Hadith圣训 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The Hadith is the record of the Prophet Muhammad's precepts, actions, and life, which constitute his Sunna, or example.圣训是先知穆罕默德的戒律,行动和生活,构成他的圣行,或例如的记录。It is accepted as a chief source of Islamic belief and practice and is second in authority only to the Qur'an (Koran).它被接受为一个伊斯兰信仰和实践的主要来源和权威,仅次于“古兰经”(古兰经)。The six canonical Sunnite collections of Hadith, which date from the 9th century, and the corresponding Shiite collections of the 10th and 11th centuries delineate the various relationships among individuals and between the individual and God.圣训六个规范逊尼派集合,其中从9世纪的日期,以及相应的第10和11世纪的什叶派集合划分个人之间,个人和上帝之间的各种关系。 They include provisions of law, discussions of theological matters, such as methods of fasting and prayer, and codes of personal, social, and commercial conduct.他们包括法律规定,神学问题的讨论,如禁食和祈祷的方法,个人,社会和商业行为守则。

Fazlur RahmanFazlur拉赫曼

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General Information一般资料

The six correct or authentic collections of Traditions that are accepted by Sunni Muslims, are the compilations by:六个正确或正宗的集合,是由逊尼派穆斯林接受传统的汇编:
(again, Muhammad died in 632 AD) (再次,穆罕默德死于公元632年)

One more name is often added to this list, that of Ahmed ibn Hanbal (early 800s AD), whose Musnad contains around 29,000 Traditions.还有一个名字往往是添加到此列表,艾哈迈德伊本罕百里(737-800公元初),其Musnad包含大约29000传统。

One of the important aspects of any such Tradition that was collected around 200 years after the death of Muhammad was the isnads associated with each Tradition.任何这类传统的约200年穆罕默德去世后收集的重要方面之一,是与每个传统相关 isnads 。 An isnad is a list of the transmitters of that information, essentially the equivalent of a modern paper trail, to show the actual validity by tracking the individuals from Muhammad to the end recipient of the Tradition. isnad是一个信息的发射机列表,基本上相当于一个现代的文件记录,显示穆罕默德的传统结束收件人跟踪个人的实际效力。When a Tradition had an uncertain isnad, it was apparently removed from consideration as being part of the Hadith collection.当一个传统的一个不确定isnad,它显然是删除从考虑圣训集合的一部分。

An extremely thorough researcher, Ignaz Goldziher, studied the Traditions from around 1870 to 1920, and those studies are still considered among the best research ever done.一个非常透彻的研究人员,Ignaz Goldziher研究的传统,从1870年前后至1920年,这些研究依然是做过的最好的研究认为。Goldziher, with absolutely impeccable research, including extremely solid documentation, showed that a vast number of hadith contained in the six collections were outright forgeries, which meant that the meticulous isnads supporting them were also forgeries and fictitious. Goldziher,绝对是无可挑剔的研究,包括极其牢固的文件,表明广大六个集合中的圣训是夺标的是伪造的,这意味着,支持他们的细致isnads也被伪造和虚构。

Since Goldziher's documentation is so compelling, Islamic historians began claiming that legal traditions and historical traditions were entirely distinct, in order to maintain their absolute trust in the validity of all hadith.由于Goldziher的文档是如此引人注目,伊斯兰历史学家开始声称的法律传统和历史传统完全不同的,以保持其在所有圣训的有效性绝对信任。 Goldziher's results seem to imply that the majority of hadith are NOT valid, and so only a minor fraction of hadiths are.Goldziher的结果似乎意味着大多数圣训无效,所以只有小部分圣训。

It is rather well established that, during the reigh of the Umayyads (beginning in 661 AD), a group of men recognized that the Caliphs were not particularly interested in doctrine, which was allowing the people to drift away from proper beliefs.这是相当完善的,期间的倭马亚王朝(公元661年开始),一群人公认的,不是特别感兴趣学说的哈里发,这是允许的人偏离正确的信念reigh。 As a result, they felt it necessary to fabricate many Traditions "for the good of the community" and they claimed isnads that seemed to show that the Prophet Muhammad had initiated them.因此,他们认为有必要编造许多传统,“良好的社会”,他们声称isnads这似乎表明,先知穆罕默德已开始。Since these people were in effect operating as opponents to the ruling Umayyads, the rulers soon started "finding" hadiths to support whatever purpose they had.由于这些人在执政伍玛亚德对手的经营效果,统治者很快就开始“发现”圣训来支持他们的目的。As a result, two different groups of people were manufacturing fake Traditions during that time.因此,两个不同的人群在这段时间内制造假冒的传统。Some of thos Traditions later found their way into one or more of the authentic collections of Traditions. thos传统后来发现他们的方式进入一个或多个传统正宗的藏品。

Later, during the Abbasid Caliphs, this process multiplied.后来,在阿拔斯王朝的哈里发,这个过程中成倍增加。 The Abbasids and the Alids created extremely large numbers of Traditions to try to get legitimacy for their own cause and to remove legitimacy from the other.阿巴斯王朝和Alids创造了极其大量的传统,试图让自己的事业的合法性,并删除从其他的合法性。This situation kept growing, until good storytellers came to be able to make a good living in creating entertaining Traditions, which the people immediately accepted as being true of the Prophet Muhammad.这种情况持续增长,良​​好的说书人,直到能够在娱乐的传统,人立刻接受先知穆罕默德的真正创造一个良好的生活。 Goldziher shows that storytellers eventually expressed the desire to be paid in cash for hadiths rendered. Goldziher显示,说书最终呈现圣训以现金支付的愿望。The very best storytellers became rather prosperous, in making up Traditions that seemed believable!最好的说书成为相当繁荣,传统,似乎可信!

This situation had gotten so bad that individuals like al-Bukhari began insisting on isnads for each hadith, with the intention of confirming the validity.这种情况已经变得如此糟糕,像布哈里个人开始坚持isnads确认的有效性的意图,每个圣训。The storytellers often became very good at presenting believable isnads along with their entertaining false stories.说书人往往变得非常良好的,在提出可信isnads,连同他们的娱乐虚假故事。

After these six collections were accepted as authentic, their texts did not remain static.经过这六个集合被接受为真品,其案文并没有保持不变。At one point, there were more than a dozen variations if the Bukhari text, and deliberate attempts to alter them also occurred, to benefit the credibility of the forces then in power.在一个点上,有十几变化,如果布哈里文本,并刻意改变他们也时有发生,然后在权力的力量,以造福于信誉。

An interesting observation of Goldziher and Schacht and other Islamicist scholars is that, commonly, isnads that were more elaborate and seemingly technically correct tended to be associated with spurious hadiths! Goldziher和沙赫特和其他伊斯兰学者的一个有趣的现象是,通常,更详细的,看似技术上是正确的往往是虚假的圣训相关isnads!One of the brilliant ways that the scholars have shown that specific hadiths did not exist at specific times is that they were not used to support legal doctrines, where their presence would most certainly have been used as central evidence.辉煌的学者们表明,特定的圣训不存在在特定的​​时间的方式之一是,他们不是用于支持法律学说,他们肯定已经作为中央证据使用。

More recent massive scholarly research, particularly by John Wansbrough, concludes that virtually none of the hadiths are actually directly associated with the Prophet Muhammad.最近的大规模的学术研究,特别是由约翰Wansbrough,得出结论认为,几乎没有圣训实际上是直接与先知穆罕默德的相关。 Those researchers have various opinions of the consequences of that.这些研究人员,有不同的后果意见。

Sahih Al Bukhari Hadiths圣训铝布哈里圣训

Indexed Listing收录清单

  1. Revelation启示
  2. Belief信仰
  3. Knowledge知识
  4. Ablutions (Wudu')洗浴设施(武都“)
  5. Bathing (Ghusl)戏水(大净)
  6. Menstrual Periods月经周期
  7. Rubbing hands and feet with dust (Tayammum)搓手和灰尘英尺(Tayammum)
  8. Prayers (Salat)祈祷(礼拜)
  9. Virtues of the Prayer Hall (Sutra of the Musalla)大殿的美德(经的Musalla)
  10. Times of the Prayers倍的祈祷
  11. Call to Prayers (Adhaan)呼叫祷告(唤)
  12. Characteristics of Prayer祷告的特点
  13. Friday Prayer星期五祈祷
  14. Fear Prayer恐惧祈祷
  15. The Two Festivals (Eids)两个节日(Eids)
  16. Witr PrayerWitr祈祷
  17. Invoking Allah for Rain (Istisqaa)调用阿拉(雨Istisqaa)
  18. Eclipses日食
  19. Prostration During Recital of Qur'an虚脱在古兰经演奏会
  20. Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer)缩短祈祷(AT - Taqseer)
  21. Prayer at Night (Tahajjud)夜祷(功拜)
  22. Actions while Praying而祈祷的行动
  23. Funerals (Al-Janaa'iz)葬礼(铝Janaa'iz)
  24. Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat)强制性慈善税(天课)
  25. Obligatory Charity Tax After Ramadaan (Zakat ul Fitr)斋月后的强制性慈善税(天课UL开斋节)
  26. Pilgrimage (Hajj)朝圣(朝觐)
  27. Minor Pilgrimage (Umra)受戒(Umra)
  28. Pilgrims Prevented from Completing the Pilgrimage朝圣者阻止完成朝圣
  29. Penalty of Hunting while on Pilgrimage朝圣狩猎而罚款
  30. Virtues of Madinah美德麦地那
  31. Fasting禁食
  32. Praying at Night in Ramadaan (Taraweeh)在夜功拜在斋月(Taraweeh)
  33. Retiring to a Mosque for Remembrance of Allah (I'tikaf)退休清真寺纪念安拉(I'tikaf)
  34. Sales and Trade销售和贸易
  35. Sales in which a Price is paid for Goods to be Delivered Later (As-Salam)在后来被传递(AS -萨拉姆)的商品支付的价格销售
  36. Hiring招聘
  37. Transference of a Debt from One Person to Another (Al-Hawaala)债务的转移,从一个人到另一个(AL - Hawaala)
  38. Representation, Authorization, Business by Proxy代表,授权,通过代理业务
  39. Agriculture农业
  40. Distribution of Water水的分布
  41. Loans, Payment of Loans, Freezing of Property, Bankruptcy贷款,支付贷款,冻结财产,破产
  42. Lost Things Picked up by Someone (Luqaata)失去的东西拾起有人(Luqaata)
  43. Oppressions压迫
  44. Partnership伙伴关系
  45. Mortgaging抵押
  46. Manumission of SlavesManumission奴隶
  47. Gifts礼品
  48. Witnesses目击者
  49. Peacemaking建立和平
  50. Conditions条件
  51. Wills and Testaments (Wasaayaa)遗嘱和圣经(Wasaayaa)
  52. Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)争取安拉的原因(圣战)
  53. One-fifth of Booty to the Cause of Allah (Khumus)五分之一的战利品安拉的原因(Khumus)
  54. Beginning of Creation从创作开始
  55. Prophets先知
  56. Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions先知(永存)和他的同伴的美德和优点
  57. Companions of the Prophet同伴的先知
  58. Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar)佣工在麦地那的优点(辅士)
  59. Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi)先知(永存)(AL - Maghaazi)为首的军事远征
  60. Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh))先知评论“古兰经”(先知Tafseer(永存))
  61. Virtues of the Qur'an“古兰经”的美德
  62. Wedlock, Marriage (Nikaah)非婚生子女,婚姻法(Nikaah)
  63. Divorce离婚
  64. Supporting the Family支持家庭
  65. Food, Meals食品,膳食
  66. Sacrifice on Occasion of Birth (`Aqiqa)牺牲诞生之际(`Aqiqa)
  67. Hunting, Slaughtering狩猎,屠宰
  68. Al-Adha Festival Sacrifice (Adaahi)宰牲节节祭(Adaahi)
  69. Drinks饮料
  70. Patients患者
  71. Medicine医药
  72. Dress礼服
  73. Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab)良好的礼仪和表格(铝Adab)
  74. Asking Permission许可
  75. Invocations调用
  76. To make the Heart Tender (Ar-Riqaq)为了使心脏投标(AR - Riqaq)
  77. Divine Will (Al-Qadar)神的意志(AL - Qadar)
  78. Oaths and Vows宣誓,并誓言
  79. Expiation for Unfulfilled Oaths对未履行宣誓的救赎
  80. Laws of Inheritance (Al-Faraa'id)继承法(AL - Faraa'id)
  81. Limits and Punishments set by Allah (Hudood)真主的限制和处罚(Hudood法令)
  82. Punishment of Disbelievers at War with Allah and His Apostle不信道者在战争与安拉和他的使徒的处罚
  83. Blood Money (Ad-Diyat)血钱(AD - Diyat)
  84. Dealing with Apostates处理与变节者
  85. Saying Something under Compulsion (Ikraah)强迫说着什么(Ikraah)
  86. Tricks技巧
  87. Interpretation of Dreams解读的梦
  88. Afflictions and the End of the World苦难和世界的结束
  89. Judgments (Ahkaam)判断(Ahkaam)
  90. Wishes祝愿
  91. Accepting Information Given by a Truthful Person一个诚实的人接受信息
  92. Holding Fast to the Qur'an and Sunnah坚守“古兰经”和圣训

Some Books of these Hadiths collected by al-Bukhari are presented in their entirety, translated into English, in the following links. 全部翻译成英文,在以下几个环节,布哈里收集这些圣训一些书籍。

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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