Apostle使徒 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

In the Bible, apostle is a title conferred on one sent with a message.在圣经中,使徒是一个消息发送一个赋予的称号。The term is applied primarily to the original Twelve called by Jesus to accompany him during his ministry (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16).这个词主要适用于原来的十二耶稣叫他陪在他的部(太10:2-4;马克3:16-19,路加福音6:13-16)。 In the Gospels, other followers are called disciples.在福音书,其他的追随者被称为弟子。The title was gradually extended to others such as Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:14; Rom. 9:1, 11:13); when this occurred, the Twelve were distinguished from all the apostles, as in 1 Corinthians 15:5-7.标题逐渐扩展到如保罗和巴拿巴(使徒14点14分,罗9:1,11点13分);他人发生这种情况时,十二人区别于所有的使徒在哥林多前书十五时05分, - 7。

Most of the Twelve were from the laboring class, with the exception of Matthew, a tax collector.的十二大部分来自劳动阶级,在马修例外,收税。None was from the religious sector of Jewish society.没有一个是从犹太人社会宗教部门。Peter, James (the Greater), and John formed an inner circle closest to Jesus; Judas Iscariot betrayed him, and Matthias was selected to replace Judas (Acts 1:16).彼得,詹姆斯(大),和约翰形成了一个小圈子里最接近耶稣,犹大出卖了他,和马提亚被选为取代犹大(徒1​​:16)。 The others were Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, James (the Lesser), Simon, and Thaddeus (Jude).其他人安德鲁,菲利普,巴塞洛缪,托马斯,詹姆斯(即小),西门,赛迪斯(裘德)。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Brownrigg, R., The Twelve Apostles (1974); Guthrie, D., The Apostles (1974); Huxhold, HN, Twelve Who Followed (1987); Ruffin, CB, The Twelve (1984).布朗里格,R.,十二使徒岩(1974年);格思里,D.,使徒(1974年); Huxhold,HN,十二人​​紧随其后(1987年);鲁芬,CB,十二(1984)。

Apostle, Apostleship使徒,使徒

Advanced Information先进的信息

The biblical use of "apostle" is almost entirely confined to the NT, where it occurs seventy-nine times: ten in the Gospels, twenty-eight in Acts, thirty-eight in the epistles, and three in the Apocalypse.而“使徒”圣经使用几乎完全局限在NT,出现的79次:十的福音,使徒行传28,在书信38,而在启示三。 Our English word is a transliteration of the Greek apostolos, which is derived from apostellein, to send.我们的英语单词是希腊阿波斯托洛,这是从apostellein得出,送音译。Whereas several words for send are used in the NT, expressing such ideas as dispatch, release, or dismiss, apostellein emphasizes the elements of commission, authority of and responsibility to the sender.而对于发送多个字用在NT,表达作为调度,发布,或解雇这样的想法,apostellein强调佣金元素,权威和责任给发件人。 So an apostle is properly one sent on a definite mission, in which he acts with full authority on behalf of the sender and is accountable to him.因此,一个使徒是一个明确的使命上正确,在他的行为有充分的权力对发件人的代表,并负责给他送的。

The noun occurs only once in the LXX.名词只发生一次,在LXX。When the wife of Jeroboam came to Ahijah seeking information about the health of her son, the prophet answered, "I am sent unto thee with heavy tidings" (I Kings 14:6).当耶罗波安的妻子来到亚希雅寻求对她儿子的健康信息,先知回答说:“我向你发送与重福音”(列王记上14:6)。Here apostolos renders the Hebrew saluah, which became a somewhat technical term in Judaism.这里阿波斯托洛呈现希伯来语saluah,成为犹太教有点技术术语。A saluah could be one who led the synagogue congregation in worship and thus represented it, or a representative of the Sanhedrin sent on official business.阿saluah可以是一个谁领导了在犹太教堂会众崇拜,因此代表它,或公务发送公会代表。The priesthood was included under this term also, and a few outstanding personalities of OT story who acted strikingly on God's behalf.圣职被列入这个词还和一些杰出人物的故事谁OT作用于上帝的名义惊人。But in no case did the saluah operate beyond the confines of the Jewish community.但在任何情况下做了saluah操作超出了犹太社区的范围。So there is no anticipation in the Saluah of the missionary emphasis associated with the NT apostolos.因此,有没有在与NT阿波斯托洛相关的宣教重点Saluah预期。

Christ as Apostle基督使徒

In Heb.在希伯来书。3:1 Jesus is called "the apostle of our confession," in conscious contrast to Moses, to whom Judaism ascribed the term saluah.3:1耶稣被称为“使徒 我们的忏悔,”在有意识的对比摩西,向谁犹太教冲高一词saluah。 Jesus spoke more directly from God than Moses was able to do.耶稣说神更直接比摩西是能够做到的。Repeatedly he made the claim of being sent by the Father.他反复做了被父亲送到索赔。When he declared that he was sending his chosen disciples into the world even as the Father had sent him, our Lord was bestowing on apostleship its highest dignity (John 17:18).当他宣​​布,他甚至被发送到了作为父亲送他的世界他选择的弟子,是赐予我们的主在使徒的最高尊严(约17点18)。

The Twelve as Apostles作为十二使徒

These men are most often called disciples in the Gospels, for their primary function during Christ's ministry was to be with him and learn of him.这些人是最经常被称为弟子的福音,因为他们在基督的事工的主要功能是与他,学习他。But they are also called apostles because Jesus imparted to them his authority to preach and to cast out demons (Mark 3:14-15; 6:30).但他们也被称为耶稣传授给他们,因为他的权力,传教和赶鬼(马克3:14-15; 6点30分)使徒。Just because this activity was limited while Jesus was with them, the term "apostle" is rarely used.正因为这个活动是有限的,而耶稣与他们同在,术语“使徒”很少使用。After Pentecost this situation was changed.五旬节之后这种情况发生了变化。

The number twelve recalls the twelve tribes of Israel, but the basis of leadership is no longer tribal, but personal and spiritual. 12号的回顾以色列的十二支派,但领导的基础不再是部落的,但个人和精神。Evidently the college of apostles was regarded as fixed in number, for Jesus spoke of twelve thrones in the coming age (Matt. 19:28; cf. Rev. 21:14).显然,使徒学院被视为固定的数量,因为耶稣的十二个宝座上谈到,在未来的年龄(太19点28;比照启示录21:14)。 Judas was replaced by Matthias (Acts 1), but after that no effort was made to select men to succeed those who were taken by death (Acts 12:2).犹大被替换了马蒂亚斯(徒1),但之后没有作出任何努力来选择男人的成功是由那些谁死(徒12:2)拍摄。

Apostles receive first mention in the lists of spiritual gifts (I Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11).使徒收到第一次提到的(林前12点28分。;弗4:11)精神礼物的清单。Since these gifts are bestowed by the risen Christ through the Spirit, it is probable that at the beginning of the apostolic age these men who had been appointed by Jesus and trained by him were now regarded as possessing a second investiture to mark the new and permanent phase of their work for which the earlier phase had been a preparation.由于这些礼物是由复活的基督通过圣灵的恩赐,很可能在使徒时代的开始这些谁被任命为耶稣和他所培训的男子现在拥有了第二天职,以新的和永久的纪念视为他们的工作相对于它早期阶段已经一个准备。 They became the foundation of the church in a sense secondary only to that of Christ himself (Eph. 2:20).他们成为教会的根基在某种意义上中学只有自己的基督(弗2:20)的。

The duties of the apostles were preaching, teaching, and administration.在使徒的职责是传道,教学和管理。Their preaching rested on their association with Christ and the instruction received from him, and it included their witness to his resurrection (Acts 1:22).他们的说教对他们的休息与基督和他收到的指令关联,而且包括他们见证了他的复活(徒1:22)。Their converts passed immediately under their instruction (Acts 2:42), which presumably consisted largely of their recollection of the teaching of Jesus, augmented by revelations of the Spirit (Eph. 3:5).他们立即通过转换根据其指令(徒2:42),这大概主要是他们的回忆耶稣的教学由圣灵的启示(弗3:5)增强,包括。 In the area of administration their functions were varied.在行政管理方面的职能是不同的。Broadly speaking, they were responsible for the life and welfare of the Christian community.从广义上讲,他们的生命和基督教社会福利负责。Undoubtedly they took the lead in worship as the death of Christ was memorialized in the Lord's Supper.毫无疑问,他们参加了崇拜基督的死是在主的晚餐上奏领先。They administered the common fund to which believers contributed for the help of needy brethren (Acts 4:37), until this task became burdensome and was shifted to men specially chosen for this responsibility (Acts 6:1-6).他们管理的共同基金,它的信徒为帮助有需要的弟兄们(使徒4时37)功不可没,直至这项任务过于繁琐,后来转移到专门为这个责任(徒6:1-6)选择男性。 Discipline was in their hands (Acts 5:1-11).纪律是在自己手中(徒5:1-11)。As the church grew and spread abroad, the apostles devoted more and more attention to the oversight of these scattered groups of believers (Acts 8:14; 9:32).由于教堂的生长和扩散国外使徒投入越来越重视这些信徒(徒8时14分; 9:32)散团监督。At times the gift of the Holy Spirit was mediated through them (Acts 8:15-17).有时是圣灵的恩赐是介导通过他们(徒8:15-17)。The supernatural powers which they had exercised when the Lord was among them, such as the exorcism of demons and the healing of the sick, continued to be tokens of their divine authority (Acts 5:12; II Cor. 12:12).超自然的,他们已行使当主是其中如恶魔驱魔和治愈的病人,权力,仍然是他们的神圣权力(徒5:12;二肺心病12:12)标记。 They took the lead in the determination of vexing problems which faced the church, associating the elders with themselves as an expression of democratic procedure (Acts 15:6; cf. 6:3).他们率先在其中所面临的棘手问题,决心带领教会,作为一个关联的民主程序表达自己的长辈与(使徒15时06分;比照6:3)。

Paul as Apostle如使徒保罗

The distinctive features of Paul's apostleship were direct appointment by Christ (Gal. 1:1) and the allocation of the Gentile world to him as his sphere of labor (Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:16; 2:8).保罗的使徒的显着特征是直接任命基督(加拉太书1:1)和外邦世界的分配,他的劳动(罗马书1:5;加拉太1:16;。2:8)球给他。 His apostleship was recognized by the Jerusalem authorities in accordance with his own claim to rank with the original apostles.他的使徒被确认符合要求按照自己的排名与原使徒由耶路撒冷当局。However, he never asserted membership in the Twelve (I Cor. 15:11), but rather stood on an independent basis.不过,他从来没有声称在十二成员(我肺心病。15:11),而是一个独立的基础上放着。He was able to bear witness to the resurrection because his call came from the risen Christ (I Cor. 9:1; Acts 26:16-18).他能够见证复活,因为他的电话从复活的基督(林前9:1。;徒26:16-18)来了。Paul looked on his apostleship as a demonstration of divine grace and as a call to sacrificial labor rather than an occasion for glorying in the office (I Cor. 15:10).看着他的使徒保罗作为一个神圣的恩典示范作为一个牺牲劳工,而不是在办公室glorying(林前15:10)一次通话。

Other Apostles其他使徒

The most natural explanation of Gal.GAL的最自然的解释。1:19 is that Paul is declaring James, the Lord's brother, to be an apostle, agreeable to the recognition James received in the Jerusalem church. 1点19的是,保罗是詹姆斯宣布,主的弟弟,是一个使徒,愉快的承认詹姆斯在耶路撒冷的教会接受。In line with this, in I Cor.按照这条线,在我肺心病。15:5-8, where James is mentioned, all the other individuals are apostles.15:5-8,其中詹姆斯提到的,所有的其他人是使徒。 Barnabas (along with Paul) is called an apostle (Acts 14:4, 14), but probably in a restricted sense only, as one sent forth by the Antioch church, to which he was obligated to report when his mission was completed (14:27).巴拿巴(与保罗)被称为使徒(使徒14时04,14),但可能只在一个受限制的感觉,作为一个就差了安提阿教会,他有义务报告时,他的使命已经完成(14 :27)。He was not regarded as an apostle at Jerusalem (Acts 9:27), though later on he was given the right hand of fellowship as well as Paul (Gal. 2:9).他不是视为使徒在耶路撒冷(徒9:27),但后来他又获得以及保罗(加拉太书2:9)的奖学金右手。Andronicus and Junias are said to be of note among the apostles (Rom. 16:7).安多尼古和Junias据说是在使徒中的说明(罗马书16:7)。Silvanus and Timothy seem to be included as apostles in Paul's statement in I Thess.西拉和提摩太似乎是在保罗​​在帖前声明使徒包括在内。2:6.2点06。The references in I Cor.在林前的参考。9:5 and 15:7 do not necessarily go beyond the Twelve.九时05分和15时07不一定超越十二。

It is reasonably clear that in addition to the Twelve, Paul and James had the leading recognition as apostles.这是相当清楚,除了十二,保罗和詹姆斯为使徒领导的认可。Others also might be so indicated under special circumstances.其他人也可能是在特殊情况下如此表示。But warrant is lacking for making "apostle" the equivalent of "missionary."但权证缺乏制作“使徒”相当于“传教”。In the practice of the modern church, prominent pioneer missionaries are often called apostles, but this is only an accommodation of language.在现代教会的做法,突出先驱传教士通常被称为使徒,但这只是一种语言的住宿。 In the apostolic age one who held this rank was more than a preacher (II Tim. 1:11).在使徒时代一个谁举行的排名比一个牧师(二添。1:11)以上。All disciples were supposed to be preachers, but not all were apostles (I Cor. 12:29).所有弟子都应该是传道,但不是所有的人使徒(我肺心病。12:29)。Curiously, at one point in the church's life all were busy preaching except the apostles (Acts 8:4).奇怪的是,在一个教会的生活点都是除了使徒(徒8:4)繁忙的说教。Paul would not have needed to defend his apostleship with such vehemence if he were only defending his right to proclaim the gospel.保罗也不会需要这样激烈捍卫自己的使徒,如果他只是捍卫自己的权利,宣讲福音。Alongside the distinctive and more technical use of the word is the occasional employment of it in the sense of messenger (Phil. 2:25; II Cor. 8:23).除了这个词的特色,更多的技术使用的是它的使者(腓2时25分,二肺心病8时23分)。感偶尔就业。

EF HarrisonEF哈里森
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

See also:另见:
Apostolic Succession使徒继承
Authority in Church管理局在教会

Bibliography 参考书目
A. Fridrichsen, The Apostle and His Message; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; K. Lake in The Beginnings of Christianity, V, 37-59; JB Lightfoot, St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; CK Barrett, The Signs of an Apostle; W. Schmithals, The Office of Apostle in the Early Church; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT; J. Roloff, Apostalat, Verkundigung, Kirche; G. Klein, Die Zwolf Apostel, Ursprung und Gehalt einer Idee; KH Rengstorf," TDNT, I, 398ff.; JA Kirk, "Apostleship Since Rengstorf," NTS 21:2149ff.; D. Muller and C. Brown, NIDNTT,I, 126ff. A.,使徒和他的信息Fridrichsen; FJA园艺,基督教教会; K.湖基督教,V,37-59的开端; JB娜莱,圣保禄的书信向加拉太; TW曼森,教会事工; CK巴雷特,一个使徒的迹象; W. Schmithals,在早期教会使徒办公室; KE柯克,教育署,使徒部;,教会在NT命令E.施韦策的J. Roloff,Apostalat,Verkundigung, Kirche; G.克莱因,模具Zwolf Apostel,Ursprung UND Gehalt einer衣蝶; KH Rengstorf,“TDNT,我398ff; JA柯克,”使徒自Rengstorf,“NTS 21:2149 FF; D.穆勒和C布朗, NIDNTT,我,126ff。


Advanced Information先进的信息

A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy.另一派出一个人,一个使者,使者。This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Heb. 3:1; John 20:21).这个词是曾经作为耶稣基督的描述指定的父亲(希伯来书3:1;约翰20:21)发送。It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he intrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Matt. 10:1-5; Mark 3:14; 6:7; Luke 6:13; 9:1).它是,但是,一般用作指定的弟子身体的人,他intrusted他的教会组织和他的福音传播,“十二”,因为他们是所谓(太10:1-5;标记3: 14,6时07,路加福音6时13分,9:1)。We have four lists of the apostles, one by each of the synoptic evangelists (Matt. 10: 2-4; Mark 3:16; Luke 6:14), and one in the Acts (1:13).我们有四个列出了使徒,一个由每个天气福音(太10:2-4;马克3:16;路加福音6:14),并在行为(1:13)之一。

No two of these lists, however, perfectly coincide.没有这些列出了两个,但是,完全吻合。Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom," and by the gift of his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his church (John 14:16, 17, 26; 15:26, 27; 16:7-15).我们的上帝给了他们的“王国的钥匙”,并受到他的精神礼品装他们是创始人和他的教会省长(约翰14时16分,17,26,15点26分,27; 16点07分 - 15)。To them, as representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the gospel to every creature" (Matt. 28: 18-20).对他们来说,是代表他的教会,他给了委员会,以“传福音给万民听”(太28:18-20)。After his ascension he communicated to them, according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them for the discharge of their duties (Acts 2:4; 1 Cor. 2:16; 2:7, 10, 13; 2 Cor. 5:20; 1 Cor. 11:2).在他升天,他传达给他们,按照他的诺言,超自然的礼物有资格为他们履行职责(使徒行传2:4他们;林前二点16分,2:7,10,13,林后5: 20,林前11:2)。

Judas Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression, and Matthias was substituted in his place (Acts 1:21).犹大,一个“十二,”下降了越轨和马蒂亚斯是取代他的位置(徒1:21)。Saul of Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20; 20: 4; 26:15-18; 1 Tim. 1:12; 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11).扫罗的塔尔苏斯是事后添加到他们的数量(徒9:3-20; 20:4; 26:15-18;提前1:12; 2:7;提摩太1:11)。Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two Jameses (Acts 12:2, 17; 15:13; 21:18), but beyond this we know nothing from authentic history of the rest of the original twelve.卢克给予一定的彼得,约翰,和两个Jameses(徒12:2 17; 15点13; 21:18)帐户,但除了这一点,我们知道从原twelve休息真实的历史无关。After the martyrdom of James the Greater (Acts 12:2), James the Less usually resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the uncircumcision," usually travelled as a missionary among the Gentiles (Gal. 2:8).之后,詹姆斯大(徒12:2),詹姆斯就义欠通常居住在耶路撒冷,而保罗,“未受割礼的使徒”,通常作为一个在外邦人传教(加拉太书2:8)行驶。

It was characteristic of the apostles and necessary (1) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to testify of him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge (John 15:27; Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Cor. 9:1; Acts 22:14, 15).这是使徒和必要的(1)特征,他们应该已经看到了主,并能对他和他的复活作证,从个人知识(约翰15时27分;行为1时21分,22;林前9。 :1;使徒22时14分,15岁)。(2.) They must have been immediately called to that office by Christ (Luke 6:13; Gal. 1:1). (2)他们必须已马上打电话给该办公室由基督(路加福音6:13;加拉太1:1)。(3.) It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and thus secured against all error and mistake in their public teaching, whether by word or by writing (John 14:26; 16:13; 1 Thess. 2:13). (3)至关重要的是,他们应该infallibly的灵感,从而对所有的错误和失误在他们的公开教学担保,无论是字或以书面(约14:26;十六点13分;帖前2:13) 。(4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles (Mark 16:20; Acts 2:43; 1 Cor. 12:8-11).(4)资格是另一个奇迹的工作功率(马可福音十六点20;徒2点43分;林前12:8-11)。The apostles therefore could have had no successors.使徒因此可能暂时还没有接班人。They are the only authoritative teachers of the Christian doctrines.它们是基督教教义唯一权威教师。The office of an apostle ceased with its first holders.该办公室的使徒停止其第一持有人。In 2 Cor.在2肺心病。8:23 and Phil.8时23分和菲尔。 2:25 the word "messenger" is the rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere rendered "apostle." 2时25字“信使”是相同的希腊字的渲染,在其他地方提供的“使徒”。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

The Apostles使徒

Saint Matthew圣马太

In the New Testament, Saint Matthew was the New Testament tax collector called by Jesus Christ to be one of the 12 apostles (Matt. 9:9).在新约,圣马太是税吏新约耶稣基督呼吁是12使徒(太9:9)之一。Matthew has often been identified with Levi, the son of Alphaeus, also a tax collector (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27-28).马修经常被发现与列维,亚勒腓的儿子,也是一个收税(马克2时14分,路加福音5:27-28)。Although traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel According to Saint Matthew, modern scholarship strongly disputes this attribution.虽然传统上作为​​根据圣马太福音的作者认为,现代学术的强烈争议这一归属。 Matthew's symbol as an evangelist is an angel, and in art he is often depicted with sword and money bag.马修作为传播者的符号是一个天使,和他在艺术上往往与剑和钱袋描绘。Feast day: Sept. 21 (Western); Nov. 16 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:9月21日(西方); 11月16日(东区)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Matthew先进的和全面的条文,是在圣马太

Saint Peter圣彼得

Saint Peter was the most prominent of Jesus Christ's disciples.圣彼得是最耶稣基督的门徒突出。Originally named Simon son of Jonah (Matt. 16:17), he was given the Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.最初名为西蒙的儿子约拿(太16:17),他得到了耶稣或早期教会的阿拉姆名矶法;的名字的意思是“岩石”,并翻译成希腊文的彼得。

All that is known of Peter's life before he was called by Jesus is that he was a Galilean fisherman with a brother named Andrew.所有这一切是彼得的生活才知道他被称为是耶稣,他是一个名为安德鲁兄弟伽利略渔夫。Peter is mentioned numerous times in the Gospels and first 15 chapters of Acts.彼得是提到福音和使徒行传第15章无数次。 He is pictured as a leader and spokesman of the disciples; he identifies Jesus as Messiah (Mark 8:27; Matt. 16:16) and is selected as the rock on which the church will be built (Matt. 16:18).他描绘成一个领导者和发言人的弟子,他确定为弥赛亚耶稣(马可福音8:27;马特16:16),并作为其上教堂将建成石(太16:18)选择。 He is several times mentioned with the brothers James and John, with whom he witnesses the Transfiguration and Jesus' agony in Gethsemane.他多次与兄弟詹姆斯和约翰提到与他证人的变形和耶稣在客西马尼的痛苦。After Jesus' arrest Peter denies knowing him three times and later repents his denial (Matt. 26:69-75; John 18:10-27).经过耶稣逮捕彼得三次否认认识他,后来他拒绝悔改(太26:69-75;约翰18:10-27)。

In Acts, Peter is a leader in the Jerusalem church and engages in missionary activity in Samaria, Galilee, Lydda, Sharon, and Joppa.在使徒行传,彼得是在耶路撒冷教会的领导者和从事传教活动在撒马利亚,加利利,利达,沙龙,并约帕。He favors admission of Gentiles into the church but occupies a middle position between James (the "brother" of Jesus), who wants to keep Christianity very Jewish in practice, and Paul, who wishes to minimize requirements for Gentile converts.他主张外邦人进入教会的接纳,但占有之间詹姆斯(以下简称“兄弟”的耶稣),谁愿意保持基督教非常犹太人在实践中,和保罗,谁希望尽量减少中间位置詹蒂莱转换的要求。

The New Testament says nothing about Peter's life after his presence at the meeting in Jerusalem with James and Paul (Acts 15).新约后,他说,在耶路撒冷与詹姆斯和保罗(徒15)出席会议关于彼得的生活无关。Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill.后来消息人士说,彼得来到罗马,以身殉国(64-68)在尼禄和梵蒂冈山掩埋。Evidence concerning his presence, activity, and death in Rome is slight.证据就在罗马他的存在,活动和死亡是轻微的。

New Testament documents assign Peter a variety of roles.新约文件分配彼得多种角色。He is seen as a missionary fisherman, pastoral shepherd, martyr, recipient of special revelation, confessor of the true faith, magisterial protector, healer, and repentant sinner.他被看作是一个传教士渔民,牧民牧羊,烈士,接受特别的启示,在真正的信仰忏悔,威严的保护者,治疗师,和悔改的罪人。 These roles and images help explain the wealth of later stories and legends surrounding Peter and his high status in Christian literature, including his role in Roman Catholic belief as founder of the papacy.这些角色和图像帮助解释后来的故事和周围的彼得和他的文学地位很高,在基督教传说,包括他在罗马天主教教皇作为创始人的信念作用财富。 The two Epistles of Peter are ascribed to Peter, although the attribution is questioned.彼得的两个书信是归因于彼得,虽然归属受到质疑。Many postbiblical books were also produced in his name, notably the Acts of Peter.许多postbiblical书籍也产生了自己的名字,尤其是彼得行为。Feast day: June 29 (with Saint Paul).盛宴的日子:6月29日(与圣保罗)。

Anthony J. Saldarini安东尼J. Saldarini

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Brown, R., et al., eds., Peter in the New Testament (1973); Cullmann, Oscar, Peter, Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, trans.布朗,R.等人合编,在新约彼得(1973);。Cullmann,奥斯卡,彼得,门徒,使徒,烈士,跨。by FV Filson, 2d ed.由FV菲尔森,第2版。(1962); Murphy, WF, Upon This Rock (1987); O'Connor, DW, Peter in Rome (1969); Taylor, WM, Peter, The Apostle (1990); Thomas, WH, The Apostle Peter: His Life and Writings (1984); Winter, Michael M., Saint Peter and the Popes (1960; repr. 1979). (1962年);墨菲,WF,在这磐石(1987);奥康纳,德国之声,彼得在罗马(1969年);泰勒,WM,彼得,使徒(1990年),托马斯,WH,使徒彼得:他的生活和著作(1984年);冬季,迈克尔M.,圣彼得和教皇(1960年; 1979年再版)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Peter先进的和全面的条文,是在圣彼得

Saint James (James the Great)圣詹姆斯(詹姆斯大)

Together with his brother Saint John, Saint James was among the first disciples called by Jesus (Matt. 4:21).连同他的兄弟圣约翰,圣詹姆斯经由耶稣(太4:21)称为第一弟子。These sons of Zebedee, called the Boanerges ("Sons of Thunder"), joined the brothers Peter and Andrew, also fishermen by trade, in a close inner circle around Jesus.西庇太的儿子,这些称为Boanerges(“雷的儿子”),加入了兄弟彼得和安德鲁,也由贸易渔民在紧密围绕耶稣内圈。 James, Peter, and John were the only disciples present, for example, at the Transfiguration (Luke 9) and near Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.詹姆斯,彼得,约翰是唯一的弟子目前,例如在变形(路加福音9)和附近的耶稣在客西马尼园。James was martyred under Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12).詹姆斯以身殉国下希律亚基帕我(徒12)。According to legend, his bones were taken to Spain, and his shrine at Santiago de Compostela was one of the most important pilgrimage centers in the Middle Ages.据传说,他的骨头被带到西班牙,他在圣地亚哥德孔波斯特拉神社是在中世纪最重要的朝圣中心之一。Feast day: Apr. 30 (Eastern); July 25 (Western).盛宴的日子:4月30日(东区)7月25日(西方)。

Saint James (James the Great)圣詹姆斯(詹姆斯大)

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Boaner'ges, sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Luke 9:54). Boaner'ges,雷鸣,给予我们的主在他们的激越和浮躁的脾气(路九时54分)帐户詹姆斯和约翰(马可福音3:17)姓氏的儿子。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint James先进的和全面的条文,是在圣詹姆斯

Saint John圣约翰

Saint John, a Galilean fisherman and the son of Zebedee, was one of the Twelve Apostles.圣约翰,一个伽利略渔夫和西庇太的儿子,是十二门徒之一。John and his brother, Saint James (the Great), were called Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder, by Christ.约翰和他的弟弟,圣詹姆斯(大),被称为Boanerges,或迅雷儿子,由基督。Several passages in the Bible imply that this describes their intense loyalty and aggressive zeal (Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49, 54).圣经中的一些段落暗示,这说明他们的忠诚和强烈的进取热情(马克9点38分,路加福音9点49,54)。John was one of the inner circle among the Twelve.约翰的内心中圈选一个十二。Saint Peter, James, and John witnessed the Transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28) and went to Gethsemane with Jesus (Matt. 26:37; Mark 14:33).圣彼得,雅各,约翰目睹变形(太17:1;马克9点02分,路加福音9:28),前往与耶稣(马太福音26:37,马可福音14:33)到客西马尼。

Many people believe that John was the beloved disciple referred to in the fourth gospel.许多人认为约翰是心爱的弟子中提到的第四个福音。If so, he was beside Jesus at the Last Supper (John 13:23), was asked to care for Jesus' mother Mary (John 19:26), and was the first to comprehend Jesus' Resurrection (John 20:2-9).如果是这样,他旁边的耶稣在最后的晚餐(约13:23),被要求照顾耶稣的母亲玛利亚(约翰19时26分),并且是第一个理解耶稣的复活(约翰福音20:2-9 )。John had a prominent role in the early church (Acts 1:13, 8:14).约翰在早期教会突出作用(徒1:13,8:14)。Traditionally, five New Testament books are ascribed to him: the fourth gospel, three Epistles, and the Book of Revelation.传统上,五个新约书归功于他:第四个福音,三书信和启示录。Feast day: Dec. 27 (Western); Sept. 26 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:12月27日(西方); 9月26日(东区)。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Saint John圣约翰

Advanced Information先进的信息

Boaner'ges, sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Luke 9:54). Boaner'ges,雷鸣,给予我们的主在他们的激越和浮躁的脾气(路加福音9:54)帐户詹姆斯和约翰(马可福音3:17)姓氏的儿子。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint John先进的和全面的条文,是在圣约翰

Judas Iscariot犹大

Judas Iscariot was the Apostle who betrayed Jesus Christ to the authorities.犹大是出卖耶稣基督的使徒谁给当局。According to Matthew 27:4, Judas, distraught over Jesus' condemnation, returned his reward of 30 pieces of silver and hanged himself.据马修27:4,犹大,在耶稣的谴责悲痛欲绝,回到他的30个银币奖励和上吊自杀。According to Acts 1:18, Judas bought a field with the money, but fell headlong in it, injured himself, and died.根据法令1:18,犹大的钱购买了一个领域,但它扎进下跌,自己受伤,死亡。His surname may indicate that he belonged to the Sicarii, a radical political group.他的姓氏可能表明,他属于Sicarii,一个激进的政治团体。

Bibliography: Gartner, Bertil, Iscariot (1971); Schaumberg, EL, Judas (1981).参考书目:Gartner的数据,作者Bertil,犹大(1971年); Schaumberg,EL,犹大(1981)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Judas Iscariot先进的和全面的条文,是在犹大

Saint Matthias圣马蒂亚斯

In the New Testament, Matthias was the apostle chosen by lot to replace Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:15-26).在新约中,马蒂亚斯是通过抽签决定,以取代犹大(徒1​​:15-26)使徒。According to one tradition, he preached the gospel in Ethiopia.据一位传统,他鼓吹在埃塞俄比亚的福音。Feast day: May 14 (Roman); Feb. 24 (other Western); Aug. 9 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:5月14日(罗马),2月24日(西方)8月9日(东区)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Matthias先进的和全面的条文,是在圣马蒂亚斯

Saint Andrew圣安德鲁

St. Andrew was a fisherman whom Jesus called to be an Apostle (Matt. 4:19).圣安德鲁是耶稣所渔民称为是一个使徒(太4:19)。 He was also the brother of Simon Peter.他还对西门彼得的兄弟。According to a popular but mistaken tradition, Andrew was crucified on an X-shaped cross.据受欢迎,但错误的传统,安德鲁被钉死在X形的十字架。The crossed bars of the Scottish flag are derived from this belief.苏格兰国旗的交叉酒吧都源于这样的信念。St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland and Russia.圣安德鲁是苏格兰和俄罗斯的守护神。Feast day: Nov. 30.盛宴的日子:11月30日。

Saint Andrew圣安德鲁

General Information一般资料

Saint Andrew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ and the brother of Simon (later the apostle Peter).圣安德鲁是耶稣基督和西蒙(后来的使徒彼得)弟弟的十二门徒之一。A Galilean fisherman of Bethsaida, he was originally a disciple of John the Baptist.加利利的伯赛大渔夫,他原本是施洗约翰的门徒。In the Gospel of John (1:35-42), Andrew was the first called of Jesus' disciples.在约翰(1:35-42)福音,安德鲁是耶稣的门徒称为第一。According to tradition, Andrew was crucified at Patras, in Achaea, on an X-shaped cross, the form of which became known as Saint Andrew's Cross (see Cross).按照传统,安德鲁被钉在十字架在帕特雷,在亚该亚,在X形交叉,构成这成为为圣安德鲁十字(见十字架)闻名。Eusebius of Caesarea records that Andrew preached Christianity among the Scythians, thus becoming the patron saint of Russia.凯撒利亚记录的尤西比乌斯安德鲁之间的斯基泰人宣扬基督教,从而成为俄罗斯的守护神。He is also the patron saint of Greece.他也是希腊的守护神。In the 8th century relics of Andrew were taken to the future site of Saint Andrews in Scotland, so that he is the patron saint of that country as well; a white Saint Andrew's cross on a blue field is the national flag of Scotland.在8世纪的遗物安德鲁被送往苏格兰圣安德鲁未来的网站,让他是该国的守护神,以及,一个白色的圣安德鲁在蓝色领域交叉是苏格兰的国旗。 Andrew's feast day is November 30.安德鲁的盛宴一天是11月30号。

Saint Andrew圣安德鲁

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Andrew, manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord.安德鲁,希腊名男子气概,是我们主的使徒之一。He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4: 18; 10:2).他是在加利利的伯赛大(约1时44分),并且是西门彼得(太四:18; 10:2)的兄弟。On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples.有一次施洗约翰,他的弟子,他当时指着耶稣说:“看哪,神的羔羊”(约翰福音1:40);和安德鲁,听他,立刻成为耶稣的追随者,他的第一弟子。 After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to Jesus.之后,他曾率领承认耶稣是弥赛亚,他的第一个护理是将他的弟弟也西蒙耶稣。The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment (Matt. 4:18, 19; Mark 1:16, 17).两兄弟似乎都在这一个追求,而他们通常要求为渔民,并没有成为主的说明后,服务员到约翰的监禁(太4点18分,19;马克1:16,17)。 Very little is related of Andrew.很少是相关的安德鲁。He was one of the confidential disciples (John 6:8; 12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming (Mark 13:3).他是保密的门徒(约翰6时08分; 12:22),并与彼得,雅各和约翰,我们的主私下询问有关他未来的未来(马可福音13:3)。He was present at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:9), and he introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus (John 12:22); but of his subsequent history little is known.他是在5000(约6:9)喂养现在,他推出了希腊人谁想要看到耶稣(约12:22),但他后来的历史知之甚少。It is noteworthy that Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks.值得注意的是,安德鲁三次基督带给他人,(1)彼得(2)与面包的小伙子,和(3)某些希腊人。These incidents may be regarded as a key to his character.这些事件可能会被视为对他的性格的关键。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Andrew先进的和全面的条文,是在圣安德鲁

Saint Philip圣菲

Saint Philip, one of Jesus' first apostles, brought Nathanael (or Bartholomew) to Jesus (John 1:43-51).圣菲,耶稣的第一个使徒之一,带来了拿(或巴塞洛缪)耶稣(约翰福音1:43-51)。He was present at the feeding of the 5,000 (John 6:5-7) and acted as an intermediary for Gentiles wishing to meet Jesus (John 12:20-22).他目前在5000喂养(约6:5-7),并作为对希望满足耶稣(约翰福音12:20-22)外邦人中间人。Feast day: Nov. 14 (Eastern); May 3 (Western).盛宴的日子:11月14日(东区); 5月3日(西方)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Philip先进的和全面的条文,是在圣菲

Saint Bartholomew圣巴塞洛缪

Saint Bartholomew was one of the Apostles, mentioned only in the lists of the Twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13).圣巴塞洛缪是使徒之一,只有在名单中提到的十二(太10时03分,马克3时18分,路加福音6:14;徒1:13)。 His name means "son of Tolmai," and he is frequently identified with Nathanael (John 1).他的名字的意思是“Tolmai儿子”,他经常与拿(约1)确定。According to tradition, he was martyred in Armenia.根据传统,他以身殉国的亚美尼亚。Feast day: Aug. 24 (Western); June 11 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:8月24日(西方); 6月11日(东区)。

He may have been the same person as Nathanael.他可能已被作为拿同一个人。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Bartholomew was a son of Tolmai, and one of the twelve apostles (Matt. 10:3; Acts 1:13); generally supposed to have been the same as Nathanael.巴塞洛缪是一个Tolmai儿子,和十二使徒(马太10时03分;徒1:13),一个一般假定已经为拿一样的。 In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew.在天气福音菲利普和巴塞洛缪总是提到在一起,而拿从未被提及,在第四福音,另一方面,菲利普和拿同样提到在一起,但没有什么是巴塞洛缪说。 He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection (John 21:2).他的弟子谁我们的主在太巴列海出现在他的复活(约翰21时02分)之一。He was also a witness of the Ascension (Acts 1:4, 12, 13).他也是耶稣升天(徒1:4,12,13)见证。He was an "Israelite indeed" (John 1:47).他是一个“以色列人确实”(约翰1时47分)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Bartholomew先进的和全面的条文,是在圣巴塞洛缪

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Nathanael先进的和全面的条文,是在

Saint Thomas圣托马斯

One of the original 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ, Thomas, called Didymus, refused to believe in the testimony of the other Apostles concerning the resurrection of Jesus until he saw the wounds of the resurrected Christ himself (John 20:24, 25, 26-29).原12耶稣基督,托马斯,使徒之一称为Didymus,拒绝在有关耶稣的复活其他使徒的见证相信,直到他看到了复活的基督自己(约翰20时24分,25,26的伤口 - 29)。From this comes the expression "doubting Thomas."由此而来的表达“怀疑托马斯。”Thomas earlier had expressed great devotion (John 11:16) and a questioning mind (John 14:5).托马斯早些时候曾表示了极大的奉献(约翰11:16)和质疑头脑(约翰福音14:5)。

Eusebius of Caesarea records that Thomas became a missionary to Parthia.凯撒利亚记录的尤西比乌斯,托马斯成为一个安息传教士。The Acts of Thomas (3d century), however, states that he was martyred in India.托马斯的行为(3D世纪),然而,他在印度殉国状态。The Malabar Christians claim that their church was founded by him.马拉巴尔基督徒声称,他们的教会是由他创立。This tradition can neither be substantiated nor denied on the basis of current evidence.这种传统既不能得到证实,也不否认对现有证据的基础。Saint Thomas' Mount in Madras is the traditional site of his martyrdom.圣托马斯在马德拉斯山是他的殉难传统的网站。Feast day: July 3 (Western and Syrian); Oct. 6 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:7月3日(西方和叙利亚),10月6日(东区)。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Griffith, Leonard, Gospel Characters (1976); Perumalil, Hormice C., and Hambye, ER, eds., Christianity in India (1973).格里菲斯,伦纳德,福音字(1976); Perumalil,Hormice C.和Hambye,ER,EDS,基督教(1973)在印度。

Saint Thomas圣托马斯

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Thomas, twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.).托马斯,双胞胎,这十二个(太十时03分,马克3时18分,等)之一。He was also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name.他还呼吁Didymus(约11点16; 20:24),这是希腊文,希伯来文的名字相同。All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24, 25, 26-29).我们所知道的关于他的记录在第四福音(约11点15分,16; 14点04分,5; 20时24分,25,26-29)。 From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.从,在使徒的名单他总是提到与马修,谁是亚勒腓(马可福音3:18)的儿子,而这两种情况下总是跟着詹姆斯,谁也亚勒腓的儿子,它已经假定这三个,马太,托马斯和詹姆斯,是兄弟。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Saint Thomas圣托马斯

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Did'ymus Did'ymus

(Gr. twin = Heb. Thomas, qv), John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2. (希腊语双=希伯来托马斯,QV),约翰11点16分,20时24分,21时02分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Thomas先进的和全面的条文,是在圣托马斯

Saint James (James the Lesser)圣詹姆斯(詹姆斯小)

Saint James the Lesser was the Apostle James, son of Alphaeus and disciple of Jesus (Mark 3:18).圣詹姆斯小是使徒詹姆斯,亚勒腓的儿子和耶稣的门徒(可3:18)。His mother, Mary, was one of the women at the crucifixion and at the tomb (Matt. 10:3; 27:56, Mark 15:40; 16:1; Acts 1:13).他的母亲,玛丽,是一名妇女在十字架上,并在墓(太十点03,27:56,马克15点40分,16:1;徒1:13)。 This James is sometimes identified with James the "brother of Jesus," although this and other identifications are unproven.这是詹姆斯有时发现与詹姆斯的“耶稣的兄弟”,虽然这和其他标识都未经证实。Feast day: Oct. 9 (Eastern); May 3 (Western, since 1969).盛宴的日子:10月9日(东区); 5月3日(西,自1969年以来)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint James (the Less)先进的和全面的条文,是在圣詹姆斯(欠)

Saint Simon圣西门

Saint Simon the Less, one of the 12 apostles, appears only in the biblical lists of Jesus' disciples.圣西门的少,耶稣的12门徒之一,仅出现在耶稣的门徒圣经的名单。Called the Zealot by Luke and called the Cananaean (Aramaic for "zealot") by Matthew and Mark, he may have originally belonged to the Zealots, an extremist group (possibly called the Sicarri) opposed to Roman rule in Palestine.被称为狂热者的卢克,并呼吁由马修和马克的Cananaean(为“痴迷者”阿拉姆语),他可能原本属于狂热者,极端主义小组(可能称为Sicarri)反对在巴勒斯坦罗马统治。 Feast day: May 10 (Eastern); Oct. 28 (Western; with Saint Jude).盛宴的日子:5月10日(东区)10月28日(西;与圣裘德)。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Simon先进的和全面的条文,是在圣西门

Saint Thaddaeus圣达太

Thaddaeus is mentioned in Mark 3:18 and Matt.达太是提到马克3:18和马特。10:3 as one of Jesus Christ's original 12 apostles.作为耶稣基督的原10时03分12使徒之一。He is often identified with the Jude, or Judas, son of James, in Luke 6:16.他经常发现与裘德,或犹大,雅各的儿子,在路加福音6点16分。Although this identification helps reconcile the biblical lists of apostles, little is known of this minor figure.虽然这个标识有助于调和圣经使徒的名单,很少有人知道这个小数字。Feast day: October 28 (Western); June 19 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:10月28日(西方); 6月19日(东区)。

Saint Thaddaeus圣达太

Advanced Information先进的信息

Thaddeus, breast, the name of one of the apostles (Mark 3:18), called "Lebbaeus" in Matt.撒迪厄斯,乳腺,对使徒之一(马克3:18)的名字,叫“Lebbaeus”在马特。10:3, and in Luke 6: 16, "Judas the brother of James;" while John (14:22), probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot." 10点03,并在路加福音6:;“。犹大,而不是犹大”16,“犹大詹姆斯的兄弟”,而约翰(14:22),大概指的是同一个人,说的是These different names all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle.这些不同的名称都指定同一人,即,裘德或犹大,对书信的作者。(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯顿说明字典)

Saint Jude圣裘德

Jude, sometimes called Judas, or Jude Thaddaeus, is mentioned in Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13 as one of the apostles of Jesus.裘德,有时也被称为犹大,或裘德达太,提到在路加福音6:16行为作为耶稣的使徒之一1:13。He was traditionally believed to have been the author of the Epistle of Jude and is often identified with Thaddaeus, the apostle mentioned in Mark 3:18 and Matt.他认为传统一直是书信的裘德作者和经常与达太,在马克3点18和马特提到使徒确定。10:3.10:3。Among Roman Catholics he is known as the patron saint of desperate cases.其中罗马天主教徒,他是被称为绝望的情况下的守护神。 Feast day: June 19 (Eastern), Oct. 28 (Western; with Saint Simon).盛宴的日子:6月19日(东区),10月28日(西;与圣西门)。

He may have been the same person as Saint Thaddeus.他可能已被作为圣赛迪斯同一人。

An advanced and comprehensive article is at: Saint Jude先进的和全面的条文,是在圣裘德

According to Hippolytus (170 AD- 236 AD)据希波吕托斯(170 AD - 236 AD)

Where Each OF The Twelve Apostles Preached, And Where He Met His End.那里的十二门徒每个宣讲,并在他遇到了他的结局。

1. Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.1, 彼得讲道在庞福音,和加拉太,和卡帕多西亚,并Betania酒店,意大利和亚洲,并于事后由尼禄在罗马钉在十字架上与他的头部向下,因为他自己想要遭受这种方式。

2. Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia; and there too he was buried.2, 安德鲁宣讲和色雷斯人的斯基泰人,被钉在十字架上,悬浮在一个橄榄树在Patrae,镇的亚该亚,和他有过被埋葬。

3. John , again, in Asia, was banished by Domitian the king to the isle of Patmos, in which also he wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic vision; and in Trajan s time he fell asleep at Ephesus, where his remains were sought for, but could not be found.3, 约翰 ,再次,在亚洲,被放逐的多米提安国王岛上的帕特莫斯,其中还他写他的福音,看到了世界末日的愿景;和图拉真他倒下的时间在以弗所,在那里他的遗体被要求睡着为,但无法找到。

4. James , his brother, when preaching in Judea, was cut off with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there.4, 詹姆斯 ,他的弟弟,当在犹太传道,被切断与分封的希律王剑,被埋葬在这里。

5. Philip preached in Phrygia, and was crucified in Hierapolis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and was buried there.5。 菲利普鼓吹在弗里吉亚,并在希拉波利斯钉在十字架上与他的头向下的多米提安时间,并埋葬在这里。

6. Bartholomew , again, preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward, and was buried in Allanum, [1976] a town of the great Armenia.6。 巴塞洛缪 ,再次鼓吹的印第安人,他 ​​对谁也给了马太福音,被钉在十字架上与他的头部向下,并于Allanum埋,[1976]一个伟大的亚美尼亚镇。 [1977][1977]

7. 7。And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue, [1978] and published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees, a town of Parthia.马修在希伯来文写的舌头福音,[1978]并公布在耶路撒冷它,下跌Hierees,一个安息镇睡着了。

8. 8。And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians, [1979] and was thrust through in the four members of his body with a pine spears [1980] at Calamene, [1981] the city of India, anti was buried there.托马斯宣扬的帕提亚人,玛代人,波斯人,Hyrcanians,Bactrians和Margians,[1979],并在他身上推的四名成员通过与松树长矛[1980]在Calamene,[1981]印度城市,反被埋葬在这里。

9. 9。And James the son of Alphaeus , when preaching in Jerusalem.詹姆斯亚勒腓的儿子 ,当在耶路撒冷的说教。was stoned to death by the Jews, and was buried there beside the temple.被石头砸死的犹太人,被安葬在寺旁有。

10. Jude , who is also called Lebbaeus , preached.10 犹大 ,谁也叫Lebbaeus,鼓吹。to the people of Edessa, [1982] and to all Mesopotamia, and fell asleep at Berytus, and was buried there.对埃德萨的人,[1982]和所有美索不达米亚,并在Berytus睡着了,被埋葬在这里。

11. Simon the Zealot , [1983] the son of Clopas, who is also called Jude, became bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just, and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 120 years.11, 西蒙的狂热者 ,[1983]的Clopas,谁也叫犹大,儿子成了耶路撒冷主教后詹姆斯公正,睡着了,被埋葬在那里的120岁。

12. 12。And Matthias , who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, and fell asleep and was buried there.马蒂亚斯 ,谁是在71,被编号以及十一使徒,并在耶路撒冷讲道,睡着了,被埋葬在这里。

13. 13。And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the assumption of Christ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he advanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching the Gospel for five-and-thirty years.而使徒保罗进入了一年之后,基督的假设,并在耶路撒冷开始,他就伊利里库姆先进,意大利,西班牙,说教为五年和,三十年的福音。 And in the time of Nero he was beheaded at Rome, and was buried there.而在Nero的时间,他在罗马被斩首,被埋葬在这里。


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Apostle (Greek ἀπόστολοσ, from ἀποστήλλειν, "to send"), a person delegated for a certain purpose; the same as sheliaḦ or sheluaḦ in Hebrew, one invested with representative power.使徒,为一定的目的委派一人(希腊文ἀπόστολοσ,从ἀποστήλλειν,“送”);的相同sheliaḦ或sheluaḦ在希伯来语,具有代表性的电力投资之一。 "Apostoloi" was the official name given to the men sent by the rulers of Jerusalem to collect the half-shekel tax for the Temple, the tax itself being called "apostolé." “Apostoloi”是正式名称给予了耶路撒冷的统治者送到收集了圣殿半谢克尔税,税收本身被称为男人“apostolé。”See Theod.见Theod。Reinach, "Textes Grecs et Romains, etc.," 1895, p.雷纳克,“T​​extes Grecs等Romains等,”1895年版,第208, and also Grätz, "Gesch. der Juden," iv.208,也格拉茨,“Gesch。DER Juden,”四。476, note 21, where Eusebius is quoted as saying: "It is even yet a custom among the Jews to call those who carry about circular letters from their rulers by the name of apostles"; Epiphanius, "Hæreses," i. 476,注21,其中尤西比乌斯是对媒体表示:“这甚至还不是犹太人的习俗中调用那些谁携带由使徒的名字从他们的统治者有关通函”;埃皮法尼乌斯,“Hæreses,”一 128: "The so-called apostoloi are next in rank to the patriarchs, with whom they sit in the Sanhedrin, deciding questions of the Law with them." 128:“所谓的apostoloi是下一个等级的长者,与他们坐在公会,决定与他们的法律问题。”The emperor Honorius, in his edict of 399, mentions "the archisynagogues, the elders and those whom the Jews call apostoloi, who are sent forth by the patriarch at a certain season of the year to collect silver and gold from the various synagogues" ("Cod. Theodos." xvi. 8, 14, 29. Compare Mommsen, "Corpus Inscr. Lat." ix. 648. See Apostolé).皇帝挪,在他的399诏书,提到“的archisynagogues,长老和那些被犹太人呼吁apostoloi,谁就差在一年的某些季节由族长,收集各种犹太教堂金银”( “鳕鱼。Theodos。”十六,8,14,29。比较蒙森,“语料库Inscr。纬度。”九,648见Apostolé)。

Grätz, looking for parallels in Talmudical literature, refers to Tosef., Sanh.格拉茨,在Talmudical文学寻找相似之处,是指Tosef。,Sanh。ii.II。6; Bab.6;巴布。11b, wherein it is stated that the regulation of the calendar or the intercalation of the month, the exclusive privilege of the patriarch, was delegated by him only to representative men such as R. Akiba and R. Meïr, to act for him in various Jewish districts. 11B,其中中指出,该日历或当月插调节,族长独家特权,他被授予唯一的,如秋叶和R. R.梅尔,代表男人对他的行为在各个犹太区。(Compare also RH 25a and elsewhere.) Such delegates in ancient times were also appointed by the communal authority, sheluḦe bet din (delegates of the court of justice), to superintend the produce of the seventh year of release, so that no owner of fruit, fig, and olive trees, or of vineyards, should keep more than was needful for his immediate use-for three meals; the rest was to be brought to the city storehouse for common distribution every Friday (Tosef., Sheb. viii.).(比较也RH 25A和其他地方。)在古代这些代表们也由公共机关任命的,sheluḦe赌DIN(法院的司法代表),以督发行的第七个年头产生,所以没有老板果,无花果,和橄榄树,或者应该保持更多的葡萄园比needful他三餐即刻使用,其余的是带来了共同配送的城市库逢星期五(Tosef.,帅八。 )。The name "delegate of the community" ("sheliaḦ ẓibbur"), given to him who offers the prayers on behalf of the congregation (Ber. v. 5), rests on the principle of representation as it is expressed in the Mekilta on Exodus, xii.命名为“委托社会”(“sheliaḦẓibbur”),谁给他提供了对众(Ber. 5节)的名义祈祷,在于它是在出埃及记Mekilta上表达了对代表原则,第十二章。6: "The whole assembly of Israel shall slaughter it."6:“以色列整个大会应宰杀它。”How can a whole congregation do the slaughtering?怎样才能做一个整体众屠宰?"Through the delegate who represents it."“通过委托谁代表它。”Accordingly, the elders of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem addressed the high priest "sheluḦenu usheluaḦ bet din" (our delegate and the delegate of the tribunal) (Yoma 18b).因此,对耶路撒冷的长老公会处理的大祭司“sheluḦenuusheluaḦ赌DIN”(我们的代表,法庭委托)(山脉18B)。 (The "angels of the churches," Rev. ii. 1, 12, 18; iii. 1, 7, 14, are probably also the "delegates of the churches," not angels, as is the general opinion.) Other delegates-"sheluḦim"-are mentioned in the Talmud: "Those sent forth to accomplish philanthropic tasks ["sheluḦe miẓwah"] need fear no disaster on the road" (Pes. 8b).(在“天使的教会”启示录II 1,12,18;三,1,7,14,可能还“的教会代表,”不是天使,因为是普遍的看法。)其他代表 - “sheluḦim” - 犹太法典中提到:“那些差遣完成慈善任务[”sheluḦemiẓwah“]需要恐惧的道路上无灾”(Pes. 8B)。"Those delegated to collect charity ["gabbae ẓedakah"] were always appointed in pairs, and not allowed to separate in order to avoid suspicion" (BB 8b). “委托给慈善机构收集这些[”gabbaeẓedakah“]总是在对任命,并不得单独以避免怀疑”(BB 8B)。As a rule two prominent men are spoken of as being engaged together in such benevolences as ransoming captives, and similar acts of charity (Abot R. Nathan [A], viii.; Lev. R. v. Compare the "Ḥaburot" of Jerusalem, Tosef., Megillah, iv. 15).作为一项规则两个突出的男人说成是从事为ransoming俘虏,类似的慈善行为(Abot R.弥敦道[A],八等benevolences在一起;。列弗R.诉比较“Ḥaburot”耶路撒冷,Tosef。,Megillah,四15)。 Ḥama bar Adda was called "sheliaḦ Zion" (delegate of Zion), as being regularly sent by the authorities of Babylonia to Palestine charged with official matters (Beẓah 25b; Rashi and 'Aruk).哈马栏阿达被称为“sheliaḦ锡安”(锡安代表),作为是定期发送的巴比伦当局与(Beẓah25B; Rashi和“Aruk)正式控告事项巴勒斯坦。

The apostles, known as such from the New Testament, are declared to have derived name and authority from Jesus, who sent them forth as his witnesses (see Luke, vi. 13; Herzog and Hastings, sv "Apostles").使徒,从已知的新约等,都宣称有来自耶稣,谁送他的证人为他们提出(见路加福音,六13;赫尔佐格和黑斯廷斯,SV“使徒”)的名称和权威性。 But they were also originally delegated by the holy spirit and by the laying on of hands (Acts xiii. 3) to do charity work for the community (see II Cor. viii. 23).但他们也原本委托按手(徒十三3)为社会做慈善工作(见二肺心病。八,23)由圣灵和铺设。"At the feet of the apostles" were laid the contributions of the early Christians to their common treasury, exactly as was done in the year of release in every city (Tos. Shebiit, viii. 1) and in every Essene community (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 3). “在使徒的脚”是他们共同奠定了国库的早期基督徒的贡献,正是因为是在释放在每个城市年(Tos. Shebiit,八1),在每一个社区做厄(约瑟夫, “BJ”二8,§ 3)。"Two and two" the apostles were enjoined to travel (Mark vi. 7; Luke x. 2), exactly as was the rule among the charity-workers (BB 8b), and exactly as the Essene delegates are described as traveling, carrying neither money nor change of shoes with them (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 3, § 4; comp. Matt. x. 9, 10; Luke ix. 3, x. 4, xxii. 35; bemaḳḳel we-tarmil, Yeb. 122a). “二加二”的使徒被责成旅游(马克六7;路加福音十2),是完全一样的规则之中,慈善工作者(BB 8B),并完全按厄代表作为旅游,携带描述没有钱也没有改变他们(约瑟夫,“BJ”二3,§ 4鞋;。排版太十9,10,路加福音九3,十4,22 35;。bemaḳḳelWE - tarmil,YEB 。122A)。Thus Paul always traveled in the company of either Barnabas or Silas (Acts xi. 30; xii. 25; xv. 25, 30), and was entrusted with the charitable gifts collected for the brethren in Jerusalem (see also I Cor. xvi. 1; II Cor. viii. 4, ix. 5; Rom. xv. 25; Gal. ii. 10); while Barnabas traveled also with Mark (Acts xv. 39, 40).因此,保罗总是在任巴拿巴或西拉斯company旅行(徒十一30;十二25;十五,25,30),并在耶路撒冷与弟兄们收集到的慈善捐赠委托(见我Cor十六。 1,二林八4,九5;。罗十五25;。加拉太二10);而巴拿巴前往与马克(徒十五39,40)也。Paul even mentions as "noted apostles who joined the Church of Christ before him his kinsmen and fellow-prisoners, Andronicus and Junia" (Rom. xvi. 7), persons otherwise unknown to us, but who in all likelihood had received no other mission or Apostleship than that of working in the field of philanthropy among the Jewish community of Rome.保罗甚至提到为“注意到使徒谁加入他面前的基督的教会他的亲属和同事囚,安多尼古和犹尼亚”(罗十六7),否则不明的人给我们,但谁在所有的可能性没有收到其他任务或比在慈善领域工作之中,罗马的犹太社区,使徒。

The meaning of the term "Apostle," still used in its old sense (Phil. ii. 25) of "Epaphroditus, your apostle [delegate] who ministers to my wants," was, however, already changed in the Christian Church during Paul's time.一词的意思是“使徒”,仍沿用其旧感(腓二25)“以巴弗提,你的使徒[代表]谁给我想部长,”是,然而,已经改变了基督教教会在保罗的时间。 It became the specific term for the one sent forth "to preach the kingdom of God" either to the Jews, or, as Paul and his disciples, to the heathen world (Mark iii. 14, vi. 7; Luke vi. 13; Rom. xi. 13).它成为了一个特定任期差遣“,以宣扬神的国”无论对犹太人,或者像保罗和他的弟子,对异教徒的世界(MARK III 14,六7;。路加福音六13;罗十一13)。"The gospel of the circumcision gave Peter the chief-apostleship of the Jews, the gospel of the uncircumcision gave Paul the apostleship of the Gentiles," according to Gal.他说:“割礼的福音给彼得是犹太人的首席,使徒,未受割礼的福音给保罗的外邦人使徒”,根据加仑。ii.II。7, 8; and so Paul calls himself an Apostle not of men but of Jesus Christ (Gal. i. 1). 7,8,等等保罗称自己是一个没有人,但耶稣基督(加一1)使徒。So the term "apostles of Christ" became a standing designation (I Thess. ii. 6), and it was confined to those who "saw Christ" (I Cor. ix. 1).所以说,“基督使徒”成为一个常设的指定(帖前二6),并只限于那些谁“看到了基督”(林前九1)。Finally, the number twelve, corresponding with the twelve tribes of Israel, was fixed in the Gospel records (Matt. x. 2; Mark iii. 14; Luke ix. 1; Acts i. 25) in opposition to the apostles of the heathen, who rose in number from one, in the case of Paul, to seventy (Luke x. 1).最后,12号,与以色列的十二支派相应的,是固定在福音记载(太十2; Mark III的14;路九1;徒一25)反对使徒的异教徒,谁增长人数由1名,在保罗的情况下,七十(路十1)。Even the act of preaching the good tidings concerning the coming Messiah on the part of the wandering delegates of the community (Luke iv. 18; because of which Jesus himself is once called the Apostle [Heb. iii. 1]) was not without precedent in Jewish life, as may be learned from the prayer for good tidings recited every newmoon ("Seder Rab Amram," 33, Warsaw, 1865; compare RH 25a and Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 21).即使是宣讲有关对社会的流浪部分代表未来的弥赛亚好消息的行为(路加福音四18; [。希伯来书三1],因为这是一度被称为耶稣使徒)并非没有先例在犹太人的生活,可以从祈祷学到的好消息背诵每newmoon(“家宴Rab的阿姆拉姆”33,华沙,1865年;。比较RH 25A和塔尔格也门里亚尔将军XLIX 21)。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

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