Names of God - Elohim - YHWH - Yahweh - Adonai - Abba - Tetragrammaton神的名字 - 耶洛 - 耶和华 - 中文 - Zhong Wen

An early discussion by St. Jerome discussed these:由圣杰罗姆的早期讨论讨论:

El, Elohim, Sabaôth, Eliôn, Asher yeheyeh, Adonai, Jah, JHVH, and Shaddai EL,罗欣,千万军马,亿利,灰粉yeheyeh,阿多奈,JAH,JHVH,并Shaddai

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The Divine Names as Vehicles of Revelation神圣的名字,作为车辆的启示

Efforts to find the origins and significance of the Hebrew divine names in other ancient Near Eastern cultures have yielded generally disappointing results.发现的希伯来神的名字在其他古代近东文化的起源和意义的努力已经取得了普遍令人失望的结果。One of the major reasons for this is that the ancient Hebrew theology invested these names with a uniqueness that renders investigation outside the narratives of the OT incapable of exploring fully their historical and religious significance.造成这种情况的重要原因之一,是古代希伯来神学投资这些名称具有独特性,令调查旧约无法充分探索自己的历史和宗教意义的叙述之外。

Basic to ancient Hebrew religion is the concept of divine revelation.古代希伯来宗教的基础是神的启示的概念。While God is conceived of as revealing his attributes and will in a number of ways in the OT, one of the most theologically significant modes of the divine self-disclosure is the revelation inherent in the names of God.而上帝作为显露出他的属性的构思,并会在旧约,最显著的神学模式的神圣自我揭露一个方式是在神的名字所固有的启示。

This aspect of divine revelation is established in the words of Exod.出埃及记的话是建立在这方面的神圣启示。6:3, "I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name the Lord [Yahweh] I did not make myself known to them." 6时03分,“我向亚伯拉罕显现,以撒和雅各,因为全能的上帝,但我名下的主[耶和华]我没有让自己已知他们。”According to classical literary criticism, the verse teaches that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs.根据古典文学批评,经文的教导,名称雅威是未知的始祖。Thus, an ideological conflict exists between the Priestly author and the earlier Yahwist, who frequently put the name Yahweh on the lips of the patriarchs.因此,意识形态的冲突之间存在着祭司作者和早期Yahwist,谁经常把上嘴唇的始祖名耶和华。

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However, the words "by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them" have a somewhat hollow ring if the name Yahweh is understood only as an appellative.不过,“我的名字耶和华,我没有让自己已知他们”的话有点空洞,如果名称雅威了解,仅仅是作为一个通称。 The reason for this is that Moses asks in Exod.这样做的原因是,摩西在exod要求。3:13, "What is his name?" 3:13,“他叫什么名字?”(mah-semo).(MAH - semo)。 M. Buber has demonstrated that the syntax of this question does not connote an inquiry as to the name of God but an inquiry into the character revealed by the name. M.布伯已经表明,对这个问题的语法并不意味着一个以上帝的名义调查,但调查到的名称所揭示的字符。He says, "Where the word 'what' is associated with the word 'name' the question asked is what finds expression in or lies concealed behind that name" (The Revelation and the Covenant, p. 48).他说,“词”是什么“与”名“字,提出的问题是什么表现还是谎言背后的名字隐瞒关联”(启示与“公约”,第48页)。J. Motyer also concludes, "In every case where ma is used with a personal association it suggests enquiry into sort or quality or character, whereas mi expects an answer instacing individuals, or, as in the case of rhetorical questions, calling attention to some external feature" (The Revelation of the Divine Name, 19).J. Motyer还总结说:“在每一个地方,马是与个人的关联的情况下,它表明查询到排序或品质或性格,而MI预计instacing个人回答,或反问,提请注意一些外部特征“(启示的神的名字,19)。

Exod.出埃及记。14:4 also supports the view that the name Yahweh embodies aspects of God's character. 14时04分也支持这一观点的名称耶和华上帝的品格的体现方面。It says, "and the Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh."它说,“埃及人就知道了,我是耶和华。”It is hardly likely that the intent of this assertion is that they would learn only the name of the Hebrew God.这一论断的意图是,他们将学习希伯来上帝的名义,这是不大可能。

In the light of these observations, the use of the concepts of the name of God in the early narratives of the book of Exodus is far broader than simply the name by which the Hebrew God was known.在这些意见中,名神在出埃及记早期的叙事概念的使用是不是简单的名称由希伯来上帝被称为广泛得多。It has a strong element of divine self-disclosure within it.它在它的神圣自我揭露的一个强大的元素。

The corpus of divine names compounded with el and a descriptive adjunct also support this concept.又因与EL和一个描述辅助的神的名字的语料,也支持了这一概念。The very fact that the adjunctive element is descriptive is an indication of its value as a source of theological content.张女士辅助元素描述的是表明其作为神学的内容来源价值。

Typical of this type of name is el rot ("God who sees"; Gen. 16:13) and el olam ("God eternal"; Gen. 21:33).典型的这种类型的名称是EL腐(“上帝,谁看到”将军16点13)和El Olam公司(“神的永恒”,创21时33分)。These el names sometimes emerge from a specific historical situation that illuminates their significance.这些EL的名字有时会出现从一个特定的历史情况,阐明其意义。

The Meaning of the Divine Names“神圣的名字,的含义

Yahweh, Jehovah (LORD)耶和华,耶和华(主)

Efforts to determine the meaning of the tetragrammaton (YHWH) through historical investigation have been rendered difficult by the paucity of informative data relative to the various forms of the name ya in historical sources outside the OT.努力通过历史调查,以确定tetragrammaton(耶和华)的含义已变得难以名雅旧约以外的历史来源的各种形式的相对缺乏翔实的数据。 For this reason the investigation has generally followed philological lines.出于这个原因的调查已普遍遵循的语言学线。GR Driver suggested that the form ya was originally an ejaculatory cry, "shouted in moments of excitement or ecstasy," that was "prologued to ya(h)wa(h), ya(h)wa(h)y, or the like."遗传资源驱动程序建议,雅原本是射精管哭的形式,“喊在瞬间的兴奋或摇头丸,”那是“prologued雅(H)华(H),雅(H)华(H)Y,或像“。 He suggested further that the name Yahweh arose from the consonance of an extended form of ya with the "imperfect tense of a defective verb."他建议进一步的名字耶和华与雅扩展形式有灵犀,于是产生了“有缺陷的动词不完善的紧张。”Thus, he saw the origin of the name in a popular etymology and asserted that its original form was forgotten (ZAW 46:24).因此,他看到的名称在一个受欢迎的词源的起源,并声称其原来的形式被遗忘(ZAW 46:24)。

Mowinckel proposed the theory that the tetragrammaton should be understood as consisting of the ejaculatory element and the third person pronoun hu,' meaning "O He!"莫温克尔提出tetragrammaton应被理解为射精管元素和第三人称代词胡的理论“,意思是”Ø他!“

Another approach to the problem is to understand the tetragrammaton as a form of paronomasia.问题的另一种方法是,了解作为一个双关语的形式tetragrammaton。This view takes account of the broad representation of the name ya in extrabiblical cultures of the second millennium BC The name Yahweh is thus understood as a quadriliteral form, and the relationship of the name of haya ("to be") in Exod.这种观点的具有广泛代表性的名称雅在公元前第二个千年的名字耶和华extrabiblical文化,因此作为quadriliteral形式的理解,并在exod哈亚名称的关系(“是”)。 3:14-15 is not intended to be one of etymology but paronomasia.3:14-15不打算要一个词源但俏皮话。

The most common view is that the name is a form of a triliteral verb, hwy.最常见的看法是,该名称是一个triliteral动词,高速公路的一种形式。It is generally regarded as a 3 p.它被普遍认为是一个3页Qal stem imperfect or a 3 p.萨利赫干不完善或3页imperfect verb in a causative stem.在致病干的不完善动词。Another suggestion is that it is a causative participle with ay preformative that should be translated "Sustainer, Maintainer, Establisher."另一个建议是,这是一个致病AY preformative过去分词,应译为“维持者,维护者,创办人。”

With regard to the view that the tetragrammaton is an elongated form of an ejaculatory cry, it may be pointed out that Semitic proper names tend to shorten; they are not normally prolonged.方面认为tetragrammaton是射精管哭的拉长形式,它可能会指出,犹太人的专有名称往往缩短;他们一般都不会延长。 The theory that the name is paronomastic is attractive, but when appeal is made to the occurrences of forms of ya or yw in ancient cultures, several problems arise.该理论认为,名称是paronomastic是有吸引力的,但提出上诉遐或YW在古代文化的形式,出现的几个问题的发生。 It is difficult to explain how the original form could have lengthened into the familiar quadriliteral structure.这是很难解释如何原来的形式可以延长到熟悉的quadriliteral结构。Mowinckel's suggestion is attractive, but speculative.莫温克尔的建议是有吸引力的,但投机性的。It is also difficult to understand how the name Yahweh could have such strong connotations of uniqueness in the OT if it is a form of a divine name that found representation in various cultures in the second millennium BC这也是不难理解的名称耶和华如何能有如此强烈的独特内涵,在旧约,如果它是一个一个神圣的名字,在各种文化的代表发现,在公元前第二个千年的形式

The derivation of the tetragrammaton from a verbal root is also beset with certain difficulties.tetragrammaton推导口头根也具有一定的困难所困扰。The root hwy on which the tetragrammaton would be based in this view is unattested in West Semitic languages before the time of Moses, and the form of the name is not consonant with the rules that govern the formation of lamed he verbs as we know them.根高速公路上的tetragrammaton将在这一观点的基础是unattested前的时候,摩西西闪族语言,形式的名称是不是管理形成lamed他动词,因为我们知道他们的规则相一致。

It is evident that the problem is a difficult one.这是显而易见的问题是一个很难。It is best to conclude that the use of etymology to determine the theological content of the name Yahweh is tenuous.最好是结束的词源来确定的名字耶和华的神学内容是脆弱的。If one is to understand the theological significance of the divine name, it can be only be determining the theological content with which the name was invested in Hebrew religion.如果一个人了解神学意义神圣的名字,也可以只可确定与该名投资是在希伯来宗教神学的内容。

Jah, Yah JAH,YAH

This shorter form of Yahweh occurs twice in Exodus (15:2 and 17:15).这耶和华较短的形式出现在出埃及记(15:2和17:15)的两倍。The former passage is echoed in Isa.前一段是呼应在伊萨。12:2 and Ps.12:2和PS。 118:14.118:14。It also occurs numerous times in the formula haleluya ("praise yah").它也发生在公式haleluya(“赞美YAH”)无数次。Its use in early and late poetic passages and its formulaic function in the Hallel psalms suggest that this form of Yahweh is a poetic stylistic device.其在早期和晚期的诗意的通道和其Hallel诗篇公式化功能的使用表明,这种形式的耶和华是一个充满诗意的文体设备。

The compounding of yah with Yahweh in Isa.复利YAH与雅威在伊萨。12:2 (yah yhwh) indicates a separate function for the form yah, but at the same time an identification of the form with Yahweh.12时02分(耶和华YAH)表示一个单独的函数的形式YAH,但在同一时间识别与耶和华的形式。

Yahweh Seba'ot ("Lord of Hosts")耶和华Seba'ot(“万军之耶和华”)

The translation "He creates the heavenly hosts" has been suggested for this appellative.翻译“,他创建了天上的主机”这个称谓一直建议。It is based on the assumption that Yahweh functions as a verbal form in a causative stem.它是基于这样的假设,作为一个致病干口头形式耶和华功能。This conclusion is rendered difficult by the fact that the formula occurs in the expanded form yhwh elohe sebaot ("Yahweh God of hosts"), which attributes the function of a proper name to Yahweh.该公式的扩展形式耶和华elohe sebaot(“耶和华万军之神”),其中属性的功能,以一个合适的名字耶和华发生的事实,这个结论是困难的。The word seba'ot means "armies" or "hosts."这个词seba'ot意味着“军队”或“主机”。It is best to understand Yahweh as a proper name in association with the word "armies."最好是了解这个词的正确名称为关联耶和华“的军队。”


The root of Elohim is El (el).耶洛根是厄尔尼诺(EL)。The form elohim is a plural form commonly understood as a plural of majesty.形式耶洛因是一个复数形式通常理解作为一个威严的复数。While the word occurs in Canaanite ('l) and Akkadian (ilu[m]), its etymology is uncertain.虽然这个词出现在迦南('L)和阿卡(ILU [M]),其词源是不确定的。In the OT the word is always construed in the singular when it denotes the true God. OT字总是解释在奇异时表示真正的上帝。In the Pentateuch the name elohim connotes a general concept of God; that is, it portrays God as the transcendent being, the creator of the universe.在摩西五经的名称耶洛因蕴含一个神一般的概念,也就是说,它描绘作为超然的上帝,宇宙的创造者。It does not connote the more personal and palpable concepts inherent in the name Yahweh.它并不意味着更多的个人和扪名称耶和华的固有观念。It can also be used to apply to false gods as well as to judges and kings.它也可以用来申请假神,以及法官和国王。


El has the same general range of meaning as Elohim.EL具有相同的一般范围为耶洛意义。It is apparently the root on which the plural form has been constructed.这显然​​是复数形式已建成的根。It differs in usage from Elohim only in its use in theophoric names and to serve to contrast the human and the divine.它不同于在使用从耶洛因,只有在其使用theophoric名称和服务,以对比的人力和神圣。Sometimes it is combined with yah to become Elyah.有时它是结合YAH成为Elyah。

El Elyon ("God Most High")厄尔尼诺Elyon(“神至高”)

The word 'elyon, an adjective meaning "high," is derived from the root 'lh ("to go up" or "ascend").字'elyon,一个形容词,意为“高”,是从根本上源于“LH(”去“或”登高“)。It is used to describe the height of objects (II Kings 15:35; 18:17; Ezek. 41:7) as well as the prominence of persons (Ps. 89:27) and the prominence of Israel as a nation (Deut. 26:19; 28:1).它是用来描述对象的高度(列王记下15点35; 18时17;以西结书41:7),以及突出的人(诗篇89:27),以色列作为一个国家的突出(申26:19,28:1)。When used of God it connotes the concept of "highest."当上帝用它蕴含的概念,“最高。”

The name El Elyon occurs only in Gen. 14: 18-22 and Ps.名称厄尔尼诺Elyon只发生在将军14:18-22和PS。 78:35, although God is known by the shorter title Elyon in a significant number of passages. 78:35,虽然上帝是在较短的通道显著标题Elyon。

There is a superlative connotation in the word 'elyon.有一个字'elyon超强内涵。In each case in which the adjective occurs it denotes that which is highest or uppermost.在每个案件中,发生的形容词,它表示,这是最高或最重要的。In Deut.在deut。26:19 and 28:1 the superlative idea is apparent in the fact that Israel is to be exalted above the nations. 26:19和28:1的最高级的想法是明显的事实,即以色列是上述国家的崇高。The use of the word in I Kings 9:8 and II Chr.我国王9:8和第二CHR字的使用。7:21 may not seem to reflect a superlative idea, but there is, as CF Keil suggests, an allusion to Deut. 7时21分可能不似乎反映了极致的想法,但有CF KEIL建议,一个典故,以申。26:19 and 28:1, where the superlative idea exists.26:19和28:1,其中最高级的想法存在。The superlative is also evident in the use of the word in Ps.也很明显,使用的字在PS了极致。97:9, where it connotes Yahweh's supremacy over the other gods.97:9,它意味着耶和华对其他神的至高无上。

El Shaddai厄尔尼诺Shaddai

The etymology of sadday is obscure.sadday词源是晦涩难懂。It has been connected with the Akkadian sadu ("mountain") by some.它已与阿卡sadu(“山”)一些。Others have suggested a connection with the word "breast," and still others have seen a connection with the verb sadad ("to devastate").也有人建议“乳腺癌与字连接,”,还有人看到了与动词sadad(“毁灭”)的连接。The theological significance of the name, if it can be understood fully, must be derived from a study of the various contexts in which the name occurs.神学意义的名称,如果它完全是可以理解的,必须来自一个的名字出现在其中的各种背景的研究。

The name Shaddai frequently appears apart from El as a divine title. Shaddai的名字频繁出现从El除了作为一个神圣的称号。

El-Eloe-YisraelEL - Eloe - Yisrael

This appellation occurs only in Gen. 33:20 as the name of the altar that marked the place of Jacob's encounter with God.这个称谓只发生在将军33:20的祭坛,标志着雅各布的与天主相遇的地方的名称。 It denotes the unique significance of El as the God of Jacob.它是指雅各的神EL独特的意义。


The root 'dn occurs in Ugaritic with the meanings "lord and father."根“DN发生乌加里特语的含义”上帝和父亲。“If the word originally connoted "father," it is not difficult to understand how the connotation "lord" developed from that.如果这个词最初connoted“父亲”,这是不难理解如何“地王”的内涵,开发。The basic meaning of the word in the OT is "lord."在OT的话基本含义是“主”。

Critical to the understanding of the meaning of the word is the suffix ay.这个词的含义的理解,关键是后缀AY。It is commonly suggested that the ending is the first person possessive suffix on a plural form of 'adon ("my lord").它通常建议,结局是在ADON“(”我的主“)的复数形式的所有格后缀的第一人。This is plausible for the form adonay, but the heightened form adonay, which also appears in the Massoretic text, is more difficult to explain, unless it represents an effort on the part of the Massoretes "to mark the word as sacred by a small external sign."这是似是而非的形式adonay,但形式adonay的高度,这也显示在massoretic文本,更难以解释的,除非它代表了一种努力的一部分“的Massoretes,一个小的外部标记为神圣的字的迹象。“

Attention has been drawn to the Ugaritic ending -ai, which is used in that language "as a reinforcement of a basic word," However, it is doubtful that this explanation should be applied in all cases.已提请注意乌加里特文结束爱,这是在该语言中使用“作为加强基本字,”不过,这是令人怀疑这种解释应适用于所有情况。 The plural construction of the name is evident when the word occurs in the construct as it does in the appellation "Lord of lords" ('adone ha adonim) in Deut.字构造,因为它发生在称谓“万主之主”(“adone公顷adonim)在deut的名称的复数建设是显而易见的。10:17.10点17分。And the translation "my Lord" seems to be required in such vocative addresses as "my Lord Yahweh, what will you give me?"翻译“我的主”,似乎是在这样的呼地址为“我的主耶和华,你能给我吗?”(Gen. 15:2; see also Exod. 4:10).(创15:2,也见出埃及记4:10)。

It appears, then, that it is best to understand the word as a plural of majesty with a first person suffixual ending that was altered by the Massoretes to mark the sacred character of the name.那么,它的出现,理解复数第一人称suffixual结束,由Massoretes改变标志的神圣性的名称作为一个威严的话,这是最好的。

Other Divine Names其他神的名字

The name Baali occurs only once, in Hos.名称巴利只发生一次,在居者有其屋计划。2:16 (AV; "My Baal," RSV) in a play on words.2:16(AV“我的巴力”,RSV)的一个文字游戏。The word means "my husband," as does isi, the word with which it is paired.这个词意味着“我的丈夫,”ISI,与它配对的字。

Ancient of Days is an appellation applied to God in Dan. 古代的天是于丹神的称谓。7.7。It occurs with other depictions of great age (vs. 9) to create the impression of noble venerability.它的出现创造的高贵v​​enerability的印象,与其他描绘伟大时代(9)。

Abba is an alternate Aramaic term for "father."阿爸是备用的阿拉姆“父亲”。It is the word that Jesus used to address God in Mark 14:36.这是耶稣用于解决14时36马克的神字。Paul pairs the word with the Greek word for "father" in Rom.保罗对与“父亲”在罗的希腊字的字。8:15 and Gal.8:15和半乳糖。 4:6.4:6。

The 'alep that terminates the form 'abba' functions as both a demonstrative and a vocative particle in Aramaic.“alep终止的形式”利群“的功能,作为一个示范和呼粒子在阿拉姆。In the time of Jesus the word connoted both the emphatic concept, "the father," and the more intimate "my father, our father."一词在耶稣时代connoted都强调概念,“父亲”,更贴心的“我的父亲,我们的父亲。”

While the word was the common form of address for children, there is much evidence that in the time of Jesus the practice was not limited only to children.而Word的地址为儿童常见的形式,有许多证据,在耶稣时代的做法是不局限于仅儿童。The childish character of the word ("daddy") thus receded, and 'abba' acquired the warm, familiar ring which we may feel in such an expression as "dear father."退去的字(“爸爸”)和“利群”幼稚性收购的温暖,熟悉的环,我们可能会觉得在这样一个表达:“亲爱的父亲。”

The Theological Significance of the Divine Names神圣的名字,神学意义


The parallel structure in Exod.在exod的并行结构。3:14-15 supports the association of the name Yahweh with the concept of being or existence. 3:14-15支持该协会的名称与正在或存在的概念耶和华。It says, "I AM has sent me to you" (vs. 14; "The LORD has sent me to you" (vs. 15). The name "I AM" is based on the clause "I AM WHO I AM" found in 3:14 which, on the basis of the etymology implied here, suggests that Yahweh is the 3.p. form of the verb 'ehyeh (I am).它说,“那自有的打发我到你们这里”(与14“耶和华差遣我到你”(15节)“I AM”这个名字是一句“我是我是谁”的基础。在3点14分,词源的基础上,隐含在这里的发现,表明耶和华是动词“ehyeh(我)3.p.的形式。

The clause 'ehyeh'aser 'ehyeh has been translated in several ways, "I am that I am" (AV), "I am who I am" (RSV, NIV), and "I will be what I will be" (RSV margin).条款“ehyeh'aser”ehyeh已在几个方面的翻译,“我,我”(AV),“我我是谁”(呼吸道合胞病毒,为证),和“我会我会是什么”(呼吸道合胞病毒保证金)。 Recently the translation "I am (the) One who is" has been suggested.最近翻译的“我(的)一个是谁”已建议。The latter translation has much in its favor grammatically and fits the context well.后者的翻译已在其文法的青睐,以及适合的背景下。

The main concern of the context is to demonstrate that a continuity exists in the divine activity from the time of the patriarchs to the events recorded in Exod.的情况下主要关注的是证明存在的连续性,在神圣的活动从时间的始祖,在exo​​d记录的事件。3.3。The Lord is referred to as the God of the fathers (vss. 13, 15, 16).主被称为上帝的父亲(VSS的13,15,16)。The God who made the gracious promises regarding Abraham's offspring is the God who is and who continues to be.关于亚伯拉罕的后代亲切承诺上帝是神,是谁和谁继续。The affirmation of vs. 17 is but a reaffirmation of the promise made to Abraham.对17的肯定,但重申对亚伯拉罕的承诺。 The name Yahweh may thus affirm the continuing activity of God on behalf of his people in fealty to his promise.名称雅威可能因此肯定对他效忠他的诺言人民代表上帝的持续活动。

Jesus' application of the words "I am" to himself in John 8:58 not only denoted his preexistence but associated him with Yahweh. “我”自己在约翰福音8:58耶稣的应用程序的话,不仅表示他的前世,但他与耶和华。Jesus was the fulfillment of the promise given to Abraham, the fulfillment of which Abraham anticipated (John 8:56).耶稣是履行承诺给亚伯拉罕,履行亚伯拉罕预期(约翰福音8:56)。

In the Pentateuch, Yahweh denotes that aspect of God's character that is personal rather than transcendent.在五,耶和华表示,神的性格方面,而不是超然的个人。It occurs in contexts in which the covenantal and redemptive aspects of God predominate.它发生在上帝的圣约和救赎方面占主导地位的上下文中。Cassuto says, "The name YHWH is employed when God is presented to us in His personal character and in direct relationship to people or nature; and 'Elohim, when the Deity is alluded to as a Transcendental Being who exists completely outside and above the physical universe" (The Documentary Hypothesis, p. 31). Cassuto说,“耶和华是受雇当上帝给我们的是在他的个人品格和在直接关系到人民或性质的名称;”耶洛因,当神是暗示作为一个先验的是谁存在完全不在以上物理宇宙“(纪录片假说,第31页)。 This precise distinction does not always obtain outside the Pentateuch, but Yahweh never loses its distinct function as the designation of the God of Israel.这种精确的区别并不总是获得以外的摩西五,但从来没有失去,耶和华以色列的神指定其独特的功能。

The name Yahweh Sabaoth appears for the first time in Israel's history in connection with the cult center at Shiloh (1 Sam. 1:3).名称耶和华千万军马在以色列历史上首次出现在希洛的邪教中心(1萨姆。1:3)。It is there that the tent of meeting was set up when the land of Canaan had been subdued by the Israelites (Josh. 18:1).这是会议的帐篷成立时已经由以色列人(约书亚记18:1)制服迦南地。The name apparently had its origin in the period of the conquest or the postconquest period.这个名字显然已征服或postconquest期期间它的起源。It does not occur in the Pentateuch.它不会发生在五。

It is possible that the name was attributed to Yahweh as a result of the dramatic appearance to Joshua of an angelic being called the "commander of the host of Yahweh" at the commencement of the conquest (Josh. 5:13-15).这是可能的名称是由于雅威作为一个戏剧性的外观被称为一个天使般的开始征服(约书亚记5:13-15)“耶和华主机司令”约书亚结果。 The name would thus depict the vast power at Yahweh's disposal in the angelic hosts.耶和华的天使般的主机处理的名字,从而描绘的巨大力量。

The association of this name with the ark of the covenant in I Sam.这个名字与“公约”在我心的方舟协会。4:4 is significant in that Yahweh is enthroned above the angelic figures known as the cherubim (II Sam. 6:2). 4时04分是显著的,耶和华是坐床以上称为基路伯(二山姆。6:2)天使般的数字。Because the name was associated with the ark of the covenant, David addressed the people in that name when the ark was recovered from the Philistines (II Sam. 6:18).因为名称是约柜,大卫谈到这个名字的人,当方舟从非利士人(二山姆。6:18)恢复。The name is often associated with the military activities of Israel (I Sam. 15:2-3; II Sam. 5:10).这个名字往往是与以色列的军事活动(我心15:2-3;二山姆5时10分)。

The almighty power of Yahweh displayed in this name is manifested in the sphere of history (Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5).表现在历史领域(Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5)显示在这个名字是耶和华全能的权力。 His power may be displayed in the life of the individual (Ps. 69:6) as well as the nation (Ps. 80:7).他的力量可能会显示在个人的生命(诗篇69:6),以及国家(诗篇80:7)。Sometimes he is simply referred to as "the Almighty."有时他简称为“全能的。”

The military connotation of the name was not lost, even in the eighth century, for Isaiah appeals to that name to depict the hosts of heaven that accompany Yahweh in his intervention in history (Isa. 13:4).军事内涵的名字是不会丢失,即使是在公元八世纪,以赛亚呼吁这个名字来描述,陪他在历史上的干预(以赛亚书13:4)耶和华天上的主机。


This is the more general name for God.这是对上帝的通用名称。In the Pentateuch, when used as a proper name, it most commonly denotes the more transcendental aspects of God's character.在五,作为一个适当的名称中使用时,最常用的表示更先验方面上帝的性格。When God is presented in relation to his creation and to the peoples of the earth in the Pentateuch, the name Elohim is the name most often used.当神在他的创作和地球在五人民提出的,该名称耶洛因是最常用的名字。It is for this reason that Elohim occurs consistently in the creation account of Gen. 1:1-2:42 and in the genealogies of Genesis.正是出于这个原因,耶洛因发生一贯创1:1-2:42创建帐户,并在族谱的成因。 Where the context takes on a moral tone, as in Gen. 2:4bff., the name Yahweh is used.凡文意一个道德基调,在2时04分BFF将军,。,名称雅威使用。

Throughout Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus elohim is used most often as a proper name.整个创世记,出埃及记“耶洛因早期的章节是最常用的一个合适的名字。After Exod.在出埃及记。3 the name begins to occur with increasing frequency as an appellative, that is, "the God of," or "your God."3名开始发生的频率越来越高,作为一个称谓,那就是,“神”或“你的上帝。”This function is by far the most frequent mode of reference to God in the book of Deuteronomy.此功能是迄今为止最常见的模式,上帝在申命记书。When used in this fashion the name denotes God as the supreme deity of a person or people.当以这种方式使用的名称表示为一个人或人的最高神,神。Thus, in the frequent expression, "Yahweh your God," Yahweh functions as a proper name, while "God" functions as the denominative of deity.因此,在频繁的表达,“耶和华你的神,”耶和华功能作为一个合适的名字,而“神”的神denominative功能。

The appellative elohim connotes all that God is.通称耶洛因蕴含所有上帝是。As God he is sovereign, and that sovereignty extends beyond Israel into the arena of the nations (Deut. 2:30, 33; 3:22; Isa. 52:10).作为神,他是一个主权,并延伸到舞台上的国家(申命记2:30,33; 3时22分;伊萨52:10)超出以色列的主权。As God to his people he is loving and merciful (Deut. 1:31; 2:7; 23:5; Isa. 41:10, 13, 17; 49:5; Jer. 3:23).作为上帝给他的人民,他是爱和慈悲(申命记1:31; 2时07分,23时05分;伊萨41:10,13,17; 49:5;耶3时23)。He establishes standards of obedience (Deut. 4:2; Jer. 11:3) and sovereignly punishes disobedience (Deut. 23:21).他服从建立标准(申命记4:2;耶11:3)和主权惩罚抗命(申命记23时21分)。As God, there is no one like him (Isa. 44:7; 45:5-21).作为神,有没有一个像他这样的(以赛亚书44:7; 45:5-21)。

The same connotations obtain in the use of the shorter form el.在使用较短的形式EL获得同样的内涵。He is the God who sees (el ro i; Gen. 16:13) and he is el the God of Israel (Gen. 33:20).他是上帝,谁看到(EL RO我,创16时13分),他是EL以色列的神(创33:20)。

As El Elyon, God is described in his exaltation over all things.由于厄尔尼诺Elyon,上帝是超过所有的东西在他的提高。There are two definitive passages for this name.这个名字有两个明确的段落。In Ps.在PS。83:18 Yahweh is described as "Most High over the earth," and Isa.83:18耶和华形容为“最在地球的高,”和伊萨。14:14 states, "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High." 14点14国,“我要升到上面的云层的高度,我会做出自己最喜欢的。”

However, in the majority of cases the attributes of this name are indistinguishable from other usages of El or Elohim.然而,在大多数情况下,这个名称的属性是无法区分的厄尔尼诺或耶洛其他用途。He fixed the boundaries of the nations (Deut. 32:8).他固定的国家的边界​​(申命记32:8)。He effects changes in the creation (Ps. 18:13).他的影响创造的变化(诗篇18时13)。El Shaddai occurs most frequently in the Book of Job, where it functions as a general name for the deity.厄尔尼诺Shaddai最常发生在约伯记,它作为一个通用名称为神功能。As El Shaddai, God disciplines (Job 5:17); he is to be feared (Job 6:14); he is just (Job 8:3); he hears prayer (Job 8:5); and he creates (Job 33:4).由于厄尔尼诺Shaddai,上帝学科(约伯记5:17);他是担心(约伯记6:14);他只是(约伯记8:3),他听到祈祷(约伯记8:5);和他创建(求职33:4)。

This name occurs six times in the patriarchal narratives.这个名字出现在宗法叙述的6倍。In most of those instances it is associated with the promise given by God to the patriarchs.在多数情况是与神所赋予的始祖的承诺。Yet the name is often paired with Yahweh in the poetic material, and thus shares the personal warmth of that name.不过的名字往往是耶和华在诗意的材料搭配,并因此股该名个人的温暖。He is known for his steadfast love (Ps. 21:7) and his protection (Ps. 91:9-10).他知道他的慈爱(诗篇21时07分)和他的保护(诗篇91:9-10)。

The root of Adonai means "lord" and, in its secular usage, always refers to a superior in the OT.阿多奈根是指“地王”,其世俗的用法,是指在旧约卓越。The word retains the sense of "lord" when applied to God.这个词保留的“地王”当上帝的感觉。The present pointing of the word in the Massoretic text is late; early manuscripts were written without vowel pointing.目前指向massoretic文本中的字是后期的,早期的手稿是没有元音指向的书面。

In Ps.在PS。110:1 the word is pointed in the singular, as it usually is when it applies to humans rather than God.110:1这个词是指在奇异,因为它通常是当它适用于人类,而不是神。Yet Jesus used this verse to argue for his deity.然而,耶稣用这节经文,认为他的神。The pointing is Massoretic, and no distinction would be made in the consonantal texts.指点是Massoretic,并没有什么区别,将在辅音文本。Since the word denotes a superior, the word must refer to one who is superior to David and who bears the messianic roles of king and priest (vs. 4). ,因为这个词是指上级,这个词必须是指大卫和谁承担救世主的角色国王和牧师(比4)谁优谁劣。

The name Abba connotes the fatherhood of God.这个名字阿爸张三的“父亲”神。This is affirmed by the accompanying translation ho pater ("father") which occurs in each usage of the name in the NT (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).这是肯定的随行翻译何佩特(“父亲”)发生在每个使用新台币(马克14时36分;罗马书8时15分;。加仑4时06分)的名称。

The use of this name as Jesus' mode of address to God in Mark 14:36 is a unique expression of Jesus' relationship to the Father.使用“模式解决马克14时36分,以神为耶稣这个名字,是耶稣的独特的表达方式父”的关系。Jeremias says, "He spoke to God like a child to its father, simply, inwardly, confidently. Jesus' use of abba in addressing God reveals the heart of his relationship with God" (The Prayers of Jesus, p. 62).赫雷米亚斯说,简单地说,“他谈到上帝像其父亲的孩子,内心,自信。耶稣的ABBA的使用,在处理上帝揭示了他与上帝的关系的心脏”(耶稣的祷告,第62页)。

The same relationship is sustained by the believer with God.同样的关系是持续的与上帝的信徒。It is only because of the believer's relationship with God, established by the Holy Spirit, that he can address God with this name that depicts a relationship of warmth and filial love.这是唯一的,因为信徒的圣灵,他可以解决这个名字,描述了一个温暖和孝爱的关系,神与神建立关系,。

In a sense the relationship designated by this name is the fulfillment of the ancient promise given to Abraham's offspring that the Lord will be their God, and they his people (Exod. 6:7; Lev. 26:12; Jer. 24:7; 30:22).这个名字指定的关系,在一定意义上说是给亚伯拉罕的后代,耶和华必作他们的神的古老承诺的履行,而他的人(出埃及记6时07分;列弗26:12;耶24:7。 ; 30:22)。

TE McComiskeyTE的McComiskey
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WF Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I, 178ff.; L. Koehler, OT Theology; J. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 66ff.; G. Oehler, Theology of the OT; M. Reisel, The Mysterious Name of YHWH; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; H. Schultz, OT Theology, II, 116ff.; T. Vriezen, An Outline of OT Theology; H. Kleinknecht et al., TDNT, III, 65ff.WF奥尔布赖特,从石器时代到基督教; W.艾希罗特,OT,我,178ff神学; L.克勒,旧约神学的J. Schneider等人,NIDNTT,二,66ff;。G.奥勒尔,神学旧约; M. Reisel,神秘的名字“耶和华; HH罗利,以色列的信仰; H.舒尔茨,旧约神学,二,116ff。T. Vriezen,旧约神学概要; H. Kleinknecht等。 TDNT,三,65ff。

Tetragrammaton Tetragrammaton

Advanced Information先进的信息

Tetragrammaton is the designation for the four (tetra) letters (grammata) in the Hebrew Bible for the name of the God of Israel, yhwh. Tetragrammaton是指定(TETRA)的四个字母(grammata)在希伯来文圣经,耶和华以色列的神的名字。The name was God's particular revelation to Moses and the Israelites (Exod. 6:2-3).名字是上帝的特殊启示,摩西和以色列人(出6:2-3)。It signifies that the God of Israel, unlike pagan deities, is present with his people to deliver them, to fulfill his promises to them, and to grant them his blessings. The pronunciation of the tetragrammaton yhwh was lost when the Jews avoided its usage for fear of descrating the holy name (cf. Exod. 20:7). In OT times the name was pronounced and was at times used in theophoric names, which can be recognized in our Bibles by the prefixes Jo- or Jeho- (cf. Jonathan and Jehoiada) and the suffix -jah (Adonijah).这标志着以色列的神,不像异教神,是与他 ​​的人提供他们目前,以履行他的诺言,并给予他的祝福。tetragrammaton耶和华发音丢失,当犹太人避免其用法descrating的圣名(参出20:7)。恐惧在旧约时代的名字发音和theophoric名称中使用的时间,可以在我们的圣经认可的前缀乔或Jeho (参见乔纳森和耶何耶大)和后缀- JAH(亚多尼雅)。The pronunciation fell into disuse after the Exile when the Jews began to pay careful attention to the practice of the law.发音下跌后,流亡国外,当犹太人开始特别注意法律的做法被废弃。

The translators of the Septuagint consistently avoided the name and substituted the title Kyrios ("Lord").的译本的译者始终避免的名称和标题Kyrios(“主”) 取代This reflects the Jewish practice of reading Adonai (Heb. adonay) "Lord" for yhwh or reading Elohim (Heb. elohim) in place of the Hebrew compound yhwh adonay to avoid the duplication of adonay. The vowels of adonay (aoa) were placed under the tetragrammaton to remind the reader that he was not to pronounce yhwh but instead was to read the word as adonay.这反映了阅读阿多奈(希伯来adonay)“主”耶和华或阅读耶洛因(希伯来耶洛因),在希伯来文的复合耶和华adonay的地方,以避免重复adonay的犹太人的做法。adonay(AOA)的元音被放置tetragrammaton提醒读者,他是不发音耶和华的,而是被读字作为 adonay。Christians who were unaware of this substitution read the vowels as if they actually belonged to yhwh, which resulted in the English form "YeHoWaH" or JeHoVaH" (the a of adonay having been reduced to e under the y of yhwh). 基督徒谁不知道这种替代读元音,如果他们真的属于耶和华,这导致在英文形式的“YeHoWaH”或 “耶和华”(adonay有减少耶和华Ÿ下至E)。

The ASV of 1901 adopted the practice of using the name "Jehovah", whereas most English versions continued the established practice of translating the tetragrammaton by LORD (capital letters) to distinguish it from "Lord" (Adonai). 1901年的ASV通过使用的名字“耶和华”的做法,而大多数英文版本继续tetragrammaton勋爵(大写字母)的翻译,以区别于“地王”(阿多奈)的既定做法。 Many scholars accept the widely held opinion that the tetragrammaton is a form of the root hyh ("be") and should be pronounced as "Yahweh" ("He who brings into being"; cf. Exod. 3:12, "I will be with you" and "I will be who I will be", vs. 14).许多学者接受普遍认为tetragrammaton是一个根HYH的形式(“”),并应突出为“耶和华”(“他带来应运而生”。比照出埃及记3时12分,“我会与你同在“和”我会,我会是谁“,与14)。 Regardless of the editorial decision of substituting LORD for yhwh or of using the divine name "Yahweh," the reader must keep in mind that LORD, Yahweh, or yhwh is the name of God that he revealed to his ancient people.无论编辑决定代耶和华YHWH或使用的神圣的名字“耶和华”,读者必须记住,耶和华,耶和华,或耶和华是上帝的名义,他透露,他的古代人。 In reading the text of the OT, one should develop a feeling for the usage of the name itself over against such usages as "God" or "Lord" (Exod. 3:15; 6:3; Pss. 102:16, 22; 113:1-3; 135:1-6; 148:5, 13).在读旧约的文本,应制定一个感觉使用的名称本身对等用法为“上帝”或“上帝”(出埃及记3:15; 6:3;。PSS 102:16,22 ; 113:1-3; 135:1-6; 148:5,13)。The Messiah has a name, Jesus, so the God of the OT has revealed himself by a name yhwh and a blessing is lost when no attention is paid to the difference in usage of a title and the actual name of the God of Israel.弥赛亚有一个名字,耶稣,旧约的神曾透露自己的名字耶和华祝福丢失时没有注意的是,在使用的标题和以色列的神的实际名称的区别。

Let them praise the name of the LORD, for his name alone is exalted; his splendor is above the earth and the heavens.让他们赞美耶和华的名,他的名字,单是崇高的,他的辉煌在地上,天上。

WA Van GemerenWA范Gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Also, see:此外,见:
God 上帝
Arguments for the Existence of God论据为上帝存在

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