Friars天主教方济会 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

Friar (Latin frater,"brother") is a term applied to members of certain religious orders who practice the principles of monastic life and devote themselves to the service of humanity in the secular world. Originally, their regulations forbade the holding either of community or personal property, and the resulting dependence of friars on voluntary contributions in order to live caused them to be known as mendicant orders. The founders of the orders used the term friar to designate members; Saint Francis of Assisi called his followers Friars Minor, and Saint Dominic used the name Friars Preachers. The larger orders were given popular names, derived usually from the color or other distinguishing marks of their habits, such as Black Friars (Dominicans), Gray Friars (Franciscans), and White Friars (Carmelites). Friars differed from monks in that the monk was attached to a specific community within which he led a cloistered life, having no direct contact with the secular world.弗莱尔(拉美frater,“兄弟”)是适用于某些宗教命令,谁搞的寺院生活的原则,致力于为人类服务在世俗的世界 。本来的一个术语,其法规禁止的社区控股或个人财产,并产生依赖自愿捐款修士为了生活造成他们成为乞丐订单 ,订单的创始人使用的术语指定成员的修道士圣方济各亚西西呼吁他的追随者方济会,和圣多米尼克所使用的名称天主教方济会传教士。更大的订单给予流行的名称,如黑方济各会士(道明会)灰色天主教方济会(方济)和白方济各会士(加尔默罗)通常从自己的生活习惯的颜色或其他识别标志的方济各会士。 不同于和尚,和尚是连接到一个特定的社区内,他领导的一个与世隔绝的生活,不与世俗世界的直接接触The friar, on the other hand, belonged to no particular monastic house but to a general order, and worked as an individual in the secular world. Thus, friar and monk are not synonymous terms, even though in popular usage monk is often used as a generic term for all members of religious orders. 弗莱尔另一方面,属于没有什么特别的寺院的房子,但一般为了,和作为个人在世俗世界工作,因此,修道士,和尚是不是同义词,即使在流行的用法和尚经常被用来作为一个宗教命令所有成员的总称。

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General Information一般资料

Mendicant Friars (Latin mendicare,"to beg") are members of religious orders in the Roman Catholic church, who take a vow of poverty by which they renounce all personal and communal property.天主教方济会托钵(拉美mendicare,“乞求”)是在罗马天主教会的宗教命令,一个贫困的誓言,他们放弃一切个人和公共财产的成员。 They live chiefly by charity.他们生活主要由慈善机构。After overcoming the initial opposition of the established clergy, the chief societies were authorized in the 13th century.克服初步建立神职人员反对后,授权行政社会在13世纪。They include:这些措施包括:

A fifth order, the Servites, founded in 1233, was acknowledged as a mendicant order in 1424.第五秩序,Servites,在1233年成立,是1424年作为一个乞丐为了承认。

Listing of Men's Orders男子订单的上市

General Information一般资料

We have tried to include locations and affiliations.我们曾尝试包括地点和背景。We hope to some day add a sentence or two describing the specific focus of each Order.我们希望有一天,加一两句​​话描述的每个订单的具体重点。Assistance on all this is appreciated!这一切的援助表示赞赏!

  • Other Orders (approximately alphabetically)其他命令(约按字母顺序排列)

    NOTE: We believe these above all to be Catholic.注:我们认为,上述这些天主教。Please inform us of others which we have not yet included, or of any errors in the listings.其他我们尚未包括在内,或在列表中的任何错误,请告知我们。

    There are also non-Catholic Orders:也有非天主教的订单:


    Catholic Information天主教信息

    [From Lat. [从纬度。frater, through O. Fr.frater,通过澳神父。fredre, frere, ME frere; It. fredre,弗里尔,ME弗里尔;。frate (as prefix fra); Sp. frate(前缀FRA); SP。fraile (as prefix fray); Port. fraile(前缀磨损);港口。fret; unlike the other Romance languages French has but the one word frère for friar and brother]. FRET;不像其他拉丁语系的语言法国人,但修道士和弟弟一个字弗里尔]。

    A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders.一个修道士是乞丐订单之一的成员。

    USE OF THE WORD这个词的使用

    In the early Church it was usual for all Christians to address each other as fratres or brothers, all being children of the one Heavenly Father, through Christ.在早期教会,这是通常为对方fratres或通过基督的兄弟,一个天父所有儿童,所有的基督徒,以解决。Later, with the rise and growth of the monastic orders, the appellation began gradually to have a more restricted meaning; for obviously the bonds of brotherhood were drawn more closely between those who lived under the rule and guidance of one spiritual father, their abbot.后来,随着僧团的兴起和增长,称谓开始逐渐有更多的限制的含义;明显的兄弟情谊之间那些住一个精神之父,其住持的规则和指导下,更加紧密。 The word occurs at an early date in English literature with the signification of brother, and from the end of the thirteenth century it is in frequent use referring to the members of the mendicant orders, egc 1297, "frere prechors" (R. Glouc. 10105); c.这个词出现在英语文学早日与哥哥的意义,从十三世纪的结束,它是指乞丐订单,EGC 1297,“弗里尔prechors”(河Glouc成员频繁使用。 10105); C.1325, "freres of the Carme and of Saint Austin" (Pol. Songs, 331), c. 1325号决议,“兄弟公司的李丽凤和圣奥斯汀”(Pol.首歌曲,331),C.1400, "frere meneours" (Maunder, xxxi, 139); c.1400年,“弗里尔meneours”(蒙德,第31,139); C.1400, "Sakked freres" (Rom. Rose).1400年,“Sakked兄弟公司”(罗玫瑰)。Shakespeare speaks of the "Friars of orders gray" (Tam. Shr., iv, i, 148).莎士比亚讲的“订单灰色男修道士”(Tam. SHR,IV,I,148)。The word was also loosely applied to members of monastic and military orders, and at times to the convent of a particular order, and hence to the part of a town in which such a convent had been located.这个词也是松散适用于寺院和军令的成员,和在一个特定的顺序修道院的时间,因此这样一个修道院已经位于镇的一部分。

    The word friar is to be carefully distinguished in its application from the word monk.字修士是在其从词和尚中的应用要慎重区分。For the monk retirement and solitude are undisturbed by the public ministry, unless under exceptional circumstances.由公安部不受干扰为僧退休和孤独,除非在特殊情况下。His vow of poverty binds him strictly as an individual but in no way affects the right of tenure of his order.他贫困的誓言,他严格作为一个单独的结合,但丝毫不影响他的命令任期的权利。In the life of the friar, on the contrary, the exercise of the sacred ministry is an essential feature, for which the life of the cloister is considered as but an immediate preparation.在修道士的生活,相反,行使神圣部的一个基本特征,修道院的生活,但被认为是立即准备。His vow of poverty, too, not only binds him as an individual to the exercise of that virtue, but, originally at least, precluded also the right of tenure in common with his brethren.太多,他发誓贫困,不仅结合行使凭借他作为一个单独的,但是,原本至少,也不能与他的弟兄们的共同使用权的权利。 Thus originally the various orders of friars could possess no fixed revenues and lived upon the voluntary offerings of the faithful.因此最初的各种命令的修士可以拥有无​​固定收入和居住后,信徒们的自愿性产品。Hence their name of mendicants.因此,他们的名字的乞丐。This second feature, by which the friar's life differs so essentially from that of the monk, has become considerably modified since the Council of Trent.这第二个功能,其中修道士的生活,所以基本上从和尚不同,已成为很大的修改,因为安理会的遄达。In Session XXV, ch.在会议二十五,CH。iii, "De Regular.", all the mendicant orders -- the Friars Minor and Capuchins alone excepted -- were granted the liberty of corporate possession.三,“德规律。”所有的乞丐订单 - 方济会和卷尾猴单独例外 - 被授予企业拥有的自由。The Discalced Carmelites and the Jesuits have availed themselves of this privilege with restrictions (cf. Wernz, Jus Decretal., III, pt. II, 262, note). Discalced加尔默罗和耶稣会士,利用自己的这种特权与限制(强制法令的。参见Wernz,三,二角,262,注意)。It may, however, be pertinently remarked here that the Jesuits, though mendicants in the strict sense of the word, as is evident from the very explicit declaration of St. Pius V (Const. "Cum indefessæ", 1571), are classed not as mendicants or friars, but as clerics regular, being founded with a view to devoting themselves, even more especially than the friars, to the exercise of the sacred ministry (Vermeersch, De Relig., I, xii, n. 8).然而,它在这里一针见血地指出,耶稣会士,虽然在严格意义上的乞丐,是显而易见的,从圣皮乌斯V(“组织法”“射精indefessæ”,1571)非常明确的声明,被归类不仅乞丐或修士,但作为神职人员定期,成立一个献身,更特别是比修士,行使神圣部(Vermeersch,德Relig。我十二,8)。

    ORDERS OF FRIARS天主教方济会的命令

    The orders of friars are usually divided into two classes: the four great orders mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (can. xxiii) and the lesser orders.天主教方济会的订单通常分为两大类:里昂第二届理事会(can. XXIII)和较小的订单中提到的四个伟大的订单。 The four great orders in their legal precedence are: (1) the Dominicans (St. Pius V, Const. "Divina", 1568); (2) the Franciscans; (3) the Carmelites, (4) the Augustinians.其法律优先的四个伟大的订单是:(1)(3)多米尼加(圣皮乌斯V,CONST“Divina”,1568);(2)方济会;加尔默罗,(4)奥古斯丁。

    The Dominicans, or Friars Preachers, formerly known as the Black Friars, from the black cappa or mantle worn over their white habit, were founded by St. Dominic in 1215 and solemnly approved by Honorius III, in Dec., 1216.多米尼加人,天主教方济会传教士,从黑色cappa或超过他们的白色习惯穿的衣钵,原名为黑方济各会士,圣星在1215年创立的,并郑重批准,1216年12月,挪三。 They became a mendicant order in 1221.他们成了乞丐为了在1221。

    The Franciscans, or Friars Minor (Grey Friars), were founded by St. Francis of Assisi, who is rightly regarded as the patriarch of the mendicant orders.济,或方济会(灰色天主教方济会),成立了由圣方济各,谁是正确的乞丐订单的族长的。His rule was orally approved by Innocent III in 1209 and solemnly confirmed by Honorius III in 1223 (Const. "Solet").口头批准了他的统治是诺森三世于1209和1223年(“组织法”,“Solet”)郑重挪第三证实。It is professed by the Friars Minor, the Conventuals, and the Capuchins.它是由方济会,Conventuals和卷尾猴自称。

    The Carmelites, or White Friars, from the white cloak which covers their brown habit, were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245.加尔默罗,白方济各会士,其中包括他们的棕色习惯的白色斗篷,成立了作为一个纯粹的沉思秩序,但在1245成为乞丐。They received the approbation of Honorius III (Const. "Ut vivendi", 30 Jan., 1226) and later of Innocent IV (Const. "Quæ honorem", 1247).他们收到的挪三(“组织法”“UT维旺迪”,1月30日1226)的认可和更高无辜IV(“组织法”“Quæ名誉”,1247)。 The order is divided into two sections, the Calced and Discalced Carmelites.该命令是分为两个部分,Calced Discalced加尔默罗。

    The Augustinians, or Hermits of St. Augustine (Austin Friars), trace their origin to the illustrious Bishop of Hippo.奥古斯丁,圣奥古斯丁(奥斯汀男修道士)的隐士,显赫的主教河马的起源可追溯。 The various branches which subsequently developed were united and constituted from various bodies of hermits a mendicant order by Alexander IV (Const. "Iis, quæ", 31 July, 1255, and Const. "Licet", 4 May, 1256).随后开发的各个分支,团结起来,构成一个乞丐为了亚历山大四隐士各机构(“组织法”“非法入境者,quæ”,7月31日,1255和const。“Licet”,5月4日,1256)。

    These four orders are called by canonists the quatuor ordines mendicantes de iure communi.这四个命令被称为圣教法典的quatuor ordines mendicantes iure通信。The Fourth Lateran Council ("De relic. dom.", III, tit. xxxvi, c. ix) had forbidden in 1215 the foundation of any new religious orders.第四次拉特兰会议(“德的遗物。DOM。”第三,针锋相对。XXXVI,C.九)在1215年就禁止任何新的宗教命令的基础。 In face of this prohibition a sufficient number of new congregations, especially of mendicants, had sprung up to attract the attention of the Second Council of Lyons.面对这一禁令的一个新的教会,尤其是乞丐,数量充足,已如雨后春笋般涌现,吸引里昂第二届理事会的注意。In canon xxiii, the council, while specially exempting the four mendicant orders above mentioned, condemns all other mendicant orders then existing to immediate or to gradual extinction.佳能XXIII,安理会,而特别豁免上述四个乞丐订单,谴责所有其他乞丐的订单,然后现有立即或逐渐灭绝。 All orders established since the Council of Lateran, and not approved by the Holy See, were to be dissolved at once.拉特兰会议以来成立的所有订单,而不是由罗马教廷批准,是一次解散。Those since established with such approval were forbidden to receive new members.因为这种批准成立的这些被禁止接收新成员。The illustrious order of Service, founded in 1233 and approved by Alexander IV in 1256 (Const. "Deo grata"), happily survived this condemnation.杰出的服务秩序,在1233年成立,由亚历山大在1256 IV(“组织法”,“迪奥不受欢迎”)批准,愉快地逃过此谴责。Concerning the four greater orders, the council concludes: "Be it understood, however, that we do not conceive of the extension of this constitution to the Orders of Friars Preachers and of Friars Minor, whose evident service to the universal Church is sufficient approval. As for the Hermits of St. Augustine and the Order of Carmelites, whose foundation preceded the said Council (Fourth Lateran), we wish them to remain as solidly established as heretofore" (Lib. III, tit. xvii, c. un., in VI).关于四个更大的订单,理事会的结论是:“理解,但是,我们不受孕延长这一宪法天主教方济会传教士方济会,其明显的服务普世教会是足够的批准订单。至于隐士,圣奥古斯丁和订购加尔默罗的,其基础之前说会(第四次拉特兰),我们希望他们继续为扎实迄今成立的“(Lib.三,针锋相对。第十七C.联合国。在VI)。 The importance of the orders thus singled out and exempted was afterwards still further emphasized by the insertion of this canon into the "Corpus Juri" in the "Liber Sixtus" of Boniface VIII.从而挑出及豁免的订单的重要性是事后还进一步强调本佳能插入到“树里语料库”中的“LIBER Sixtus”波尼法爵八。

    The so-styled lesser orders, of which the following are today the most flourishing, were founded and approved at various subsequent periods: the Minims (1474), the Third Order Regular of St. Francis (1521); the Capuchin -- as constituting a different branch of the Franciscan Order -- (1525); the Discalced Carmelites -- as constituting a distinct branch of the Carmelites -- (1568); the Discalced Trinitarians (1599); the Order of Penance, known in Italy as the Scalzetti (1781).风格较小的订单,其中以下是今天最繁华,成立了各种后续期间批准:Minims,三阶的圣弗朗西斯定期(1521)(1474年);嘉布遣 - 构成Discalced加尔默罗 - 构成一个鲜明的加尔默罗分支 - (1568); Discalced三位一体论(1599);忏悔订购的Scalzetti在意大利被称为,(1525) - 济秩序的不同分支(1781)。

    Publication information Written by Gregory Cleary.格雷戈里Cleary先生编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Albert Judy, OP.转录由阿尔伯特朱迪,OP。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.发布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


    REIFENSTUEL, SCHMALZGRUEBER, and other writers on titles xxxi and xxxvi of Bk. REIFENSTUEL,SCHMALZGRUEBER,和其他作家标题XXXI XXXVI的浅滩上。III of the Decretals of Gregory IX; FERRARIS, Bibliotheca: Relig.格雷戈里九Decretals第三,法拉利,书目:Relig。Regulares (Rome, 1885-96), I, 24; SUAREZ, De Virtute et Statu Religionis (Mainz, 1604), pt. Regulares(罗马,1885年至1896年),我24,苏亚雷斯,德Virtute等Statu Religionis(美因茨,1604),PT。II tract.第二道。ix; BARBOSA, Juri Eccl. IX;巴博萨,树里传道书。Universi (Lyons, 1699), I, c.Universi(里昂,1699年),I,C。xli, n.XLI,N.207; VERMEERSCH, De Relig.207; VERMEERSCH,德Relig。Inst.研究所et Personis (2nd ed. Bruges, 1907), I, 38; WERNZ, Jus Decretal.Personis等(第二版布鲁日,1907年),我38; WERNZ,强制法令的。 (Rome, 1908), III pt. (罗马,1908年),第三PT。II, 262; HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (2nd ed., Paderborn, 1907) 1, 39; alas popular works, with plates showing the different religious habits, such as MALLESON AND TUKER, Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome, III (London, 1900); STEELE, Monasteries and Religious Houses in Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1903).二,262; HEIMBUCHER,模具勋章和Kongregationen(第二版,帕德博恩,1907年)1,第39条;唉脍炙人口的作品,呈现出不同的宗教习惯,如MALLESON TUKER,手册,基督教和教会罗马,三板(伦敦,1900年);斯蒂尔,寺庙和宗教房子在大不列颠及爱尔兰(伦敦,1903年)。HÉLYOT, Hist.HÉLYOT,组织胺。 des ordres religieux (Paris, 1714-19); republished by MIGNE as Dict.DES ordres religieux(巴黎,1714年至1719年);转载米涅为快译通。de ordres religieux (Paris, 1847-69).DE ordres religieux(巴黎,1847年至1869年)。


    Catholic Information天主教信息

    A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs.一个和尚可以方便地定义为一个男性的社会成员,除了来自世界领先的生活更或多或少沉思,下誓言贫穷,贞洁,服从,根据一个特定顺序的规则特征,他属于。 The word monk is not itself a term commonly used in the official language of the Church.字和尚本身不是在教会的官方语言常用的一个名词。It is a popular rather than a scientific designation, but is at the same time very ancient, so much so that its origin cannot be precisely determined.它是一种流行,而不是一个科学的指定,而且是在同一时间非常古老,以至于不能准确地确定其起源。So far as regards the English form of the word, that undoubtedly comes from the Angle-Saxon munuc, which has in turn arisen from the Latin monachus, a mere transliteration of the Greek monachos.到目前为止,关于这个词的英文形式,无疑角度撒克逊munuc,这反过来又出现了从单纯的音译,希腊monachos拉丁美洲monachus。 This Greek form is commonly believed to be connected with monos, lonely or single, and is suggestive of a life of solitude; but we cannot lose sight of the fact that the word mone, from a different root, seems to have been freely used, eg by Palladius, as well as monasterion, in the sense of a religious house (see Butler, "Palladius's Lausiac History" passim).这希腊的形式通常认为MONOS,孤独或单一连接,暗示孤独的生活,但我们可以不失去看到,该字MONE,从不同的根,似乎到已被自由使用,帕拉丢,以及monasterion,如在一个宗教房子的意义(见巴特勒,“帕拉丢的Lausiac历史”各处)。 Be this as it may, the Fathers of the fourth century are by no means agreed as to the etymological significance of monachus.第四世纪的教父是这样,因为它可能,绝不同意monachus词源意义。St Jerome writes to Heliodorus (PL, XXII, 350), "Interpret the name monk, it is thine own; what business hast thou in a crowd, thou who art solitary?"圣杰罗姆写入Heliodorus(PL,22,350),“解释名和尚,这是你自己,什么生意祢在人群中,你的艺术孤?” St. Augustine on the other hand fastens on the idea of unity (monas) and in his exposition of Ps.圣奥古斯丁另一方面系(莫纳斯)团结的思想和他的诗的论述。cxxxii, extols the appropriateness of the words "Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum habitare fratres in unum" when chanted in a monastery, because those who are monks should have but one heart and one soul (PL, XXXVII, 1733).第一百三十二号,吹捧的话是否合适“幼儿保育和教育华富bonum等华富jucundum habitare fratres在UNUM”时高呼一个修道院,因为那些僧侣应该只有一个心脏和一个灵魂(PL,三十七,1733年)。Cassian (PL, XLIX, 1097) and Pseudo-Dionysius (De Eccl. Hier., vi) seem to have thought monks were so called because they were celibate.卡西安(PL,XLIX,1097)和伪狄奥尼修斯(传道书。HIER。VI)似乎有所谓的,因为他们是独身主义者的思想僧侣。

    In any case the fact remains that the word monachus in the fourth century was freely used of those consecrated to God, whether they lived as hermits or in communities.在任何情况下,事实仍然是,在第四世纪的字monachus奉献给上帝的自由,他们是否为隐士,或住在社区。 So again St. Benedict a little later (c. 535) states at the beginning of his rule that there are four kinds of monks (monachi):所以,再一次圣本笃在他统治的开始,有4种僧侣(monachi)稍晚(公元前535)的状态:

    cenobites who live together under a rule or an abbot,根据规则或方丈一起居住的cenobites

    anchorites or hermits, who after long training in the discipline of a community, go forth to lead a life of solitude (and of both of these classed he approves; but alsoanchorites或隐士,他们长期在一个社区的纪律训练之后,提出要过孤独的生活(和归类这些他批准,但也

    "sarabites" and“sarabites”和

    "girovagi" (wandering monks), whom he strongly condemns as men whose religious life is but a pretence, and who do their own without the restraint of obedience. “girovagi”(流浪的僧侣),他强烈谴责为男性宗教生活的幌子,谁不服从约束自己。

    It is probably due to the fact that the Rule of St. Benedict so constantly describes the brethren as monachi and their residence as monaslerium, that a tradition has arisen according to which these terms in Latin and English (though not so uniformly in the case of the corresponding German and French works) are commonly applied only to those religious bodies which in some measure reproduce the conditions of life contemplated in the old Benedictine Rule.这可能是由于这样的事实,圣本笃的规则,以便不断地描述为monachi弟兄们和他们的居住作为monaslerium,出现了一个传统,根据这些条款在拉丁美洲和英语(虽然不是那么均匀的情况下相应的德语和法语作品)通常只适用于那些宗教团体,这在一定程度上重现岁的本笃规则所设想的生活条件。 The mendicant friars, eg the Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, etc., though they live in community and chant the Divine Office in choir, are not correctly described as monks.行乞修道士,如多米尼加,方济会,加尔默罗等,虽然他们在社区和歌颂在合唱团的神圣办公室生活,是不正确描述为僧侣。 Their work of preaching, mixing with their fellow men in the world, soliciting alms, and moving from place to place, is inconsistent with the monastic ideal.的说教,他们的工作,与他们在世界上的男同胞,拉客施舍,和移动从地方混合,与寺院的理想不一致。The same is to be said of the "clerks regular", like the Jesuits, in whose rule the work of the apostolate is regarded as so important that it is considered incompatible with the obligation of singing office in choir.同样是“文员定期”说,耶稣会士一样,在其统治的使徒的工作是如此重要,它被认为是在合唱团唱的义务相抵触。Again members of the religious congregations of men, which take simple but not solemn vows, are not usually designated as monks.男人的宗教团体,采取简单,但不庄严的誓言,再次成员通常不被指定为僧侣。On the other hand it should be noted that in former days a monk, even though he sang office in choir, was not necessarily a priest, the custom in this respect having changed a good deal since medieval times.另一方面,应该指出,在昔日的一个和尚,即使他唱合唱团的任期,并不一定是一个牧师,在这方面的习惯改变,因为中世纪时代,一个非常好的协议。 Besides the Benedictines with their various modifications and offshoots, ie the Cluniacs, Cistercians, Trappists etc., the best known orders of monks are the Carthusians, the Premonstratensians, and the Camaldolese.除了与他们的各种修改和分支本笃会士,即Cluniacs,熙,Trappists等,僧侣的最有名的订单Carthusians,Premonstratensians,和Camaldolese。 The honorary prefix Dom, and abbreviation of Dominus is given to Benedictines and Carthusians.名誉前缀DOM和Dominus的缩写,是本笃和Carthusians。

    Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.赫伯特瑟斯顿编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Barbara Jane Barrett.转录由芭芭拉简巴雷特。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


    HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (Paderborn, 1907 sqq.); HELYOT, Histoire des Ordres Religieux (Paris, 1743); SCHIEIETZ, Vorgesch. HEIMBUCHER,模具勋章和Kongregationen(帕德博恩,1907 SQQ); HELYOT,Histoire DES Ordres Religieux(巴黎,1743年); SCHIEIETZ,Vorgesch。des Monchthums in the Archiv f.在论坛存档F. DES Monchthumskath.凯丝。Kirchenrecht (Mainz, 1898), 3 sqq.Kirchenrecht(美因茨,1898年),3 SQQ。and 305 sqq.305 SQQ。

    Also, see:此外,见:
    Religious Orders宗教命令
    Jesuits 耶稣会士
    Benedictines benedictines
    Trappists trappists
    Cistercians cistercians
    Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
    Carmelites carmelites
    Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
    Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
    Dominicans 多米尼加
    Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

    Monasticism 修道
    Nuns 修女
    Convent 修道院
    Ministry 财政部
    Major Orders大订单
    Holy Orders神圣的订单

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