Sufism苏菲 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The word Sufism, which is probably derived from the Arabic suf ("wool"; hence sufi, "a person wearing an ascetic's woolen garment"), denotes Islamic mysticism.苏菲这个词,这可能是从阿拉伯语频谱使用费(“毛”,因此苏菲,“一个人穿了禁欲主义者的羊毛服装”)所得,是指伊斯兰神秘主义。 Although outside movements have had some influence on Sufi terminology, Sufism is definitely rooted in Islam itself.虽然外面的动作有一些术语的影响苏菲,苏菲主义是绝对根植于伊斯兰教本身。Its development began in the late 7th and 8th centuries when worldliness and loose morals in ruling Umayyad circles evoked a strong reaction among certain pious persons.它的发展开始于晚七,八世纪时,世俗和执政倭马亚界引起了宽松道德在某些虔诚的人的强烈反应。Individuals such as Hasan of Basra (d. 728) urged the Muslim community to heed the Koranic call to fear God, its warnings for Judgment Day, and its reminders of the transitoriness of life in this world. A new emphasis on the love of God brought the transition from asceticism to mysticism. The woman saint Rabia of Basra (d. 801) called for love of God "for his own sake," not out of fear of hell or hope for heaven.如巴士拉(草728)哈桑个人呼吁穆斯林社会听取古兰经呼吁敬畏神,为审判日的警告,并在这个世界上生活无常的提醒, 一个对神的爱的新重点带来的转变,从禁欲主义到神秘主义的女人圣巴士拉拉比耶(草801)呼吁对上帝的爱“为他自己的缘故,”不出来的地狱或天堂的希望恐惧。

Sufism was early criticized by those who feared that the Sufis' concern for personal experiential knowledge of God could lead to neglect of established religious observances and that the Sufis' ideal of unity with God was a denial of the Islamic principle of the "otherness" of God. The execution (922) of al - Hallaj, who claimed mystical communion with God, is related to this second issue, and in later centuries some Sufis did indeed move to a theosophical monism (for example, Ibn Arabi, d. 1240; and Jili, dc 1428). 苏菲主义是早期批评者担心,谁的苏菲“个人神的经验知识的关注可能导致忽视既定宗教仪式,而苏菲”与神合一的理想是对的“异类”的伊斯兰原则拒绝神的人执行(922) -哈拉智,谁声称神秘与神的共融,是与此相关的第二个问题,并在以后的几个世纪一些苏菲确实移动到接神一元论(例如,伊本阿拉比,D. 1240。;和吉利,直流1428)。By combining a traditional theological position with a moderate form of Sufism, al - Ghazali made mysticism widely acceptable in the Muslim world.通过结合了苏菲,温和的人形成一个传统的神学立场 - 加扎利在穆斯林世界的神秘主义得到广泛接受。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
Sufism exercised a tremendous influence, partly through mystical poetry, for example, that of Jalal al - Din al - Rumi, and partly through the formation of religious brotherhoods.苏菲行使了巨大的影响,部分通过神秘的诗歌,例如,贾拉勒塔拉的 - DIN人 - 鲁米,另一方面通过宗教兄弟会的形成。The latter grew out of the practice of disciples' studying under a mystical guide (pir, or "saint") to achieve direct communion with God.后者的前身是在一个神秘的弟子指南(PIR,或“圣人”),以达到与上帝直接交流学习“的做法。 Some of the brotherhoods (turuq; singular, tariqa, "way") had a significant missionary impact.在兄弟会有些(turuq;奇异,tariqa,“办法”)产生了重大影响的传教士。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
AJ Arberry, Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam (1950); M Lings, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century: SA a - 'Alawi, His Spiritual Heritage and Legacy (1971); RA Nicholson, The Mystics of Islam (1914); A Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975); I Shah, The Sufis (1971); J Subhan, Sufism: Its Saints and Shrines (1938); JS Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971).AJ Arberry,苏菲主义:对伊斯兰教的神秘主义者(1950年)账户,M,成为了二十世纪苏菲圣幼苗:SA A - “阿拉维,他的精神遗产和遗产(1971年); RA尼科尔森,伊斯兰的神秘主义者( 1914年),一个希米尔,神秘的尺寸伊斯兰教(1975年),我沙阿的苏菲(1971)〔J Subhan,苏菲主义:它的圣徒和圣殿(1938); JS Trimingham,在伊斯兰教的(1971)苏菲订单。


General Information一般资料

An ascetic tradition called Sufism emphasized personal piety and mysticism and contributed to Islamic cultural diversity, and further enriched the Muslim heritage.一个叫苏菲禁欲主义传统,强调个人的虔诚和神秘主义和伊斯兰文化多样性作出贡献,进一步丰富了穆斯林的传统。In contrast to the legal-minded approach to Islam, Sufis emphasized spirituality as a way of knowing God.相对于法律的态度进行了伊斯兰教,苏菲强调作为一个认识神的方式灵性。During the 9th century Sufism developed into a mystical doctrine, with direct communion or even ecstatic union with God as its ideal. One of the vehicles for this experience is the ecstatic dance of the Sufi whirling dervishes. Eventually Sufism later developed into a complex popular movement and was institutionalized in the form of collective, hierarchical Sufi orders.在9世纪苏菲发展成为一个神秘主义,甚至直接与上帝交流欣喜若狂工会作为其理想。 对于这段经历的车辆之一是欣喜若狂的苏菲回旋祭礼舞蹈,最后苏菲后来变成一个复杂的流行运动发展并且是制度化的集体,分层苏菲令的形式。

The Sufi emphasis on intuitive knowledge and the love of God increased the appeal of Islam to the masses and largely made possible its extension beyond the Middle East into Africa and East Asia.对良知和对上帝的爱苏菲重点增加了伊斯兰教呼吁群众,在很大程度上成为可能,它超越了到非洲中东和东亚地区延伸。Sufi brotherhoods multiplied rapidly from the Atlantic coast to Indonesia; some spanned the entire Islamic world, others were regional or local.苏菲的兄弟乘以迅速从大西洋海岸到印尼,一些跨越了整个伊斯兰世界,区域或地方其他人。The tremendous success of these fraternities was due primarily to the abilities and humanitarianism of their founders and leaders, who not only ministered to the spiritual needs of their followers but also helped the poor of all faiths and frequently served as intermediaries between the people and the government.这些兄弟的巨大成功主要是由于他们的能力和创始人和领导者,谁不仅伺候他们的追随者的精神需要人道,但也帮助了穷人和各种信仰的人民之间的频繁和政府的中介服务。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈迈德S. Dallal

General Essay on Sufism一般论文的苏菲

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term "Sufi" derives from the Arabic word "suf" (meaning "wool") and was applied to Muslim ascetics and mystics because they wore garments made out of wool.术语“苏菲”一词来源于阿拉伯语“频谱使用费”(意为“毛”),并适用于穆斯林的修道者和神秘主义者,因为他们穿了羊毛制成的服装。 Sufism represents a dimension of Islamic religious life that has frequently been viewed by Muslim theologians and lawyers with suspicion.苏菲是一个伊斯兰宗教生活的层面,经常被穆斯林神学家和律师怀疑看待。The ecstatic state of the mystic can sometimes produce extreme behaviour or statements that on occasion appear to border on the blasphemous.欣喜若狂的神秘状态有时会产生极端行为或陈述,偶尔出现在亵渎边境。The cause of this is that the Sufis can sometimes feel so close to God that they lose a sense of their own self identity and feel themselves to be completely absorbed into God.这个原因是苏菲有时感觉如此接近上帝,他们失去了自己的自我认同感,觉得自己被完全吸收成神。This in fact is the goal of the Sufi.这是苏菲的目标其实。Through following a series of devotional practices, which lead to higher levels of ecstatic state, Sufis aspire to realise a condition in which they are in direct communion with God.通过以下一个虔诚的做法,从而导致更高水平的狂喜状态系列,苏菲渴望实现的条件中,他们直接与上帝交流的。Ultimately the individual human personality passes away and the Sufi feels his soul absorbed into God.最终,个别人的个性去世和苏菲觉得自己的灵魂进入神吸收。

The origins of Islamic mysticism can be traced back to the 8th century.伊斯兰神秘主义的起源可以追溯到8世纪。A consequence of the rapid spread of Islam under the Ummayad dynasty was the exposure of Muslims to a large number of different ethnic groups and the acquisition of considerable wealth that was the fruit of military conquest.一个伊斯兰王朝下的伍麦叶王朝迅速蔓延的后果是穆斯林接触到不同的民族众多,具有相当丰富的收购,是军事征服的果实。 The growing opulence of Islam was symbolised by the relocation of the capital of the empire from Medina to the more cosmopolitan city of Damascus.日益富裕的伊斯兰教是象征的帝国从麦地那迁都到大马士革的国际大都会。In reaction to the more worldly outlook of the Ummayads various groups and figures emerged who encouraged a return to the pure values of the Prophet and the Qur'an.在反应的Ummayads更多世俗面貌出现的各种团体和人物谁鼓励了一回的先知和古兰经纯值。One such figure, Hasan al-Basri (642-728), preached a rejection of the world and courageously criticised those in power when he felt that they were not conducting themselves according to the ethical standards of Islam.一个这样的人物,哈桑巴斯里(642-728),宣扬了世界排斥,勇于批评当权者,他认为他们不是进行自己根据伊斯兰的道德标准。 A second figure, Rabi'ah al-Adawiyah (d.801), cultivated the attainment of mystical union with God through the love of God.第二个数字,Rabi'ah AL - Adawiyah(d.801),耕地通过神的爱与上帝的神秘联盟的实现。 A third, and controversial, mystic, al-Hallaj (857-922), lived as a wandering preacher who gathered around him a large number of disciples.第三,和有争议的,神秘的,AL -哈拉智(857-922),作为一个生活在他周围徘徊布道者谁聚集了大量的弟子。Such was al-Hallaj's sense of the intimate presence of God that he sometimes appeared to be identifying himself with God.这就是AL -哈拉智的神的存在感亲切,他有时似乎是确定自己与神。He is reported to have made one statement - "I am the Truth!"据报告,他提出一项声明 - “!我是真理”- which caused such outrage that he was imprisoned for eight years and in 922 executed by crucifixion.- 造成这种愤怒,他被囚禁了八年,在922的受难执行。Al-Hallaj's death illustrates in an extreme way the tensions that would characterise the relationship between Sufi mysticism and the Islamic legal authorities.阿尔 - 哈拉智的死亡说明了一种极端的方式将刻画的紧张之间的苏菲神秘主义与伊斯兰法律部门的关系。

The kind of loose master-disciple relationship characteristic of 9th century mystical Islam gradually evolved into organised establishments.宽松师徒的第9个世纪那种神秘的伊斯兰特征的关系逐渐演变成有组织的场所。By the 11th century there were distinctive groups associated with a particular master.到11世纪有一个独特的群体特别是掌握相关的。These groups, however, were often not cohesive enough to survive the death of the master.这些群体,但是,往往不凝聚力足以生存的主死亡。It was only in the 12th and 13th centuries that orders emerged which were stable enough to continue after the death of the founder.它只是在第12和13世纪出现的订单后,其中死亡的创始人足够稳定继续。This continuity was achieved through the current master nominating a successor who would lead the order following the current master's death.这种连续性是通过目前掌握提名继任者将导致谁的命令后,目前掌握的死亡。Thus, these orders were able to trace their origins through a chain of masters.因此,这些订单能够通过跟踪大师链的起源。 Such orders were called tariqahs.这些命令被称为tariqahs。

The three regions principally associated with Sufism are Mesopotamia (Iran and Iraq), Central Asia and North Africa.这三个主要与苏菲有关美索不达米亚地区(伊朗和伊拉克),中亚和北非。The most important orders to emerge out of Mesopotamia are Rifa'iyyah, Suhrawardiyyah, Kubrawiyyah and Qadiriyyah.最重要的订单出现了美索不达米亚是Rifa'iyyah,Suhrawardiyyah,Kubrawiyyah和Qadiriyyah。 These are all among the earliest of the Sufi orders.这些都是苏菲之间的订单最早。Rifa'iyyah was founded in Basra, Iraq in the 12th century, soon spreading from Iraq into Syria and Egypt. Rifa'iyyah成立于巴士拉,伊拉克在12世纪,很快从伊拉克蔓延到叙利亚和埃及。Suhrawardiyyah, also founded in 12th century Iraq spread westwards into India. Suhrawardiyyah,还成立于12世纪的伊拉克向西传播到印度。Qadiriyyah and Kubrawiyyah are both Iranian orders.Qadiriyyah和Kubrawiyyah都是伊朗的订单。Qadiriyyah, the earliest of the two orders, emerged in the 12th century, and spread both eastwards and westwards into India and North Africa. Qadiriyyah,两个订单最早出现于12世纪,并波及到印度和北非都向东和向西。Kubrawiyyah is historically linked to Suhrawardiyyah in that its founder, Nayim al-din Kubra (1145-1221), was a disciple of the founder of Suhrawardiyyah, Abu Najib as--Suhrawardi (1097-1168).Kubrawiyyah是历史与Suhrawardiyyah在其创始人,Nayim AL - DIN Kubra(1145年至1221年),是对Suhrawardiyyah创始人,阿布纳吉为弟子 - 苏拉瓦迪(1097年至1168年)。

Sufism was transplanted into North Africa as a result of the expansion of the Rifa'i order into Syria and then Egypt.苏菲被移植到北非作为秩序的里法伊,然后进入叙利亚埃及扩张的结果。The presence of Rifa'iyyah inspired the founding of other orders.在场的Rifa'iyyah激发了其他订单成立。In the 13th century Badawiyyah was founded in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276), who acquired a reputation for mysticism and the performance of miracles.在13世纪Badawiyyah成立于埃及的艾哈迈德巴达维(1199年至1276年),谁获得了对神秘主义和表现的奇迹声誉。 This order continues today and thousands of visitors attend its annual festival in Tanta, Egypt.这份订单延续至今,并出席了成千上万的游客在坦塔,埃及每年的节日。

At about the same time that Sufism was developing in Egypt, it was gaining in strength in North-West Africa through the support of the ruling Almohad dynasty (1130-1269), who ruled over Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Muslim Spain.大约在同一时间,苏菲在埃及发展,这是获得在北美,西非实力通过执政Almohad王朝(1230至69年),谁在摩洛哥,阿尔及利亚,突尼斯和西班牙穆斯林统治的支持。 In 13th century Tunisia a certain al-Shadhili acquired a group of disciples and formed who formed the basis of an order that came to be known as Shadhiliyyah.在13世纪突尼斯一定的AL - Shadhili收购了弟子群,形成谁形成了一个命令来作为Shadhiliyyah已知的基础。This order continues to flourish in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.这份订单继续蓬勃发展,在阿尔及利亚,突尼斯和摩洛哥。

In the 18th century the Islamic world fell under the influence of a reform movement called Wahabiyyah.在18世纪伊斯兰世界倒在一个名为Wahabiyyah改革运动的影响。This movement sought to rid Islam of what it regarded as illegitimate innovations such as the worship of saints and to encourage strict adherence to the shari'ah.这一运动试图摆脱它,如对圣人的崇拜和鼓励严格遵守伊斯兰教教法视为非法的创新。The spirit of reform spread into North Africa, leading to the establishment of new orders which rejected the more extreme forms of behaviour characteristic of some Sufi orders.以改革的精神传播到北非,导致驳回的行为特征的一些苏菲订单更极端形式建立新的订单。An important order that came out of this context is Tidjaniyyah, which was founded in the 1780s by Ahmad al-Tidjani (d.1815) and which rejected many popular Sufi practices such as the adoration of saints.一个重要的命令传来这方面的是Tidjaniyyah,这是在18世纪80年代创立的艾哈迈德蒂贾尼(d.1815),并驳回许多流行的如圣人崇拜苏菲做法。 This order continues to exist today and has spread throughout North Africa and western Sub-Saharan Africa.这个顺序今天继续存在,并已在整个北非和西部撒哈拉以南非洲地区的蔓延。

Another order of this type is Sanusiyyah, which was founded in Cyrenaica (in eastern Libya) in the 1840s by Muhammad b.另外这种类型的顺序是Sanusiyyah,创立于19世纪40年代在昔兰尼加(利比亚东部)由穆罕默德B.ali Sanusi (1787-1859).阿里Sanusi(1787年至1859年)。This order was characterised by the rejection of all forms of luxury and a strong sense of veneration for the Prophet.这个命令的特点是对奢侈品的崇拜和强烈的责任感为先知一切形式的排斥反应。Following the departure of European colonialists from North Africa in the 1940s and 1950s the Sanusis established the state of Libya.随着欧洲殖民者从北非出发,在20世纪40年代和50年代的Sanusis建立了利比亚的状态。 The Sanusis were overthrown in 1969 by Colonel Muammar al-Qadafi.在1969年被推翻Sanusis上校穆阿迈尔Qadafi。Since then the Sanusis have provided an important source of opposition to the Qadafi regime and survive to the present day in spite of the Qadafi regimes attempt to curtail their activities.此后Sanusis提供了一个反对的重要来源的Qadafi制度和生存的Qadafi政权试图限制他们的活动,尽管到今天。

In Central Asia and Anatolia (equivalent to modern day Turkey) a number of major Sufi orders emerged between the 12th and 17th centuries.在中亚和安纳托利亚(相当于现代的土耳其)的主要苏菲订单数量之间出现的第12和17世纪。The earliest of these, Yasawiyyah, was founded in the region now known as Turkestan and played a major role in spreading Islam among the Turkish tribes of Central Asia.这些,Yasawiyyah最早成立于土耳其斯坦现在已知的地区和在传播中起到了中亚土耳其族伊斯兰教重要的作用。Possibly deriving from Yasawiyyah is the Bektashiyyah order.可能从Yasawiyyah派生是Bektashiyyah秩序。According to tradition, Hajj Bektash, the putative founder of Bektashiyyah, originally belonged to the Yasawiyyah order.根据传统,朝觐Bektash,Bektashiyyah公认的创始人,原本属于Yasawiyyah秩序。Bektashiyyah continues to survive in the Balkan region to the present day.Bektashiyyah继续在巴尔干地区生存到今天。

Another Central Asian order is Chishtiyyah.另一个中亚的顺序是Chishtiyyah。The origins of this order are uncertain, although the founder is generally believed to be Mu'in al-Din Chishti (c.1142-1236), a native of Sijistan.这种秩序的起源是不确定的,虽然创始人一般认为是Mu'in al - Din的奇什蒂(c.1142 - 1236),一Sijistan人。The order gradually spread into India where it remains today as the largest and most important Sufi order.该订单逐渐蔓延到印度在今天仍然作为世界上最大和最重要的苏菲秩序。

Mawalwiyyah traces its origins to the famous Turkish mystic and poet al-Rumi (1207-1273).Mawalwiyyah追踪它的起源到土耳其著名的神秘主义者和诗人人 - 鲁米(1207至73年)。 The order's name derives from the Arabic word Mawlana (our master), a title given to al-Rumi by the order.该命令的名称来源于阿拉伯语词毛拉纳(我们的主),为了赋予的AL -鲁米标题。Mawlawiyyah is based in the Turkish town of Konya.Mawlawiyyah总部设在土耳其的科尼亚城。Like many Turkish orders it was effectively suppressed when Turkey became a secular state in 1925.像许多土耳其的订单是有效抑制当土耳其在1925年成为一个世俗国家。In other parts of the Islamic world the once important order has seriously declined or disappeared altogether.在伊斯兰世界其他地区的一次重要订单已严重下降或完全消失。

The Naqshbandis, however, have enjoyed more success.该Naqshbandis,但是,都享有更大的成功。Founded by Baha al-din Naqshband (d.1389) in a village near Bukhara in Central Asia, the order gradually spread eastwards into India and westwards into Turkey.由巴哈AL - DIN Naqshband(d.1389)成立于在中亚布哈拉附近村庄的秩序逐渐蔓延到印度向东向西进入土耳其。Supported by the Ottomans, Naqshbandiyyah flourished until the demise of the Ottoman empire and the establishment of a secular state under Kemal Ataturk in Turkey.由奥斯曼帝国的支持下,Naqshbandiyyah兴盛直至奥斯曼帝国的灭亡而根据凯末尔在土耳其建立世俗国家。 Ataturk regarded the Sufi orders as decadent, reactionary and an obstruction to the modernisation of Turkey.凯末尔被视为腐朽,反动,是对土耳其现代化阻塞苏菲订单。In order to reform the state in 1925 he ordered the abolition of all mystical orders in Turkey.为了改革的国家,他在1925年下令在土耳其神秘的订单全部取消。

The Khalwatiyyah order was founded in Persia but spread quickly into Anatolia.该Khalwatiyyah为了创立于波斯,但很快蔓延到安纳托利亚。Out of Khalwatiyyah two other important orders emerged: Bayramiyyah and Jalwatiyyah.出于Khalwatiyyah另外两个重要订单出现了:Bayramiyyah和Jalwatiyyah。 Bayramiyyah was founded at Ankara in the 14th century and continued until its dissolution in 1925. Bayramiyyah在安卡拉成立于14世纪,直到1925年解散继续。Jalwatiyyah was founded in the 17th century by Aziz Mahmud Huda'i (d.1628) who was previously a member of the Khalwati order. Jalwatiyyah始建于17世纪由阿齐兹艾哈迈德Huda'i(d.1628)谁是以前是Khalwati秩序的成员。Like the other Turkish orders it was banned in 1925 by the Ataturk government; the last master of the order died in 1946.像其他土耳其订单它被禁止在1925年由阿塔图尔克政府,订单的最后主人在1946年去世。

The abolition of these orders in Turkey demonstrates the kinds of pressures they have encountered as a result of the growing strength of secularism in the world during the modern period.这些订单在土耳其取消演示了他们作为在世界上越来越多的世俗主义在现代时期的实力而遭受的各种压力。In many parts of the Arab world the orders have all but disappeared.在阿拉伯世界许多地区的订单已全部消失。In other parts of the Islamic world, however, they have continued.在伊斯兰世界的其他地方,但是,他们仍在继续。In North Africa and India Sufism has lost the influence they once had but nevertheless remain a part of the religious identity of the area.在北非和印度苏菲已经失去了影响力,他们曾经有过但仍然保持了该地区的宗教身份的一部分。 The continued existence of such orders suggests the inseparability of religion and its mystical dimension.这种订单持续存在表明了其神秘的宗教不可分性和尺寸。

Bülent Þenay湍流Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project概述世界宗教项目

Bibliography : 参考书目

Arberry, AJ Sufism: an Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: Allen and Unwin, 1950.Arberry,AJ 苏菲:艾伦和昂温,1950年: 一个伊斯兰教的伦敦神秘帐户

-----. Muslims Saints and Mystics. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.-----. 穆斯林圣徒和神秘主义者伦敦:Routledge和Kegan保罗,1966年。

Baldick, Julian. Mystical Islam. London: IB Taurus and Co., Ltd., 1989. 。Baldick,朱利安神秘的伊斯兰教伦敦:IB金牛座和有限责任公司,1989。

Binge, John Kingsley. The Bektashi Order of Dervishes. London: Luzac and Co., 1994.狂欢,约翰金斯利的祭礼Bektashi订购伦敦:Luzac和公司,1994。

Burckhardt, Titus. An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. Trans.布克哈特,提图斯。 概论苏菲主义。横贯。DM Matheson.DM洋行。Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons Publishers Ltd., 1976.威灵,北安普敦郡:Thorsons出版有限公司,1976。

Lings, Martin. What is Sufism? London: George Allen and Unwen Ltd., 1975.幼苗,马丁什么是苏菲伦敦:?乔治艾伦和Unwen有限公司,1975年。

Norris, HT Islam in the Balkans: Religion and Society between Europe and the Arab World. London: Hurst and Co., 1993.诺里斯,HT 伊斯兰教在巴尔干地区:宗教与欧洲和阿拉伯世界协会伦敦:赫斯特和公司,1993。

Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.希米尔,安娜玛丽神秘尺寸伊斯兰教教堂山北卡罗莱纳出版社,1975年大学。

Stoddard, William. Sufism: the Mystical Doctrines and Methods of Islam. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons Publishers Ltd., 1976. 。斯托达德,威廉苏菲:神秘的教义和伊斯兰教法威灵,北安普敦郡:Thorsons出版有限公司,1976。

Trimingham, Spencer J. The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.。Trimingham,斯宾塞J. 在伊斯兰教的苏菲订单牛津:Clarendon出版社,1971。

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源