊哲学,并在第9和第10世纪出现像柏拉图,亚里士多德,欧几里德,盖伦,以及其他国家(或归咎于)数字翻译成阿拉伯语的几部作品。 The work of translation was encouraged by the Abbasid al-Mamun who founded the so-called House of Wisdom (Dar al-Hikma) in Baghdâd as a center for it.翻译工作是鼓励的,阿巴斯王朝AL -马蒙在巴格达创办的智慧,使所谓的别墅(DAR AL - Hikma)作为它的中心。Arabic-speaking Christians were especially active in the production of translations.讲阿拉伯语的基督徒,特别是活跃在生产的翻译。The system of so-called Arabic numerals originated in India, but was adopted at this time by Islamic civilization, then later transmitted to the West.所谓的阿拉伯数字制度起源于印度,但在这个时候通过了伊斯兰文明,后来传播到西方。

The political fragmentation of the caliphate led to the emergence of many local courts and centers of power, which also encouraged the development of science and philosophy as well as poetry and prose, art, and architecture.政教合一的政治分裂,导致许多地方的法院和权力中心,这也鼓励科学和哲学的发展,以及诗歌,散文,艺术,和建筑的出现。 Some of the local courts that emerged in the eastern regions of the caliphate are especially associated with the rise of an Islamic Persian literature and Iranian national sentiment.哈里发东部地区出现的一些当地法院,尤其是与伊斯兰的波斯文学的崛起和伊朗的民族情绪。

In 1055 the Seljuk Turks, who were Sunnis, captured Baghdâd, but this made no significant difference to the position of the caliphs.在1055塞尔柱土耳其人,谁是逊尼派,攻占巴格达,但这并没有显着性差异哈里发的位置。Although once again honored as symbols of the unity of Sunni Islam, their freedom of action was severely limited.虽然作为逊尼派伊斯兰的团结,他们的行动自由的象征荣幸再次受到严重限制。Only in times of Seljuk weakness were individual caliphs occasionally able to exercise some power and influence.只有在塞尔柱弱点时期的哈里发偶尔能够行使一定的权力和影响力。By the time the Mongol Empire ended the line of caliphs in 1258, Sunni Islam no longer needed even the symbolic role of the caliphate.蒙古帝国的哈里发线1258年结束的时候,伊斯兰教逊尼派不再需要哈里发甚至是象征性的角色。It is true that the Mameluke sultans of Egypt established a puppet caliphate in Cairo, installing various members of the Abbasid family who had escaped the fall of Baghdâd. Mameluke苏丹埃及在开罗设立了一个傀儡哈里发,安装逃脱了在巴格达陷落的阿拔斯家族的各成员,这是事实。Since the end of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdâd, however, no claimant to the office has achieved anything like general recognition among the Muslims.然而,在巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发年底以来,索赔人没有办公室已经取得了类似穆斯林之间的普遍认同。

After their first century or so the Abbasids cannot be said to have had much control over events.经过他们的第一个世纪左右的阿巴斯王朝不能​​说具备了对事件的控制。They nevertheless provided a focus of loyalty for Sunni Islam during an often turbulent period, and their caliphate may be seen in retrospect as the golden age of Islamic civilization.不过,他们提供的逊尼派伊斯兰的忠诚的焦点在一个经常动荡的时期,和他们的哈里发可能在事后视为伊斯兰文明的黄金时代。


General Information一般资料

The Abbasids was the name of a dynasty of Muslim caliphs.阿巴斯王朝是穆斯林哈里发王朝的名称。The Umayyads were overthrown by a combination of Shiite, Arab and non-Arab Muslims dissatisfied with the Umayyad regime.倭马亚王朝被推翻了倭马亚政权不满的什叶派穆斯林,阿拉伯和非阿拉伯穆斯林的组合。The rebels were led by the Abbasid family, descendants of the Prophet's uncle Abbas.叛乱分子为首的阿拔斯王朝的家族,先知的叔叔阿巴斯的后裔。From about 718 the Abbasids had plotted to take the caliphate, sending agents into various parts of the Muslim empire to spread propaganda against the Umayyads.从约718阴谋的阿巴斯王朝哈里发,发送到穆斯林帝国的各个部分的蔓延对倭马亚王朝的宣传。By 747 they had secured enough support to organize a rebellion in northern Iran that led to the defeat of the Umayyad caliphate three years later.到了747,他们已获得足够的支持组织在伊朗北部的叛乱,导致失败,三年后倭马亚哈里发。The Abbasids executed most of the Umayyad family, moved the capital of the empire to Baghdad, and assimilated much of the pomp and ceremony of the former Persian monarchy into their own courts.倭马亚家族的执行大部分的阿巴斯王朝,移动帝国的首都巴格达,和同化到自己的法庭前波斯君主的排场和仪式。

Beginning in 750 with Abu al-Abbas, the Abbasid caliphate lasted five centuries; it is the most durable and most famous Islamic dynasty.阿布阿巴斯,阿巴斯王朝的哈里发在750年开始历时五百年,它是最持久,最有名的的伊斯兰王朝。The Abbasids became patrons of learning and encouraged religious observance.阿巴斯王朝成为学习的食客,并鼓励宗教仪式。They were the first Muslim rulers to become leaders of an Islamic civilization and protectors of the religion rather than merely an Arab aristocracy imposing an Arab civilization on conquered lands.他们的第一个穆斯林统治者成为一个伊斯兰文明和宗教的保护,而不是仅仅是一个阿拉伯贵族的气势征服的土地上的阿拉伯文明的领导人。 Under their caliphate Baghdad replaced Medina as the center of theological activity, industry and commerce developed greatly, and the Islamic empire reached a peak of material and intellectual achievement.根据他们的哈里发,巴格达取代神学活动中心的麦地那,工商很大的发展,伊斯兰帝国的物质和智力成果达到了高峰。

The 8th- and 9th-century caliphs Harun ar-Rashid and his son Abdullah al-Mamun are especially renowned for their encouragement of intellectual pursuits and for the splendor of their courts.第八和第九世纪哈里发哈伦拉希德和他的儿子阿卜杜拉马蒙特别是鼓励他们对知识产权的追求和对本国法院的辉煌而闻名。 During their reigns scholars were invited to the court to debate various topics, and translations were made from Greek, Persian, and Syriac works.学者在其统治期间被邀请向法庭辩论各种议题,并翻译从希腊,波斯和叙利亚工程。Embassies also were exchanged with Charlemagne, emperor of the West.使馆还交换了与西方的皇帝查理曼,。

In the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphs increasingly began to delegate administrative responsibility to ministers of state and other government officials and to lose control over their Baghdad guards.阿拔斯王朝的哈里发在公元9世纪后期,越来越多地开始以委托行政责任的国家的部长和其他政府官员和失去控制的美军看守。 As they gradually gave up personal political power, the caliphs placed more and more emphasis on their role as protectors of the faith.随着他们逐渐放弃了个人的政治权力,哈里发放在他们信仰的保护者的作用越来越重视。 One result of this change in emphasis was the increased persecution of heretics and non-Muslims.这一重点的改变的结果之一是增加异教徒和非穆斯林的迫害。About the same time, several successful revolts in the eastern provinces led to the establishment of independent principalities, and independent caliphates were subsequently established in North Africa and in Spain.大约在同一时间,在东部省份的几个成功的起义,建立独立的公国,并随后在北非和西班牙建立独立的哈里发。Eventually, the power of the Abbasids barely extended outside Baghdad, and by the middle of the 10th century, the Abbasid caliphs had virtually no power, serving merely as figureheads at the mercy of the military commanders.最后,勉强巴格达以外延长阿巴斯王朝的力量,10世纪中叶,阿拔斯王朝的哈里发几乎没有任何权力,作为军事指挥官的摆布的傀儡,只是在。 The final defeat of the Abbasid dynasty came from outside the Muslim world, when al-Mustasim was put to death by the invading Mongols at the order of Hulagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan.阿拔斯王朝的最后失败来自穆斯林世界之外,当AL - Mustasim死亡入侵的蒙古人,成吉思汗的孙子Hulagu秩序。

The Abbasid Dynasty阿巴斯王朝

General Information一般资料

Islamic culture started to evolve under the Umayyads, but it grew to maturity in the first century of the Abbasid dynasty.伊斯兰文化开始演变下的倭马亚王朝,但增长至到期日在阿拔斯王朝的第一个世纪。The Abbasids came to power in AD 750 when armies originating from Khorâsân, in eastern Iran, finally defeated the Umayyad armies.阿巴斯王朝在公元750电源从呼罗珊的军队时,在伊朗东部,终于打败了倭马亚军队。The Islamic capital shifted to Iraq under the Abbasids.伊斯兰资本转移到伊拉克的阿巴斯王朝。After trying several other cities, the Abbasid rulers chose a site on the Tigris River on which the City of Peace, Baghdâd, was built in 762.阿拔斯王朝的统治者尝试其他几个城市后,选择了一个网站,在底格里斯河上的和平,巴格达市建于762。Baghdâd remained the political and cultural capital of the Islamic world from that time until the Mongol invasion in 1258, and for a good part of this time it was the center of one of the great flowerings of human knowledge.从那个时候,巴格达仍然是伊斯兰世界的政治和文化资本,直到蒙古人入侵,1258年,一个好这个时间,它是人类知识的巨大flowerings之一的中心。 The Abbasids were Arabs descended from the Prophet's uncle, but the movement they led involved Arabs and non-Arabs, including many Persians, who had converted to Islam and who demanded the equality to which they were entitled in Islam.阿巴斯王朝是阿拉伯人的后裔,从先知的叔叔,但他们的运动领导的阿拉伯人和非阿拉伯人,其中包括许多波斯人,曾皈依伊斯兰教,并要求他们有权在伊斯兰教平等。

The Abbasids distributed power more evenly among the different ethnicities and regions than the Umayyads had, and they demonstrated the universal inclusiveness of Islamic civilization. They achieved this by incorporating the fruits of other civilizations into Islamic political and intellectual culture and by marking these external influences with a distinctly Islamic imprint. 分布式电源的阿巴斯王朝更均匀比倭马亚王朝曾在不同种族和地区,并展示了伊斯兰文明的普遍的包容性。纳入伊斯兰的政治和智力文化的其他文明的成果,并与这些外部影响的标记,他们取得了一个明显的伊斯兰的烙印。

As time passed, the central control of the Abbasids was reduced and independent local leaders and groups took over in the remote provinces.随着时间的推移,减少的阿巴斯王朝的中央控制和独立的地方领袖和团体参加了在边远省份。Eventually the rival Shia Fatimid caliphate was established in Egypt, and the Baghdâd caliphate came under the control of expanding provincial dynasties.最终对手什叶派的法蒂玛王朝哈里发在埃及成立,扩大省级朝代的控制下的巴格达哈里发。The office of the caliph was nonetheless maintained as a symbol of the unity of Islam, and several later Abbasid caliphs tried to revive the power of the office.哈里发办公室仍然保持作为一个伊斯兰团结的象征,和几个后来的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发试图振兴办公室的力量。

In 1258, however, a grandson of Mongol ruler Genghis Khan named Hulagu, encouraged by the kings of Europe, led his armies across the Zagros Mountains of Iran and destroyed Baghdâd.然而,1258年,整个伊朗的扎格罗斯山脉的蒙古统治者成吉思汗命名Hulagu由欧洲国王的鼓励下,的孙子带领他的军队,并摧毁了巴格达。 According to some estimates, about 1 million Muslims were murdered in this massacre.据估计,大约有100万穆斯林在这场屠杀中被杀害。In 1259 and 1260 Hulagu's forces marched into Syria, but they were finally defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, who had taken over the Nile Valley. Hulagu在1259和1260的力量进军叙利亚,但他们最终击败了由埃及马穆鲁克王朝,曾在尼罗河谷。For the next two centuries, centers of Islamic power shifted to Egypt and Syria and to a number of local dynasties.在接下来的两个世纪,伊斯兰权力中心转移到埃及,叙利亚和本地朝代。Iraq became an impoverished, depopulated province where the people took up a transitory nomadic lifestyle.伊拉克成为一个穷困潦倒,无人区省,那里的人们拿起一个过渡游牧的生活方式。Iraq did not finally experience a major cultural and political revival until the 20th century.伊拉克没有最后的经验,直到20世纪的一个重大的文化和政治的复兴。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈迈德S. Dallal


General Information一般资料

Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire.阿拔斯王朝的名称,一般给巴格达的哈里发,第二两个朝代的穆斯林帝国的伟大。The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (AD 566-652), the eldest uncle of Muhammad, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads, the descendants of Umar.阿拔斯王朝的哈里发正式基于其索赔的宝座上,他们从阿巴斯(公元566-652年),穆罕默德的大伯父的后裔,凭借这后裔,他们被视为先知的合法继承人,而不是到倭马亚王朝,自己后人欧麦尔。

Throughout the second period of the Umayyads, representatives of this family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, their moral character and their administration in general, and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the empire.整个倭马亚王朝的第二个时期,这个家庭的代表,在他们最危险的对手,部分技能与它们破坏了卫冕王子对他们的正统的指控,他们的品德和他们在总局的声誉,以及部分狡猾操纵帝国的阿拉伯和非阿拉伯科目之间的自相残杀的嫉妒。

In the reign of Marwan II this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (AD 747) and died in prison (as some hold, assassinated).在的马尔万二世最终易卜拉欣的伊玛目,血统,从第四阿巴斯,呼罗珊省的支持,取得了很大成功的叛乱反对,统治时期(公元747年)被抓获,并死在狱中(如有人认为,暗杀)。 The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab river (750) finally crushed the Umayyads and was proclaimed caliph.由他的兄弟阿卜杜拉阿布'Abbas作为Saffah,大扎卜河(750)上的决定性胜利后终于粉碎了倭马亚王朝宣告成立哈里发的名义,被带到了争吵。

The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, in place of what their opponents identified as old-fashioned austerity of thought and manners.新王朝的历史是永久的冲突和豪华和文科的发展,他们的对手确定为老式的思想和礼仪的紧缩的地方,标记。Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred the seat of government to the new city of Baghdad, fought successfully against the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786--809) and al-Ma'mun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary splendour.曼苏尔,移交政府所在地巴格达的新的城市的房子,第二,对小亚细亚的人民争取成功,并哈伦拉希德(786 - 809)的统治和al - Ma'mun (813-833)时期异彩。

Independent monarchs established themselves in Africa and Khorasan (an Umayyad prince had set up independent rule in Spain), and in the north-west the Byzantines successfully encroached.在非洲和呼罗珊建立独立的君主(一个倭马亚王子在西班牙设立了独立的规则),并成功地在西北拜占庭侵占。

The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by al-Mu'tasim (833-842).王朝的废墟了,但是,作为AL - Mu'tasim(833-842)的皇家保镖组成的土耳其奴隶。Their power steadily grew until al-Radi (934-941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed b.他们的力量稳步增长,直到AL -拉迪(934-941)的限制交出皇家职能Mahommed B.Raik.Raik。Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who became figureheads, and finally Hulagu Khan, the Mongol general, sacked Baghdad (February 28, 1258) with great loss of life.后省省放弃的哈里发,成为有名无实的权威,终于Hulagu汗,蒙古一般情况下,解雇巴格达(1258)2月28日,与人生的一大损失。

The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III, who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.的阿巴斯王朝的Mamelukes下仍然保持微弱的权威展会,只限于宗教事务,在埃及,但王朝终于消失Motawakkil三,被抬走囚犯萨利姆一到君士坦丁堡

(from 1911 encyclopedia)(从1911年的百科全书)

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad在巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发

(descendants of the Prophet's uncle Abbas)(先知的叔叔阿巴斯的后裔)

Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo阿拔斯王朝的哈里发在开罗举行

The Abbasids had the Mihna in effect during their reign (beginning in 827 AD).阿巴斯王朝已经生效Mihna在他们的统治(在827 AD开始)。This was a movement of extreme intolerance, and it is sometimes referred to as the Muslim Inquisition.这是一个极端的不容忍现象的运动,它有时也被称为穆斯林的宗教裁判所。

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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