>Reformation宗教改革 size='+2'>General Information一般资料

The Reformation of the 16th century was a movement within Western Christendom to purge the church of medieval abuses and to restore the doctrines and practices that the reformers believed conformed with the Bible and the New Testament model of the church.在16世纪的宗教改革是在西方基督教运动,清除了中世纪教堂,并恢复滥用的教义和习俗的改革者认为与圣经和新约圣经的教会模式符合。 This led to a breach between the Roman Catholic Church and the reformers whose beliefs and practices came to be called Protestantism.这导致了与罗马天主教会和改革者的信念和做法后来被称为新教的行为。


The causal factors involved in the Reformation were complex and interdependent.在改革中涉及的偶然因素是复杂和相互依存的。 Precursors of the Reformation proper included the movements founded by John Wycliffe (the Lollards) and John Huss (the Hussites) during the 14th and 15th centuries.正确的改革前体包括由约翰威克里夫(即Lollards)和约翰胡斯(即胡斯派)创立于14和15世纪的运动。 These reform groups, however, were localized (in England and Bohemia) and were largely suppressed.这些改革的群体,然而,分别定位(在英格兰和波希米亚),并在很大程度上抑制。Changes in the intellectual and political climate were among the factors that made the reform movement of the 16th century much more formidable.在智力和政治气候变化的因素之一,使得在16世纪更加强大的改革运动。

The cultural Renaissance that occurred during the preceding century and a half was a necessary preliminary, because it raised the level of education, reemphasized the ancient classics, contributed to thought and learning, and offered Humanism and rhetoric as an alternative to Scholasticism.文艺复兴时期的文化,在一个半世纪前发生是必要的初步的,因为它提高了教育水平,再次强调了古代典籍,促进了思想和学习,并提出作为替代士林人文和修辞。 Especially through its emphasis on the biblical languages and close attention to the literary texts, the Renaissance made possible the biblical exegesis that led to Martin Luther's doctrinal reinterpretation.特别是通过其对圣经的语言和密切关注文学文本强调,文艺复兴成为可能的圣经注释,导致马丁路德的教义的重新解释。 Moreover, Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus criticized ecclesiastical abuses and promoted the study of both the Bible and the church fathers.此外,像基督教人文主义者伊拉斯谟Desiderius批评教会的滥用,促进了双方的圣经和教会的父亲学习。The invention of printing by Johann Gutenberg provided a powerful instrument for the spread of learning and Reformation ideas.而由约翰古腾堡发明印刷提供了一个学习和改革的思想传播的有力工具。

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That grave ills were spreading through the church was already evident at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, at which Pope Innocent III called for reform.这严重弊病是透过教会传播已经明显举行的第四次拉特兰会议于1215年,教皇英诺森三世在这要求改革。The papacy itself was weakened by its move from Rome to Avignon (1309-77), by the Great Schism of the papacy, which lasted four decades thereafter, and by the doctrine that supreme authority in the church belonged to general councils (Conciliarism).罗马教廷本身削弱了它的移动从罗马到阿维尼翁(1309年至1377年),由罗马教廷大分裂,历时四十年后,并经学说认为最高法院在教会的权威属于(Conciliarism)一般委员会。 The Renaissance popes were notoriously worldly.文艺复兴教皇是出了名的世俗。Abuses such as simony, nepotism, and financial excesses increased.如买卖圣职,任人唯亲,滥用和金融过度增加。The church was riddled with venality and immorality.这座教堂与见利忘义和不道德千疮百孔。The sale of Indulgences was a particularly unfortunate practice because it impinged upon true spiritual repentance and improvement of life.而宽容销售是一个特别不幸的做法,因为它在真正悔改的精神和生活的改善紧挨。At the same time a genuine upsurge of popular religiosity manifested itself and increased the disparity between the people's expectations and the church's ability to satisfy spiritual needs.同时,宗教真正的流行热潮显现和增加人民之间的的期望和教会的能力,以满足精神需求的差距。Some turned to mysticism and inward religion, but the great mass of people were restless and dissatisfied.有些转向神秘主义和外来宗教,但大多数人,被不安和不满。

A significant political change occurred during the later Middle Ages as well.一个重大的政治变化,以及发生在后来的中世纪。The Holy Roman Empire, which had lost cohesion partly as a result of its struggle with the papacy in the Investiture Controversy, was weakened by the growth of virtually independent territorial princedoms and free imperial cities.神圣罗马帝国,它已经失去了部分原因是它与罗马教廷的天职争议斗争的结果凝聚力,是无形中削弱了独立和自由的帝国领土princedoms城市的发展。 Externally the empire was weakened by the gradual evolution of the nation-states of modern western Europe.外部的帝国被削弱了现代西欧民族国家逐渐演变。The monarchies in France, England, and, later, Spain were developing dynastic strength and unity that enabled them largely to control the church within their borders.在法国,英国,以及后来的君主国,西班牙王朝的实力和发展了团结,使他们在很大程度上控制其境内的教会。

Economically, the rise of commerce and the shift to a moneyed economy had the effect of creating a stronger middle class in a more urban society.在经济上,商业的崛起和一个有钱的经济转变已经创造了一个更强大的城市中产阶层的社会效果。The church met financial difficulty during this time because it had become involved in the manorial economy, possessed landed wealth, and had trouble meeting its extensive administrative, diplomatic, and judicial obligations.教会在此期间,会见了财政困难,因为它已成为庄园经济的参与,拥有财富降落,只好麻烦满足其广泛的行政,外交,司法等义务。



The Reformation began in Germany on Oct. 31, 1517, when Martin Luther, an Augustinian university professor at Wittenberg, posted 95 theses inviting debate over the legitimacy of the sale of indulgences.在德国的宗教改革开始于1517年10月31日,当马丁路德,一个奥古斯丁在维滕贝格大学教授,发表论文95以上的赎罪券买卖的合法性邀请辩论。 The papacy viewed this as a gesture of rebellion and proceeded to take steps against Luther as a heretic.罗马教廷视为反叛的姿态,并着手采取此作为一个邪教组织对路德的步骤。The German humanists supported Luther's cause during the early years.德国人文主义支持路德在早年的事业。The reformer's three famous treatises of 1520, An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and On the Freedom of a Christian, also won him powerful popular support.在改革者的三个著名的论文在1520年的公开信的德国关于基督教村教会的巴比伦圈养,并在一个基督教国家自由改革基督教贵族,也为他赢得了强大的支持。 He was excommunicated in 1521, but in April of that year at the Diet at Worms he stood before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the German princes and refused to recant unless proven wrong by the Bible or by clear reason.他被逐出教会在1521年,但在当年4月在国会的蠕虫前他站在神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理五世和德国王子,拒绝放弃信仰被证明是错误的,除非圣经或明确的理由。 He believed that salvation was a free gift to persons through the forgiveness of sins by God's grace alone and received by them through faith in Christ.他认为,拯救了一个免费的礼物通过上帝的恩典单赦罪的人,并收到由他们通过信仰基督。

Luther was protected by Frederick III, elector of Saxony, and other German princes--partly out of intellectual and religious conviction, partly out of the desire to seize church property, and partly to assert independence of imperial control--gave their support to the reformers.路德是受保护的由Frederick III,萨克森州的选民,以及其他德国诸侯 - 部分原因是出于知识分子和宗教信念,这部分出了渴望夺取教会财产,部分断言帝国控制的独立性 - 给他们的支持改革者。In 1530 many princes and cities signed the Augsburg Confession presented at the Diet of Augsburg as an expression of the evangelical faith.1530年许多诸侯和城市签署了奥格斯堡供认在奥格斯堡作为福音派信仰表达国会提出。 After years of conflict the settlement reached in the Peace of Augsburg (1555) provided that each German prince would determine the religious affiliation (Roman Catholic or Lutheran) of the territory he ruled.经过多年的冲突中所提供的每一个德国王子将决定宗教信仰他统治的领土(罗马天主教或路德)奥格斯堡(1555)和平达成和解。 Lutheranism also became the established religion of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland.路德教也成为了丹麦,瑞典,挪威和芬兰建立了宗教。Apart from the role of the princes, however, the Reformation spread rapidly as a popular movement.除了从诸侯的作用,然而,宗教改革蔓延迅速成为流行的运动。It penetrated Poland, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, and Transylvania.它侵入波兰,波希米亚,摩拉维亚,匈牙利和特兰西瓦尼亚。


The Reformation in Switzerland initially developed in Zurich under the leadership of the priest Ulrich Zwingli.在瑞士苏黎世的改革初步形成下的牧师乌尔里希茨温利的领导。Zwingli had been influenced by Erasmus and by Christian humanism.茨温利已影响伊拉斯谟和基督教人文主义。He arrived at an evangelical understanding of Christianity from his study of the Bible and from contacts with Lutherans.他来到一个基督教福音派的理解,从他的圣经研究以及与路德会接触。On Jan. 1, 1519, he began a 6-year series of sermons on the New Testament that moved the city council and the people of Zurich toward reform.在1519年1月1日,他开始在新约感动,市议会和苏黎世的人民对改革的说教6年系列。The favorable response to The Sixty-Seven Articles, which he prepared for public disputation with a papal representative in 1523, proved the popularity of his program.有利的回应第六十七篇文章,这是他在1523年与罗马教皇代表公众争议的准备,证明了他的节目的知名度。He called for the abolition of the Mass (and its replacement by a symbolic Lord's Supper), independence from episcopal control, and a reform of the city-state in which both priests and Christian magistrates would conform to the will of God.他呼吁大众(和它的一个象征性的主的晚餐更换),从主教控制的独立性,以及这个城市国家,其中两个牧师和基督教裁判将符合神的旨意改革取消。 His influence spread to other Swiss cantons such as Basel, Saint Gall, and Bern.他的影响波及到诸如巴塞尔,圣胆,和其它瑞士伯尔尼州。


Through Lutheran tracts and merchant missionaries, the evangelical movement spread to France, where it won many converts, among whom was John Calvin.通过路德大片和商人传教士的福音派运动蔓延到法国,在那里赢得了许多转换,是其中约翰卡尔文。In 1536, Calvin went to Geneva, where a reformation led by Guillaume Farel was well under way. 1536年,卡尔文前往日内瓦,在那里由纪尧姆法惹勒领导的改革也正在进行中。Calvin was persuaded to stay in Geneva and helped organize the second major surge of Protestantism.卡尔文被说服留在日内瓦,筹办第二届新教主要激增。In his Ordinances of 1541, he gave a new organization to the church consisting of pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons.在1541年他的条例,他给了一个​​新的组织,教会牧师,医生,长老和执事组成。His Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) had great influence in France, Scotland (where John Knox carried the Calvinist reformation), and among the Puritans in England.他对基督教的宗教(1536)学院在法国的影响很大,苏格兰(其中约翰诺克斯携带的加尔文宗教改革),并跻身于英国的清教徒。 Geneva became the center of a great missionary enterprise that reached into France, where the Huguenots became so powerful that a synod met in Paris in 1559 to organize a nationwide church of some 2,000 reformed congregations.日内瓦成为一个伟大的传教士企业进入法国,那里的胡格诺教徒变得如此强大,一个主教会见了1559年在巴黎举办了全国约2,000改革众教会达成中心。 As a result of the French Wars of Religion, the Huguenot party was checked and the French monarchy kept the kingdom Catholic.作为法国的宗教战争的结果,被检查的Huguenot党和法国保持了君主制王国信奉天主教。


Although England had a religious reform movement influenced by Lutheran ideas, the English Reformation occurred as a direct result of King Henry VIII's efforts to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.虽然英国有一个由路德宗教改革运动思想的影响,英国宗教改革发生作为国王亨利八世的努力,他的第一任妻子离婚,阿拉贡凯瑟琳的直接结果。 The formal break with the papacy was masterminded by Thomas Cromwell, the king's chief minister.与罗马教廷正式打破了由托马斯克伦威尔策划,国王的首席部长。Under Cromwell's direction Parliament passed the Act in Restraint of Appeals (to Rome; 1533), followed by the Act of Supremacy (1534) fully defining the royal headship over the church.在克伦威尔的方向议会通过了上诉约束(罗马,1533)的法令,由疑云法完全确定在教堂皇家校长(1534)之后。 As archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine, allowing the king to marry Anne Boleyn.作为坎特伯雷大主教托马斯克兰默废止亨利的婚姻凯瑟琳,让国王娶安妮•博林。Although Henry himself wished to make no doctrinal changes, Cromwell and Cranmer authorized the translation of the Bible into English, and Cranmer was largely responsible for the Book of Common Prayer, adopted under Henry's successor, Edward VI.虽然亨利本人希望就没有理论的变化,克伦威尔和克兰默授权的圣经翻译成英文,并克兰默主要是为共同祈祷书在亨利的接班人,爱德华六世通过负责。 The gains that Protestantism made under Edward (r. 1547-53) were lost under his Catholic sister Mary I (r. 1553-58).新教的收益是​​根据爱德华(R. 1547年至1553年)提出了在他的天主教失去我的妹妹玛丽(R. 1553年至1558年)。The religious settlement (1559) under Elizabeth I, however, guaranteed the Anglican establishment.下的宗教和解伊丽莎白一世(1559),但是,保证了英国圣公会的建立。

The Radicals激进派

The radicals consisted of a great variety of sectarian groups known as Anabaptists because of their common opposition to infant baptism.激进派包括了,因为它们的共同反对婴儿洗礼再洗礼派著名教派团体种类繁多。 The Anabaptist leader Thomas Munzer played a leading role in the Peasants' War (1524-26), which was suppressed with the support of Luther.再洗礼派领袖托马斯闵采尔起到了农民战争(1524至1526年),这与路德支持镇压的主导作用。In Munster, radical Anabaptists established (1533) a short-lived theocracy in which property was held communally.在明斯特,激进的再洗礼派成立(1533)一个短暂的政教合一,其中财产持有公用的。This too was harshly suppressed.这也被严厉压制。The radicals also encompassed evangelical humanists and spiritualists who developed highly individualistic religious philosophies.激进派也包含福音人文主义和招魂谁开发高度个人主义的宗教哲学。


An obvious result of the Reformation was the division of Western Christendom into Protestant and Catholic areas.宗教改革的一个明显的结果是把西方基督教新教和天主教区域的划分。Another result was the development of national churches; these strengthened the growth of modern national states, just as, earlier, growing national consciousness had facilitated the development of the Reformation.另一个成果是国家教会的发展,这些加强了现代民族国家的增长,正如早些时候,增长促进了民族意识的改革发展。 The Catholic Counter-Reformation--including the founding of the Jesuits by Ignatius Loyola (sanctioned 1540), the Council of Trent (1545-63), the Inquisition, the Index, and reformed clergy like Charles Borromeo--gave new life to the old church and was in part a result of the Reformation movement.天主教反改革 - 包括由依纳爵罗耀拉耶稣会(批准1540年),安理会的遄达(1545年至1563年),宗教裁判所,索引,像查尔斯鲍罗麦欧改革神职人员成立 - 了新的生命,古老的教堂,并在一部分的改革运动的结果。Finally, the Reformation introduced much radical change in thought and in ecclesiastical and political organization and thus began many of the trends that are taken to characterize the modern world.最后,介绍了很多激进的改革在思想和教会和政治组织的变化,从而开始采取的是现代世界发展趋势的特点很多。

Lewis W. SpitzW.刘易斯斯皮茨

Bibliography 参考书目
Bainton, Roland H., Women of the Reformation (1977) and Age of the Reformation (1984); Chadwick, Owen, The Reformation (1964); Cowen, IB, The Scottish Reformation (1982); Dickens, AG, The English Reformation (1964) and The German Nation and Martin Luther (1974); Dickens, AG, et al., The Reformation in Historical Thought (1985); Donaldson, Gordon, The Scottish Reformation (1972); Elton, GR, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509-1558 (1978); Grimm, Harold, The Reformation Era, 2d ed. Bainton,罗兰H.,在宗教改革(1977年)和改革的时代(1984年)的妇女;查德威克,欧文,宗教改革(1964);考恩,兴业银行,苏格兰宗教改革(1982年);狄更斯,AG,英国宗教改革(1964年)和德意志民族和马丁路德(1974年);狄更斯,AG等人,在历史的思想改造(1985年);唐纳森,戈登,苏格兰宗教改革(1972年);埃尔顿,GR,改革与改造:英国,1509至58年(1978年);格林,哈罗德,宗教改革时代,2D版。 (1973); Hillerbrand, Hans J., Christendom Divided: The Protestant Reformation (1971), and, as ed., The Reformation (1978); McNeill, John T., The History and Character of Calvinism (1954); Olin, John, and Smart, JD, eds., Luther, Erasmus and the Reformation (1970; repr. 1982); Ozment, GR, The Reformation in the Cities (1975), and When Fathers Ruled (1983); Smith, Page, The Age of Reformation, 2 vols. (1973年); Hillerbrand,汉斯J.,基督教分为:新教改革(1971年),并作为主编,宗教改革(1978年);麦克尼尔,约翰T.,加尔文主义的历史和特点(1954年),欧林,约翰和灵动,JD,EDS,路德,伊拉斯谟和宗教改革(1970年;再版1982年); Ozment,GR,在城市改造(1975年),当父亲统治(1983年);史密斯,页,目前时代的宗教改革,2卷。(1962); Spitz, Lewis W., The Renaissance and Reformation Movement (1971), and The Protestant Reformation (1984).(1962年);施皮茨,刘易斯W.,文艺复兴和宗教改革运动(1971年),和新教改革(1984年)。

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Protestant Reformation (advanced information)新教改革(先进的信息)

Canons of Dort大炮的dort
Belgic Confessionbelgic自白
Heidelberg Confession海德堡的自白

Helvetic Confessionhelvetic自白
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Augsburg Confession奥格斯堡自白

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