The Koran, Qur'an or Qora'an古兰经,古兰经 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

هو إله طيبةGod is good.هوإلهطيبة上帝是好的。

لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا رسول الله.There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his Prophet. لاإلهإلاالله,وأنمحمدارسولالله。没有上帝,但上帝,穆罕默德是他的先知。

The Koran, or Qur'an (Arabic for "recital"), is the Sacred Scripture of Islam. 可兰经,或古兰经(阿拉伯语为“演奏会”),是神圣的伊斯兰教经文。Muslims acknowledge it as the actual words of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad between c.610 and his death (632).穆斯林承认有实际的话作为上帝他的死亡 (632 透露给先知穆罕默德之间c.610和The text contains 114 chapters (suras), arranged--except for the opening sura--approximately according to length, beginning with the longer chapters.文本包含114章(章节),安排 - 除了开幕苏拉 - 约按长度,从较长的章节的开始。

The Koran, termed glorious and wonderful (50:1; 72:1), describes itself as a healing and mercy, as light and guidance from God (17:82; 27:77; 41:44; 42:52), as the absolute Truth (69:51), and as a perspicuous Book sent down from heaven in Arabic (12:1-2), part by part (17:106; 25:32), upon Muhammad. Presented as a blessed reminder and an admonition to people everywhere (21:50; 38:87; 80:11-15), it calls for grateful recognition of the many signs, around us and in us (51:20-21), of the goodness of him from whom all good comes (4:79) and urges a total commitment to him who alone is God (112:1-4). Announcing Judgment Day as the final fulfillment of God's threat and his promise (21:97-104), it warns evildoers and those who are ungrateful (17:89; 25:50) but brings good tidings to those who accept the guidance to the straightest path (17:9) and who live in accord with its message and its commandments (regarding marriage and divorce, children and inheritance, lawful foods, spoils of war, and so on).可兰经,称为光荣和美好(50:1,72:1),自称是一个愈合和怜悯,光明,从上帝的指引,本身(17:82,27:77,41:44,42:52),作为绝对真理(69:51),并作为一个明白的书寄给从天上降下来的阿拉伯语(12:1-2),第二部分按零件(17:106; 25:32)。穆罕默德后, 列作提醒和祝福一告诫人们,到处(21:50,38:87; 80:11-15),它要求感谢承认在许多迹象,在我们身边,在我们(51:20-21)从,对他的善良谁所有好来(4:79),并敦促他共承担单是谁的威胁和他的承诺(21:97-104) 神(最后112:1-4)。宣布审判日为履行上帝,这警告那些坏人和谁是忘恩负义(17:89; 25:50),但带来的好消息对那些谁接受指导,以最直接路径(17:9),谁住在符合其信息和诫命(关于婚姻和离婚,儿童和继承权,合法的食品,战利品,等等)。 The text asserts that its message is neither a human invention (as its inimitability proves, 17:88) nor an innovation, since it confirms and clarifies the Scripture that Jews and Christians had received earlier (3:3; 5:15, 48; 35:31).该文声称,它的信息既不是人类的发明(作为其inimitability证明,17:88),也不是一个创新,因为它确认并澄清说,犹太人和基督徒收到较早(3:3经文; 5:15,48; 35:31)。

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It is generally believed that the standard text of the Koran, adopted during the reign (644-56) of the caliph Uthman, is based on the compilation of one of Muhammad's secretaries, Zayd Ibn Thalbit. By calligraphic copying of its verses, and in many other ways as well, Muslims express their devotion to this Scripture over which, they trust, God himself watches (15:9). 人们普遍认为,可兰经的标准文本,奥斯曼统治期间通过的(644-56)的哈里发,是根据伊本Thalbit汇编之一穆罕默德的秘书,栽德。通过其诗句书法复制,并在以及其他许多方面,穆斯林表达他们的献身精神在这本圣经,他们相信,上帝自己的手表(15:9)。

Willem A. Bijlefeld威廉答Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf, The Holy Qur'an, 2 vols.阿里阿卜杜拉优素福,神圣的古兰经,第2卷。(1937-38; repr. 1973); Arberry, AJ, The Koran Interpreted, 2 vols.(1937年至1938; 1973年再版。);阿伯里,欧塞尔,可兰经解释,第2卷。(1955; repr. 1969); Bell, Richard, Introduction to the Qur'an, ed.(1955年再版1969年。)贝尔,理查德,介绍古兰经,编辑。 by W. Montgomery Watt, 2d ed.由W.蒙哥马利瓦特,2版。(1970); Jeffery, Arthur, The Qur'an as Scripture (1952); Pickthall, Marmaduke, trans., The Meaning of the Glorious Koran (1930; repr. 1970).(1970年),杰弗里,亚瑟,古兰经经文(1952年); Pickthall,马曼杜克,反,光荣的可兰经的意义。(1930年,1970年再版。)。

The Koran or Qur'an可兰经或古兰经

Editor's Notes编者的话

The Prophet Muhammad was certainly important, and Muslims should definitely respect him.先知穆罕默德肯定是重要的,和穆斯林一定要尊重他。The following notes/comments are all carefully based on reliable Islamic scholars' works, particularly the early scholars who personally knew the facts and the people.下面的注释/评论都仔细基于可靠的伊斯兰学者的作品,特别是亲自谁知道的事实和人民早期的学者。None of these comments are meant to damage Islam and all are intended to assist Muslims and others to more fully know the history and background of the Holy Qu'ran.这些意见都不是为了损害伊斯兰教和所有的目的是帮助穆斯林和其他人更充分地了解历史和圣古兰经的背景。It appears that the majority of Muslims are never taught about many of these issues, and they are presented here in the quest for honesty and knowledge.看来,大多数穆斯林都从来没有教过这些问题很多,而且它们出现在诚实和知识的追求在这里。

As mentioned in the above article, the Koran is believed by Muslims to ACTUALLY be the words of God (Allah) as given to their Prophet Muhammad.如上述文章中提到,可兰经被认为是穆斯林,真正成为上帝(真主)的话作为给他们的先知穆罕默德。It was originally written down (in Arabic) around 645 AD, around 10-15 years after Muhammad's death.它本来是写下来(阿拉伯文)公元645左右,大约10-15年后,穆罕默德去世多年。

By the year 325 AD, three hundred years before the Koran, Christians had established the concept of the Trinity, as being ONE God, Who seemed to exist as Three different Persons, the Father (YHWH or Jehovah), the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost, and never varied from that.到了公元325年,三百年前的古兰经,基督教徒已经成立了三位一体的概念,作为一个上帝,他似乎存在三种不同的人,父亲(或耶和华耶和华),圣子(耶稣)和圣灵,从来没有从这个变化。 If the Koran is actually the words of God (Allah), and not altered in any way since they were given to Muhammad, it seems odd that the Koran presents the Christian Trinity as being God, Jesus, and Mary !如果古兰经的话其实是上帝(真主),不以任何方式改变,因为他们给穆罕默德,似乎奇怪的是可兰经介绍,玛丽被基督教三位一体的上帝,耶稣! (Sura 5:116) This seems to imply that God (Allah) made a mistake, or Muhammad made a mistake, or later copyists/commentators made a mistake (several times, as at Sura 5.77 and Sura 4.169).(苏拉5:116),这似乎意味着,上帝(真主)犯了一个错误,或穆罕默德犯了一个错误,或稍后copyists /评论员犯了一个错误(好几次,在苏拉5.77和苏拉4.169)。Scholars see such things as obvious problems, but virtually all Muslims overlook them, and consider anyone bringing up such things as blasphemous.学者看到这样的事情存在的突出问题,但几乎所有的穆斯林忽略了他们,并考虑任何人带来了这样的事情作为亵渎。

Over the past two hundred years, scholars have found hundreds of such apparent errors.在过去200年,学者们发现数以百计的这种明显的错误。Many are in sentences that have incorrect Arabic grammar.许多人在不正确的句子,阿拉伯语语法。There have been listed either 107 (al-Suyuti) or 275 (Jeffery) words in the Koran which are not even Arabic.目前已上市或107(铝Suyuti)或275(杰弗里)在可兰经的词语甚至没有阿拉伯文。Several dozen problems are stories that had long been proven untrue, but which had been published in previous centuries by aberrant Christians and Jews who had written books that resembled Biblical Books, and which are now called "apocryphal".几十个问题是,早已被证明不真实,但已在几个世纪以前发表的异常基督徒和犹太人谁写的书像圣经的书籍,哪些是现在所谓的“未经证实”的故事。 Such stories which were already known wrong also appear in the Koran.这也已经知道错了这样的故事出现在可兰经。If God said such things, or Muhammed announced them, it would seem that something is wrong somewhere.如果上帝说,这样的事情,或者穆罕默德宣布他们来说,似乎有些事情是错的地方。

There are many scholarly books which are in print that discuss those very many obvious errors.其中有许多是在讨论这些打印的明显错误很多学术著作。Islam seems very intent on ignoring and suppressing such analytical scholasticism of their Koran and their Faith.伊斯兰教似乎非常制止这种无视和他们的可兰经和他们的信仰分析士林意图。They regularly go so far as to issue Fatwas (death sentences) on authors like Salman Rushdie (by the Ayatollah Khomeini, in 1989) for publishing works that question anything in Islam.他们经常跑那么远,问题(在1989年由阿亚图拉霍梅尼)法特瓦在诸如萨尔曼•拉什迪等人(死刑)出版的作品,在伊斯兰教问题的任何东西。 Actually, soon after that, hundreds of authors and journalists were executed and buried in mass graves because they had written books or articles critical of Islam.其实,不久之后,数百名作家和记者被处决,埋在万人坑,因为他们写的书或文章的伊斯兰的关键。

We do not want to get into all those criticisms, many of which seem extremely persuasive, as the Trinity/Mary one seems to be.我们不想进入所有这些批评,其中许多人看来非常有说服力的,因为三一/玛丽一个似乎是。Rather, our intent here is to present aspects of the Koran (and therefore, of Islam) which are parallel to, and possibly taken directly from Christian and Jewish sources.相反,我们的目的是向他们介绍各方面的古兰经(因此,伊斯兰教),这是平行的,并可能采取的基督教和犹太教的直接来源。 For example, 502 verses in 36 Suras of the Koran are about Moses, directly from the Jewish Pentateuch.例如,在36 502古兰经章节诗句摩西,直接从犹太摩西五。Two hundred forty-five verses in 25 Suras are about Abraham, from the same source, and 131 more verses in 28 Suras are about Noah, also from the Pentateuch.两百四五诗句在25个章节关于亚伯拉罕,来自同一来源,并在28个章节131多诗句关于诺亚,也从五。

There is actually a secondary complication that arises in this area.其实是有一个次要的并发症,在这方面引起的。Modern scholarly research has discovered a number of flaws in the (modern) wording of the Jewish Pentateuch Books, which is generally believed to have occurred due to imprecise copying by Jewish Scribes over the many early centuries.现代学术研究已经发现了在犹太摩西五书,一般认为(现代)的措辞已发生的一些缺陷犹太文士由于不精确复制在许多早期的世纪。 But, as the Koran presents those (now know to be incorrect) stories, that seems to imply that God (Allah) either deceived Muhammad as to the Truth or He really didn't directly provide it, except through the earlier sources.但是,正如可兰经介绍的(现在知道是不正确的)的故事,这似乎意味着,上帝(真主)无论是作为对真理或他真的没有直接提供的,但通过早期来源欺骗穆罕默德。

Extending that thought, Muhammad's claim that the Koran was "God's Word" would still be indirectly true, as the majority of the Koran's 80,000 words, actually came from much older Manuscripts from God, primarily the Pentateuch (Torah, or Taurat).扩展这个想法,穆罕默德声称,古兰经是“上帝的话语”仍然会间接真正作为古兰经的80000字的大多数,其实从更古老的手稿,从神,主要是五(律法,或Taurat)来了。 It's just that the accumulated errors of those earlier documents had become absorbed into the Koran as a result.只是,这些早期的错误文件的积累已成为吸收到古兰经作为一个结果。Whether or not Muhammad actually conversed with God (Allah) in those caves, at least some of the Koran is certainly directly based on (flawed) earlier Manuscripts attributed to God / Allah.其实无论穆罕默德交谈与上帝(真主)在这些洞穴中,至少可兰经的一些肯定是直接(缺陷)的早期手稿的基础归结为上帝/真主。

Muslim Tradition asserts that one of Uthman's generals had asked the Caliph to make a collection of the contents of the Koran, because serious disputes had broken out among his troops from different provinces in regard to the correct readings of the Koran.穆斯林传统声称奥斯曼的将军一人要求哈里发,做一个可兰经的内容,收集,因为严重的争端爆发了来自不同省份之间,他的部队在考虑到可兰经正确的读数。 Uthman chose Zayd ibn Thabit to prepare the official text.奥斯曼选择宰德本萨比特准备正式文本。That Tradition indicates that he carefully revised the Koran, by comparing portions held by Umar's daughter with his own, with careful analysis regarding dialect.这一传统表明,他仔细修订了认真的分析比较,欧麦尔关于方言与他自己的女儿举行的部分,可兰经。

A different Tradition still credits Zayd, but much earlier, during Abu Bakr's very brief period as Caliph.另一种不同的传统仍然学分宰,但要早得多,在阿布贝克尔很简短哈里发时期。In this case, the motivation was allegedly that so many people who had known the Koran by heart had died in battles, and the concern was to write it down before it might be irretrievably lost, and this was the version that was later held by Umar's daughter, Hafsa.在这种情况下,动机,据称有这么多谁已经知道,由心脏,可兰经的人已在战斗中死亡,关注的是将它写下来之前,它可能是无法挽回,这是,后来由欧麦尔持有的版本女儿,赛神学院。

Other Traditions indicate that it was collected during the Caliphates of Umar or Ali.其他传统表明,它是在对奥马尔或阿​​里Caliphates收集。So there is no actual agreement in Tradition as to exactly when it was collected.所以没有确切的传统,当它以收集实际协议。 The Uthman Tradition is generally considered the most likely.传统的奥斯曼通常被认为是最有可能的。

Muslims today generally insist that their Koran is precisely the wording of the original, and they therefore criticize the many "Versions" of the Christian Bible (even though all those Versions are actually translations of the exact same original Greek and Aramaic source Manuscripts). But such a claim is incorrect. 今天穆斯林普遍坚持认为,他们可兰经,正是原措辞,因此,他们批评的许多“版本”的基督教圣经(即使所有这些版本实际上是翻译的手稿完全相同的原始希腊语和阿拉姆语源)。但这种说法是不正确的。 There were at least 14 variant Arabic versions of the Koran in common use around 900 AD, and possibly several more.至少有14个变种版本的阿拉伯文古兰经常用公元900年左右,可能多好几例。These arose due to the method of writing and copying that existed at that time.这些出现由于写作和复制方法,当时存在。 (Short) Vowels were not recorded, only the consonants.(短)元音没有记录,只有辅音。The short vowels could sometimes be represented by a comma-like or slanting-dash mark either above or below a letter.短元音有时候可以代表一个逗号状或斜,短跑标记上方或下方的信。Also, differences between 'b' and 't' and 'th', which are identical except for dots (points) that distinguish them, were unclear because the dots were not recorded in the consonantal text of the time.另外,与'B'和't'和'日',这是除分歧点(点)的区分它们,相同的是不清楚,因为没有在该点的时间辅音文字记录。 Other letter/sound pairs also have exactly identical symbols.另一封信/声音对也有完全相同的符号。Therefore, a reader or a copyist could sometimes read different actual words from the same set of symbols. No question regarding the ORIGINAL wording was involved, but rather the many variations arose due to writing and copying the texts.因此,读者或抄写员有时可能已读的符号不同的实际相同的话从。 毫无疑问对原措辞参与,而是出现了很多变化,由于写作和复制的文本。

As a result, a number of codices developed:因此,发达国家的手抄本数量:

Very Early:极早期:

Later, the Koranic scholar Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (early 900s AD) fixed on one system of consonants and some control on application of vowels, which resulted in the general acceptance of seven basic systems.后来,学者阿布巴克尔伊本古兰经穆贾希德(公元900飞机初)固定在一个系统中的子音和母音一些,这七项基本制度的普遍接受,导致应用程序的控制。

The Seven Qiraa'aat (ie, Readings):七Qiraa'aat(即阅读):
The 'seven readings' were standardized in the second/eighth century.在'七读'是在第二/八世纪的标准化。Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (d. 936 AD), a ninth-century Muslim scholar from Iraq, wrote a book entitled The Seven Readings, in which he selected seven of the prevailing modes of recitation as the best transmitted and most reliable.阿布巴克尔伊本穆贾希德(卒于936年),第九世纪的伊拉克穆斯林学者,写了一篇题为七个读的书,他在其中选定背诵当时是最好的方式七,最可靠的传输。 Others were subsequently disfavoured and even opposed, among them the readings of Ibn Mas'ud and Ubay ibn Ka'b.人后来处境不利,甚至反对,其中,伊本Mas'ud和Ubay本Ka'b读数。However, this is not to say that one must restrict oneself to one of these seven readings, or to all of them.然而,这并不是说,人们必须限制自己对其中七读一,或向他们。Below are listed the local origin of the seven readings and the names of readers and some later transmitters (in arabic 'raawis') connected with them:下面列出了七个读物和读者的名字和一些后来的发射机(在阿拉伯语'raawis')与他们联系当地的起源:

Each of these seven actually had two variants, due to different pathways (Transmitters):这七个每实际上有两种型号,由于(发射机)不同的途径:

Fourteen accepted readings in all.十四接受所有读数。Some scholars recognize even more, such as:一些学者更认识到,如:

Place / Reader地点/读卡器
Madinah / Abu Ja'far (130/747)麦地那/阿布Ja'far(七百四十七分之一百三十零)
Basra / Ya'qub (205/820)巴士拉/ Ya'qub(八百二十○分之二百○五)
Kufa / Khalaf (229/843)库法/卡拉夫(843分之229)
Basra / Hassan al Basri (110/728)巴士拉/哈桑(七百二十八分之一百一十)铝巴斯里
Makkah / Ibn Muhaisin (123/740)麦加/伊Muhaisin(七百四十零分之一百二十三)
Basra / Yahya al-Yazidi (202/817)巴士拉/叶海亚铝鸭子地(八百一十七分之二百零二)
Kufa / al-A'mash (148/765)库法/铝A'mash(765分之148)

The selected 'Seven Readings' of Mujahid (early 900s AD) were:选定'七读的穆贾希德(公元900飞机初)是:
Place / Reader / Transmitter :地点/阅读器/发射器:

1.1。Madinah / Naafi' (d. 169H/785AD) / Qaaluun or Warsh (d. 197H/812AD)麦地那/ Naafi'(四169H/785AD)/ Qaaluun或沃什(四197H/812AD)
2.2。Makkah / Ibn Kathir (d. 119H/737AD)麦加/伊本卡锡尔(四119H/737AD)
3.3。Damascus / Ibn 'Amir (d. 118H/736AD)大马士革/伊本阿米尔(四118H/736AD)
4.4。Basra / Abu 'Amr (d. 154H/771AD) / Suusi or Duuri (d. 246H/860AD)巴士拉/阿布'AMR的(四154H/771AD)/ Suusi或Duuri(四246H/860AD)
5.5。Kufa / 'Aasim (d. 128H/746AD) / Hafs (d. 180H/796AD)库法/'Aasim(四128H/746AD)/阿布哈夫斯(四180H/796AD)
6.6。Kufa / Hamza (d. 156H/773AD)库法/哈姆扎(四156H/773AD)
7.7。Kufa / Al-Kisaa'i (d. 189H/805AD) / Duuri (d. 246H/860AD)库法/铝Kisaa'i(四189H/805AD)/ Duuri(四246H/860AD)

Readings No. 1 and 5 are of particular importance: the reading transmitted by Warsh is now widespread in Africa, except Egypt, while, as now in almost all other parts of the Muslim world, the reading transmitted by Hafs is observed. 第1和第5读物是特别重要的:由沃什转交了广泛阅读是现在在非洲,除了埃及,同时,作为现在几乎所有的穆斯林世界其他地区,由阿布哈夫斯传输读数观察。

Three of these prevailed into modern times, for uncertain reasons: Warsh (around 800 AD), Hafs (around 800 AD) and al-Duri Abu Amr (around 850 AD), with two others used in small regions.三成现代流行这些不确定的原因:沃什(约公元800),阿布哈夫斯(约公元800)和杜里阿姆鲁(约公元850年),在小区域使用了两个人。 This represents five distinctly different versions of the Koran currently in use by Muslims in different parts of the world.这是五个明显不同古兰经目前使用的穆斯林在世界不同地区的版本。Their separate justification for using their version is closely associated with their 'chain' or path of information from the Prophet Muhammad.他们使用他们的版本不同的理由是密切相关,与他们的'链条'或从先知穆罕默德的资料路径。

The five current versions of the Koran therefore are: 目前这五个版本的可兰经,因此有:

  1. The Transmitter Hafs , who is Hafs ibn Suleyman ibn Al-Mugheerah Al-Asadi Al-Kuufi (d. 180H):发送器哈夫斯 ,谁是阿布哈夫斯伊苏莱曼德米伊本由目埃莱铝阿萨迪铝Kuufi(草180小时):

    His Qiraa'ah named Hafs from 'Aasim is the most popular reading of the Quran in the world today , except for some parts of Africa.他Qiraa'ah命名Aasim 阿布哈夫斯从' 是世界上最流行 ​​的阅读古兰经今天 ,除了非洲的一些地区。Hafs was officially adopted by Egypt in 1924.阿布哈夫斯正式通过由埃及于1924年。His chain from 'Aasim:他的链条从'Aasim:

    He heard from 'Aasim ibn Abu Najud Al-Kuufi (d. 128H) who was Taabi'i, ie, among the generation following the Sahaabah, who heard from Abu Abdur-Rahman Abdullah ibn Habib As-Sulami, who heard from Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zayd ibn Thaabit and Ubayy ibn Ka'b, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他听到后,中圣门弟子,谁从阿布阿卜杜勒拉赫曼阿卜杜拉伊本哈原样Sulami听说,谁从奥斯曼听到伊代从'Aasim伊本阿布Najud基地Kuufi(草128H)谁是Taabi'i,即阿凡和阿里本阿比Talib和栽德本Thaabit和Ubayy本凯尔布,谁从先知(永存)听见。

  2. The Transmitter Duuri , is Abu 'Amr Hafs ibn Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Subhan Ad-Duuri Al-Baghdaadi (d. 246H):发送器Duuri,是阿布'伊本欧麦尔本AMR的阿布哈夫斯阿卜杜勒阿齐兹伊本Subhan的Ad - Duuri铝Baghdaadi(草246H):

    His Qiraa'ah named Duuri from Abu 'Amr is popular in parts of Africa like Somalia, Sudan as well as in other parts.他Qiraa'ah名为AMR的Duuri由Abu'是在部分地区流行的非洲象索马里,苏丹以及其他的。 His chain of from Abu 'Amr:他的链条,从阿布'AMR的:

    He heard from Abu Muhammad Yahya ibn Mubarak ibn Mugheerah Yazidiyy (d. 202H), who heard from Abu 'Amr Zuban ibn 'Ala Maziniyy Al-Busriyy (d. 154H), who heard from the Qiraa'aat from Sahaabis Ali and Uthman and Abu Musa and Umar and Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Thaabit, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他听到从阿布穆罕默德伊本穆巴拉克伊本叶海亚由目埃莱Yazidiyy(草202H),谁从阿布'AMR的Zuban伊本阿拉Maziniyy铝Busriyy(草154H),谁从Qiraa'aat听到Sahaabis,并听取了阿里和奥斯曼阿布穆萨和奥马尔和Ubayy本Ka'b和栽德本Thaabit,谁从先知(永存)听见。

  3. The Transmitter Warsh , who is Abu Saeed Uthman ibn Saeed Al-Misri, nicknamed Warsh, (d. 197H):沃什的发射机,谁是阿布赛义德奥斯曼本赛义德Misri,绰号沃什,(草197H):

    HIs Qiraa'ah named Warsh from Naafi' is popular in North Africa .他Qiraa'ah命名为' 沃什从Naafi是非洲流行的北方His chain from Naafi':他的连锁店从Naafi':

    He heard from Naafi' ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Nu'aim Al-Madani (d. 169H), who heard from Abu Ja'far Yazid ibn Al-Qa'qaa' and Abu Dawud Abdur-Rahman ibn Hurmuz Al-A'raj and Shaybah ibn Nisah Al-Qaadhi and Abu Abdullah Muslim ibn Jundub Al-Hudhali and Abu Rawh Yazid ibn Ruman, who heard from Abu Hurairah and Ibn Abbaas and Abdullah ibn 'Ayyaash ibn Abi Rabii'ah, who heard from Ubayy ibn Ka'b, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他听到从Naafi'伊本阿卜杜勒拉赫曼伊本阿布Nu'aim基地马达尼(草169H),谁从阿布Ja'far亚西德伊本Qa'qaa听到'和艾布达乌德阿卜杜勒拉赫曼伊本Hurmuz铝甲' Raj和Shaybah伊本Nisah铝Qaadhi和阿布阿卜杜拉伊本Jundub穆斯林铝Hudhali和阿布Rawh亚西德伊Ruman,谁从阿布Hurairah和伊本阿巴斯和阿卜杜拉伊本Ayyaash伊本阿比Rabii'ah,谁从Ubayy本嘉听了听b,谁从先知(永存)听见。

  4. The Transmitter Suusi :变送器Suusi:

    His Qiraa'ah named Suusi from Abu 'Amr is also found around the world in small parts .他Qiraa'ah名为AMR的Suusi由Abu'也发现部分小世界各地研究

  5. The Transmitter Qaaluun , who is Imaam Qaaluun:发送器Qaaluun,谁是伊玛目Qaaluun:

    His Qiraa'ah named Qaaluun from Naafi' is popular in places like Libya in Africa.他Qiraa'ah命名为'Qaaluun从Naafi是非洲流行的地方,如在利比亚 His chain from Naafi':他的连锁店从Naafi':

    He heard from Naafi' ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Nu'aim Al-Madani (d. 169H), who heard from Abu Ja'far Yazid ibn Al-Qa'qaa', who heard from Abdullah ibn Abbaas and Abu Hurairah, who heard from Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Thaabit, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他听到从Naafi'伊本阿卜杜勒拉赫曼伊本阿布Nu'aim基地马达尼(草169H),谁从阿布Ja'far亚西德伊本Qa'qaa听到',谁从阿卜杜拉伊本阿巴斯和阿布Hurairah,听见谁听到Ubayy本Ka'b和栽德本Thaabit,谁从先知(永存)听见。

In case Muslim readers should be greatly concerned: The variances between these different versions of the Koran are generally quite small and minor, although there are a substantial number of them.如穆斯林读者应该非常关注:在这些不同的可兰经版本的差异很小,一般都是未成年人,虽然他们也有相当数量。Muhammad Fahd Khaaruun has published a version of the (Hafs) Koran which contains the variant readings from the 10 Accepted Readers in its margins.穆罕默德法赫德Khaaruun出版了一本(阿布哈夫斯)古兰经其中包含来自其利润的10个接受读者的变读的版本。 About 2/3 of the ayat (verses) have some sort of variant reading.约2 / 3的阿亚特(诗句)3有一定的变异阅读排序。The great majority are differences in the vowels inserted in certain words (remembering that the early written kufic texts of the Koran did not include vowels or diacritical marks).绝大部分是在(记住,早期的书面文本,可兰经kufic不包括元音或变音符号)插入某些词的元音差异。There appears to be only one difference that might represent a significant effect on belief, that in surah 2:184.似乎只有一个差异,可能代表的信仰有显着效果,在经文2:184。There are many Islamic scholars' discussions about these many differences.大约有这许多许多分歧的伊斯兰学者的讨论。 As an example of one, in Hafs, surah 2:140 reads taquluna, while in Warsh, that text is in surah 2:139 and reads yaquluna.作为一个例子,在阿布哈夫斯,经文内容taquluna 2:140,而在沃什,这些文字是在经文2:139和读取yaquluna。Another example: Hafs surah 2:214 reads yaquula while Warsh surah 2;212 reads yaquulu.另一个例子:2:214阿布哈夫斯经文读yaquula而沃什经文2; 212读取yaquulu。Muslim scholars agree that such variations do not seriously alter the meaning of statements made in the Koran.穆斯林学者一致认为,这种差异不认真改变在可兰经的意义作了发言。

The main point being made here is that the ORIGINAL texts associated with the Prophet Muhammad are not questioned, but that the absolute and precise accuracy claimed by Muslims regarding their modern Koran is not quite correct.主要的一点是,正在与先知穆罕默德的原文没有质疑,但绝对准确性和精确的穆斯林人就其现代古兰经不是很正确。The reality of the situation is very much like the Christian Bible, which had one Original source text but now exists in a multitude of language translations of that one Original text.在现实的情况是非常相似的基督教圣经,其中有一个原始来源的文本,但正处在原文的那一个存在于多种多语言的翻译。

A brief mention should be made regarding the "Satanic Verses" that inspired author Rushdie to write the book that caused his death sentence.一个简短应当提到关于“撒旦诗篇”作者拉什迪,鼓舞写的书,造成他的死刑判决。Unimpeachable Muslim sources (Waqidi and al-Tabari) indicate that, prior to the flight to Medina, Muhammad was sitting with some important Meccan leaders, next to the Kaaba, and he began to recite Sura 53, which describes the Angel Gabriel's first and second visits to Muhammad.无可指责的穆斯林来源(Waqidi和al -塔巴里)表示,之前到麦地飞行,穆罕默德坐在Meccan一些重要领导人,旁边的克尔白,他开始背诵苏拉53岁,其中叙述了天使加布里埃尔的第一和第二穆罕默德访问。

The wording was: "What do you think of Lat and Uzza And Manat the third beside? These are exalted Females, Whose intercession verily is to be sought after."的措​​词是:“你的土地增值税乌撒和马纳特的第三旁边觉得这些都是崇高的女性,其调解肯定是要追捧?”。

These references were to some of the many Gods the Meccans then worshipped, so the words seem to acknowledge the existence and even the importance of them, TOTALLY opposite of what Islam claims (of the One God, Allah).这些提法是到麦加多神崇拜,然后一些,所以的话似乎承认存在,甚至他们的重要性,完全相反的伊斯兰债权(在一个上帝,真主)。 Islam says that Muhammad was later visited by Gabriel again, who reprimanded him and gave him the "true" ending for that verse, which eliminated the praise for the gods and turned it into denigration.伊斯兰教的穆罕默德说,后来被加布里埃尔再次,谁训斥他,给他的“真实”的这一诗句,这消除了神的赞美和诋毁它变成结束访问。 They consider those initial verses as being put into his mouth by Satan, ie Satanic Verses.他们认为被放进嘴里撒旦,撒旦诗篇即把这些最初的诗句。

These verses represent a serious problem for Muslims.这些诗句是一个穆斯林的严重问题。Did that event actually happen?该事件是否真的发生呢?Did Muhammad actually praise those multiple gods only to be later corrected by Gabriel?穆罕默德实际上没有赞美只有被后来的加布里埃尔纠正那些多神?That would explain why the text of the Koran might have been revised, but it still seems to leave the reality of the original event.这可以解释为什么可兰经文本可能已被修改,但它似乎仍然离开原事件的现实。Those (original) words seem to imply that Muhammad was carefully cultivating the Meccan leaders by saying things they "politically" wanted to hear.那些(原)的话似乎暗示穆罕默德是精心培育说他们的事情“政治”想听到麦加领导人。That idea would greatly damage his credibility as a Prophet.这一想法,将大大损害他作为先知的信誉。His sincerity would seem to be in question.他的诚意,似乎是问题。On the other hand, if Satan was so easily able to put words in the mouth of the Prophet, how much Faith could anyone put in him?另一方面,如果撒旦是那么容易能够设身处地的先知,口中的言语多少信心会有人把他呢?Might there be (many?) other passages where Satan affected the wording of the Koran, which never got corrected?可能有(很多?)在撒旦影响了可兰经,而从来没有得到纠正其他段落的措辞?

There is one other major matter that should be mentioned.还有另外一个重要问题,应该被提及。 After Muhammad had become well established as leader in Medina, he considered returning to Mecca to conquer it and to convert the population there to Islam.经过穆罕默德已成为公认的领导者梅迪纳,他认为返回麦加征服它,并转换人口有伊斯兰教。Very late, he realized that his people were not yet ready for a battle, and so he entered into negotiations with the Meccans regarding permission to make a Pilgrimage to Mecca the following year, in return for Muhammad's promises of a few simple things (the Peace of Hudaibiya).很晚了,他意识到,他的人民还没有准备好战斗,所以他将按照关于在穆罕默德的承诺几个简单的事情(恢复和平许可作出麦加朝圣的第二年,麦加谈判进入的一位侯代比亚)。 Muhammad broke those promises, according to accepted Muslim sources (such as Ibn Ishaq).穆罕默德打破这些承诺,按照公认的穆斯林来源(如伊本伊斯哈格)。Since he had made those promises, as Prophet, and for a religious purpose, the fact that he soon broke them, is sometimes seen as behavior not appropriate to any ethical leader, and certainly not to a Prophet.由于他所作出的承诺,为先知,并为宗教目的,事实上,他很快打破他们,有时是因为不恰当的行为的任何道德的领导人,肯定不是一个先知看到。

Finally, we list the most revered early Muslim commentators on the Koran:最后,我们列出了最受尊敬的早期穆斯林评论员古兰经:

(The earliest accurate English translation of the Koran was by George Sale in 1734. (最早准确的英文翻译的古兰经是由乔治在1734年出售。

Old Testament (Bible) Characters also in the Koran旧约(圣经)的字符也会在可兰经

Old Testament旧约全书 Koran 古兰经
Aaron阿龙 Harun哈伦
Abel阿贝尔 HabilHabil
Abraham亚伯拉罕 Ibrahim易卜拉欣
Adam亚当 Adam亚当
Cain该隐 QabilQabil
David大卫 Daud达乌德
Elias埃利亚斯 IlyasIlyas
Elijah以利亚 AlyasaAlyasa
Enoch以诺 Idris伊德里斯
Ezra以斯拉 UzairUzair
Gabriel加布里埃尔 Jibril贾布里勒
Gog (Gen 10:2; Ezek 38)高格(创10:2;以西结书38) YajujYajuj
Goliath巨人 JalutJalut
Isaac艾萨克 Ishaq伊斯哈格
Ishmael伊斯梅尔 Ismail伊斯梅尔
Jacob雅各布 YacubYacub
Job工作 AiyubAiyub
Jonah乔纳 Yunus尤努斯
Joshua约书亚 Yusha'玉沙'
Joseph约瑟夫 Yusuf优素福
Korah可拉 QarunQarun
Lot地段 Lut
Magog (Gen 10:2; Ezek 38)玛(创10:2,以西结书38) MajujMajuj
Michael迈克尔 MikailMikail
Moses摩西 Musa穆萨
Noah诺亚 Nuh新加坡国立大学医院
Pharaoh法老 FiraunFiraun
Saul扫罗 TalutTalut
Solomon所罗门 Sulaiman苏莱曼
Terah他拉 Azar黑热病

The Koran or Qur'an可兰经或古兰经

Beginning Excerpt开头的摘录部分

650 AD公元650

Translated by EH Palmer翻译由EH帕尔默

(Editor's Note: This translation, apparently acceptable by most Muslims, refers to Allah as God, Jibril as Gabriel, and other names that are familiar from the Christian Bible. We include this excerpt in BELIEVE not as a religious guide, but to assist Western people in better understanding Muslim beliefs. We have also highlighted certain text for the same reason. (编者注:本翻译,大多数穆斯林显然是可以接受的,是指如神,贾布里勒为加布里埃尔真主,是从基督教的圣经其他熟悉的名字,我们有这个相信摘录不是作为宗教指导,而是协助西方。更好地了解穆斯林信仰的人。我们也强调了同样的原因某些文本。

Muslims fully believe that the Koran is actually Allah's (God's) words.穆斯林完全相信古兰经实际上是真主的(上帝)的话。Because they are concerned that poor translations could corrupt the true meaning of those words, they ONLY consider as a valid Koran, one which has translated text on one page and the original Arabic on the opposite.因为他们担心,质量低劣的翻译可能会破坏这些词的真正含义,他们只考虑作为一个有效的可兰经,一种翻译了开一个页面上的相对原来的阿拉伯文文本。 They feel that in that way, corruption cannot occur.他们认为,这样一来,腐败不能发生。This excerpt obviously does not include the Arabic original, so strict Muslims would not approve of it.)这个摘录显然不包括阿拉伯文原著,所以严格的穆斯林不会批准它。)


The Opening Chapter开篇

I. Mecca 一,麦加

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God.在上帝的名义的仁慈和同情。Praise belongs to God, the Lord of the worlds, the merciful, the compassionate, the ruler of the day of judgment!赞美属于上帝,全世界的主的,仁慈的,富有同情心,判断统治者的每一天!Thee we serve and Thee we ask for aid.我们服务和祢祢我们要求援助。Guide us in the right path, the path of those Thou art gracious to; not of those Thou art wroth with; nor of those who err.请你作我们的艺术指导怜恤那些在正确的道路,路径的;不是那些你的艺术恼怒;犯错也不那些谁。

(Editor's Note: This opening Chapter (or Sura), called Fatiha or Fatihah, is included as part of all religious Prayers by Muslims.) (编者注:此开幕分会(或苏拉),所谓Fatiha或Fatihah,是所有宗教的穆斯林祈祷的一部分。)

The Chapter of the Heifer作者:章小母牛

II.二。Medina 梅迪纳

IN the name of the merciful and compassionate God.在仁慈和富有同情心的上帝之名。Alif Lam Mim.阿利夫林金属粉末注射。 That is the book!这是书! there is no doubt therein; a guide to the pious, who believe in the unseen, and are steadfast in prayer, and of what we have given them expend in alms; who believe in what is revealed to thee, and what was revealed before thee, and of the hereafter they are sure.毫无疑问,其中,也有让虔诚的指导,谁相信看不见的,并坚定地祈祷,而我们给了他们花费在施舍,谁相信什么是透露给你,是什么之前,你发现,以及此后他们肯定。 These are in guidance from their Lord, and these are the prosperous.这些都是在他们的主的指导,这些都是繁荣。Verily, those who misbelieve, it is the same to them if ye warn them or if ye warn them not, they will not believe.真的,这些谁疑,这是相同的,如果你们向他们发出警告,或警告他们,如果你们不,他们不会相信。God has set a seal upon their hearts and on their hearing; and on their eyes is dimness, and for them is grievous woe.神已经在他们心中树立了他们的听力和密封,并在他们的眼睛是朦胧,对他们来说是严重的悲哀。And there are those among men who say, 'We believe in God and in the last day;' but they do not believe.也有说,这些男性谁,'我们在上帝,并在最后一天相信'但是他们不相信。They would deceive God and those who do believe; but they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive.他们会欺骗上帝和那些谁相信,但他们只是欺骗自己和他们不察觉。In their hearts is a sickness, and God has made them still more sick, and for them is grievous woe because they lied.在他们心中是一种疾病,并且神使他们更病态,并为他们是严重的疾苦,因为他们说谎。And when it is said to them, 'Do not evil in the earth,' they say, 'We do but what is right.'而当这是对他们说,'不要邪恶的地球,'他们说,'我们做,但什么是正确的。'

Are not they the evildoers?他们不是一恶?and yet they do not perceive.但他们没有察觉。And when it is said to them, 'Believe as other men believe,' they say, 'Shall we believe as fools believe?'而当这是对他们说,'相信,其他人相信,'他们说,'难道我们相信,傻瓜相信吗?'Are not they themselves the fools?是不是他们自己的傻瓜?and yet they do not know.但他们不知道。And when they meet those who believe, they say, 'We do believe;' but when they go aside with their devils, they say, 'We are with you; we were but mocking!'而当他们满足这些谁相信,他们说,'我们相信'但是当他们去除了他们的魔鬼,他们说,'我们同你们在一起,我们都是一些嘲弄! God shall mock at them and let them go on in their rebellion, blindly wandering on.上帝应嘲笑他们,让他们继续在他们的叛逆,盲目上徘徊。Those who buy error for guidance, their traffic profits not, and they are not guided.谁买的指导错误,他们的交通没有利润,他们没有为指导。Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindles a fire; and when it lights up all around, God goes off with their light, and leaves them in darkness that they cannot see.他们,就像是一个谁kindles火灾相似,而当它点亮四周,用自己的神灭灯,在黑暗中,他们留下无法看到它们。

Deafness, dumbness, blindness, and they shall not return!聋,哑,盲,他们不得退货!Or like a storm - cloud from the sky, wherein is darkness and thunder and lightning; they put their fingers in their ears at the thunder - clap, for fear of death, for God encompasses the misbelievers.或者像一场风暴 - 云从天空,其中,是黑暗和雷电,他们把他们的手指在他们的耳朵在打雷 - 拍,对死亡的恐惧,对上帝包括的misbelievers。The lightning well - nigh snatches off their sight, whenever it shines for them they walk therein; but when it is dark for them they halt; and if God willed He would go off with their hearing and their sight; verily, God is mighty over all.闪电以及 - 几乎攫取了他们的视线,每当它闪耀,他们在其间,但是当它是他们,他们停止黑暗的,如果上帝意志,他会去与他们的听力和视力;能众志成城,上帝是强大的多所有。

O ye folk!啊,你们民间!serve your Lord who created you and those before you; haply ye may fear!为你的上帝是谁创造了​​你,在你面前的,或许你们会担心! who made the earth for you a bed and the heaven a dome; and sent down from heaven water, and brought forth therewith fruits as a sustenance for you; so make no peers for God, the while ye know!是谁给你一张床和地球的天堂一个圆顶,并派出水从天上下来,带来了你当寄托条文水果,所以为上帝,没有同龄人,而你们知道!

And if ye are in doubt of what we have revealed unto our servant, then bring a chapter like it, and call your witnesses other than God if ye tell truth.如果你们在,我们有什么启示给我们的仆人疑问,然后把一章,喜欢它,并呼吁其他比上帝你的证人,如果你们告诉真相。But if ye do it not, and ye shall surely do it not, then fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for misbelievers.但是,如果你们不这样做,你们必定做没有,那么害怕火的燃料是男人和石头,为misbelievers准备。 But bear the glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that for them are gardens beneath which rivers flow; whenever they are provided with fruit therefrom they say, 'This is what we were provided with before,' and they shall be provided with the like; and there are pure wives for them therein, and they shall dwell therein for aye.但承担喜讯那些谁相信和工作正气,为他们的花园底下的河流,每当他们提供水果由此他们说,'这是我们以前提供',他们应提供对这类事情,也有纯粹的妻子为他们当中,并应详细其中的赞成。

Why, God is not ashamed to set forth a parable of a gnat, or anything beyond; and as for those who believe, they know that it is truth from the Lord; but as for those who disbelieve, they say, 'What is it that God means by this as a parable?为什么,上帝不是羞于提出了一个比喻蚊蚋,或任何超越;和那些谁相信,他们知道这是从主的真理,但对于那些谁不信,他们说,'这是什么神指作为一个比喻呢? He leads astray many and He guides many;' - but He leads astray only the evildoers; who break God's covenant after the fixing thereof, and cut asunder what God has ordered to be joined, and do evil in the earth; - these it is who lose.他领导误入歧途许多和他指导许多人' - 但他所领导的歧途只有坏人,谁打破上帝的盟约后的固定条,并削减四分五裂什么上帝已下令将加入,并在邪恶的地球; - 这是谁输。

How can ye disbelieve in God, when ye were dead and He made you alive, and then He will kill you and then make you alive again, and then to Him will ye return?怎能不信上帝,当你们都死了,他让你还活着,然后他会杀了你,然后让你活​​一遍,然后他将你们的回报?It is He who created for you all that is in the earth, then he made for the heavens and fashioned them seven heavens; and He knows all things.这是他是谁创造了​​你在地球上的一切,那么他的天空和老式他们提出七天,以及他知道所有的事情。

And when thy Lord said unto the angels, 'I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood?而当你的主说,祂的天使,'我将其放置在地球一vicegerent,'他们说:'祢地方,有一个谁做邪恶的,并流血? we celebrate Thy praise and hallow Thee.'我们庆祝你的赞美与神化你。'Said (the Lord), 'I know what ye know not.' And He taught Adam the names, all of them; then He propounded them to the angels and said, 'Declare to me the names of these, if ye are truthful.'说(主),'我知道你们不知道。'他告诉亚当的名字,他们都是,然后他提出,他们以天使说,'我对这些声明的名字,如果你们是诚实的。 'They said, 'Glory be to Thee!他们说,'光荣归于你!no knowledge is ours but what Thou thyself hast taught us, verily, Thou art the knowing, the wise.'不知道什么是我们的,但你将自己竟告诉我们,能众志成城,祢知道,聪明。'Said the Lord, 'O Adam declare to them their names;' and when he had declared to them their names He said, 'Did I not say to you, I know the secrets of the heavens and of the earth, and I know what ye show and what ye were hiding?'上帝说,澳亚当宣布他们自己的名字;'时,他曾宣布他们的名字,他说,'我不能告诉你,我知道天堂和地球的秘密,我知道什么你们和你们所展示的藏身?' And when we said to the angels, 'Adore Adam,' they adored him save only Iblis, who refused and was too proud and became one of the misbelievers. And we said, 'O Adam dwell, thou and thy wife, in Paradise, and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree or ye will be of the transgressors.当我们说,以天使,'崇拜亚当,他们崇拜他,仅保存Iblis,谁拒绝和太骄傲,并成为misbelievers之一。我们说,'澳亚当纠缠,你和你的妻子乐园,中,并因此而吃足可作为你想,但你们不亲近这树或将成为罪人。

And Satan made them backslide therefrom and drove them out from what they were in, and we said, 'Go down, one of you the enemy of the other, and in the earth there is an abode and a provision for a time.'撒但使他们倒退由此,开车从他们在他们出来,我们说,'去吧,你们中的一个,其他的敌人,在地球上有一个居留权,并在一段时间内的规定。' And Adam caught certain words from 'his Lord, and He turned towards him, for He is the compassionate one easily turned.与亚当陷入从'他的主一定的话,他转过身来对他,对他是一个富有同情心很容易转向。We said, 'Go down therefrom altogether and haply there may come from me a guidance, and whoso follows my guidance, no fear is theirs, nor shall they grieve.我们说,'走由此,合共或许有可能来自于我的指导,无论谁遵循我的指导,没有恐惧是他们的,也不忧愁。But those who misbelieve, and call our signs lies, they are the fellows of the Fire, they shall dwell therein for aye.'但是,这些谁疑,并要求我们的标志在于,它们是火的家伙,其中必存到赞成。'

O ye children of Israel!以色列啊,你们的孩子!remember my favours which I have favoured you with; fulfil my covenant and I will fulfil your covenant; me therefore dread.记得我和我所主张的青睐你;履行我的约,我会实现你的约,所以我害怕。 Believe in what I have revealed, verifying what ye have got, and be not the first to disbelieve in it, and do not barter my signs for a little price, and me do ye fear. 相信我已经发现,核实了你们什么,也不要第一个不相信它,并且不小的价格易货我的迹象的,我做你们的恐惧。Clothe not truth with vanity, nor hide the truth the while ye know. 真理与衣食不虚荣,也不隐瞒事实真相,而你们知道。Be steadfast in prayer, give the alms, and bow down with those who bow. 要坚定不移地祈祷,给予施舍,并鞠躬跪拜那些谁。Will ye order men to do piety and forget yourselves? ye read the Book, do ye not then understand? 难道你们为了男人做虔诚和忘记自己?你们阅读这本书,请你们不明白吗?Seek aid with patience and prayer, though it is a hard thing save for the humble, who think that they will meet their Lord, and that to Him will they return.耐心和祈祷寻求援助,尽管这是一个很难的事留到谦逊,谁认为他们会满足他们的主,并以他不会返回。

O ye children of Israel!以色列啊,你们的孩子!remember my favours which I have favoured you with, and that I have preferred you above the worlds. Fear the day wherein no soul shall pay any recompense for another soul, nor shall intercession be accepted for it, nor shall compensation be taken from it, nor shall they be helped. 记得我的世界,我赞成你的青睐,而我上面有你的首选。恐惧的一天,其中没有灵魂应支付任何补偿的另一个灵魂,也不得将其接受调解,也不应赔偿它取自,也不应得到帮助。

When we saved you from Pharaoh's people who sought to wreak you evil and woe, slaughtering your sons and letting your women live; in that was a great trial for you from your Lord. 当我们救你从生活法老的人谁寻求发泄你邪恶,荣辱与共,屠宰,你的儿子,让你的女人,在你的上帝,这是一个伟大的试验为您从。When we divided for you the sea and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on. 当我们为您分为海救了你被淹死了法老的人,而你们看着。

When we treated with Moses forty nights, then ye took the calf after he had gone and ye did wrong. Yet then we forgave you after that; perhaps ye may be grateful. And when we gave Moses the Scriptures and the Discrimination; perhaps ye will be guided. When Moses said to his people, 'O my people! 当我们夜晚治疗摩西四十,然后你们采取了小牛后,他已走了,你们没有错。可是那时候我们原谅了你,也许以后你们可能会表示感谢。当我们给摩西圣经和歧视也许你们会为指导。摩西说,他的人民,'啊,我的人! Ye have wronged yourselves in taking this calf; repent unto your Creator and kill each other; that will be better for you in your Creator's eyes; and He turned unto you, for He is the compassionate one easily turned.'叶有委屈自己采取这一小腿;悔改你们的创造者和互相残杀,这会为你更好的你的创造者的眼睛和他转过身来告诉你们,因为他是一个富有同情心很容易变成'。 And when ye said to Moses, 'O Moses!当你们对摩西说,'穆萨啊!we will not believe in thee until we see God manifestly,' and the thunderbolt caught you while ye yet looked on.我们不会相信,在你身上,直到我们看见上帝显然,'和雷电还发现你在看着你们。Then we raised you up after your death; perhaps ye may be grateful.然后,我们提出你死之后,你也许你们可能会表示感谢。And we overshadowed you with the cloud, and sent down the manna and the quails; 'Eat of the good things we have given you.'和我们蒙上你的云,并派下来的吗哪和鹌鹑;'。我们所给你吃的​​好东西'They not wrong us, but it was themselves they were wronging.他们并没有错,但它却是自己,他们是wronging。And when we said, 'Enter this city and eat therefrom as plentifully as ye wish; and enter the gate worshipping and say 'hittatun.当我们说,'请输入这个城市,并因此而吃你们的丰满的愿望,进入大门的崇拜和说'hittatun。So will we pardon you your sins and give increase unto those who do well.'那么我们会原谅你的罪孽,给你们增加那些谁做的很好。'

But those who did wrong changed it for another word than that which was said to them: and we sent down upon those who did wrong, wrath from heaven for that they had so sinned.但是,这些谁没有错误的换了比这是对他们说的话是:我们发出呼吁那些谁没有错误的,从天上愤怒的,他们有这么犯了罪了。

When Moses, too, asked drink for his people and we said, 'Strike with thy staff the rock,' and from it burst forth twelve springs; each man among them knew his drinking place.当摩西,也要求他的人喝酒,我们说,'你用你的员工罢工的岩石,'并从它迸发出十二个弹簧,每个人知道其中他喝酒的地方。 'Eat and drink of what God has provided, and transgress not on the earth as evildoers.' '吃和神所提供的饮料,而不是为坏人地球犯了罪。'

And when they said, Moses, we cannot always bear one kind of food; pray then thy Lord to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its green herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, and its onions.'而当他们说,摩西,我们不能总是承担一种食品,那么你的上帝祈祷,使地球的什么我们提出的增长,其绿色药材,其黄瓜,它的大蒜,其扁豆,洋葱和'。 Said he, 'Do ye ask what is meaner instead of what is best?他说,'你们不要问是什么,而不是什么是最好的更猛烈?Go down to Egypt, - there is what ye ask.'下到埃及, - 你们有什么要求'。Then were they smitten with abasement and poverty, and met with wrath from God.当时他们迷住了自卑和贫困,并会见了来自上帝的忿怒。 That was because they had misbelieved in God's signs and killed the prophets undeservedly; that was for that they were rebellious and had transgressed.这是因为他们有却误以为神的标志和杀害先知undeservedly,这是对他们的叛逆和有违背。

Verily, whether it be of those who believe, or those who are Jews or Christians or Sabaeans, whosoever believe in God and the last day and act aright, they have their reward at their Lord's hand, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.真的,无论是对那些谁相信,或谁是犹太人或基督徒或Sabaeans,凡相信上帝和最后一天和行为端正,他们已经在他们的主的手,他们的报酬,也没有恐惧对他们来说,也不忧愁。

And when we took a covenant with you and held the mountain over you; 'Accept what we have brought you with strong will, and bear in mind what is therein, haply ye yet may fear.'当我们带着你们立约,并举行了超过你高山'。接受我们带来了你坚强的意志,并牢记其中有什么,或许你们还可能会担心'

Then did ye turn aside after this, and were it not for God's grace towards you and His mercy, ye would have been of those who lose.然后,你们留在这之后,并为神的对你和他的恩典,不是怜悯,你们本来这些谁输。Ye know too of those among you who transgressed upon the Sabbath, and we said, 'I Become ye apes, despised and spurned.'你们也知道在你们中间那些谁违背安息日后,和我们说,'我变成你们猿,鄙视和唾弃。'

Thus we made them an example unto those who stood before them, and those who should come after them, and a warning unto those who fear.因此,我们提出一个例子告诉他们那些谁站在他们面前,那些谁应该来后,并警告那些你们谁的恐惧。

And when Moses said to his people, 'God bids you slaughter a cow,' they said, 'Art thou making a jest of us?'当摩西说,他的人民,'上帝你出价屠宰牛,'他们说,'你的艺术作出我们开玩笑?'Said he, 'I seek refuge with God from being one of the unwise.'他说,'我正在寻求一个不明智的与神的庇护。'They said, 'Then pray thy Lord for us to show us what she is to be.'他们说,'那么你的上帝祈祷,我们向我们展示了她的人。'He answered, 'He saith it is a cow, nor old, nor young, of middle age between the two; so do as ye are bid.'他回答说,'他必是牛,也不老,也不年轻,两者之间的中年;所以不要你们是出价。'They said, 'Pray now thy Lord to show us what her colour is to be.'他们说,'现在你祈祷上帝向我们展示她的肤色要。'He answered, 'He saith it is a dun cow, intensely dun, her colour delighting those who look upon her.'他回答说,'他必是暗褐色的牛,激烈的逼债,她的颜色取悦那些谁在找她。'

Again they said, 'Pray thy Lord to show us what she is to be; for cows appear the same to us; then we, if God will, shall be guided.'同样他们说,'你祈祷上帝向我们展示了她是要;牛的出现同样给我们。然后我们,如果上帝的意志,应遵循'He answered, He saith, it is a cow, not broken in to plough the earth or irrigate the tilth, a sound one with no blemish on her.'他回答,他说,这是一个牛,犁不碎到地上或灌溉的耕地,没有一个声音在她的污点之一。'They said, 'Now hast thou brought the truth.'他们说,'现在你揭示真相了。'And they slaughtered her, though they came near leaving it undone.他们宰了她,尽管他们走近离开去做。

When too ye slew a soul and disputed thereupon, and God brought forth that which ye had hidden, then we said, 'Strike him with part of her.'当你们也摆一个灵魂和争议于是,上帝把你们所提出,有隐藏的,那么我们说,'打他与她的一部分。'Thus God brings the dead to life and shows you His signs, that haply ye may understand.因此,上帝把死的生命,并告诉您他的迹象,以便你们倒是可以理解。

Yet were your hearts hardened even after that, till they were as stones or harder still, for verily of stones are some from which streams burst forth, and of them there are some that burst asunder and the water issues out, and of them there are some that fall down for fear of God; but God is never careless of what ye do.然而,即使是你的心变硬的是,直到他们被石块或更难的石头能众志成城,从其中的一些溪流迸发,其中还有一些突发四分五裂和水的问题了,其中有一些爱上了对上帝的敬畏,但上帝是永远做什么,你们不小心。

Do ye crave that they should believe you when already a sect of them have heard the word of God and then perverted it after they had understood it, though they knew?难道你们渴望,他们应该相信你的时候已经是一个教派,他们听到了上帝的话,那么变态后,他们的理解是,虽然他们知道?

And when they meet those who believe they say, 'We believe,' but when one goes aside with another they say, 'Will ye talk to them of what God has opened up to you, that they may argue with you upon it before your Lord?而当他们满足这些谁相信他们说,'我们相信',但是当一个去除了与另一他们说,'难道你们和他们交谈的神向你打开了,他们可能会说,你向它的前主? Do ye not therefore understand?'因此,难道你们不明白吗?'Do they not then know that God knoweth what they keep secret and what they make known abroad?难道他们不知道,然后神早已知道他们保守秘密,并让他们知道在国外?

And some of them there are, illiterate folk, that know not the Book, but only idle tales; for they do but fancy.他们中的一些有,不识字的民间,不知道这本书,但只胡言,因为他们做,但幻想。But woe to those who write out the Book with their hands and say 'this is from' God; to buy therewith a little price!但是,祸哉,那些谁写出来的书,他们的手,说上帝'这是从';买条文一点价格!and woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for what they gain! ,共命运交给他们自己的双手写,并为他们获得他们有祸了!

And then they say, 'Hell fire shall not touch us save for a number of days.'然后他们说,'地狱之火,不得触摸我们节省了若干天。'Say, 'Have ye taken a covenant with God?'说:'有你们采取了与上帝的盟约?'but God breaks not His covenant.但上帝不会打破他的约。Or do ye say of God that which ye do not know?或者,你们说的上帝,而你们不知道吗?

Yea!是啊!whoso gains an evil gain, and is encompassed by his sins, those are the fellows of the Fire, and they shall dwell therein for aye!无论谁获得的是一种邪恶的收益,是由他的罪过包含,这些都是消防研究员,并应详细其中的赞成!But such as act aright, those are the fellows of Paradise, and they shall dwell therein for aye!但如行为端正,这些都是天堂的研究员,并应详细其中的赞成!

And when we took from the children of Israel a covenant, saying, 'Serve ye none but God, and to your two parents show kindness, and to your kindred and the orphans and the poor, and speak to men kindly, and be steadfast in prayer, and give alms;' and then ye turned back, save a few of you, and swerved aside. 当我们把孩子立约,从以色列,说:'你们没有,但上帝服务,和你的双亲恩待,和你的亲属和孤儿和穷人,男人亲切交谈,并坚定地祈祷,施舍;',然后你们回去,你们几个保存,并驶向一边。

And when we took covenant from you, 'shed ye not your kinsman's blood, nor turn your kinsmen out of their homes:' then did ye confirm it and were witnesses thereto. Yet ye were those who slay your kinsmen and turn a party out of their homes, and back each other up against them with sin and enmity. 当我们把你立约,从'棚你们不是你的亲人的血液,也打开自己的家园你的亲人了:'这样,你们确认,并证人及其研究然而,你们是那些谁杀死你的亲人,把一党出他们的家园,相互备份,对他们的罪恶和仇恨。 But if they come to you as captives ye ransom them!但是,如果他们到你们这里来,你们作为人质勒索赎金他们!- and yet it is as unlawful for you to turn them out.- 但它是非法的,你把他们。Do ye then believe in part of the Book and disbelieve in part?你们不要再相信在该书的一部分,不信的一部分?But the reward of such among you as do that shall be nought else but disgrace in this worldly life, and on the day of the resurrection shall they be driven to the most grievous torment, for God is not unmindful of what ye do.但这种奖励你们中间为做到这一点应在这世俗生活化为乌有,别的耻辱,对复活的日子,他们要被驱赶到最严重的折磨,因为上帝是不是你们的行为不留意。

Those who have bought this worldly life with the Future, the torment shall not be lightened from them nor shall they be helped.那些谁买了这人间的生活与未来,折磨不得减轻他们也不应得到帮助。

We gave Moses the Book and we followed him up with other apostles, and we gave Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs and aided him with the Holy Spirit. Do ye then, every time an apostle comes to you with what your souls love not, proudly scorn him, and charge a part with lying and slay a part? 我们给了摩西的书,我们跟着他与其他使徒,我们给耶稣的儿子,玛丽明显标志和辅助他的精神与圣灵。难道你们那么,每一次的使徒来你不爱你的灵魂,他自豪地蔑视,并收取与说谎的一部分,斩的一部分?

They say, 'Our hearts are uncircumcised;' nay, God has cursed them in their unbelief, and few it is who do believe.他们说,'我们的心是割包皮;'不,上帝诅咒他们不信他们,很少这是谁真的相信。And when a book came down from God confirming what they had with them, though they had before prayed for victory over those who misbelieve, yet when that came to them which they knew, then they disbelieved it, - God's curse be on the misbelievers.当一本是从神下来,确认他们与他们,但他们收到了祈祷战胜那些谁疑,但当该到了他们那里,他们知道,他们都不相信, - 上帝的诅咒上的misbelievers。

For a bad bargain have they sold their souls, not to believe in what God has revealed, grudging because God sends down of His grace on whomsoever of His servants He will; and they have brought on themselves wrath after wrath and for the misbelievers is there shameful woe.对于一个坏主意,他们出售他们的灵魂,不相信什么上帝透露,到目前为止,勉强,因为上帝派下来的他的恩典,他的仆人,他在谁的意志和他们对自己带来的愤怒和愤怒后的misbelievers有可耻的悲哀。

And when they are told to believe in what God has revealed, they say, 'We believe in what has been revealed to us;' but they disbelieve in all beside, although it is the truth confirming what they have.当有人告诉他们要相信什么上帝透露,到目前为止,他们说,'我们相信,在已经透露给我们,'但他们不相信在所有的旁边,虽然这是事实,确认他们有什么。 Say, 'Wherefore did ye kill God's prophets of yore if ye were true believers?说,'你们为什么没有杀死昔日神的先知,如果你们是真正的信徒?

Moses came to you with manifest signs, then ye took up with the calf when he had gone and did so wrong. And when we took a covenant with you and raised the mountain over you, 'Take what we have given you with resolution and hear;' they said, 'We hear but disobey;' and they were made to drink the calf down into their hearts for their unbelief. 摩西来到你的明显标志,然后你们把与小牛的时候,他已经和这样做是错误的。当我们带着你们立约和山区对你提出的,拿我们所作出决议,并听取您;'他们说,'我们听到,但不服从;',他们进行了喝了小腿成他们不信,他们的心。 Say, 'An evil thing is it which your belief bids you do, if ye be true believers.'我说,'一个邪恶的东西是它的出价你做你的信仰,如果你们是真正的信徒。'Say, 'If the abode of the future with God is yours alone and not mankind's: long for death then if ye speak the truth.'说,'如果有居留权的未来是你们的上帝,而不是单单人类的:死亡那么久,你们说的是真话。'But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent on before; but God is knowing as to the wrong doers.但他们将永远不会长,因为他们手中有什么之前发出的,但上帝知道,以错误的实干家。

Why, thou wilt find them the greediest of men for life; and of those who associate others with God one would fain live for a thousand years, - but he will not be reprieved from punishment by being let live, for God seeth what they do.为什么,你会发现他们对生命的人贪婪,对那些谁联系与神一人会欣然为活了一千多年,而且 - 但他不会被缓刑处罚是让活的上帝看人,他们做了什么。

Say, 'Who is an enemy to Gabriel?说,'谁是敌人加布里埃尔?for he hath revealed to thy heart, with God's permission, confirmation of what had been before, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers. 因为他所启示你的心,与上帝的许可,在确认了哪些,并指导和信徒喜讯。Who is an enemy to God and His angels and His apostles and Gabriel and Michael? 谁是迈克尔敌人向上帝和他的使者和他的使徒和加布里埃尔和?- Verily, God is an enemy to the unbelievers. We have sent down to thee conspicuous signs, and none will disbelieve therein except the evildoers. -真的,不信神,是敌人的坏人我们发送到你明显标志,没有人会不相信其中的除外。Or every time they make a covenant, will a part of them repudiate it?或每一次他们要立约,将其中的一部分推翻呢?Nay, most of them do not believe.不仅如此,他们中大多数人不相信。

And when there comes to them an apostle confirming what they have, a part of those who have received the Book repudiate God's book, casting it behind their backs as though they did not know. And they follow that which the devils recited against Solomon's kingdom; - it was not Solomon who misbelieved, but the devils who misbelieved, teaching men sorcery, - and what has been revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut; yet these taught no one until they said, 'We are but a temptation, so do not misbelieve.'当发现有向他们走来一个使徒,确认他们有一个备份的一部分那些谁已收到图书否定神的书背后,铸造它,就好像他们不知道的国度他们也跟着这其中的魔鬼背诵对所罗门; -这不是所罗门谁却误以为,但魔鬼谁却误以为,教学男子巫术 -和已经透露给Harut和马鲁特两个天使在巴比伦;但这些没有人教,直到他们说,'我们只是一种诱惑,所以不疑。'Men learn from them only that by which they may part man and wife; but they can harm no one therewith, unless with the permission of God, and they learn what hurts them and profits them not.男子向他们学习只是其中的一部分人,他们可以和妻子,但他们伤害不了任何人条文,除非征得上帝,他们了解什么伤害他们,他们不要利润。 And yet they knew that he who purchased it would have no portion in the future; but sad is the price但他们知道,他谁购买不会有任何未来的一部分;但可悲的是价格

(continues . . . )(继续。。。)

The Koran or Qur'an可兰经或古兰经

Excerpt: Sura 19.16-21; 3.45-48摘录:苏拉19.16-21; 3.45-48

Regarding Jesus and Mary至于耶稣和玛丽

Behold!看哪!the angels said: "O Mary! God gives you glad tidings of a Word from Him; his name will be Jesus Christ, the son of Mary, held in honor in this world and the hereafter and of those nearest to God; he shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. And he shall be of the righteous."天使说:“哦,玛丽上帝给你一个喜讯从他说话,他的名字将被耶稣基督,圣母玛利亚的儿子,在履行其在这举行的世界和以下和那些最接近上帝,他应说话!在童年和成熟的人。他必是正义的。“ "How, O my Lord, shall I have a son, when no man has touched me?"“怎么,我的主啊,我有一个儿子,当任何人触及我?”asked Mary.玛丽问。He said, "Thus: God creates whatever He wants, when He decrees a thing He has only to say, 'Be' and it is. And God will teach him the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel."他说,“因此:上帝创造了什么,他想,当他法令的事,他只是说,'是',它是和上帝会教他的书和智慧,圣经和福音。。”


Catholic Information天主教新闻

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God.在穆斯林的圣书,它是由何人视为上帝的启示。Supplemented by the so-called Hadith, or traditions, it is the foundation of Islam and the final authority in dogma and belief, in jurisprudence, worship, ethics, and in social, family, and individual conduct.由所谓的圣训,或传统的补充,它是伊斯兰教的基础,在教条和信仰,在法理,崇拜,道德,最终的权力,并在社会,家庭和个人的行为。

The name Koran, or better Qur'an, from the Arabic stem Qara'a, "to read", "to recite", means the "Reading", the "Recitation", ie the "Book", par excellence.可兰经的名字,或更好的阿拉伯文古兰经,茎Qara'a,“阅读”,“背诵”,是指“读”,在“背诵”,即“书”,出类拔萃。 It is also called -- to select a few of many titles -- "Alkitab" (The Book), "Furquan" ("liberation", "deliverance", of the revelation), "Kitab-ul-lah" (Book of God), "Al-tanzil" (The Revelation).它也被称为 - 选择很多头衔数 - “Alkitab”(下册),“Furquan”(“解放”,“解脱”的启示),“基塔- UL认证-啦”(书神),“基地tanzil规定”(启示录)。It consists of one hundred and fourteen suras or chapters, some being almost as long as the Book of Genesis, others consisting of but two or three sentences.它由一百一十四章节或章节,有些是几乎一样创世记长,其他的,但两个或三个句子组成。It is smaller than the New Testament, and in its present form has no chronological order or logical sequence.它比小新约,并在其目前的形式并没有时间顺序,或逻辑顺序。


The Koran contains dogma, legends, history, fiction, religion and superstition, social and family laws prayers, threats, liturgy, fanciful descriptions of heaven, hell, the judgment day, resurrection, etc. -- a combination of fact and fancy often devoid of force and originality.可兰经包含教条,传说,历史,小说,宗教和迷信,社会和家庭法律祈祷,威胁,礼仪,天堂,地狱,在审判的日子,复活等幻想说明 - 结合的事实和幻想往往缺乏武力和独创性。The most creditable portions are those in which Jewish and Christian influences are clearly discernible.最可信的部分往往是那些犹太教和基督教的影响是清晰可见。The following analysis is based on Sir William Muir's chronological arrangement (op. cit. infra).下面的分析是基于威廉爵士缪尔的时间安排(同前。下文)。

First Period第一期

Suras 103, 91, 106, 101, 95, 102,104, 82, 92, 105 - rhapsodies, which may have been composed before Mohammed conceived the idea of a Divine mission, or of a revelation direct from Heaven.章节103,91,106,101,95,102104,82,92,105 - 狂想曲,它可能已经组成之前,穆罕默德构思一个神圣使命,或直接来自天堂的启示。

Second Period (the opening of Mohammed's ministry)第二期(穆罕默德的部开幕)

Sura 96, the command to "recite in the name of the Lord"; sura 113, on the unity and eternity of the Deity; sura 74, the command to preach, the denunciation of one of the chiefs of Mecca who scoffed at the resurrection, unbelievers threatened with hell; sura 111, Abu Lahab (the Prophet's uncle) and his wife are cursed.苏拉96,命令“背诵主的名”;苏拉的统一和永恒的神113;苏拉74,命令说教,对麦加的首领嘲笑谁在退出的一个复活,不信的威胁,地狱,苏拉111,阿布Lahab(先知的叔叔)和他的妻子是被咒诅的。

Third Period (from the beginning of Mohammed's public ministry to the Abyssinian emigration)第三个时期(从穆罕默德的公共事务部开始到阿比西尼亚移民)

Suras 87, 97, 88, 80, 81, 84, 86, 90, 85, 83, 78, 77, 76, 75, 70, 109, 107, 55, 56, descriptions of the resurrection, paradise, and hell, with references to the growing opposition of the Koreish tribe.章节87,97,88,80,81,84,86,90,85,83,78,77,76,75,70,109,107,55,56,描述的复活,天堂,地狱,与到Koreish部落日益反对引用。

Fourth Period (from the sixth to the tenth year of Mohammed's ministry)第四阶段(从第六到穆罕默德的第十个年头部)

Suras 67, 53, 32, 39, 73, 79, 54, 34, 31, 69, 68, 41, 71, 52, 50, 45, 44, 37, 30, 26, 15, 51, narratives from the Jewish Scriptures and from rabbinical and Arab legends; the temporary compromise with idolatry is connected with sura 53.章节67,53,32,39,73,79,54,34,31,69,68,41,71,52,50,45,44,37,30,26,15,51,说明从犹太圣经从犹太教和阿拉伯传说,与偶像崇拜暂时的妥协,是与苏拉53。

Fifth Period (from the tenth year of Mohammed's ministry to the Flight from Mecca)第五阶段(从穆罕默德的第十部每年从麦加航班)

Suras 46, 72, 35, 36, 19, 18, 27, 42, 40, 38, 25, 20, 43, 12, 11, 10, 14, 6, 64, 28, 22, 21, 17, 16, 13, 29, 7, 113, 114.章节46,72,35,36,19,18,27,42,40,38,25,20,43,12,11,10,14,6,64,28,22,21,17,16,13 ,29,7,113,114。The suras of this period contain some narratives from the Gospel, enjoin the rites of pilgrimage, refute the cavillings of the Koreish, and contain vivid descriptions of the resurrection, judgment, heaven, and hell, with proofs of God's unity, power, and providence.这一时期的章节包含来自福音的一些叙述,责成朝圣仪式,驳斥了Koreish的cavillings,并载有复活,判断,天堂,地狱生动的描述与上帝的团结,力量的证明,并普罗维登斯。 Gradually the suras become longer, some of them filling many pages.渐渐地,章节越来越长,其中一些填补许多网页。In the later suras of the fifth period Medina passages are often interpolated.在第五阶段以后的章节段落梅迪纳往往插。

Last Period (suras revealed at Medina)最后期限(在麦迪透露章节)

This period includes the following suras:这一时期包括以下章节:

Sura 98: on good and bad Jews and Christians.苏拉98:上好的和坏的犹太人和基督徒。

Sura 2, the longest in the Koran, is called the "Sura of the Cow" from the red heifer described in verse 67 as having been sacrificed by the Israelites at the direction of Moses.苏拉2,最长的可兰经,被称为从67节描述为已牺牲的以色列人在摩西的方向的红色小母牛的“奶牛苏拉”。It is a collection of passages on various subjects, delivered during the first two or three years after the Flight.它是在第一两三年内交付后的飞行各学科,通道的集合。The greater portion relates to the Jews, who are sometimes exhorted and sometimes reprobated.更大的一部分涉及到犹太人,谁有时告诫,有时reprobated。Biblical and rabbinical stories abound.圣经和犹太教的故事比比皆是。This sura contains the order to change the Qibla (or direction at prayer) a denunciation of the disaffected citizens of Medina, injunctions to fight, permission to bear arms in the sacred months and much matter of a legislative character promulgated on first reaching Medina, with passages of a later date interpolated.这章包含为了改变朝拜(或方向祈祷)心怀不满的麦地那公民的谴责,打禁令,允许承担的神圣个月的武器和一个立法性质更深远的问题颁布了第一个麦地那,与后期的通道内插。

Sura 3 belongs partly to the time immediately after the Battle of Bedr.苏拉3属于部分原因是后Bedr战役时立即。The Jews are referred to in terms of hostility.犹太人是指在敌对方面。The interview with Christian deputation from Najran (verses 57-63) is of a later date.从奈季兰与基督教代表团访问(诗句57-63)一个较后的日期。Passages pertaining to the farewell pilgrimage are introduced with other (probably) earlier texts on the rites of pilgrimage.通道告别朝圣有关介绍与其他(可能)的朝圣仪式较早的文本。

Sura 8 contains instructions on the division of spoil at Bedr.苏拉8载有关于在Bedr破坏除法指令。 Some parts are in the old Meccan style and the Koreish are frequently referred to.有些地方是在旧的麦加作风和Koreish经常提及。In sura 47 war and slaughter are enjoined, and idolaters of Mecca threatened.在苏拉47战争和屠杀是责成和麦加拜偶像的威胁。In sura 62 the Jews are denounced for their ignorance; the Friday service is to take precedence of secular engagements.在苏拉62个犹太人是谴责他们的无知,周五的服务是优先考虑世俗的约定。In sura 5 the Jews are reviled; the doctrines of the Christians are controverted; it contains also civil ordinances and miscellaneous instructions.在苏拉5犹太人被痛斥;教义的基督徒是有争议的,它也包含民间条例及其他指令。

Sura 59, on the siege and expulsion of the Banu Nadhir.苏拉59,在围困和巴努Nadhir驱逐出境。

Sura 4 entitled "women", from the large portion devoted to the treatment of wives and relation of sexes.苏拉4,题为“妇女”,由专门的妻子治疗和男女关系的很大一部分。There are also ordinances on the law of inheritance and general precepts, social and political.也有在继承和一般戒律,社会和政治法律条例。Idolatrous Meccans are to be shunned, and there are animadversions against the Jews.崇拜偶像的麦加是逃避,也有反对犹太人animadversions。The "disaffected" are blamed for taking the part of the Jews.在“心怀不满”的指责采取的犹太人的一部分。

Sura 65: on divorce and kindred subjects, with some religious observations.苏拉65:关于离婚和骨肉科目,与一些宗教性意见。

Sura 63: menances against 'Abdallah ibn Obey for his treasonable language on the expedition against the Banu Mustaliq.苏拉63:menances对'阿卜杜拉伊本为他的关于打击巴努Mustaliq远征叛国语言服从。

Sura 24: vindication of 'Ayisha, with the law of evidence for conjugal unfaithfulness, and miscellaneous precepts.苏拉24:平反的'Ayisha,随着婚姻不忠的证据法及其他戒律。

Sura 33, composed of portions covering the year AH 5.苏拉33,组成覆盖今年5份啊。The marriage of the Prophet with Zeinab, wife of his adopted son, is sanctioned.此次与Zeinab先知,他的妻子收养的儿子,婚姻是制裁。There are various passages on the conjugal relations of Mohammed, the siege of Medina, and the fall of the Banu Qoreitza.还有的穆罕默德,围困的麦地那,以及巴努Qoreitza秋季夫妻关系的各个通道。

Sura 57: injunctions to fight and contribute towards the expenses of war.苏拉57:禁令有助于打击和战争的费用。The disaffected are warned. Christians are mentioned in kindly terms.心怀不满的警告。 基督徒条款中提到亲切。

Sura 61: on war; speedy victory is promised.苏拉61:关于战争迅速胜利是承诺。-- The remaining suras belong exclusively to the last five years of the Prophet's life.- 其余章节只属于过去五年来的先知的使用寿命。

Sura 48 refers to the truce of Hodeibia, and the prospect of victory and spoil to be obtained elsewhere.苏拉48指的是Hodeibia停火协议,并破坏了胜利,在其他地方取得的前景。

Sura 60: on the treatment of the women who, after the truce, came over from Mecca; idolaters of Mecca to be shunned.苏拉60:对妇女谁后,停火,从麦加来到了处理;拜偶像的麦加要回避。

Sura 66: on the affair of Mohammed and the Coptic maid.苏拉66:关于穆罕默德事件和科普特女佣。

Sura 49: blaming the profession of the Bedouin Arabs as insincere, chiding the deputation which called out rudely at Mohammed's door, and exhorting believers against distrust and uncharitableness among themselves.苏拉49:指责不诚恳的贝都因阿拉伯人的行业,责骂了该团体即要求在穆罕默德的大门粗暴,劝他们之间的不信任和对抗uncharitableness信徒。

Sura 9 treats of the campaign to Tebuk (AH 9).9至Tebuk对待苏拉(阿九)的运动。It opens with the "release" promulgated at the pilgrimage of the same year and declares the antagonism of Islam to all other religions.它打开的“释放”在同年颁布朝圣,并宣布了伊斯兰教对抗所有其他宗教。All but Muslims are excluded from Mecca and the rites of pilgrimage.所有,但穆斯林被排除在麦加和朝圣的仪式。Idolaters are threatened with slaughter and slavery.拜偶像的威胁屠宰和奴役。War is declared against Jews and Christians until they are humbled and pay tribute.战争是针对犹太人和基督徒宣布,直到他们谦卑和敬意。This sura is called "the crusade chapter", and in the early campaigns was often read on the field before battle.这章是所谓的“十字军东征章”,并在早期活动往往是在球场上战场前仔细阅读。


The doctrine of the Koran will be fully discussed in the article on the religion of Islam.可兰经教义将全面讨论了关于伊斯兰教的文章。It is sufficient to note here that the doctrine may be classified under four categories:它足以在这里指出,根据该原则,可分为四类:

faith, or what to believe;信仰,或者相信什么;

practice or worship;实践或崇拜;

ethics, or what to do and what to avoid;道德,做什么和如何避免;

moral, historical, and legendary lessons taken from the canonical, but mostly apocryphal, Christian and Jewish Scriptures, and from contemporary and ancient Arabian heathenism. ,并从现代和古代阿拉伯异教道德,历史和传说中从规范的教训,但大多是猜测,基督教和犹太教的圣经。


Various efforts have been made by Muslim writers and European scholars to arrange the suras chronologically, but Noldeke's arrangement is generally considered the most plausible.已作出各种努力穆斯林作家和欧洲学者安排章节顺序,但Noldeke的安排,通常被认为是最可信的。He divides the suras into Meccan and Medinian, namely those delivered at Mecca before the Flight or Hegira, and those delivered at Medina after the Flight.他分为麦加和Medinian即那些在麦加发表起飞前或回教纪元的章节,以及那些在梅迪纳交付后的飞行。The Meccan suras are divided into three periods.在麦加章节分为三个时期。To the first (from the first to the fifth year of Mohammed's mission) belong the following suras - 96, 74, 111,106, 108, 104, 107, 102, 105, 92, 90, 94, 93, 97, 86, 91, 80, 68, 87, 95, 103, 85, '73, 101, 99, 82, 81, 53, 84,100, 79, 77, 78, 88, 89, 75, 83, 69, 5l, 52, 56, 55, 112, 109, ll3, 114, and 1.第一个(从第一个到,穆罕默德的使命第五个年头)属于下列章节 - 96,74,111106,108,104,107,102,105,92,90,94,93,97,86,91, 80,68,87,95,103,85,'73,101,99,82,81,53,84,100,79,77,78,88,89,75,83,69,5升,52,56,55 ,112,109,ll3,114,和1。To the second period (the fifth and sixth year of his mission) are assigned suras 54, 37, 7l, 76, 44, 50, 20, 26, 15, 19, 38, 36, 43, 72, 67, 23, 21, 25, 17, 27, and 18.到了第二期(他的使命第五和第六个年头)被分配章节54,37,7升,76,44,50,20,26,15,19,38,36,43,72,67,23,21 ,25,17,27和18。To the third period (from the seventh year to the Flight) belong the following suras: 32, 41 45, 16, 30, 11, 14,12, 40, 28, 39, 29, 31, 42, 10, 34, 35, 7, 46, 6, and 13.到第三期(从第七个年头的航班)属于下列章节:32,41 45,16,30,11,14,12,40,28,39,29,31,42,10,34,35 ,7,46,6和13。The Medina suras are those which remain, in the following order: 2, 98, 64, 62, 8, 47, 3, 61, 57, 4, 65, 59, 33, 63, 24, 58, 22, 48, 66, 60, 110, 9, and 5.麦地那的章节是那些留在顺序如下:2,98,64,62,8,47,3,61,57,4,65,59,33,63,24,58,22,48,66 ,60,110,9,和5。

The characteristic features of the various suras and of the periods in which they were delivered is described by Mr. Palmer as follows:各章节和在它们被交付的帕尔默先生描述如下时期的典型特征:

In the Meccan Suras Mohammed's one and steady purpose is to bring his hearers to a belief in the one only God; this he does by powerful rhetorical displays rather than logical arguments, by appealing to their feelings rather than their reason; by setting forth the manifestation of God in His works; by calling nature to witness to His presence; and by proclaiming His vengeance against those who associate other gods with Him, or attribute offsprings to Him.在麦加章节穆罕默德的一个稳定的目的是使他的听众中的一个只有一个上帝的信仰;这一点,他是通过强大的修辞显示,而不是逻辑的论据,呼吁他们的感受,而不是他们的理由;通过设置规定的体现他笔下的神通过调用性质见证他的存在,并宣布对那些与他同谁联系其他神,或属性子女给他,他的报复。 The appeal was strengthened by glowing pictures of the happiness in store for those who should believe, and by frightful descriptions of the everlasting torments prepared for the unbelievers.这项呼吁是加强了对那些在商店发光谁应该相信,幸福的图片和永恒可怕的折磨的不信准备的说明。In the earlier chapters, too, the prophetic inspiration, the earnest conviction of the truth of his mission, and the violent emotion which his sense of responsibility caused him are plainly shown.在前面几章,也预言灵感,他的使命认真真理的信念,和暴力情绪,他的责任感使他的是明明显示。The style is curt, grand, and often almost sublime; the expressions are full of poetical feeling, and the thoughts are earnest and passionate, though sometimes dim and confused, indicating the mental excitement and doubt through which they struggled to light.作风是简短,隆重,而且往往几乎崇高;的表达式充满诗意的感觉,和思想是认真和热情,虽然有时暗淡和混乱,这表明精神兴奋和怀疑,通过它们挣扎着光。

In the second period of the Meccan Suras, Mohammed appears to have conceived the idea of still further severing himself from the idolatry of his compatriots, and of giving to the supreme deity Allah another title, Ar-Rahman, "the merciful one".在麦加章节第二个时期,穆罕默德似乎已经想到了进一步切断了他的同胞从偶像崇拜自己的想法,并给予最高神安拉的另一个标题,氩拉赫曼,“仁慈的之一”。 The Meccans, however, seem to have taken these for the names of separate deities, and the name is abandoned in the later chapters.麦加人,但是,似乎已经采取了单独的这些神的名字,这个名字在后面的章节放弃。

In the Suras of the second Meccan period we first find the long stories of the prophets of olden times, especial stress being laid upon the punishment which fell upon their contemporaries for disbelief, the moral is always the same, namely, that Mohammed came under precisely similar circumstances, and that a denial of the truth of his mission would bring on his fellow-citizens the self-same retribution.在第二麦加期间章节,我们首先找到了古代的先知,特殊的压力而被处罚后,根据他们的同时代人怀疑下跌,道德始终是奠定了相同的,即根据穆罕默德正是传来长长的故事类似的情况,这是真理,他的任务将拒绝对他的同胞带来的自我同一报复。 They also show the transition stage between the intense and poetical enthusiasm of the early Meccan chapters and the calm teaching of the later Medinah ones.他们还表明,与早期麦加章激烈和诗意的热情和后来的梅地那平静的教学过渡阶段。This change is gradual, and even in the later and most prosaic we find occasionally passages in which the old prophetic fire flashes out once more.这种变化是渐进的,而且即使在后来我们发现,最平凡的通道,偶尔在旧的预言火闪烁出一次。The three periods are again marked by the oaths which occur throughout the Koran.三个时期的特点再次宣誓于整个古兰经发生。 In the first period they are all frequent and often long, the whole powers of nature being invoked to bear witness to the unity of God and the mission of His Apostle; in the second period they are shorter and of rarer occurrence; in the last period they are absent altogether.在第一阶段他们都频繁,往往很长,整个权力的性质被调用见证神的统一和他的使徒的使命,在第二个时期,他们更短的罕见现象,在上期他们是根本不存在。

To understand the Medinah Suras we must bear in mind Mohammed's position with respect to the various parties in that city.为了了解梅Suras我们必须牢记穆罕默德就在这个城市各方的立场。 In Mecca he had been a prophet with little honour in his own country, looked on by some as a madman, and by others as an impostor, both equally grievous to him, while his following consisted of the poorest and meanest of his fellow townsmen.在麦加,他一直是在自己的国家荣誉的小先知,看作为一个疯子一些,和其他人作为一个骗子,都同样严重到他,而他之后,他的同乡最贫穷和最卑鄙的组成。 His own clansmen, for the reason that they were his clansmen and for no other, resented the affronts against him.他自己的同乡,理由是他们是他的宗亲和没有其他,对他的侮辱不满。In Medinah he appears as a military leader and a prince, though as yet possessing far from absolute authority.他似乎在梅地那作为一个军事领导人和一位王子,但尚未拥有绝对的权威,从远。Around in the city were, first, the true believers who had fled with him El Muhagerin; next, the inhabitants of Yathrib, who had joined him and who were called El Ansar, "the helpers"; and lastly, a large class who are spoken of by the uncomplimentary name of Munafiqun or "hypocrites", consisting of those who went over to his side from fear or compulsion, and lastly those "in whose heart is sickness", who, though believing in him, were prevented by tribal or family ties from going over to him openly.各地在城市是:第一,谁是真正的信徒与他厄尔尼诺Muhagerin逃跑下一步,Yathrib居民,谁加入了他,谁被称为厄尔尼诺安萨“的助理”;最后,谁是一个大课堂谈到由Munafiqun或“伪君子”,谁去了那些因害怕或强迫他身边组成贬损的名称,最后那些“在他的心是病”,谁,尽管他相信,由部落或预防从去到他公开家庭关系。 Abdallah ibn Ubai was a chief whose influence operated strongly against Mohammed, and the latter was obliged to treat him for a long time almost as an equal, even after he had lost his political power.阿卜杜拉伊本乌拜其影响是一个主要经营穆罕默德强烈反对,后者不得不治疗很长一段时间他几乎是作为一个平等的,即使在他失去了他的政治权力。

The other party at Medinah was composed of the Jewish tribes settled in and around the city of Yathrib.在梅地那对方又组成和周围城市的Yathrib犹太定居在部落。The Jews were at first looked to as the most natural and likely supporters of the new religion, which was to confirm their own.犹太人起初期望的最自然的新的宗教和可能的支持者,这是证实自己去。These various parties together with the pagan Arabs of Mecca and the Christians are the persons with whom the Medinah Suras chiefly deal.这些各方同麦加和基督徒的异教徒的阿拉伯人是与谁梅Suras主要交易者。The style of the Medinah Suras resembles that of the third period of the Meccan revelations, the more matter-of-fact nature of the incidents related or the precepts given amounting in a great measure for the more prosaic language in which they are expressed.作者:梅Suras风格极为相似的麦加启示的第三个时期,越物的,事实上,有关的事故或在一个给定的戒律为更多的平淡语言,他们都表示了极大的措施达性质。

The other party at Ivledinah was composed of the Jewish tribes settled in and around the city of Tathrib.在Ivledinah对方组成和周围城市的Tathrib犹太定居在部落。The Jews were at first looked to as the most natural and likely supporters of the new religion, which was to confirm their own.犹太人起初期望的最自然的新的宗教和可能的支持者,这是证实自己去。These various parties together with the pagan Arabs of Mecca and the Christians are the persons with whom the Medinah Suras chiefly deal.这些各方同麦加和基督徒的异教徒的阿拉伯人是与谁梅Suras主要交易者。The style of the Medinah Suras resembles that of the third period of the Meccan revelations, the more matter-of-fact nature of the incidents related or the precepts given accounting in a great measure for the more prosaic language in which they are expressed.作者:梅Suras风格极为相似的麦加启示的第三个时期,越物的,事实上,有关事件的性质或戒律给予了更多的平凡的语言,他们都表示了极大的措施会计。 In the Medinah Suras the prophet is no longer trying to convert his hearers by examples, promises, and warnings; he addresses them as their prince in general, praising them or blaming them for their conduct, and giving them laws and precepts as occasion required.在梅Suras先知不再试图通过实例转换,承诺,并警告他的听众,他的地址作为他们的王子他们一般,称赞他们或他们指责他们的行为,并给予他们的法律和规则的场合需要。 (The Qur'an in "Sacred Books of the East", I, Oxford, 1880, pp. LXI, LXII, and LXIII). (在“圣书东”,我,牛津大学,1880年,第LXI的,第六十二号,和LXIII古兰经)。


The sources of the Koran be reduced to six:可兰经的来源减少到六:

The Old Testament (canonical and apocryphal) and the hybrid Judaism of the late rabbinical schools.旧约(规范和未经证实)和已故的混合犹太教犹太教学校。During Mohammed's time the Jews were numerous in many parts of Arabia, especially around Medina.在穆罕默德的时候,犹太人在许多地方,特别是在沙特阿拉伯麦地那,花样繁多。Familiarity with them is undoubtly responsible for many Old Testament stories alluded to in Koran.与他们熟悉是毋庸置疑的许多负责旧约故事中提到可兰经。Later Judaism and Rabbinism are equally well represented (Geiger, "Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen?", Wiesbaden, 1833; tr. "Judaism and Islam", Madras, 1898).后来犹太教和Rabbinism也同样很好的代表(盖格,“是穆罕默德的帽子澳大利亚DEM Judenthum aufgenommen?”,威斯巴登,1833年。风帆“犹太教和伊斯兰教”,马德拉斯,1898年)。

The New Testament (canonical and apocryphal) and various heretical doctrines.新约(规范和未经证实)和各种邪教教义。On his journeys between Syria, Hijaz, and Yemen, Mohammed had every opportunity to come in close touch with Yemenite, Abyssinian, Ghassanite, and Syrian Christians, especially heretic.在谈到叙利亚,汉志和也门他的行程,穆罕默德曾在每一个机会来与也门,阿比西尼亚,Ghassanite密切联系,和叙利亚基督徒,尤其是异教徒。 Hence, while the influence of orthodox Christianity upon the Koran has been slight, apocryphal and heretical Christian legends, on the other hand, are one of the original sources of Koranic faith.因此,虽然在可兰经的正统基督教的影响已经很小,未经和邪教基督教传说,另一方面,是可兰经的信仰原始来源之一。(See Muir, op. cit. infra, 66-239; Tisdall, "The Original Sources of the Qur'an", London, 1905, 55-211.) (见缪尔,同上红外线,66-239。。蒂斯,“古兰经的原始资料”,伦敦,1905年,55-211。)

Sabaism, a combination of Judaism, Manicheism, and old disfigured Babylonian heathenism.Sabaism,是犹太教,摩尼教,旧毁容巴比伦的异教的组合。

Zoroastrianism.拜火教。On account of Persia's political influence in the north-eastern part of Arabia, it is natural to find Zoroastrian elements in the Koran.论波斯在阿拉伯东北部的政治影响力的帐户,很自然地找到在古兰经拜火教元素。

Hanifism, the adherents of which, called Hanifs, must have been considerable in number and influence, as it is known from contemporary Arabian sources that twelve of Mohammed's followers were members of this sect. Hanifism,其中,被称为Hanifs的信徒,必须已在数量和影响力相当大,因为它是由当代阿拉伯来源众所周知,穆罕默德的信徒都是这十二个教派成员。

Native ancient and contemporary Arabian heathen beliefs and practices.古代和当代阿拉伯本土异教徒的信仰和习俗。

Wellhausen has collected in his "Reste des arabischen Heidentums" (Berlin, 1897) all that is known of pre-Islamic Arabian heathen belief, traditions, customs, and superstitions, many of which are either alluded to or accepted and incorporated in the Koran.豪森收集了他的“Reste德arabischen Heidentums”(柏林,1897年)所有,它是前伊斯兰阿拉伯异教徒的信仰,传统,风俗和迷信,其中有许多是不是暗示或接受,并纳入已知的可兰经。 From the various sects and creeds, and Abul-Fida, the well-known historian and geographer of the twelfth century, it is clear that religious beliefs and practices of the Arabs of Mohammed's day form one of the many sources of Islam.从各教派和信仰,和阿布,菲达,著名的历史学家和地理学家的十二世纪,很显然,宗教信仰和穆罕默德的天伊斯兰教的来源有很多,形成一个阿拉伯人的做法。 From this heathen source Islam derived the practices of polygamy and slavery, which Mohammed sanctioned by adopting them.从这个异教徒源伊斯兰教产生的一夫多妻制和奴隶制的做法,采用许可的穆罕默德。


It is generally admitted that the Koran is substantially the work of Mohammed.人们普遍承认,可兰经是大大的穆罕默德工作。According to the traditionalists, it contains the pure revelation he could neither read nor write, but that immediately afterwards he could do both; others believe that even before the revelation he could read and write; while others, again, deny that he could ever do so.根据传统,它包含了纯启示,他既不能读也不会写,但随即他都可以做,有些人认为,即使在他的启示,能读会写,而其他人,再次否认,他曾经做如此。 Thus it is uncertain whether any of the suras were written down by the Prophet himself or all delivered by him orally and afterwards writen down by others from memory.因此,尚不能确定是否所有的章节写的先知本人或由他事后发表口头和书面由别人了所有记忆下来。

The Koran is written in Arabic, in rhymed prose, the style differing considerably in the various suras, according to the various periods of the Prophet's life.可兰经是用阿拉伯文写的,在押韵的散文,风格不同的各个章节相当大的,根据先知的生活的各个时期。The language is universally acknowledged to be the most perfect form of Arab speech, and soon became the standard by which other Arabic literary compositions had to be judged - grammarians, lexirographers, and rhetoricians presuming that the Koran, being the word of God, could not be wrong or imperfect.语言是举世公认是最完美的阿拉伯讲话的形式,并很快成为标准,其中其他阿拉伯文学作品,必须判断 - 文法,lexirographers,和rhetoricians即假定可兰经,是上帝的话,无法是错误的或不完善的。

Mohammed's hearers began by trusting their memories to retain the words of the revelation they had received from him.穆罕默德的听众开始就相信自己的记忆保留他们已收到他的启示的话。Later, those who could write traced them in ancient characters on palm leaves, tanned hides, or dry bones.后来,这些谁可以写在贝叶上追查,鞣皮,或干骨头古文字他们。After the Prophet's death all these fragments were collected.之后,先知的死亡所有这些碎片收集。Zaid ibn Thabit, Mohammed's disciple, was charged by Abu Bekr, the caliph, to collect all that could be discovered of the sacred text in one volume.扎伊德伊本萨比特,穆罕默德的弟子,被指控阿布Bekr,哈里发,收集所有的可能是在神圣的文本发现一册。The chapters were then arranged according to their length and without regard to historical sequence.该章节安排,然后根据他们的长度和不考虑历史序列。The revision made twenty years later affected details of language of the text.所作出的修订影响到二十年后的文本语言的细节。 The best and most accessible edition of the Koran is that of Flugel, "Al-Qoran: Corani textus Arabicus" (Leipzig, 1834 and since).可兰经的最佳和最方便的版本是,佛鲁吉尔,“基地Qoran:Corani Web网站Arabicus”(莱比锡,1834年以来)。Maracci's famous Latin translation of the Koran, with a refutation and commentary, is still unique and useful: "Alcorani textus universus" (Padua, 1698). Maracci著名的拉丁美洲翻译的古兰经与驳斥和评论,仍是独特的和有用的:“Alcorani Web网站universus”(帕多瓦,1698)。 The standard English versions are those of Sale (London, 1734) with a still useful introductory essay; Rodwel (London, 1861), arranged in chronological order; and Palmer in "Sacred Books of the East" (Oxford, l880).标准的英文版本是那些卖了还是有用的介绍文章(伦敦,1734年); Rodwel(伦敦,1861年),按照时间顺序排列,并在(牛津,l880),“东方圣书”帕尔默。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.出版信息写加布里埃尔Oussani。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

The Koran or Qur'an可兰经或古兰经

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

The sacred scriptures of Islam.伊斯兰教的神圣经文。According to Mohammedan belief, based upon the testimony of the book itself, the Koran consists of separate revelations vouchsafed by God to Mohammed through the angel Gabriel (sura ii. 91, xxv. 34).根据伊斯兰教的信仰,经书本身的证词为基础,可兰经包括由神赐予穆罕默德通过单独的启示天使加布里埃尔(苏拉二。91,二十五。34)。 These were delivered in Arabic (xxvi. 195) and were thus first of all for the Arabs, who had previously received no manifestation of the will of God (xxxiv. 43).这些都是交付阿拉伯语(xxvi. 195),并因此为阿拉伯人,谁曾收到没有上帝的意志(xxxiv. 43)的表现首先。They were designed, also, to confirm the older books of the Torah and the Gospels, and to lead mankind in the right way (iii. 2, et al.).他们的目的,同时,以确认律法和福音旧书籍,并导致人类以正确的方式(iii. 2,等。)。 Mohammed is, therefore, the messenger of God (xcviii. 2, etc.) and the seal of the Prophets (xxxiii. 40).穆罕默德,因此,上帝的使者(xcviii. 2等)和先知(xxxiii. 40)印章。In the prime of life this remarkable man, whose developmentis traced in no authentic records, voluntarily retired to solitude.在年富力强这位非凡的人,其developmentis在没有真实的记录追查,自愿退休的寂寞。There, through vigils and fasting, he fell into religious trances, in which he felt himself inspired to warn his fellows of an impending judgment.在那里,通过守夜和禁食,他落入宗教出神,他觉得自己在其中的启发,提醒他的伙伴们即将到来的判决。

Form of Revelation.表格的启示。

The oldest portions of the Koran represent the material result of this inspiration.可兰经的最古老的部分代表了这种灵感材料的结果。They reflect an extraordinary degree of excitement in their language-in their short, abrupt sentences and in their sudden transitions, but none the less they carefully maintain the rimed form, like the oracles and magic formulas of the pagan Arab priests (Al-A'sha, in Ibn Hisham).它们反映了一个异乎寻常的兴奋他们的语言,在其短,突发性的句子,并在其突然转型,但没有少他们小心地维护阿rimed形式,如神谕和异教的(阿拉伯祭司魔法公式铝甲'在伊本希沙姆沙)。 This form is preserved in the later sections also, in some of which the movement is calm and the style expository.这种形式是保存在后面的章节,其中也有些人来说,运动是平静和风格解释性的。The book, which is about equal to the New Testament in size, was put together long after the prophet's death; and its 114 sections were arranged without any regard for chronological sequence.这本书,这是约等于新约中的大小,被放在一起后不久,先知的死亡,而且它的114个切片,没有任何的时间顺序安排方面。

Quotations from the Koranare found as early as the period of Mohammed's activity in Mecca (Ibn Hisham, ib. p. 226).可兰经的报价发现早在穆罕默德的活动在麦加(伊本希沙姆,兴业。第226页)时期的早期。 The oldest fragments may have been recited by the prophet himself before a band of followers, though probably a small one, who could more easily preserve them, either orally or in writing.最古老的碎片可能已在一念的追随者,他的先知,虽然可能是一个小的,谁可以更容易地保护它们,无论是口头或书面形式。 The following extracts, referring to the most important articles of faith taught in the Koran, will give an approximate idea of its language and mode of thought:以下摘录,指在可兰经教信仰的最重要的文章,将给出它的语言和思维模式近似的想法:

Allah and Creation.真主与创作。

"Allah is the Creator of the heavens and the earth; when He says 'Be,' it is" (ii. 111; iii. 42, 52).“真主是天地的创造者,当他说'是'它是”(白介素111;三,42,52。)。"With Him are the keys of the unseen. None knows it save Him; His is the understanding of all that is in the land and in the sea; and no leaf falls without His knowledge" (vi. 59). “与他是看不见的钥匙没有人知道它保存下来的。他是所有的理解,在陆地和海面,并没有叶不属于他的知识”(第六59)。"Should God touch thee with harm, there is none to remove it save Him; and if He wish thee well, there is none to restrain His bounty" (x. 107). “如果上帝接触伤害你的,没有将其删除救他,如果他想你的好,是没有限制他的恩惠”(十107)。"Do not the unbelieving see that the heavens and the earth were one until We clove them asunder and made every living thing from water" (xxi. 31).“别不信看到天地是一体的,直到我们丁香四分五裂,使他们每天从水中生活的东西”(xxi. 31)。"He it is who appointed the sun for brightness; He established the moon for light and ordained her stations, that ye may know the number of the years and the reckoning of them" (x. 5).“他是谁任命的亮度太阳光线,他建立了月球和祝她站,你们可知道数年,他们中推算”(十5)。"The cattle, likewise, have We created for you; in them are warmth and much profit, and of them ye eat. In them is there beauty for you when ye fetch them from their pastures, and when ye drive them forth to graze. They bear your heavy burdens to towns which ye could not otherwise reach, save with great wretchedness of soul: verily, your Lord is gracious and merciful!" “牛,同样,有我们为您创造,在他们的温暖和多大的利润,他们是你们吃,在他们那里获取你的美丽,当你们从自己的牧场上,当你们驱动他们去吃草。。他们承担的沉重负担,以城镇你们不能以其他方式达成,保存与灵魂的伟大的不幸:众志成城,你的上帝是仁慈和怜悯!“ "Horses, too, has He created, and mules, and asses, for you to ride upon and for an ornament" (xvi. 5-8). “马,也有他创建,骡,驴,你骑的装饰品和”(xvi. 5-8)。"He it is that sends rain from heaven, whereof ye drink; from which grow the trees whereby ye feed your flocks." “这人就是会从天上下雨,就是你们喝,从生长的树木,你们原是喂你的羊群。”"He makes the corn to grow, and the olives, and the palms, and the grapes, and all manner of fruit: verily, herein is a sign unto them that reflect" (xvi. 10, 11). “他使玉米成长,橄榄和棕榈树,葡萄,水果和各种方式:众志成城,这里是一个信号,告诉他们,反映”(xvi. 10日,11日)。"He it is that subjected the sea unto you, that ye may eat fresh meat therefrom and bring forth from it the ornaments which ye wear; and thou mayest see the ships that sail upon it" (xvi. 14).“他是受到海告诉你们,你们可以吃鲜肉和由此带来它提出你们所戴的饰品,以及你能看见那些船的航行后,它”(xvi. 14)。 "He it is that created you of dust, then of a drop, then of clotted blood, and then brought you forth as children; then ye attain your full strength; then ye become old men-though some of you are taken sooner-and then ye reach the time appointed for you" (xl. 69). “他是你创建的灰尘,然后一下降,那么血液凝​​块,然后带你们去,为孩子,然后你们实现你的全力,然后你们成为老人们,虽然你们有些人采取更快和然后你们到达你指定的时间“(xl. 69)。

Last Judgment; Resurrection.最后的审判;复活。

"O ye men! fear your Lord! Verily the earthquake of the Hour is a mighty thing!" “啊!你们当敬畏你的上帝!你们中的一小时地震是一个强大的东西!”"On the day ye shall see it, every suckling woman shall forget her sucking babe; and every woman with child shall cast forth her burden; and thou shalt see men drunken, though they have drunk naught" (xxii. 1, 2). “在日,你们会看到它,每个哺乳妇女应忘记她吸吮婴儿;和每个孩子的女人应投了她的负担,你也看到男人喝醉酒的,虽然他们已经喝醉了一无所有”(xxii. 1,2)。"And the day when We shall move the mountains, and thou shalt see the earth a level plain; and We shall gather all men together, and leave no one of them behind: then shall they be brought before thy Lord in ranks. Now are ye come to Us as we created you at first! Nay, but ye thought that we would never make Our promise good! And each shall receive his book, and thou shalt see the sinners in alarm at that which is therein; and they shall say, 'Alas for us! what a book is this, leaving neither small nor great unnumbered!' “这一天,当我们将移​​动的大山,你看见地球上的水平平原,我们将收集所有的人在一起,没有留下任何他们后面一:。队伍中,然后将他们带到你的主现在是你们到我们这里来为我们创造起初不然你们,你们却不以为我们永远不会使我们的承诺很好,每个应接受他的书,你要看到在该警报是其中的罪人!他们也要说'唉,我们!这是什么书,离开既不小,也不大的一间! And they shall find therein what they have done; and thy Lord shall deal unjustly with none" (xviii. 45-47).他们要在其中寻找自己所做的事,和你的上帝应处理不公正与无“(xviii. 45-47)。"We shall set just balances for the Day of Resurrection, and no soul shall be wrong; even though it be the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, We shall bring it" (xxi.48). “我们应当建立只是为了复活日余额,并没有灵魂应是错误的,即使它是一个芥菜种子千粒重,我们就把它”(xxi.48)。"Verily, those that believe, and those that are Jews, and the Sabeans, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those that join other gods with God-verily, God will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection" (xxii. 17). “真的,那些认为,和那些犹太人和萨比教徒,基督徒和袄教徒,和那些同上帝忠实,上帝将决定它们之间的其他众神复活的日子”(xxii. 17)。

Hell and Paradise.地狱和天堂。

"Verily, We have prepared for the evil-doers a fire, the smoke whereof shall encompass them; and if they cry for help they shall be helped with water like molten brass, which shall scald their faces" (xviii. 28). “诚然,我们已经为恶人准备了火灾,浓烟信守应包括他们,如果他们哭的帮助,他们应能与像熔化的铜,其中应烫伤水帮助他们的脸”(xviii. 28)。 "But for those that misbelieve, for them are cut out garments of fire; there shall be poured over their heads boiling water; what is in their bellies, and their skins, shall be dissolved; and for them are maces of iron. Whenever in their pain they shall come forth, they shall be thrust back into it" (xxii. 20-22). “但是,对于那些疑,他们是把他的火衣服应当有超过他们的头上开水倒,还有的是在他们的肚子,他们的皮肤,应予以解散。并为他们都是maces铁每当他们的痛苦,他们应站出来,他们应推力回“(xxii. 20-22)。"Nay, when the earth shall be crushed with crushing on crushing, and thy Lord shall come, and the angels, rank on rank, and hell on that day shall be brought nigh-on that day man shall be reminded! But how shall he have a reminder? He will say, 'Would that I had prepared in my life for this!' “不仅如此,当地球上应粉碎粉碎的粉碎,和你的主人要来,天使,职级职级,并在该日应提请几乎地狱上这一天的人应提醒!但是,如何将他有一个提醒?他会说,'将是我在我的生命为此做好了准备! But on that day none shall be punished with a punishment like his, and none shall be bound with chains like his!"但是,在这一天都不应受到惩罚与像他的惩罚,并没有像他应与锁链!“(lxxxix. 22-27).(lxxxix. 22-27)。

"On that day shall there be joyous faces, well pleased with their past deeds, in a lofty garden where they shall hear no vain discourse; wherein is a flowing fountain; wherein are high couches and goblets set, and cushions laid in order, and carpets spread!" “在这一天将有欢乐的面孔,好高兴与他们过去的事迹在一个崇高的花园,他们听没有白​​费话语;其中,是一个流动的喷泉,其中高集沙发和高脚杯,为了铺设垫子,和地毯蔓延!“ (lxxxviii. 8-16).(lxxxviii. 8-16)。"Verily, the righteous shall dwell among delights; seated on couches they shall gaze about them; thou mayest recognize in their faces the brightness of delight; they shall be given to drink wine that is sealed, whose seal is musk; for that let the aspirants aspire! And it shall be tempered with Tasnim, a spring from which thosethat draw nigh to God shall drink" (lxxxiii. 22-28). “诚然,义人必是住在愉悦;在沙发上坐下,他们应当对他们的目光;你mayest承认在他们脸上的喜悦亮度,他们应考虑到喝葡萄酒是密封,盖章的麝香;该让有志追求!这要与Tasnim,弹簧从中thosethat提请亲近上帝应喝“(lxxxiii. 22-28)锻炼。"O thou soul that art at rest! return unto thy Lord, well pleased and pleasing him! And enter among my servants, and enter my paradise" (lxxxix. 27-30). “啊,你的灵魂,在休息的艺术!归向你的主,好高兴和满意他!并输入在我的仆人,并输入我的天堂”(lxxxix. 27-30)。

Old and New Testament Stories.旧约和新约的故事。

Although the passages here quoted contain many original phrases and figures, they are frequently reminiscent of similar passages in the Old and New Testaments.虽然在这里引述的段落包含了许多原有的短语和人物,他们经常在旧约和新约类似的段落回忆。These points of contact are the more numerous because Mohammed repeats many Biblical narratives.这些联络点越多,因为许多圣经穆罕默德重复叙述。These are found especially in the later suras, which have all the characteristics of sermons.这些被发现,特别是在后来的章节,这一切说教的特点。The chief subjects taken from the Old Testament are: the Creation; Cain and Abel; Noah; Abraham and his sons; Jacob and his sons; Moses and Aaron; Saul; David and Solomon; Job and Jonah; but from the New Testament, besides Jesus and Mary, only John is mentioned.从旧约所采取的主要对象是:建立;该隐和亚伯;诺亚,亚伯拉罕和他的儿子雅各和他的儿子摩西和亚伦;扫罗,大卫和所罗门,职业和约拿,但来自新约,除了耶稣和玛丽,只有约翰被提到。 In the Old Testament narratives the Koran frequently follows the legends of the Jewish Haggadah rather than the Biblical accounts, as Geiger pointed out in his "Was Hat Muhammad aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen?"在旧约的叙述如下古兰经经常账户,而不是圣经的犹太哈加达传说,如盖格指出,在他的“帽子穆罕默德是澳大利亚DEM Judenthume Aufgenommen?”(Bonn, 1834; 2d. ed. Berlin, 1902).(波恩,1834年;。。2版柏林,1902年)。Thus, the story of Abraham's destruction of the idols in his father's house, and his answer to those that asked who had done it (xxi. 58-64), agree with Gen. R. xvii.; the sign that restrained Joseph from sin (xii. 24) corresponds to Soṭah 36b; the refusal of Moses to accept food from the Egyptian women (xxviii. 11) parallels Soṭah 12b; and the account of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (xxvii.) harmonizes with the commentary of Targum Sheni to Esther i.因此,在他父亲的房子的故事亚伯拉罕的偶像破坏,他的回答那些询问是谁做了它(xxi. 58-64),同意创传译十七。克制的迹象,约瑟夫从罪孽(xii. 24)对应到Soṭah36B条;拒绝摩西接受来自(xxviii. 11)埃及妇女粮食平行Soṭah12B条;以及帐户和所罗门示巴女王(xxvii.)与和谐的根评论Sheni以斯帖岛13.13。

For many of these borrowed narratives the sources are unknown.对于这些借来的叙述许多来源不明。Thus, for instance, the story in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" of the Egyptian women that cut their fingers in bewilderment at Joseph's beauty (xii. 31) is based on the Mohammedan narrative, and no older Jewish source thereof is known.因此,例如,在“之书公顷亚沙尔”的埃及妇女的故事,切断他们的手指在困惑在约瑟夫的美丽(xii. 31)是在伊斯兰教的叙事为主,并没有老犹太来源来看是众所周知的。For the legend of Samiri, comp.对于Samiri,比赛的传说。"ZDMG" lvi.“ZDMG”LVI的。 73.73。

In its version of the story of Jesus the Koran shows more dependence on the apocryphal than on the canonical Gospels.在其对耶稣的古兰经故事版本显示更多的比对典型福音猜测的依赖。Thus the story of the giving of life to the bird of clay (iii. 43, v. 110) is found in the Gospel of Thomas (ed. Tischendorf, ii. 2).因此,在给予生命的粘土鸟(iii. 43,诉110)的故事中发现的托马斯福音(编提申多夫,二。2)。The account of Mary's marvelous food (iii. 32) is given in the Protevangelium Jacob, viii., as well as the casting of lots for the care of her (ch. ix.), found in iii.玛丽的神奇食物(iii. 32)帐户是由于在Protevangelium雅各,八。,以及地段,为她的照顾铸造(第九章。),在三。39.39。

Furthermore, there are many variations, especially in the case of proper names, which are due to confusion on the part of Mohammed himself.此外,还有很多变化,特别是在适当的名称,这是由于对自己的穆罕默德产生混淆的情况下。Thus, Pharaoh desires to build a tower (xxviii. 38), the story being based on the account of Nimrod (Josephus, "Ant." i. 4, §§ 2-3); by a confusion with Miriam, Mary is called the sister of Aaron (xix. 29); Haman is the servant of Pharaoh (xxviii. 38); and Azar becomes the father of Abraham (vi. 74)-a reminiscence in Mohammed's mind of the name of Eliezer (comp. also, for the account of Idris [xix. 57], Nöldeke in "Zeit. für Assyr." xvii. 83).因此,建立一个法老的愿望塔(xxviii. 38),故事是对尼姆罗德基于客户(约瑟夫,一,四,§ § 2-3“蚂蚁。”);由具有仪混乱,玛丽被称为,阿伦(xix. 29)的妹妹,哈曼是法老(xxviii. 38)仆人和阿扎尔成为亚伯拉罕(第六74),在穆罕默德的名字的埃利泽(comp.也心缅怀父亲,对于伊德里斯帐户[十九。57],在“时代。献给Assyr。”Nöldeke十七。83)。

Application of Quotations and References.应用引文和参考。

There are frequent anachronisms in the teachings of Mohammed.有在穆罕默德的教义频繁的时代错误。Thus, the regulation concerning prayer and almsgiving is mentioned in connection with God's compact with Israel (v. 15); God commanded Moses and Aaron to provide places of prayer in Egypt (x. 87); and the destruction of Lot's wife was foreordained by God (xv. 60).因此,有关规例的祈祷和施舍中提到与神与以色列(15节)紧凑连接,神吩咐摩西和亚伦提供祈祷场所在埃及(十87)和罗得的妻子的破坏是注定的神(xv. 60)。Other additions were made to suit Arabic conditions, such as the description of Moses' staff (xx. 19); the reason assigned for his approach to the burning bush ("I will bring you a blazing brand from it"; xxvii. 7); crucifixion on palm-trees as a punishment (xx. 74); and Joseph as guardian of his brothers' baggage (xii. 17; comp. Wellhausen, "Skizzen," iv. 157; for the description of Solomon's glory, "dishes as large as cisterns"; comp. Al-A'sha, in Al-Mubarrad, 4, 14).其他增加了阿拉伯语,以适应条件,如摩西的工作人员介绍(xx. 19),因为他的方法来燃烧灌木分配的原因(“我会为你带来超越以往的从它的品牌”。二十七7) ;在棕榈树的十字架作为惩罚(xx. 74)和约瑟夫作为他的兄弟的行李监护人(xii. 17日。比赛豪森,“Skizzen,”四157。对于所罗门的荣耀说明,“菜如蓄水池“大;比赛铝A'sha在Al - Mubarrad,4,14)。。

A fundamental alteration, which has a direct bearing on the Arabs and on Mecca, is found in the story of Abraham and his sons, the Koran representing the Biblical patriarch as the founder of the sanctuary at Mecca.一个根本的改变,这对阿拉伯人和麦加直接关系,被发现在亚伯拉罕和他的儿子,可兰经代表作为创始人圣经在麦加圣主教的故事。 Ishmael is not mentioned with him until the later suras, whereas, according to the earlier ones, Isaac and Jacob are the sons of Abraham: probably a confusion in Mohammed's own mind (comp. Snouck Hurgronje, "Het Mekkaansche Feest," p. 32).伊斯梅尔没有提到他,直到后来章节,而根据早先,以撒和雅各是亚伯拉罕的子孙:可能是一个在穆罕默德自己的心灵(可比Snouck Hurgronje混乱,“埃黑特Mekkaansche Feest”,第32页)。In all the Biblical narratives which are found in the Koran the words placed in the mouths of the speakers are intended to convey Mohammed's opinions and beliefs.在所有这些都是在可兰经发现圣经的叙述中说话人的​​口中的话放在旨在传达穆罕默德的意见和信仰。The relation of Mohammed to the Meccans is but thinly disguised under the warnings of individual prophets to a sinful people, and in the answers of the latter.穆罕默德的麦加是关系到薄,但在个别先知的警告,伪装成一个罪孽深重的人,并在后者的答案。Noteworthy in this connection are the words of Adam and Eve (vii. 22); of Abel (v. 32); of Noah (vii. 57, 59; xi. 27); of the unbelievers in Noah's time (vii. 58; xi. 34, 45, 48); of Jacob (xii. 99); of Joseph (xii. 33, 37); of Moses (vii. 103, xxviii. 15); of the Egyptian magicians (xx. 75); and of Jesus (xix. 31).在这方面值得注意的是亚当和夏娃(vii. 22)的字样;亚伯(五32);的诺亚(vii. 57,59,十一27。)1996-04-03在诺亚的时间不信(vii. 58;十一34,45,48);。雅各(xii. 99);约瑟夫(xii. 33,37);摩西(vii. 103,二十八15)。的(xx. 75)埃及魔术师;及耶稣(xix. 31)。

A few legends, in addition to the Biblical narratives, have been taken into the Koran, such as the legend of Alexander the Great, with "the two horns" (xviii. 82 et seq.), which is derived from a Syriac source (Nöldeke, "Beiträge zur Gesch. des Alexanderromans," p. 32); the legend of the Seven Sleepers (xviii. 8 et seq.; comp. Koch, "Die Siebenschläfer Legende," Leipsic, 1883; Guidi, "Testi Orientali Inediti Sopra i Sette Dormienti di Efeso," Rome, 1885); the legend of Moses and the servant of God (xviii. 64 et seq.); and the story of the one hundred years' sleep (ii. 261; comp. the story of Ḥoni ha-Me'aggel, Yer. Ta'an. iii. 66d; Guidi, "Sette Dormienti," p. 103).一些传说,除了圣经的叙述,已考虑到可兰经,如亚历山大大帝的传说,与“二角”(xviii. 82起。),这是来自叙利亚源区( Nöldeke“。Beiträge楚Gesch德Alexanderromans”,第32页)。七个枕木(xviii. 8日起传说;。可比科赫,“模具Siebenschläfer Legende”普西克,1883年,圭迪,“Testi Orientali Inediti Sopra我泽塞特Dormienti迪Efeso,“罗马,1885年);传说,摩西和神的仆人(xviii. 64起)。以及百年的睡眠故事(白介素261。比赛的故事。作者:霍尼公顷Me'aggel,也门里亚尔Ta'an三66d。。圭迪,“泽塞特Dormienti”,第103页)。

The Koran contains also native Arabic legends, apparently somewhat altered in form, which are included for the moral they convey.可兰经也包含本地阿拉伯传说,显然有些形式改变,这是它们所传达的道德包括在内。To this class belong the stories of the destruction of the Thamud (the Θαμουδῆνοι of Diodorus Siculus, iii. 44; Ptolemy, vi. 7, 21; "Notitia Dignitatum," ed. Seeck, pp. 58, 59, 73), on account of their disobedience to their prophet (vii. 71, et al.); of the Madyan (vii. 83, et al.; the of the Bible and the Mαδιάμα of Ptolemy, vi. 7, 27); and of the 'Ad (xi. 62, et al.), a general term for a mythological, prehistoric people (comp. Nöldeke, "Fünf Mu'allakat," iii. 31, in "Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie," 1903).属于这一类的故事的Thamud破坏(即狄奥的宫殿Θαμουδῆνοι,三44;。托勒密,六,七,21;。“Notitia Dignitatum,”海关Seeck,第58,59,73。)上考虑他们的不服从他们的先知(vii. 71,等。)的Madyan(vii. 83,等人。。在圣经和托勒密Mαδιάμα,六7,27);和'广告(xi. 62,等。)作一个神话,史前人的总称(可比Nöldeke,“Fünf Mu'allakat,”三。31日,在“Sitzungsberichte明镜维纳Akademie”,1903年)。Here, also, belong the story of the breaking of the dam in Yemen (xxxiii. 14) and the speeches placed in the mouth of Luḳman (xxxi. 12 et seq.), who is mentionedlikewise in old Arabic poems.在这里,也属于对在也门坝(xxxiii. 14)和在Luḳman放入口中的发言打破故事(xxxi. 12起。),谁是mentionedlikewise在旧阿拉伯语诗歌。The Koran, in addition, includes many passages of a legislative character and of later date.可兰经,此外,包括立法性质和日后许多段落。These contain regulations concerning the pilgrimage (ii. 185); fasting (ii. 181); almsgiving (ii. 273 et seq., lxiv. 17 et seq.); the spoils of war (viii.); marriage (iv. 23, et al.); inheritance (iv. 2, et al.); and the like.这些文件包含有关规定朝圣(白介素185);空腹(白介素181);施舍(白介素273起,lxiv 17起。。。)战利品(viii.),婚姻(iv. 23等);。继承(iv. 2,等)。等等。In these portions, also, the typical expressions of the earlier passages relating to articles of faith recur as interpolations in the text itself.在这些部分,同时,有关文章的信仰复发中文字本身插较早通道的典型表现。The language of the Koran is held by the Mohammedans to be a peerless model of perfection.可兰经的语言是由本伊斯兰教是一个无与伦比的完美典范。An impartial observer, however, finds many peculiarities in it.一个公正的观察员,但是,体现在它的许多特点。Especially noteworthy is the fact that a sentence in which something is said concerning Allah is sometimes followed immediately by another in which Allah is the speaker; examples of this are suras xvi.尤其值得注意的是,一个句子,其中一些是关于真主说有时后跟另一个在真主是议长立即事实,这方面的例子是章节十六。81, xxvii.81,二十七。61, xxxi.61,三十一。9, and xliii.9,和四十三。 10 (comp. also xvi. 70). 10(comp.也十六。70)。Many peculiarities in the positions of words are due to the necessities of rime (lxix. 31, lxxiv. 3), while the use of many rare words and new forms may be traced to the same cause (comp. especially xix. 8, 9, 11, 16).在词语的许多职位特殊性是由于雾凇的必需品(lxix. 31日,lxxiv。3),而许多不常见的单词和新的形式可以追溯到同一原因(comp.特别是十九。八,九,11,16)。See also Islam; Mohammed.另见伊斯兰教穆罕默德。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Flügel, Corani Textus Arabicus, Leipsic, 1869; Concordantiœ Corani Arabicœ, ib.佛鲁吉尔,Corani Web网站Arabicus,普西克,1869年; Concordantiœ Corani Arabicœ,兴业。1842; HO Fleischer, Beidhawii Commentarius in Coranum, i., ii., ib.1842年,何弗莱舍,Beidhawii Commentarius在Coranum,一,二,兴业。。1846-48; Wherry, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, with additional notes and emendations, 4 vols., London, 1883-86; Ullmann, Der Koran aus dem Arabischen Uebersetzt, 6th ed., Bielefeld, 1862; Kasimirski, Le Koran, Traduction Nouvelle, Paris, 1864; EH Palmer, Translation of the Quran, in SBE vols. 1846年至1848年,惠里,一份关于古兰经的综合评述,与其他注意事项和emendations,4卷,伦敦,1883年至1886年。乌尔曼,明镜古兰经澳大利亚DEM Arabischen Uebersetzt,第6版,比勒费尔德,1862年。Kasimirski,乐可兰经,Traduction中篇小说,巴黎,1864年;高血压帕尔默,翻译的古兰经,在磺丁醚第一卷和第二卷。 vi.六。and ix., Oxford, 1880; Th. 。和第九,牛津,1880年;钍。Nöldeke, Geschichte des Qorans, Göttingen, 1860.GS Fr.Nöldeke,史德Qorans,哥廷根,1860.GS神父。

The dependence of Mohammed upon his Jewish teachers or upon what he heard of the Jewish Haggadah and Jewish practises is now generally conceded.穆罕默德在他的犹太教师或在他的犹太哈加达和犹太习俗听说现在普遍承认的依赖。The subject was first treated from a general point of view by David Mill, in his "Oratio Inauguralis de Mohammedanismo e Veterum Hebræorum Scriptis Magna ex Parte Composita" (Utrecht, 1718); and by H. Lyth in his "Quo Successu Davidicos Hymnos Imitatus Sit Muhammed" (Upsala, 1806-1807).主题是第一次接受治疗,从一个由大卫米尔维尤一般性的问题在他的“Oratio Inauguralis德Mohammedanismo é Veterum Hebræorum Scriptis麦格纳单方面Composita”(乌得勒支,1718年),以及由H.莱思在他的“现状Successu Davidicos Hymnos Imitatus坐在穆罕默德“(乌普萨拉,1806-1807)。Geiger's epoch-making work laid the foundation for the study of the Koran in its relation to Jewish writings. Geiger的划时代的工作奠定了可兰经在其有关研究,以犹太人的著作奠定了基础。J. Gastfreund, in his "Mohamed nach Talmud und Midrasch" (i., Berlin, 1875; ii., Vienna, 1877; iii., Leipsic, 1880), has attempted to show the parallels, also, in later Mohammedan literature; though not always with success, as Sprenger has pointed out ("ZDMG" xxix. 654). j的Gastfreund,在他的“塔木德穆罕默德胆碱有限公司Midrasch”(一,柏林,1875年;二,维也纳,1877年;。三,普西克,1880年。)一直试图表明在以后的伊斯兰教文学的相似之处,同时;但并不总是成功,斯普伦杰指出的那样(“ZDMG”二十九。654)。 Further parallels are given by Grünbaum (ib. xliii. 4 et seq.).进一步相似之处都是通过Grünbaum(同上四十三。4起。)。The subject has received an exhaustive treatment at the hands of Hartwig Hirschfeld, in his "Jüdische Elemente im Ḳoran" (1878), in his "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Ḳoran" (Leipsic, 1886), and more especially in his "New Researches into the Composition and Exegesis of the Qoran" (London, 1902; comp. the remarks of August Müller in "Theologische Literaturzeitung," 1887, No. 12, cols. 278 et seq.).该课题已收到的哈特维格希菲尔德手中的详尽的治疗,在他的“Jüdische文学Elemente的IM古兰经”(1878年),在他的“古兰经Beiträge楚Erklärung德”(普西克,1886年),并在他的“多,尤其是进入新探的组成和Qoran训诂“(伦敦,1902年;比赛八月在Müller的言论。”Theologische Literaturzeitung,“1887年,第12号,cols的278起。。)。

Hebrew Translations.希伯来文翻译。

Hebrew translations of the Koran were not unknown, and fragments of these may lie buried in Oriental genizahs.希伯来文翻译的可兰经并没有不明,这些碎片可能长眠在东方genizahs掩埋。 Before such translations were made a simple transliteration into Hebrew characters sufficed.以前这样的翻译被制作成一个简单的音译希伯来文字符就够了。Portions of such a transliteration are to be found in Bodleian Manuscript No. 1221 (= Hunt No. 529), the first parts of which are even punctuated; on the margin are Hebrew translations of some passages and references to the Bible and the haggadic literature; the manuscript is in a modern Spanish rabbinical script.这样的音译部分,应以伯德雷恩手稿发现1221号(=亨特第529号),其第一部分甚至间断;在保证金是希伯来文翻译的一些段落,并引用圣经和haggadic文学;手稿是在现代西班牙犹太教脚本。 Additional fragments of such manuscripts are in the libraries of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (from the Crimea; see Rödiger in "ZDMG" xiv. 485), the Vatican (Cod. 357, 2), and the Vienna bet ha-midrash (Pinsker, No. 17).这些手稿额外片段在德意志Morgenländische Gesellschaft库(从克里米亚。看到在“ZDMG”十四Rödiger 485),梵蒂冈(Cod. 357,2),和维也纳打赌公顷米德拉士(平斯克,第17号)。In a bookseller's list cited in "JQR" xv.在书商的名单列举在“JQR”十五。77 is mentioned a volume containing the Torah, the Targum, and the Koran bound together ().提到77卷包含律法,根,和可兰经在一起()。A translation into Hebrew from the Latin was made in the seventeenth century by Jacob b.从拉丁美洲成希伯来文翻译是在十七世纪由雅各湾Israel ha-Levi, rabbi of Zante (d. 1634; see Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2207); and, in modern times, by Herrman Reckendorf (, Leipsic, 1857).以色列公顷利维,对萨特拉比(四1634年,见纽鲍尔,“猫Bodl黑布尔的MSS。。。。”号2207);和赫尔曼Reckendorf(,普西克,1857年),在现代倍。 A translation into Spanish of sura 70 ("Al-Mi'raj") was made in the thirteenth century, at the behest of Alfonso X., by the physician of Toledo, Don Abraham; a French rendering of this was afterward made by Bonaventura de Seve.成西班牙文的苏拉70(“基地Mi'raj”)翻译是在13世纪,在阿方索十遗志,由托莱多,唐亚伯拉罕医师;一本法国的渲染是后来提​​出的波纳文图拉德塞弗。 Koran citations, either for polemical purposes or in translations from the Arabic, are occasionally found in Hebrew writings (eg, in those of Saadia and Hai Gaon). ,无论是争论的目的或在从​​阿拉伯文翻译古兰经引文,偶尔发现的希伯来文的著作(例如,在Saadia和海Gaon者)。Simon Duran (1423), in his critique of the Koran (see "Ḳeshet u-Magen," ed. Steinschneider, in "Oẓar Ṭob," 1881), quotes the Koran; but he mixes such quotations with others from the Sunnah, and probably takes them from translations of Averroes' works.西蒙杜兰(1423),(见“克谢特U型马根,”海关在Steinschneider,“Oẓar尖,”1881。)在他的可兰经的批判,引用可兰经,但他从圣行混合,其他如报价,可能需要从阿威罗伊的作品翻译它们。 In some translations from the Arabic, the citations from the Koran were occasionally replaced by quotations from the Bible (eg, in Al-Bataljusi, and in Judah Nathan's translations of Ghazali's "Maḳaṣid al-Falasifah").在一些翻译的阿拉伯文,从可兰经的引文偶尔从圣经所取代(如在Al - Bataljusi,并在加扎利的“Maḳaṣid铝Falasifah”犹大Nathan的翻译)的报价。

Richard Gottheil, Siegmund Fränkel理查德高泽尔,西格蒙德弗兰克尔
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Steinschneider, Hebr. Steinschneider,黑布尔。Bibl.Bibl。pp. 309, 339, 591, 854; ZDMG xv.第309,339,591,854; ZDMG十五。381, xlviii.381,48。 354; JQR xii.354; JQR十二。 499; Polemische Literatur, pp. 313-316.G.499; Polemische Literatur,第313 316.G。

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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