Eschatology末世论 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

Eschatology, a term of Greek derivation meaning literally "discourse about last things," typically refers to the Judeo Christian doctrine of the coming of the kingdom of God and the transformation or transcendence of history.末世,一个派生词的字面意思的希腊“的事情有关的最后话语,” 通常指的是犹太教和基督教的教义历史超越未来的神的国度和或改造。

The distinction between transformation and transcendence reflects the difference between Old Testament messianism, which looked for the coming of the kingdom of God within a historical framework, and New Testament apocalypticism, which expected the total dissolution of the world at the last judgment.之间的转化和超越的区别,反映了旧约弥赛亚,这为未来的神的国度看着历史框架内的差异,新约圣经大卫教派,它预计在最后的审判,而世界总溶解。

The end of history in Western religions, however, is not a cyclical return to a primordial world outside history as it is in the eschatologies of non Western religions, such as Buddhism and Hinduism.在西方宗教历史的终结,但是,是不是一个周期性回归到原始世界历史之外,因为它在非西方宗教,如佛教​​和印度教,eschatologies的。 In the Judeo Christian tradition, even the dissolution of history is based in a historical future.在犹太教和基督教的传统,即使是基于历史的解散是在一个历史的未来。The New Testament concept of Parousia ("coming presence") appears to refer to both the present and the continuing Salvation among believers in Jesus Christ and the literal Second Coming of Christ that will bring an evil world to judgment before salvation.新“)约概念圆满(”未来的存在似乎是指无论现在和判断之前 continuing Salvation 救恩的信徒在耶稣基督和第二字面来临基督带来邪恶的世界,将。The latter view is reflected in Millenarianism, which also teaches an Antichrist. 后者反映在千禧年的看法是,这也教敌基督的。

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Eschatology has been a revived theme among theologians in the 20th century.末世论一直是在20世纪的神学家一个重新崛起的主题。 The "consistent eschatology" of Johannes Weiss and Albert Schweitzer, the "realized eschatology" of CH Dodd and Rudolf Otto; the "dialectic eschatology" of Karl Barth and Rudolf Bultmann, and the "death of God" eschatology of Thomas JJ Altizer and other radical theologians may represent the gamut of interpretation of the biblical concept.在“一贯末世”的约翰内斯Weiss和史怀哲的“实现末世”的CH多德和鲁道夫奥托;的“辩证末世”的卡尔巴特和鲁道夫布特曼,和​​托马斯林俊杰阿尔泰泽尔和其他末世“上帝之死”激进的神学家可能也代表了圣经中的概念解释的色域。

Bibliography 参考书目
TJJ Altizer, The Descent into Hell (1970); RK Bultmann, The Presence of Eternity: History and Eschatology (1957); RH Charles, Eschatology: The Doctrine of the Future Life in Israel, Judaism and Christianity (1899 - 1963); M Eliade, Cosmos and History (1959); WH Gloer, ed., Eschatology and the New Testament (1988); D Gowan, Eschatology in the Old Testament (1985); PC Phan, Eternity in Time (1988).TJJ,进入地狱下降(1970年)阿尔泰泽尔; Rk的布特曼,永恒存在的:历史与末世(1957年);铑查尔斯,末世论:在以色列,犹太教教义的未来的生活和基督教(1899年至1963年)〔M伊利亚德,宇宙和历史(1959年);。瓦Gloer,海关,末世和新约(1988年)ð高恩,在旧约(1985)末世;电脑藩,在永恒的时间(1988年)。


General Information一般资料

Eschatology is literally "discourse about the last things," doctrine concerning life after death and the final stage of the world.末世是字面上的“关于话语上的东西,”主义关于死后世界的最后阶段的生活。The origin of this doctrine is almost as old as humanity; archaeological evidence of customs in the Old Stone Age indicates a rudimentary concept of immortality.这种学说的起源是人类几乎一样古老,在旧石器时代考古证据表明海关不朽的基本概念。Even in early stages of religious development, speculation about things to come is not wholly limited to the fate of the individual.即使在宗教发展的早期阶段,大约东西来炒作并不完全限于个人的命运。Such devastating natural phenomena as floods, conflagrations, cyclones, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions have always suggested the possibility of the end of the world.这种毁灭性自然现象水灾,火灾,龙卷风,地震和火山喷发一直建议对世界末日的可能性。Higher forms of eschatological thought are the product of a complex social organism and an increased knowledge of natural science.末世论思想的高等教育形式是一个复杂的社会有机体的产品和科学的自然增加了知识。Often myths of astrological origin, the concept of retribution, or the hope of deliverance from present oppressions provided the material or motive for highly developed eschatologies.对占星术的起源,报应观念,或者从目前的救压迫希望常神话提供了高度发达的eschatologies材料或动机。 Prolonged observation of planetary and solar movement made possible the conception of a recurrence, at the end of the present cycle, of the events connected with the origin of the world and a renovation of the world after its destruction.长期的行星和太阳运动观测成为可能复发的一个概念,在本周期结束时,与世界的起源和世界的改造后,其销毁有关的活动。

The development of eschatological speculation, therefore, generally reflects the growth of human intellectual and moral perceptions, the larger social experience of men and women, and their expanding knowledge of nature.投机的末世论,发展因此,普遍反映了人类的智慧和道德观念的增长,较大的男人和妇女的社会经验,以及他们对自然的认识不断扩大。 The outward forms of the doctrine of eschatology vary, however, according to the characteristics of the environment and of the peoples.对末世学说朝外的形式各有不同,但根据环境和各国人民的特性。

Ancient Explanations古代的解释

Belief in a life of the spirit, a substance inhabiting the dead body as long as food and drink are furnished, is typical of primitive eschatology.信仰是精神的生活,居住在一个物质的尸体如食品和饮料长时间齐全,是典型的原始末世。The concept of the future life grew richer as civilization advanced and cosmic forces became objects of worship associated with departed spirits.未来的生活观念日益强盛,作为文明的先进和宇宙的力量成为与崇拜的对象亡灵。The belief in judgment after death was introduced when standards of right and wrong were established according to particular tribal customs; the spirits themselves were made subject to the laws of retribution.死后在判决时引入的信仰是正确和错误的依法设立particular部落习俗标准;作了主题本身的报复的法律精神。 Through this twofold development the future life was thus made spiritual and assumed a moral character, as in the eschatology of ancient Egypt.通过这种双重的发展,未来的生活是这样做的精神和承担,如古埃及末世一个品德。 In Persia and Israel, the old conception of a shadowy existence in the grave, or in some subterranean realm, in general retained its hold.在波斯和以色列,在严重的影子存在旧观念,或在一些地下境界,在一般情况保留其搁置。Escape from such an existence, however, into larger life, with the possibility of moral distinctions among individuals, was provided by the conception of a restoration and reanimation of the old body, thus ensuring personal identity.逃离这样的存在,然而,进入更大的生活与个人之间的道德区别的可能性,提供了一个恢复和旧体复苏的概念,从而确保个人身份。 In other cultures, as in India, the spirit was conceived as entering immediately upon death into another body, to live again and die and become reincarnated in new forms.在其他文化,如印度,精神被认为是死亡后立即进入到另一个身体,生活和死亡,并再次成为新的形式转世。This concept of transmigration, or metempsychosis, made possible the introduction into the future life of subtle moral distinctions, involving not only punishments and rewards for conduct in a previous stage of existence but also the possibility of rising or falling in the scale of being according to present conduct.这种轮回,或轮回的概念,成为可能进入微妙的道德区别未来生活的介绍,涉及的行为在前一阶段的存在,而且不断上涨或下跌的可能性被按规模不仅惩罚和奖励现在的行为。 In spite of the seemingly perfect justice thus administered on every level of being, the never-ending series of births and deaths of the individual may come to appear as an evil; in which case deliverance may be sought from the infinite wheel of existence in Nirvana.因此,在对每一个被管理的水平,尽管看似完美的正义,出生和死亡的个体无休止系列可能会显示为一个邪恶的,在这种情况下,可从解脱的存在,在寻求涅槃无限轮。 The ancient Greeks arrived at their eschatology by considering the functions of the mind as a purely spiritual essence, independent of the body, and having no beginning or end; this abstract concept of immortality led to the anticipation of a more concrete personal life after death.古希腊人在他们抵达末世考虑作为一个纯粹的精神实质,身体独立于心灵的功能,并具有无始无终,这不朽的抽象的概念,导致了更具体的个人生活死后期待。

The ideas held throughout history concerning the future of the world and of humanity are only imperfectly known today.历史上举办过的想法关于世界的未来和人类已知的今天只有不完美。The belief in a coming destruction of the world by fire or flood is found among groups in the Pacific islands as well as among American aborigines; this belief probably did not originate in astronomical speculation, but was rather engendered by some terrifying earthly experience of the past.在一个未来的世界因火灾或洪水破坏信仰,是发现在太平洋岛屿间团体之间以及美国原住民,这信念可能不是起源于天文数字的投机活动,但相当一些可怕的过去尘世经验产生。 The ancient Persians, who adopted the doctrines of their religious teacher Zoroaster, developed the basic idea of the coming destruction of the world by fire into the concept of a great moral ordeal.古代波斯人,谁通过了他们的宗教老师琐罗亚斯德的教义,发展火进入一个伟大的道德考验概念的世界即将毁灭的基本思路。 According to this belief, at the end of the world the worshipers of the lord Mazda will be distinguished from all other people by successfully enduring the ordeal of molten metal, and the good will then be rewarded.根据这一信念,在主的信徒马自达将与所有其他人民杰出的,成功地忍受磨难的熔融金属世界的末日,以及良好的将给予奖励。 This concept is found in the Gathas, the earliest part of the Avesta, the bible of Zoroastrianism.这个概念被发现在该Gathas,对阿维斯塔,祆教圣经的最早的一部分。It is not certain that the idea of a resurrection from death goes back to the period represent ed by the Gathas.这是不能肯定,一个从死亡中复活的想法可以追溯到这一时期的Gathas教育​​署代表。But the Greek historian Herodotus seems to have heard of such a Persian belief in the 5th century BC, and Theopompus of Chios, the historian of Philip II, king of Macedon, described it as a Mazdayasnian doctrine.但是,希腊历史学家希罗多德似乎有这样一个信念,听取了波斯公元前5世纪,和Theopompus的流行病,对菲利普二世,马其顿国王历史学家称为Mazdayasnian学说了。

Similarities can be seen between the ancient Greek concepts of heaven and hell and those of Christian doctrine.之间的相似性可以看出,古希腊的天堂与地狱的观念和基督教的教义的。The Homeric poems and those of Hesiod show how the Greek mind conceived of the future of the soul in Elysium or in Hades.荷马的诗与赫西奥德的显示如何希腊精神的灵魂在地狱中的极乐世界或未来的设想。Through the Orphic and Eleusinian mysteries this thought was deepened.通过奥尔弗斯和Eleusinian奥秘这一思想进一步深化。 That the future of nations and the world also played an important role in Greek and Roman thought is evident from the prophecies of the Sibyls.这对国家的未来,世界上也发挥了重要作用,在希腊和罗马的思​​想是从Sibyls的预言明显。An eschatological philosophy dominated the epoch ushered in by the conquests of Alexander the Great, and Greco-Roman thought became suffused with Oriental ideas in its speculation upon the future of the world.末世论哲学主导迎来了亚历山大大帝的征服,在时代和希腊罗马思想成为在其对世界的未来的猜测东方思想弥漫。 In a similar manner the Scandinavian idea of the destruction of the earth by fire and its subsequent renovation under higher heavens-to be peopled by the descendants of the surviving pair, Lif and Lifthrasir (as set forth in the Elder Edda) - reflects an early Nordic interpretation of the idea of hell and heaven.在类似的方式对被火毁灭地球及其在高天,是由一对幸存的后代人居住以后装修的斯堪的纳维亚的想法,Lif和Lifthrasir(如规定,对老年人体埃达) - 反映了早期北欧解释的地狱和天堂的想法。

Jewish and Christian Beliefs犹太教和基督教信仰

In early Israel the "Day of Yahweh" was a coming day of battle that would decide the fate of the people.早在以色列的“雅威日”是一个未来一天的战斗,将决定着人的命运。Although the people looked forward to it as a day of victory, prophets such as Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah feared that it would bring near or complete destruction, associating it with the growing military threat from Assyria.虽然那里的人们看作是一个胜利的日子期待的,如阿摩司,何西阿,以赛亚书,弥迦,西番雅,耶利米先知们担心这会带来接近或完全破坏,与不断增长的关联从亚述军事威胁。 To Jeremiah, this forecast of judgment was the criterion of true prophethood.耶利米,这个预测的判断是真正的先知的标准。Later, the books containing their pronouncements were interpolated with prophecies of prosperity, which themselves constituted significant signs of the expansion of eschatological hopes.后来,书载有他们的言论进行插值与繁荣的预言,这本身构成了对末世论的希望扩张的重要迹象。The Book of Daniel voices the hope that the kingdom of the world will be given to the saints of the Most High, the Jewish people.但以理书的声音认为世界王国将给予的最高级,犹太人民的圣徒的希望。A celestial representative, probably the archangel Michael, is promised, who, after the destruction of the beast representing the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Middle East, will come with the clouds and receive the empire of the world.一个天体的代表,可能是天使长米迦勒,是答应,谁后,代表了中东的希腊王国兽,破坏将带着云和接受世界的帝国。No messiah appears in this apocalypse.没有救​​世主出现在此的启示。The first distinct appearance of this deliverer and king is in the Song of Solomon.第一本的投递和国王独特的长相在所罗门之歌。

After the conquest of Palestine by the Roman general Pompey the Great in 63 BC, the Jews longed for a descendant of the line of David, king of Israel and Judah, who would break the Roman yoke, establish the empire of the Jews, and rule as a righteous king over the subject nations.后经罗马将军庞培大征服巴勒斯坦在63年,犹太人的大卫,以色列和犹大王,谁打破罗马枷锁,建立帝国的犹太人,而治行后裔渴望这个问题成为一个国家的正义的国王。 This desire ultimately led to the rebellion in AD 66-70 that brought about the destruction of Jerusalem.这个愿望最终导致在公元66-70叛乱,对摧毁了耶路撒冷。When Jesus Christ proclaimed the coming of the kingdom of heaven, it was natural, therefore, that despite his disavowal, he should be understood by some to be a claimant to the kingship of the Jews.当耶稣宣布天国的来临,它是自然的,因此,尽管他不承认,他应该被一些理解为一种对王权的犹太人索赔。His disciples were convinced that he would return as the Messiah upon the clouds of heaven.他的弟子们都确信,他将作为弥赛亚返回时天上的云彩。It is unlikely, however, that the final judgment and the raising of the dead were ever conceived by an adherent of the Jewish faith as functions of the Messiah.这是不可能的,但是,最后的判决,死者提高有没有被作为一个函数的弥赛亚信仰犹太教信徒怀孕。

In Christian doctrine, eschatology has traditionally included the second advent of Christ, or Parousia, the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment, the immortality of the soul, concepts of heaven and hell, and the consummation of the kingdom of God.在基督教的教义,末世历来包括基督,或圆满,死人的复活,最后审判,灵魂不死,天堂与地狱的概念,第二次到来,以及完善的神的国度。 In the Roman Catholic church, eschatology includes, additionally, the beatific vision, purgatory, and limbo.在罗马天主教会,末世包括另外,幸福的远景,炼狱和地狱。

Although the great creeds of Christendom affirm the belief in a return to the son of God to judge the living and the dead, and in a resurrection of the just and the unjust, Christianity through the centuries has shown wide variation in its interpretation of eschatology.虽然基督教的伟大信条肯定在返回信仰的神的儿子,审判活人与死人,在一个公正和不公正,基督教经过几个世纪表现出了其很大的差异解释末世复活。 Conservative belief has usually emphasized a person's destiny after death and the way in which belief in the future life affects one's attitude toward life on earth.保守的信仰通常强调一个人的命运死后的方式,相信在今​​后的生活会影响一个人的对地球上生命的态度。Occasionally certain sects have predicted the imminent end of the world.有时某些教派预言世界即将结束。

Islam adopted from Judaism and Christianity the doctrine of a coming judgment, a resurrection of the dead, and everlasting punishments and rewards.伊斯兰教通过从犹太教和基督教的教义,一个未来的判断,是对死者复活,并永远的惩罚和奖励。Later, contact with Persian thought greatly enriched Islamic eschatology.后来,随着接触的思想极大地丰富了波斯伊斯兰末世。 Especially important was the belief in the reincarnation of some great prophet from the past.尤其重要的是,在过去的一些伟大的先知转世的信念。Time and again the world of Islam has been stirred by the expectation of Mahdi, the Muslim messiah, to reveal more fully the truth, or to lead the faithful into better social conditions on earth.一次又一次的伊斯兰世界已经激起了,期望的马赫迪,穆斯林弥赛亚更充分揭示真理,或导致地球上更好的社会条件忠实成。 Iran and Africa have had many such movements.伊朗和非洲有过许多这样的动作。

Current Attitudes目前的态度

Liberal Christian thought has emphasized the soul and the kingdom of God, more often seeing it as coming on earth in each individual (evidenced by what was believed to be the steady upward progress of humankind) than as an apocalyptic event at the end of time.自由基督教思想强调的灵魂和神的国度,更经常看到的地球上每一个人不是作为一个在时间的尽头世界末日的事件(由什么被认为是人类进步稳步向上证)的活计。 Twentieth-century theological thought has tended to repudiate what many scholars have felt to be an identification of Christian eschatology with the values of Western civilization.二十世纪的神学思想往往否定了许多学者都认为是一个与西方文明的价值观基督教末世鉴定。In the second half of the 20th century, eschatology was equated by some theologians with the doctrine of Christian hope, including not only the events of the end of time but also the hope itself and its revolutionizing influence on life in the world.在20世纪下半叶,一些末世被等同与基督教神学教义的希望,不仅包括事件的结束的时间,也希望本身和其对生活在世界上革命性的影响。 The most eloquent exponent of this eschatology is the German theologian Jürgen Moltmann.该指数是最有说服力的末世德国神学家于尔根莫特曼。

In modern Judaism the return of Israel to its land, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the dead, and everlasting retribution are still expected by the Orthodox, but the more liberal base the religious mission of Israel upon the regeneration of the human race and upon hope for immortal life independent of the resurrection of the body.在现代犹太教的以色列归还其土地,弥赛亚,死者复活,并永远的报应未来仍有望由东正教,但更自由基地的以色列后,人类的再生宗教使命并呼吁为不朽的生命的复活的身体独立的希望。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Eschatology is traditionally defined as the doctrine of the "last things" (Gr. eschata), in relation either to human individuals (comprising death, resurrection, judgment, and the afterlife) or to the world.末世是传统定义为“最后的事情”(Gr. eschata)学说,无论是有关人类个体(包括死亡,复活,判断,来世),或到世界各地。In this latter respect eschatology is sometimes restricted to the absolute end of the world, to the exclusion of much that commonly falls within the scope of the term.在这后一方面末世有时仅限于世界的绝对月底,备受排斥的范围内的常用术语的范围。This restriction is unwarranted by biblical usage: the Hebrew be'aharit hayyamim (LXX en tais eschatais hemerais, "in the last days") may denote the end of the present order or even, more generally, "hereafter."这种限制是由使用不当圣经:希伯来be'aharit hayyamim(LXX的第三个作品eschatais hemerais恩,“在最后的日子”)可能是指对现存秩序,甚至更普遍,结束“来世。”

The biblical concept of time is not cyclical (in which case eschatology could refer only to the completion of a cycle) or purely linear (in which case eschatology could refer only to the terminal point of the line); it envisions rather a recurring pattern in which divine judgment and redemption interact until this pattern attains its definitive manifestation.圣经中的时间概念,不是周期性的(在这种情况下末世可参考的仅是一个周期完成),也不是单纯的线性关系(在这种情况下可以末世仅指该行的终点),它的设想,而在一个循环模式这神圣的判断和赎回互动,直到这个模式达到其最终的表现。 Eschatology may therefore denote the consummation of God's purpose whether it coincides with the end of the world (or of history) or not, whether the consummation is totally final or marks a stage in the unfolding pattern of his purpose.末世因此可能指神的目的,圆满是否恰逢世界的尽头(或历史)与否,是否圆满,是完全最后还是标志着一个阶段,在他的目的开展的模式。

Individual Eschatology in the OT个人末世在加时赛

A shadowy existence after death is contemplated in much of the OT.死亡阴影后设想存在太多的加时赛。Jesus indeed showed that immortality was implicit in men and women's relation to God: the God of the fathers "is not God of the dead, but of the living; for all live to him" (Luke 20:38).耶稣的确表明,不死在男人和女人的关系隐含的神:神的父亲“是不是死人的神,而是活人的生活对他的所有”(路加福音20点38分)。 But this implication was not generally appreciated in OT times.但是,这并不意味在加时赛倍普遍赞赏。Perhaps in reaction against Canaanite cults of the dead, the OT lays little emphasis on the afterlife.也许,在对死者的迦南邪教反应,催产素侧重于来世很少强调。Sheol is an underworld where the dead dwell together as shades; their former status and character are of little account there.阴间是黑社会,在那里死人住在一起,窗帘;他们以前的状态和性格的小帐户的存在。The praises of Yahweh, which engaged so much of a pious Israelite's activity on earth, remained unsung in Sheol, which was popularly thought to be outside Yahweh's jurisdiction (Ps. 88:10 - 12; Isa. 38:18).的赞美耶和华,其中从事这样一个虔诚的以色列人的地球上的许多活动,留在阴间,这是外界普遍认为是雅威的管辖范围无名英雄(诗篇88:10 - 12;赛38:18)。。Occasionally a more hopeful note is struck.偶尔一个更有希望的音符奏响。

According to Pss.据PSS的。73 and 139 one who walks with God in life cannot be deprived of his presence in death: "If I make my bed in Sheol, thou art there!"73和139人与神谁走在生命不能被剥夺了他的存在死亡:“如果我在阴间我的床,你也在那里!” (Ps. 139:8).(诗篇139:8)。 While Job and his friends generally discount the possibility of life after death (Job 14:10 - 12) and do not suppose that the comforts of a future existence can compensate for the sufferings of the present, Job asserts, in a moment of triumphant faith, that if not in this life then after death he will see God rise up to vindicate him (Job 19:25 - 27).尽管工作和他的朋友一般折扣死后生命的可能性(伯14:10 - 12)和你们不要想了未来存在的舒适可以弥补目前的痛苦,工作断言,在一个胜利的信念时刻,如果在此生活,然后死亡后,他会看到神起来,以维护他(伯19时25分 - 27)。

The hope of national resurrection finds earlier expression than that of individual resurrection.国家复活的希望比个别复活发现,早期表现。In Ezekiel's vision of the valley of dry bones, where the divine breath breathes new life into corpses, a national resurrection is in view: "These bones are the whole house of Israel" (Ezek. 37:11).在以西结的干骨头的山谷,那里的尸体神圣的气息呼吸进入新生活的憧憬,一个国家的复活,是在观点:“这些骸骨就是以色列全家”(结37:11)。 National resurrection may also be promised in Isa.国家复活也可能承诺在伊萨。26:19: "Thy dead shall live, their bodies shall rise."26:19:“你死不得活,他们的身体将上升。”Individual resurrection first becomes explicit in Dan.个人首次成为明确的复活在丹。12:2.12:2。

The persecution of martyrs under Antiochus Epiphanes gave a powerful impetus to the resurrection hope.烈士的迫害下安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯了强大的动力,以复活的希望。Henceforth belief in the future resurrection of at least the righteous dead became part of orthodox Judaism, except among the Sadducees, who claimed to champion the oldtime religion against Pharisaic innovations.在今后至少在未来的复活死人正义的信念成为部分正统犹太教除其中撒,谁声称对冠军pharisaic的创新古来宗教。 With this new emphasis goes a sharper distinction between the posthumous fortunes of the righteous and the wicked, in Paradise and Gehenna respectively.有了这个新的工作重点云之间的正义与邪恶在天堂和地狱分别追授命运清晰的区别。

World Eschatology in the OT世界末世论在加时赛

The day of Yahweh in early Israel was the day when Yahweh would publicly vindicate himself and his people.耶和华的早期以色列一天是一天,当耶和华将公开平反他自己和他的人民。It was possibly associated with an autumnal festival which Yahweh's kingship was celebrated.这很可能与一个秋季节,雅威的王权的庆祝活动。If the "enthronement psalms" (Pss. 93; 95 - 100) provide evidence for this festival, his kingship was commemorated in his work of creation, his seasonal gifts of fertility and harvest, his dealings of mercy and judgment with Israel and other nations.如果说“即位诗篇”(Pss. 93; 95 - 100)提供的证据为这个节日,是纪念他的王位,在他的作品创作,他的生育率和收获季节的礼物,他的怜悯和判断交易与以色列和其他国家。His sovereignty in these spheres would be fully manifested at his coming to "judge the world in righteousness" (Pss. 96:13; 98:9).他在这些领域的主权将得到充分的体现在他来“法官在正义的世界”(Pss. 96:13,98:9)。

In the earliest significant mention of this "day of the Lord" (Amos 5:18 - 20) the Israelites are rebuked for desiring it so eagerly because it will bring not light and joy (as they hope) but darkness and mourning.在最早的这个“主日”(阿摩司书5:18 - 20)显着提到对于希望如此急切地斥责以色列人,因为它会带来不轻与喜悦(他们希望),但黑暗和哀悼。Since Yahweh is utterly righteous, his intervention to vindicate his cause must involve his judgment on unrighteousness wherever it appears, especially among his own people, who had exceptional opportunities of knowing his will.由于雅威是完全正义的,他的干预,以维护他的事业,必须有他的判断上不义的所有出现,尤其是在他自己的人,谁知道他会的难得的机会。

Psalmists and prophets recognized that, while Yahweh's kingship was exercised in many ways, the reality which they saw fell short of what they knew to be the ideal. Psalmists和先知们认识到,虽然雅威的王权行使在很多方面,但现实是他们看到未达知道是他们的理想。Even in Israel Yahweh's sovereignty was inadequately acknowledged.即使在以色列雅威的主权是充分承认。But one day the tension between ideal and reality would be resolved; on the day of Yahweh his kingship would be universally acknowledged, and the earth would be filled with "the knowledge of the Lord" (Isa. 11:9; Hab. 2:14).但是有一天,理想与现实之间的紧张局势将得到解决;在耶和华他的王位将举世公认的一天,地球将与“知识的上帝”(以赛​​亚书11点09填补;哈2。: 14)。His effective recognition as "king over all the earth" is portrayed in terms of a theophany in Zech.他作为“全地王”有效的承认是描绘在一个条款中撒加利亚的显现。14:3 - 9.14:3 - 9。

The decline of the Davidic monarchy emphasized the contrast between what was and what ought to be.该大卫君主制下降强调了什么,什么应该对比。That monarchy represented the divine kingship on earth, but its capacity to do so worthily was impaired by political disruption, social injustice, and foreign oppression.这代表了地球上的君主王权神圣的,但它的能力,做政治混乱,社会不公,以及外来的压迫等抱负受损。As the fortunes of David's house sank ever lower, however, there emerged with increasing clarity the figure of a coming Davidic king in whom the promises made to David would be fulfilled and the vanished glories of earlier times would be restored and surpassed (Isa. 9:6 - 7; 11:1 - 10; 32:1 - 8; Mic. 5:2 - 4; Amos 9:11 - 12; Jer. 23:5 - 6; 33:14 - 22).由于大卫的房子沉没的命运越来越低,但是,出现了越来越清晰在即将到来的davidic国王在其中所作的承诺大卫数字将履行的早期辉煌时代的消失将恢复并超过(以赛亚书9 :6 - 7; 11:1 - 10; 32:1 - 8;麦克风5:2 - 4;阿莫斯9:11 - 12;耶23:5 - 6; 33:14 - 22)。。。

This hope of a Davidic Messiah, Yahweh's permanent vicegerent, dominates much subsequent Jewish eschatology.这一个davidic弥赛亚,雅威的永久vicegerent,希望以后多占主导地位的犹太末世。In some portrayals of the new age, however, the Davidic ruler is overshadowed by the priesthood, as in Ezekiel's new commonwealth (Ezek. 46:1 - 10) and later in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where the Davidic Messiah is subordinate to the chief priest, who will be head of state in the coming age.在新时代的一些描写,但是,大卫的统治者是蒙上了神职人员,在以西结的新的联合体(以西结书46:1 - 10),后来在死海古卷,其中大卫弥赛亚是从属于行政牧师,谁是国家元首,在即将到来的时代。

Another form of eschatological hope appears in Daniel.另一种形式的eschatological希望出现在丹尼尔。No king reigns in Jerusalem, but the Most High still rules the kingdom of men and successive world emperors attain power by his will and hold it so long as he permits.没有国王统治的耶路撒冷,但最高级的规则仍然由他将男子和历届世界帝王权力达到英国和持有它,只要他的许可证。The epoch of pagan dominion is limited; on its ruins the God of heaven will set up an indestructible kingdom.异教统治的时代是有限的;它的废墟上,天上的神将设立一个坚不可摧的王国。In Dan.在丹。7:13 this eternal and universal dominion is given at the end time to "one like a son of man," who is associated, if not identified, with "the saints of the Most High" (Dan. 7:18, 22, 27).7:13这是永恒的和普遍的统治结束时间定在了谁是与(Dan. 7:18,22“的最高级的圣人”,如果不是确定的,“像一个人,儿子之一”, 27)。

NT Eschatology新台币末世论

OT eschatology is forward looking, its dominant notes being hope and promise.加时赛末世是前瞻性的,其主要是希望和承诺说明。 These notes are present in the NT, but here the dominant note is fulfillment, fulfillment in Jesus, who by his passion and resurrection has begotten his people anew to a living hope (1 Pet. 1:3), because he has "abolished death and brough life and immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Tim. 1:10).这些说明目前在新台币,但值得注意的是这里的主导履行,耶稣,谁履行了他的激情和复活已经造物主对他的人民重新生活的希望(1宠物。1:3),因为他已经“废除死刑和布拉夫生命和不朽,借着福音“(2添。1:10)。

Jesus' Galilean preaching, summarized in Mark 1:15 ("The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel"), declares the fulfillemnt of Daniel's vision: "The time came when the saints received the kingdom" (Dan. 7:22).耶稣'伽利略的说教,总结在马克1:15(“时间是满了,神的国就在眼前,思悔改,并在福音相信”),宣告了丹尼尔的愿景fulfillemnt:“时间来到时,圣人收到王国“(Dan. 7:22)。In one sense the kingdom was already present in Jesus' ministry: "If it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you" (Luke 11:20; cf. Matt. 12:28).在某种意义上,王国已经在耶稣的事工至今:“如果它是由神的手指,让我投出魔,那么神的国临到你们了”(路加福音11:20;比照马特12:。。 28)。But in another sense it was yet future.但在另一种意义上讲,它尚未未来。Jesus taught his disciples to pray, "Thy kingdom come" (Luke 11:2).耶稣教导他的弟子们祈祷,“愿你的国降临”(路加福音11:2)。 In this sense it would come "with power" (Mark 9:1), an event variously associated with the resurrection of the Son of man or with his advent "with great power and glory" (Mark 13:26).在这个意义上,它会来“与权力”(马克9:1),与各种不同的人与他的儿子复活或出现“以极大的权力和荣耀”(马克13:26)相关联的事件。

The expression "the Son of man" figures prominently in Jesus' teaching about the kingdom of God, especially after Peter's confession at Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:29).表达“人子的”数字显着,在耶稣的关于神的国教,特别是在彼得在该撒利亚腓立比(马可福音8:29)的自白。It echoes Daniel's "one like a son of man" (Dan. 7:13).它呼应丹尼尔(Dan. 7:13)“就像是人的儿子之一”。In Jesus' teaching he himself is the Son of man.在耶稣的教导,他本人是人子。But while he speaks occasionally, in Daniel's terms, of the Son of man as "coming with the clouds of heaven" (Mark 14:62), he more often speaks of the Son of man as destined to suffer, in language reminiscent of the servant of Yahweh in Isa.但就在他说话有时,在丹尼尔的话说,人的儿子为(马克14:62)“天上的云降临”,他更经常讲的人子为注定要吃亏,在语言的回忆仆人雅威在伊萨。 52:13 - 53:12.52:13 - 53:12。This protrayal of the Son of man in terms of the servant is quite distinctive, in that Jesus undertook to fulfill personally what was written of both.这个人子在仆人条款protrayal很有特色,在履行承诺,耶稣是什么都亲自写的。As Daniel's "one like a son of man" receives dominion from the Ancient of Days, so Jesus receives it from his Father.作为丹尼尔的“像人子的”接收来自亘古的统治,所以耶稣从他的父亲接受它。As Daniel's "saints of the Most High" receive dominion, so Jesus shares his dominion with his followers, the "little flock" (Luke 12:32; 22:29 - 30).作为丹尼尔的接收统治的“最高级圣人”,所以耶稣分享他的统治与他的追随者,“小群”(路加福音12:32; 22:29 - 30)。But its fullness must await the suffering of the Son of man (Luke 17:25).但其丰满必须等待的人的儿子(路加福音17:25)的痛苦。

Sometimes Jesus uses "life" or "eternal life" (the life of the age to come) as a synonym for "the kingdom of God"; to enter the kingdom is to enter into life.有时耶稣使用“生活”或“永恒的生命”作为“神的国”的同义词(即年龄来生活);进入英国是进入永生。This links the kingdom with the new age, when the righteous are brought back from death to enjoy resurrection life.这是一个连与新的时代,当正义被带到从死亡上,享受生命复活的王国。

In the apostolic teaching this eternal life may be enjoyed here and now, although its full flowering awaits a future consummation.在使徒教这永恒的生命在这里可以享受现在,尽管它的全面开花期待着未来的圆满。The death and resurrection of Christ have introduced a new phase of the kingdom, in which those who believe in him share his risen life already, even while they live on earth in mortal body.死亡和复活的基督引入了王国新的阶段,即谁相信他分享他的生活已经上升,甚至当他们在肉身地球生活。There is an indeterminate interval between Christ's resurrection and parousia, and during this interval the age to come overlaps the present age.之间存在着基督的复活,并圆满不确定的时间间隔,并在此区间的年龄来重叠现在的时代。Christians live spiritually in "this age" while they live temporally in "this age"; through the indwelling Spirit of God they enjoy the resurrection life of "that age" in anticipation.基督徒属灵生活在“这个时代”,而他们住在“这个时代”暂时性,通过留置上帝的精神享受,他们在期待“年龄”复活的生命。

This outlook has been called "realized eschatology."这种前景已经被称为“实现了末世。”But the realized eschatology of the NT does not exclude an eschatological consummation to come.但实现的末世的NT不排除一个eschatological圆满来。

Realized Eschatology实现了末世

If the eschaton, the "last thing" which is the proper object of eschatological hope, came in the ministry, passion, and triumph of Jesus, then it cannot be the absolute end of time, for time has gone on since then.如果eschaton,“最后的事情”,这是末世论的希望适当的对象,排在该部,热情,和耶稣的胜利,那么它不可能是绝对的时间结束,因为时间已经从那时起。 In the NT the "last thing" is more properly the "last one," the eschatos (cf. Rev. 1:7; 2:8; 22:13).在新界的“最后的事”,是比较恰当的“最后一个,”eschatos(参见启示录1:7; 2:8; 22:13)。 Jesus is himself his people's hope, the Amen to all God's promises.耶稣是他的人民自己的希望,阿门所有上帝的承诺。

According to Albert Schweitzer's "consistent eschatology," Jesus, believing himself to be Israel's Messiah, found that the consummation did not come when he expected it (cf. Matt. 10:23) and embraced death in order that his parousia as the Son of man might be forcibly brought to pass.根据史怀哲的“一贯末世”耶稣,相信自己是以色列的弥赛亚,发现该圆满没有来的时候,他预计它(参见马特。10点23分),为了圆满拥抱死亡,他的儿子作为男人可能被强行带到通过。 Since the wheel of history would not respond to his hand and turn round to complete its last revolution, he threw himself on it and was broken by it, only to dominate history more decisively by his failure than he could have done by attaining his misconceived ambition.由于历史的车轮不会响应他的手,转身完成其最后的革命,他把它自己和被它打破,历史的唯一主宰自己的失败,而不果断地做了他可以实现他的错误的野心。 His message, Schweitzer held, was thoroughly eschatological in the sense exemplified by the crudest contemporary apocalypticism.他的信息,施魏策尔举行,由最原始的彻底体现当代大卫教派末世论的意义。His ethical teaching was designed for the interim between the beginning of his ministry and his manifestation in glory.他的道德教学,是专为他的部之间的开端,他的荣耀中期表现。Later, when his death was seen to have destroyed the eschatological conditions instead of bringing them in, the proclamation of the kingdom was replaced by the teaching of the church.后来,当他的死亡被认为已经销毁,而不是使它们在eschatological条件下,王国宣布取代了教学的教会。

Schewitzer's interpretation of Jesus's message was largely a reaction against the liberal nineteenth century interpretation, but it was equally one sided and distorted in its selection from the gospel data. Schewitzer的耶稣的消息解释,主要是对十九世纪的自由主义解释反应,但同样一个片面的,并在其选择的福音数据失真。

Later Rudolf Otto and CH Dodd propounded a form of realized eschatology.后来鲁道夫奥托和CH多德propounded末世的实现形式。Dodd interpreted Jesus' parables in terms of the challenge to decision which confronted his hearers in his announcement that the kingdom of God had arrived.多德在解释决定在面临挑战,他宣布他的听众,神的国度已经到来条款耶稣的比喻。Dodd viewed the kingdom as coming in Jesus' life, death, and resurrection; to proclaim these events in their proper perspective was to proclaim the good news of the kingdom of God.多德认为,在耶稣的生命,死亡,与复活降临王国宣布在适当的角度来看,这些事件是宣告神的国度的好消息。Jesus' future coming did not, at first, come into the picture.耶稣没有未来的未来,首先,进入图片来。His redeeming work constituted the decisive or eschatological manifestation of the power of God operating for the world's salvation; the later concentration on a further "last thing" in the future betokened a relapse into Jewish apocalypticism, which relegated to a merely "preliminary" role those elements of the gospel which were distinctive of Jesus' message.他的挽救工作构成了神对世界的拯救工作功率决定性或末世论的体现,对进一步的“最后的事”在未来后浓度betokened到犹太大卫教派,它降低到仅仅是“初步”的角色,那些复发要素的福音,是耶稣的信息特色。

(As time went on, Dodd made more room for a future consummation: what came to earth with Christ's incarnation was finally decisive for the meaning and purpose of human existence, so that, at the ultimate winding up of history, humankind will encounter God in Christ.) (随着时间的推移,多德作出未来的圆满更多的空间:什么来和基督的化身地球最后的意义和人类生存的目的决定性的,因此,在最终注册的历史曲折,人类会遇到神基督。)

Joachim Jeremias, who acknowledges indebtedness to Dodd, found that Jesus' parables express an eschatology "in process of realization"; they proclaim that the hour of fulfillment has struck and compel hearers to make up their minds about Jesus' person and mission.约阿希姆赫雷米亚斯,谁承认欠债多德,发现耶稣的比喻表达“的过程中实现”一末世,他们宣称了圆满的时刻已经敲响了,迫使听众,以弥补他们的思想对耶稣'人与使命。

Dodd's pupil, JAT Robinson, interprets Christ's parousia not as a literal event of the future but as a symbolical or mythological presentation of what happens whenever Christ comes in love and power, displaying the signs of his presence and the marks of his cross.多德的瞳孔,李祖泽罗宾逊,解释不是作为一个事件,而是未来的文字作为一个基督来的时候会发生什么事的爱和力量,展现了他的存在迹象,他在十字架上的标志象征或神话介绍基督的圆满。 Judgment day is a dramatic picture of every day.判断一天是每一天戏剧性的画面。Robinson denies that Jesus used language implying his return to earth from heaven.罗宾逊否认耶稣用语言暗示他从天上回到地上。His sayings which have been so understood express the twin themes of vindication and visitation, notably his reply to the high priest's question at his trial (Mark 14:62), where the added phrase "from now on" (Luke 22:69) or "hereafter" (Matt. 26:64) is taken to be an authentic part of the reply.他已经这么理解表达在审讯(马克14:62),平反和探视的两个主题,尤其是他回答大祭司的问题,其中增加的一句名言:“从现在开始”(路加福音22:69)或“来世”(太26:64)是采取的是一个真实的答复的一部分。 The Son of man, condemned by earthly judges, will be vindicated in the divine law court; his consequent visitation of his people in judgment and redemption will take place "from now on" as surely as his vindication.人子的,由属地的法官谴责,将被平反,在神圣的法庭上,他的判断和赎回将由此发生探望他的人“从现在开始”毫无疑问,他的辩护。

Instead of realized eschatology, Robinson (following Georges Florovsky) speaks of an "inaugurated eschatology", an eschatology inaugurated by Jesus' death and resurrection, which released and initiated a new phase of the kingdom in which "hereafter" God's redeeming purpose would achieve its fulfillment.而是实现了末世,鲁滨逊(以下乔治Florovsky)讲一个“开幕末世”,由耶稣的死亡和复活,该公司发行并引发了一场王国新阶段,在“来世”上帝的救赎的目的将达到成立一个末世其完成。 To Jesus' ministry before his passion Robinson applies the term "proleptic eschatology" because in that ministry the signs of the age to come were visible in anticipation.耶稣的事工之前,他的激情罗宾逊适用的术语,因为该部在这个时代的标志,来“proleptic末世论”是在预期可见。


Jesus' use of OT language was creative and cannot be confined to the meaning which that language had in its original context.耶稣的语言使用的催产素是创造力,不能只限于语言的含义是在其原来的背景了。He probably did point forward to his personal coming to earth, not only to manifest his glory but to share that glory with his people, raised from the dead by his quickening shout.他大概没有点着他个人来到地球上,不仅要体现他的荣耀,但分享,由加快留言被他的死里复活他的人,荣耀。When the consummation to which his people look forward is described as their "hope of glory," it is their participation in Jesus' resurrection glory that is in view; that hope is kept bright within them by his indwelling presence (Col. 1:27) and sealed by the Spirit (Eph. 1:13 - 14, 18 - 21).当完善,而他的人期待他们的描述是“荣耀的盼望,”这是他们在耶稣复活的荣耀,鉴于是参与,这是保持在他们希望由他留置明亮的存在(上校1:27 )和精神(以弗所书1:13密封 - 14,18 - 21)。

There is a tension between the "already" and the "not yet" of the Christian hope, but each is essential to the other.之间存在的紧张局势“已经”和“尚未”的基督徒的希望,但每次必须到另一边。 In the language of the seer of Patmos, the Lamb that was slain has by his death won the decisive victory (Rev. 5:5), but its final outworking, in reward and judgment, lies in the future (Rev. 22:12).在对帕特莫斯,就是被害了他的死赢得了决定性的胜利(启示录5:5)的羔羊,但其最终outworking,在奖励和判断先见语言,在于未来(启示录22:12 )。The fact that we now "see Jesus crowned with glory and honor" is guarantee enough that God "has put all things under his feet" (Heb. 2:8 - 9).事实上,我们现在是“看到耶稣加冕荣耀尊贵”是保证足够的上帝“已经把所有的东西在他的脚下”(希伯来书2:8 - 9)。 His people already share his risen life, and those who reject him are "condemned already" (John 3:18).他的人分享他已经上升的生活,和那些谁拒绝他是“谴责已经”(约翰福音3:18)。For the Fourth Evangelist, the judgment of the world coincided with the passion of the incarnate Word (John 12:31); yet a future resurrection to judgment is contemplated as well as a resurrection to life (John 5:29).对于第四传播者,对世界的看法正好与圣道(约翰福音12:31)激情,然而,判断一个未来的复活是考虑作为一个生命的复活(约翰福音5:29)以及。

Some much canvassed questions, such as the chronological relation of the parousia to the great distress of Mark 13:19, to the manifestation of the man of lawlessness of 2 Thess.一些非常详细讨论的问题,如按时间顺序关系的圆满马克13:19的巨大痛苦,到了无法无天的2帖人的表现。2:3 - 8, or to the millennial reign of Rev. 20, are marginal to the main course of NT eschatological teaching, belonging rather to the detailed exegesis of the passages concerned.2:3 - 8,或向牧师20千年统治,是边缘到新台币末世论教学的主要课程,属于而是要在有关段落详细的注释。The eschatological outlook of the NT is well summed up in the words: "Christ Jesus our hope" (1 Tim. 1:1).末世论的NT前景很好总结的话:“基督耶稣我们的希望”(1添1:1。)。

FF Bruce法郎布鲁斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GR Beasley - Murray, Jesus and the Future and The Coming of God; RH Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; O Cullmann, Christ and Time; CH Dodd, The Parables of the Kingdom, The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments, and The Coming of Christ; JE Fison, The Christian Hope; TF Glasson, The Second Advent; J Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus; WG Kummel, Promise and Fulfilment; GE Ladd, The Presence of the Future; R Otto, The Kingdom of God and the Son of Man; H Ridderbos, The Coming of the Kingdom; JAT Robinson, In the End, God.遗传资源比斯利 - 美利,耶稣和未来,并在上帝的来临;铑查尔斯,一个对未来生活的一个关键的历史学说; Ø Cullmann,基督和时间; CH多德,王国的比喻,使徒传教及其发展,以及未来的基督;乙脑法伊森,基督教希望;转铁蛋白格拉森,第二次来临; Ĵ赫雷米亚斯,耶稣的比喻,工作组库慕尔,承诺和履行;葛雷德,对未来存在与r奥托王国神和人的儿子,ħ Ridderbos,该王国的来临;李祖泽罗宾逊在年底,神。..and Jesus and His Coming; A Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus; EF Sutcliffe, The OT and the Future Life; G Vos, The Pauline Eschatology.耶稣和他的未来,施魏策尔,在追求历史的耶稣;英萨特克利夫,催产素和未来的生活; Ğ沃斯,该宝莲末世。

Realized Eschatology实现了末世

Advanced Information先进的信息

This concept should be contrasted with futurist or thoroughgoing eschatology, in which the teaching of Jesus about the kingdom of God is viewed as significantly influenced by Jewish apocalyptic.这一概念应有别于未来学家或深入末世,其中有关耶稣的神的国教是犹太世界末日的影响显着效果。 While continental scholarship has focused on the latter, the Anglo-American tradition has often urged that the futurist aspects of the kingdom be reduced to a bare minimum.而大陆的学术研究集中于后者,英美的传统,经常敦促王国的未来学家方面减少到最低限度。Some have dismissed this apocatyptic note as an early Christian accretion, but many NT scholars have viewed the apocalyptic language as symbolic of a profound theological reality.有些人被解雇,作为早期基督教的吸积这apocatyptic注意,但许多学者认为新台币作为一个深刻的神学现实世界末日的语言符号。 Instead, they argue, Jesus viewed his ministry as inaugurating the kingdom: that is, this eschatological reality was realized within Christ's own ministry.相反,他们认为,耶稣被视为他的部开创的王国:也就是说,在这末世论的现实是基督自己的部实现。

CH Dodd is often identified with realized eschatology because of his epoch-making challenge to the apocalytic interpreters of Jesus. CH多德是往往被确定与实现,因为他的划时代的挑战耶稣的apocalytic口译末世。Dodd's chief contribution was published in 1935 (The Parables of the Kingdom), in which he examined various texts that spoke of the kingdom as already present.多德的主要贡献是在1935年出版(比喻的王国),其中他考察的王国说话的口气已经存在的各种文本。This does not mean that Jesus merely pointed to the sovereignty of God in human history and labeled this the kingdom, but rather that Jesus viewed the kingdom as arriving in an unparalleled, decisive way.这并不意味着耶稣只是指出了神在人类历史上的主权和标记这个王国,而是看作是耶稣在一个无与伦比的,果断的方式到达天国。 The eschatological power of God had come into effective operation within his present life and was released through his death.神的末世论的权力已开始有效运作,在他现在的生活,并通过他的死释放。Hence in Luke 11:20 we learn that Jesus himself is revealing this new power: "If it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you."因此,在路加福音11:20我们知道耶稣自己是揭示这一新的权力:“如果它是由神的手指,我赶鬼,是那么的神的国临到你们了。” Luke 17:20ff.路加福音17:20几段。 is similar in that Jesus seems to deny the observable signs of apocalyptic: "for behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you."是相似的,耶稣似乎否认世界末日的可观察的迹象:“看哪,神的国度是在你们中间。”Dodd particularly stressed the parables of growth (the weeds among wheat, the mustard seed, the sower; see esp. Matt. 13), which find their meaning in a this-wordly event of decisive importance.多德特别强调经济增长的比喻(小麦中的杂草,芥菜种​​子,播种。。见电除尘器马特13),其中找到自己在这个具有决定性的意义,世俗事件的意义。

To be sure, this alters the entire scheme of futurist eschatology wherein the kingdom ushers in the end.可以肯定的是,这改变了整个计划,其中未来主义末世王国,最终引进。"The eschaton has moved from the future to the present, from the sphere of expectation into that of realized experience" (Parables of the Kingdom, p. 50).说:“eschaton已经从未来到现在从期望领域,进入该变现的经验”(parables的王国,第50页)。For Dodd, this must become a fixed point in interpretation because it is these teachings of Jesus that are explicit and unequivocal.对于多德,这必须成为一个固定点的解释,因为它是耶稣,是明确和毫不含糊的这些教导。"It represents the ministry of Jesus as 'realized eschatology'; as the impact upon this world of the 'powers of the world to come' in a series of events, unprecedented and unrepeatable, now in actual progress" (ibid., p. 51). “它代表了作为教育部耶稣的实现末世';作为对这个世界的影响'的世界大国来在一系列事件,空前绝后系列,在目前的实际进展”(同上,第51)。 Thus when Jesus says, "Blessed are the eyes which see what you see" (Luke 10:23), he is referring to his messianic acts which in themselves are ushering in the eschatological kingdom of God.因此,当耶稣说:“眼睛是有福的看到你所看到的”(路加福音10:23),他是指他这本身就是在神的末世王国迎来救世主的行为。 "It is no longer imminent; it is here" (ibid., p. 49).“它不再是迫在眉睫,它是在这里”(同上,第49页)。

It must be said at once that realized eschatology has suffered many criticisms.应该说在一旦实现了末世遭受了许多批评。Scholars have quickly pointed out that Dodd was less than fair in his exegesis of many futurist texts (eg, Mark 9:1; 13:1ff.; 14:25).学者们很快就指出,多德低于公平少许多未来学家在他的文本(例如,马克9:1; 13时01分几段。14时25分)的注释。Still, in a later response to his critics (The Coming of Christ, 1951) Dodd accepted the futurist sayings but reinterpreted them as predictions of a transcendent age.不过,在后来的回应他的批评者(基督的,1951年来)多德接受了未来学家的说法,但重新解释为一个超越年龄的预测它们。 Norman Perrin for one has successfully shown how Judaism employed no such transcendent concept of the kingdom and that Dodd again has misrepresented the text by applying a foreign Greek category to Jesus' Hebrew teaching.诺曼佩林已成功地为一犹太教展示了如何采用这种无王国多德超越的概念,又运用了歪曲外国希腊类耶稣的希伯来文教学。

Most interpreters have argued for a synthesis of realized and futurist components in eschatology.大多数口译员主张在末世的实现和未来学家组成部分的合成。Dodd convincingly demonstrated that Jesus' appearance brought to bear on history an eschatological crisis in the present; however, we would add that history still awaits its consummation in the future, when the kingdom will come in apocalyptic power.多德令人信服地表明,耶稣的外表带来的历史负担,在目前的末世论的危机,但是,我们想补充一点,历史上还有待完善,在未来的,当王国会在世界末日的权力。

GM Burge通用汽车比尔格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GE Ladd, Crucial Questions About the Kingdom of God; WG Kummel, Promise and Fulfillment; G. Lundstrom, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus; N. Perrin, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus; R. Schnackenburg, God's Rule and Kingdom.葛雷德,关键问题关于神的国度;工作组库慕尔,承诺和履行;克隆斯特罗姆,在基督的教导神的国度;全佩林,在基督的教导神的国度;河施诺肯保,上帝的规则和王国。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things (ta eschata).这一系统神学的一个分支,它与过去的事情(助教eschata)的教义交易。The Greek title is of comparatively recent introduction, but in modern usage it has largely supplanted its Latin equivalent De Novissimis.希腊的标题是较近期推出,但在现代用法它已在很大程度上取代其拉丁语相当于德Novissimis。As the numerous doctrinal subjects belonging to this section of theology will be treated ex professo under their several proper titles, it is proposed in this article merely to take such a view of the whole field as will serve to indicate the place of eschatology in the general framework of religion, explain its subject-matter and the outlines of its content in the various religions of mankind, and illustrate by comparison the superiority of Christian eschatological teaching.由于许多属于这一节的神学理论科目将被视为适当的标题下,他们几个前professo,所以建议在本条仅仅采取这种看法的整个领域将有助于说明在一般地方的末世宗教的框架,解释其标的物的轮廓和它在人类的各种宗教的内容,并通过比较说明了基督教末世论的教学优势。

As a preliminary indication of the subject-matter, a distinction may be made between the eschatology of the individual and that of the race and the universe at large.作为标的物的初步迹象,可能会作出区分,个人之间的末世,并在比赛和整个宇宙。The former, setting out from the doctrine of personal immortality, or at least of survival in some form after death, seeks to ascertain the fate or condition, temporary or eternal, of individual souls, and how far the issues of the future depend on the present life.前者,列出从个人不朽的学说,或在某些形式的生存至少死后,旨在确定的命运或条件,暂时或永恒的人的灵魂,并有多远,未来的问题取决于现在的生活。 The latter deals with events like the resurrection and the general judgment, in which, according to Christian Revelation, all men will participate, and with the signs and portents in the moral and physical order that are to precede and accompany those events.与像复活和一般的判断,其中后者的交易活动,根据基督教的启示,人人都要参与,并与标志,在道德和物理顺序是先于和伴随这些事件的征兆。 Both aspects -- the individual and the universal -- belong to the adequate concept of eschatology; but it is only in Christian teaching that both receive due and proportionate recognition.这两个方面 - 个人和普遍 - 属于末世足够的概念,但它只是在基督教教义和比例都得到应有的承认。Jewish eschatology only attained its completion in the teaching of Christ and the Apostles; while in ethnic religion eschatology seldom rose above the individual view, and even then was often so vague, and so little bound up with any adequate notion of Divine justice and of moral retribu- tion, that it barely deserves to be ranked as religious teaching.犹太末世只达到在基督和使徒教学的完成,而在民族宗教末世鲜玫瑰以上的个人看法,即使是这样,往往如此含糊,这么少的约束与任何神圣的正义和道德观念就足够retribu - tion,它几乎没有值得被列为宗教教职。


Uncivilized societies不文明的社会

Even among uncivilized cultures the universality of religious beliefs, including belief in some kind of existence after death, is very generally admitted by modern anthropologists.即使是不文明的文化中,宗教信仰,包括一些存在的普遍性后死亡的一种信念,是非常普遍承认的现代人类学家。 Some exceptions, it is true, have been claimed to exist; but on closer scrutiny the evidence for this claim has broken down in so many cases that we are justified in presuming against any exception.一些例外情况,这是事实,声称已经存在,但仔细审议,对这一索赔的证据打破了这么多,我们在对任何异常假定合理的情况下下来。 Among the uncivilized the truth and purity of eschatological beliefs vary, as a rule, with the purity of the idea of God and of the moral standards that prevail.其中不文明的真实性和纯度末世论信仰不同,作为一项规则,与神和道德标准的想法普遍存在的纯洁性。Some savages seem to limit existence after death to the good (with extinction for the wicked), as the Nicaraguas, or to men of rank, as the Tongas; while the Greenlanders, New Guinea negroes, and others seem to hold the possibility of a second death, in the other world or on the way to it.一些野蛮人似乎限制后死亡的好(与恶人灭绝)的存在,作为尼加拉瓜,或职级的人,因为Tongas,而格陵兰,新几内亚的黑人,以及其他一些对人的一种可能性第二次的死,在其他世界或在它的方式。 The next world itself is variously located -- on the earth, in the skies, in the sun or moon -- but most commonly under the earth; while the life led there is conceived either as a dull and shadowy and more or less impotent existence, or as an active continuation in a higher or idealized form of the pursuits and pleasures of earthly life.接下来的世界本身是各种位于 - 在地球上,在天空,在太阳或月亮 - 但最常用的地底下,而导致的生活设想,有一个沉闷和影子,或多或少存在着要么无能,或作为一个世俗的追求和对生活的乐趣更高或理想化形式活跃的延续。 In most savage religions there is no very high or definite doctrine of moral retribution after death; but it is only in the case of a few of the most degraded cultures, whose condition is admittedly the result of degeneration, that the notion of retribution is claimed to be altogether wanting.在最野蛮的宗教,没有道德的人死后报应非常高的或明确的理论,但它只是在一个最退化的文化,其条件是无可否认的变性导致少数情况下,这是报应观念是声称要完全的不足。 Sometimes mere physical prowess, as bravery or skill in the hunt or in war, takes the place of a strictly ethical standard; but, on the other hand, some savage religions contain unexpectedly clear and elevated ideas of many primary moral duties.有时仅仅武艺高强,英勇或作为狩猎或战争的技巧,采取​​了严格的道德标准的地方,但是,另一方面,一些野蛮的宗教包含许多初级意外明确的道德义务和高架的想法。

Civilized Cultures文明文化

Coming to the higher or civilized societies, we shall glance briefly at the eschatology of the Babylonian and Assyrian, Egyptian, Indian, Persian, and Greek religions.即将向上级或文明社会中,我们将在巴比伦和亚述,埃及,印度,波斯和希腊宗教的末世论一瞥简要介绍。Confucianism can hardly be said to have an eschatology, except the very indefinite belief involved in the worship of ancestors, whose happiness was held to depend on the conduct of their living descendants.儒家思想也很难说是除了在祖先崇拜,他们的幸福取决于举行了他们的生活行为所涉及的后代很无限期信仰的末世。 Islamic eschatology contains nothing distinctive except the glorification of barbaric sensuality.伊斯兰末世不包含任何除了美化野蛮的性感特色。

(a) Babylonian and Assyrian(一)巴比伦和亚述

In the ancient Babylonian religion (with which the Assyrian is substantially identical) eschatology never attained, in the historical period, any high degree of development.在古代巴比伦宗教(与该亚述大致相同)末世从未达到的历史时期,任何高度的发展。Retribution is confined almost, if not quite, entirely to the present life, virtue being rewarded by the Divine bestowal of strength, prosperity, long life, numerous offspring, and the like, and wickedness punished by contrary temporal calamities.报应是限于差不多,如果不大,完全是现在的生活,凭借获奖的由实力,繁荣,寿命长,许多后代神圣的恩赐,和之类的,邪恶的灾难,相反颞处罚。 Yet the existence of an hereafter is believed in. A kind of semi-material ghost, or shade, or double (ekimmu), survives the death of the body, and when the body is buried (or, less commonly, cremated) the ghost descends to the underworld to join the company of the departed.然而,一种存在以下是一个半英寸材​​料鬼,或遮荫,或双(ekimmu)的一种认为,生存在死亡的身体,当身体被埋葬(或较少见,火化)鬼下降到加入黑社会的离开公司。 In the "Lay of Ishtar" this underworld, to which she descended in search of her deceased lover and of the "waters of life", is described in gloomy colours; and the same is true of the other descriptions we possess.在“莱伊什塔尔”这个黑社会,对此她降临在她已故的爱人搜索和“生命水”,是描述在灰暗的颜色;和相同的是我们拥有其他的描述正确的。 It is the "pit", the "land of no return", the "house of darkness", the "place where dust is their bread, and their food is mud"; and it is infested with demons, who, at least in Ishtar's case, are empowered to inflict various chastisements for sins committed in the upper world.这是“坑”的,是“黑暗之家”的“不归路土地”中,“地方,灰尘是他们的面包,他们的食品是泥”,以及它与恶魔出没,谁,至少在伊什塔尔的情况下,都有权对在世界上的各种chastisements所犯的罪。

Though Ishtar's case is held by some to be typical in this respect, there is otherwise no clear indication of a doctrine of moral penalties for the wicked, and no promise of rewards for the good.虽然伊什塔尔的案件是由一些认为是这方面的典型,没有其它的为惩罚恶人道德学说清楚地表明,没有良好的回报为承诺。Good and bad are involved in a common dismal fate.好的和坏的是参与一个共同的惨淡命运。The location of the region of the dead is a subject of controversy among Assyriologists, while the suggestion of a brighter hope in the form of a resurrection (or rather of a return to earth) from the dead, which some would infer from the belief in the "waters of life" and from references to Marduk, or Merodach, as "one who brings the dead to life", is an extremely doubtful conjecture.对死者的区域位置是一个中间Assyriologists争论的主题,而在一个从死里复活(或回到地球相当),其中有些人会推断,从信仰的美好希望建议的形式从引用“生命水”,以马尔杜克,或米罗达巴拉,为“一谁带来死的生命”,是一个非常令人怀疑的猜想。 On the whole there is nothing hopeful or satisfying in the eschatology of this ancient religion.整体来说,没有什么希望或在这个古老的宗教末世令人满意。

(b) Egyptian(二)埃及

On the other hand, in the Egyptian religion, which for antiquity competes with the Babylonian, we meet with a highly developed and comparatively elevated eschatology.另一方面,在埃及的宗教,这对于古代的巴比伦的竞争中,我们遇到一个高度发达和比较高架末世。Leaving aside such difficult questions as the relative priority and influence of different, and even conflicting, elements in the Egyptian religion, it will suffice for the present purpose to refer to what is most prominent in Egyptian eschatology taken at its highest and best.撇开的相对优先级和不同的影响等困难问题,甚至相互矛盾,在埃及的宗教元素,它足以为现在的目的就是指的是埃及最突出的末世在其最高和最佳的发生。 In the first place, then, life in its fullness, unending life with 0siris, the sun-god, who journeys daily through the underworld, even identification with the god, with the right to be called by his name, is what the pious Egyptian looked forward to as the ultimate goal after death.首先,那么,生活在其丰满,与0siris无休止的生活中,太阳神,谁行程每天通过黑社会,甚至与神与鉴定是由他的名字叫权,是虔诚的埃及期待着为死后的最终目标。 The departed are habitually called the "living"; the coffin is the "chest of the living", and the tomb the "lord of life".离去而习惯性地称为“活”,棺材是“活着的胸部”,而墓“生命之主”。It is not merely the disembodied spirit, the soul as we understand it, that continues to live, but the soul with certain bodily organs and functions suited to the conditions of the new life.它不仅是无形的精神,灵魂,我们的理解,这仍然是为了活着,但与身体的某些器官和适应新的生活条件功能的灵魂。In the elaborate anthropology which underlies Egyptian eschatology, and which we find it hard to understand, several constituents of the human person are distinguished, the most important of which is the Ka, a kind of semi-material double; and to the justified who pass the judgment after death the use of these several constituents, separated by death is restored.在阐述埃及末世人类学的基础,而我们很难理解,人的一些成分是杰出的,最重要的是嘉,一种半双材料,并通过向谁有道理死后的这几个成分使用判断,死别被恢复。 This judgment which each undergoes is described in detail in chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead.这其中每一个经历了详细的描述章中的死亡之书125判断。The examination covers a great variety of personal, social, and religious duties and observances; the deceased must be able to deny his guilt in regard to forty-two great categories of sins, and his heart (the symbol of conscience and morality) must stand the test of being weighed in the balance against the image of Maat, goddess of truth or justice.该考试涵盖了个人,社会和宗教职责和纪念活动种类繁多,死者必须能够否认他关于四十二罪的伟大类别内疚,他的心(良心和道德的象征)必须站正在权衡的测试中反对真理正义之神,真理或正义女神形象的平衡。 But the new life that begins after a favourable judgment is not at first any better or more spiritual than life on earth.但新的生活开始后的一个有利的判决是第一并不比地球上的生命更好或更精神。The justified is still a wayfarer with a long and difficult journey to accomplish before he reaches bliss and security in the fertile fields of Aalu.的合理仍然是一个漫长而艰难的旅程,他到达之前完成,并在Aalu幸福的沃野安全的行人。On this journey he is exposed to a variety of disasters, for the avoidance of which he depends on the use of his revivified powers and on the knowledge he has gained in life of the directions and magical charms recorded in the Book of the Dead, and also, and perhaps most of all, on the aids provided by surviving friends on earth.在这个旅途中,他接触到的是各种灾害,为避免他在他revivified权力的使用和对他在生活中的方向和死亡之书记载的神奇魅力获得的知识而定,并同时,也许最重要的是由地球上幸存的朋友提供了艾滋病。 It is they who secure the preservation of his corpse that he may return and use it, who provide an indestructible tomb as a home or shelter for his Ka, who supply food and drink for his sustenance, offer up prayers and sacrifices for his benefit, and aid his memory by inscribing on the walls of the tomb, or writing on rolls of papyrus enclosed in the wrappings of the mummy, chapters from the Book of the Dead.这是他们谁的安全保护,他的尸体,他可能会返回,并用它,谁提供一个为家庭或他的家,谁供应食物和饮料他的寄托,提供了祈祷和牺牲个人的利益住所坚不可摧的墓,和援助的墓上写上了墙壁,或在该木乃伊的包装纸卷筒书写纸莎草纸附上他的记忆,从死亡之书的章节。 It does not, indeed, appear that the dead were ever supposed to reach a state in which they were independent of these earthly aids.它并没有,事实上,似乎死者曾有应该达到的状态的,他们是这些俗世的艾滋病无关。At any rate they were always considered free to revisit the earthly tomb, and in making the journey to and fro the blessed had the power of transforming themselves at will into various animal-shapes.无论如何,他们一向被认为可以自由地重温俗世的墓,以及使旅途往返的祝福有转化成各种随意动物形状自身的力量。 It was this belief which, at the degenerate stage at which he encountered it, Herodotus mistook for the doctrine of the transmigration of souls.正是这种信念,而在该堕落在哪个阶段,他遇到了它,希罗多德的灵魂轮回的学说误解。It should be added that the identification of the blessed with Osiris ("Osiris NN" is a usual form of inscription) did not, at least in the earlier and higher stage of Egyptian religion, imply pantheistic absorption in the deity or the loss of individual personality.应该说,奥西里斯的鉴定与祝福(“奥西里斯nn”是一个通常形式的题词)没有,至少在早期的埃及宗教的更高的阶段,意味着泛神论吸收的神或个人损失个性。 Regarding the fate of those who fail in the judgment after death, or succumb in the second probation, Egyptian eschatology is less definite in its teaching.至于那些谁在判决失败后死亡,或在第二缓刑命运屈服,埃及是末世少的教学明确。"Second death" and other expressions applied to them might seem to suggest annihilation; but it is sufficiently clear from the evidence as a whole that continued existence in a condition of darkness and misery was believed to be their portion. “第二次死亡”,并应用到他们的其他表情似乎暗示湮灭,但它是不够清楚,作为一个在黑暗和痛苦的情况继续存在被认为是他们的部分全部证据。And as there were degrees in the happiness of the blessed, so also in the punishment of the lost (Book of the Dead, tr. Budge, London, 1901).并且由于在的祝福,所以也幸福度的丢失的处罚(死者,文图书。让步,伦敦,1901年)。

(c) Indian (三)印度

In the Vedic, the earliest historical form of the Indian religion, eschatological belief is simpler and purer than in the Brahministic and Buddhistic forms that succeeded it.在吠陀,印度最早的宗教历史形态,末世论的信念是简单,比Brahministic和佛教的形式,它成功地纯洁。Individual immortality is clearly taught.个人不朽是清楚的教导。There is a kingdom of the dead under the rule of Yama, with distinct realms for the good and the wicked.有一个统治下的王国阎王死者与善,恶不同的领域。The good dwell in a realm of light and share in the feasts of the gods; the wicked are banished to a place of "nethermost darkness".在一个光线和在该领域分享神的节日好住;恶人是被流放到了“地狱黑暗”的地方。Already, however, in the later Vedas, where these beliefs and developed expression, retribution begins to be ruled more by ceremonial observances than by strictly moral tests.目前,然而,在后来的吠陀经,而这些信念和发达的表达,报应开始被裁定礼仪纪念活动超过严格的道德考验。On the other hand, there is no trace as yet of the dreary doctrine of transmigration, but critics profess to discover the germs of later pantheism.另一方面,没有一丝尚未沉闷的轮回学说,但批评者宣称发现后来泛神论的病菌。

In Brahminism retribution gains in prominence and severity, but becomes hopelessly involved in transmigration, and is made more and more dependent either on sacrificial observances or on theosophical knowledge.在突出和严重程度,婆罗门教报应上涨,但变得无可救药地参与轮回,是越来越多的依赖无论是在祭祀纪念活动或神智知识制成。 Though after death there are numerous heavens and hells for the reward and punishment of every degree of merit and demerit, these are not final states, but only so many preludes to further rebirths in higher or lower forms.虽然死后有很多天,为奖励和各种优点和缺点的程度处罚地狱,这些都不是最终的国家,但只有这么多的前奏,在较高或较低的形式进一步轮回。 Pantheistic absorption in Brahma, the world- soul and only reality, with the consequent extinction of individual personalities - this is the only final solution of the problem of existence, the only salvation to which man may ultimately look forward.泛神论的吸收与个别人物随之灭绝布拉马,世界灵魂,只有现实, - 这是唯一的生存问题,唯一的救赎,其中男子最终可能期待着最终解决方案。But it is a salvation which only a few may hope to reach after the present life, the few who have acquired a perfect knowledge of Brahma.但它是一个救赎,其中只有少数可能希望达到现在的生活后,谁获得了一些梵天完美的知识很少。 The bulk of men who cannot rise to this high philosophic wisdom may succeed, by means of sacrificial observances, in gaining a temporary heaven, but they are destined to further births and deaths.谁的男人不能上升到这个高智慧的哲学可能会成功,通过祭祀纪念活动手段获得一个暂时的天堂,散,但他们注定要进一步出生和死亡。

Buddhist eschatology still further develops and modifies the philosophical side of the Brahministic doctrine of salvation, and culminates in what is, strictly speaking, the negation of eschatology and of all theology -- a religion without a God, and a lofty moral code without hope of reward or fear of punishment hereafter.佛教末世仍有进一步发展和修改的救赎Brahministic主义哲学方面,以及在什么,严格来说,所有的末世神学和​​否定的高潮 - 不希望一个没有上帝的信仰,崇高的道德准则奖励或惩罚的恐惧以下。Existence itself, or at least individual existence, is the primary evil; and the craving for existence, with the many forms of desire it begets, is the source of all the misery in which life is inextricably involved.存在本身,或至少个体存在,主要是邪恶的,以及存在的渴求与愿望,而且引起了许多形式,是所有在其中的生活是密不可分涉及的祸根。 Salvation, or the state of Nirvana, is to be attained by the utter extinction of every kind of desire, and this is possible by knowledge -- not the knowledge of God or the soul, as in Brahminism, but the purely philosophical knowledge of the real truth of things.救国,或涅槃的状态,是由每一种完全灭绝的愿望实现了,这是可能的知识 - 而不是上帝或灵魂的知识,如婆罗门教,但纯粹的哲学知识真正的真理的东西。For all who do not reach this state of philosophic enlightenment or who fail to live up to its requirements -- that is to say for the vast bulk of mankind -- there is nothing in prospect save a dreary cycle of deaths and rebirths with intercalated heavens and hells; and in Buddhism this doctrine takes on a still more dread and inexorable character than pre-Buddhistic Brahminism.对于所有谁达不到这一状态的哲学启示或谁辜负了其需求 - 这是说为人类的绝大部分 - 是有前景节省大量的死亡和轮回与循环没有插天沉闷和地狱,以及在佛教教义上这更可怕,比前佛教婆罗门教的必然字符占用。(See BUDDHISM)(见佛教)

(d) Persian(四)波斯

In the ancient Persian religion (Zoroastrianism, Mazdaism, Parseeism) we meet with what is perhaps, in its better elements, the highest type of ethnic eschatology.在古代波斯宗教(琐罗亚斯德教,拜火教,Parseeism)我们遇到什么,也许在它的更好的元素,民族末世最高的类型。 But as we know it in the Parsee literature, it contains elements that were probably borrowed from other religions; and as some of this literature is certainly post-Christian, the possibility of Jewish and even Christian ideas having influenced the later eschatological developments is not to be lost sight of.但是,正如我们知道在帕西文献中,它包含了可能是来自其他宗教借来的元素,并且随着这部分文献当然是后基督徒,犹太人和基督教思想,甚至有可能影响了后来的发展是不末世论被忽略的。 The radical defect of the Persian religion was its dualistic conception of deity.的波斯宗教激进的缺陷是其神二元论的概念。The physical and moral world is the theatre of a perpetual conflict between Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd), the good, and Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman), the evil, principle, co-creators of the universe and of man.的身体和道德世界是一个与阿胡拉马自达(Ormuzd),善,安格拉- Mainyu(阿里曼),邪恶的,原则,合作的宇宙和人类的创造者无休止的冲突的战场。Yet the evil principle is not eternal ex parte post; he will finally be vanquished and exterminated.然而,邪恶的原则是不是永恒的单方面后,他将最终战胜和消灭。A pure monotheistic Providence promises at times to replace dualism, but never quite succeeds -- the latest effort in this direction being the belief in Zvran Akarana, or Boundless Time as the supreme deity above both Ahriman and Ormuzd.一个单纯的一神教普罗维登斯有时承诺,以取代二元论,但从未完全成功 - 本更是Zvran Akarana信仰,或上述两种阿里曼和Ormuzd最高神无限的时间方向的最新努力。Morality has its sanction not merely in future retribution, but in the present assurance that every good and pious deed is a victory for the cause of Ahura Mazda; but the call to the individual to be active in this cause, though vigorous and definite enough, is never quite free from ritual and ceremonial conditions, and as time goes on becomes more and more complicated by these observances, especially by the laws of purity.道德有其制裁不仅在未来的报应,但在目前的保证,每一个良好的和虔诚的行动是对的胡马自达事业的胜利,但对个别要求将这一事业中积极,虽然积极和明确的是,从未完全摆脱祭祀和礼仪的条件,随着时间的推移变得越来越复杂,这些纪念活动,特别是纯度的法律。 Certain elements are holy (fire, earth, water), certain others unholy or impure (dead bodies, the breath, and all that leaves the body, etc.); and to defile oneself or the holy elements by contact with the impure is one of the deadliest sins.某些因素是神圣的(火,土,水),某些人邪恶或不纯(尸体,呼吸,和所有离开身体,等)和接触自己玷污神圣的元素或不纯是一个与最致命的罪过。 Consequently corpses could not be buried or cremated, and were accordingly exposed on platforms erected for the purpose, so that birds of prey might devour them.因此尸体无法掩埋或火化,并因此而搭建的平台上公开为宗旨,让猛禽可能吃掉它们。When the soul leaves the body it has to cross the bridge of Chinvat (or Kinvad), the bridge of the Gatherer, or Accountant.当灵魂离开身体就必须跨越Chinvat(或Kinvad),该收集器,或会计师大桥。For three days good and evil spirits contend for the possession of the soul, after which the reckoning is taken and the just men is rejoiced by the apparition, in the form of a fair maiden, of his good deeds, words, and thoughts, and passes over safely to a paradise of bliss, while the wicked man is confronted by a hideous apparition of his evil deeds, and is dragged down to hell.三天善良与邪恶的精神争夺的灵魂附体,在这之后采取清算和刚刚男人是欢欣鼓舞的幽灵,在美丽少女的形式,他的善行,文字,思想,以及安全地越过一个幸福的天堂,而邪恶的人是面临着一个可怕的幽灵他的劣迹,并拖累了地狱。 If the judgment is neutral the soul is reserved in an intermediate state (so at least in the Pahlavi books) till the decision at the last day.如果判断是中性的灵魂,是保留在一个中间状态(这样在巴列维书籍至少)的决定,直到最后一天。The developed conception of the last days, as it appears in the later literature, has certain remarkable affinities with Jewish Messianic and millennial expectations.在最后几天发展的概念,因为它出现在后来的文学,已经与犹太弥赛亚和千年的期望,一定非凡的亲和力。A time during which Ahriman will gain the ascendancy is to be followed by two millennial periods, in each of which a great prophet will appear to herald the coming of Soshyant (or Sosioch), the Conqueror and Judge who will raise the dead to life.一时间,期间阿里曼将获得优势是由两千年之后的十年,在其中的一个伟大的先知会出现每个人,预示着未来的Soshyant(或Sosioch),征服者和法官将尸体抬谁的生命。 The resurrection will occupy fifty-seven years and will be followed by the general judgement, the separation of the good from the wicked, and the passing of both through a purgatorial fire gentle for the just, terrible for sinners, but leading to the restoration of all.复活将占据五十七年,并将由一般的判断,从邪恶的分离善,两者通过一个炼狱火刚刚gentle,其次为罪人可怕,但导致恢复所有。 Next will follow the final combat between the good and the evil spirits, in which the latter will perish, all except Ahriman and the serpent Azhi, whose destruction is reserved to Ahura Mazda and Scraosha, the priest-god.下一步将按照之间的良好和邪恶的精神,其中后者将亡的最后战斗中,所有的除外阿里曼和蛇Azhi,其破坏是保留给阿胡拉马自达和Scraosha,牧师,神。 And last of all hell itself will be purged, and the earth renewed by purifying fire.和所有的地狱本身最后将被清除,而大地炼火续期。

(e) Greek (五)希腊

Greek eschatology as reflected in the Homeric poems remains at a low level.希腊末世这反映在荷马史诗处于较低的水平。It is only very vaguely retributive and is altogether cheerless in its outlook.这只是很含糊报复性的,是完全在它的前景凄凉。 Life on earth, for all its shortcomings, is the highest good for men, and death the worst of evils.生活在地球上所有的缺点,是所有男人的最高的善,和死亡的邪恶最差。Yet death is not extinction.然而,死亡不是灭绝。The psyche survives - not the purely spiritual soul of later Greek and Christian thought, but an attenuated, semi-material ghost, or shade, or image, of the earthly man; and the life of this shade in the underworld is a dull, impoverished, almost functionless existence.心理的生存 - 而不是后来的希腊和基督教思想纯粹的精神灵魂,而是一种减毒,半导体材料鬼,或遮荫,或世俗人的形象,以及该在黑道阴影的生活是沉闷的,贫困几乎无功能的存在。 Nor is there any distinction of fates either by way of happiness or of misery in Hades.也没有任何区别的命运无论是快乐或痛苦的方式在地狱。The judicial office of Minos is illusory and has nothing to do with earthly conduct; and there is only one allusion to the Furies suggestive of their activity among the dead (Iliad XIX, 258-60).司法职务的米诺斯是虚幻,并没有任何关系人间的行为;和只有一个针对他们的愤怒女神中死亡(伊利亚特第十九258-60)活性暗示。 Tartarus, the lower hell, is reserved for a few special rebels against the gods, and the Elysian Fields for a few special favourites chosen by divine caprice.塔尔塔罗斯,较低的地狱,是保留给神对少数特殊叛军,并以神反复无常选择一些特殊的收藏夹中的伊利森领域。

In later Greek thought touching the future life there are notable advances beyond the Homeric state, but it is doubtful whether the average popular faith ever reached a much higher level.在以后的希腊思想触摸未来的生活有显着超越了荷马州的进步,但它是有疑问的平均流行的信仰不能达到一个更高的水平。Among early philosophers Anaxagoras contributes to the notion of a purely spiritual soul; but a more directly religious contribution is made by the Eleusinian and Orphic mysteries, to the influence of which in brightening and moralizing the hope of a future life we have the concurrent witness of philosophers, poets, and historians.在早期的哲学家阿那克萨哥拉有助于一个纯粹的精神灵魂的概念,但更直接的贡献是由宗教的Eleusinian和奥尔弗斯奥秘,在道德说教的亮化和未来生活的希望,我们有并发见证到了影响哲学家,诗人,历史学家。 In the Eleusinian mysteries there seems to have been no definite doctrinal teaching - merely the promise or assurance for the initiated of the fullness of life hereafter.在Eleusinian奥秘似乎已没有明确的理论教学 - 对于生命的丰满以后开始的仅仅是承诺或保证。With the Orphic, on the other hand, the divine origin and pre- existence of the soul, for which the body is but a temporary prison, and the doctrine of a retributive transmigration are more or less closely associated.随着奥尔弗斯,另一方面,神圣的起源和预先的灵魂,而身体是一个临时监狱的存在,一个报复性的轮回学说,或多或少都密切相关。 It is hard to see how far the common belief of the people was influenced by these mysteries, but in poetical and philosophical literature their influence is unmistakable.这是很难看到多远人民的共同信念,影响了这些谜团,但在文学的诗学和哲学的影响是显而易见的。This is seen especially in Pindar among the poets, and in Plato among the philosophers.普遍认为这是特别是在平达之间的诗人,哲学家柏拉图之间。Pindar has a definite promise of a future life of bliss for the good or the initiated, and not merely for a few, but for all.平达拥有的无论是好还是未来的幸福生活开始明确的承诺,而不是仅仅为少数,但对于所有。Even for the wicked who descend to Hades there is hope; having, purged their wickedness they obtain rebirth on earth, and if, during three successive existences, they prove themselves worthy of the boon, they will finally attain to happiness in the Isles of the Blest.即使是恶人谁下到地狱有希望;拥有,清除他们的邪恶,他们获得重生的地球上,如果在三个连续的存在,他们证明自己是值得的实惠,他们将最终达到幸福在艾尔斯祝福。 Though Plato's teaching is vitiated by the doctrine of pre-existence, metempsychosis, and other serious errors it represents the highest achievement of pagan philosophic speculation on the subject of the future life.虽然柏拉图的教学是囊括了前生,轮回,和其他它代表了异教对未来生活的主体哲学的最高成就投机严重的错误理论。The divine dignity, spirituality, and essential immortality of the soul being established, the issues of the future for every soul are made clearly dependent on its moral conduct in the present life in the body.神圣的尊严,灵性,和不朽的灵魂正在建立必要的,对于每一个灵魂的未来的问题作出明确依赖于它在身体中的目前生活中的道德行为。 There is a divine judgment after death, a heaven, a hell, and an intermediate state for penance and purification; and rewards and punishments are graduated according to the merits and demerits of each.有一种神圣的判决后死亡,天堂,地狱,和一个忏悔和中间状态的净化和奖惩均毕业于根据各的优点和缺点。The incurably wicked are condemned to everlasting punishment in Tartarus; the less wicked or indifferent go also to Tartarus or to the Acherusian Lake, but only for a time; those eminent for goodness go to a happy home, the highest reward of all being for those who have purified themselves by philosophy.不可救药的​​邪恶的人注定要在地狱永刑,或漠不关心的少恶人还要到地狱或向Acherusian湖,但只有一个时间,那些善良杰出到一个幸福的家庭,所有这些存在的最高奖赏谁拥有自己的哲学纯化。

From the foregoing sketch we are able to judge both of the merits and defects of ethnic systems of eschatology.从前面的草图,我们可以判断的优点和缺点的同时末世种族制度。Their merits are perhaps enhanced when they are presented, as above, in isolation from the other features of the religions to which they belonged.也许他们的优点是提高它们出现时,如上面的隔离,从宗教到他们所属的其他功能。Yet their defects are obvious enough; and even those of them that were best and most promising turned out, historically, to be failures.然而他们的缺陷是显而易见的,即使是那些对他们是最好的和最有前途的结果,从历史上看,要失败。The precious elements of eschatological truth contained in the Egyptian religion were associated with error and superstition, and were unable to save the religion from sinking to the state of utter degeneration in which it is found at the approach of the Christian Era.末世论真理的埃及宗教中的宝贵元素包含与错误和迷信,并不能挽救下沉到完全退化状态,它是在基督教时代的来临,找到了宗教。 Similarly, the still richer and more profound eschatologies of the Persian religion, vitiated by dualism and other corrupting influences, failed to realize the promise it contained, and has survived only as a ruin in modern Parseeism.同样,还有更丰富,更深刻的eschatologies的波斯宗教,由二元论和其他败坏风气的影响而变得无效,未能实现承诺,它载,并已存活仅作为现代Parseeism一片废墟。 Plato's speculative teaching failed to influence in any notable degree the popular religion of the Greco-Roman world; it failed to convert even the philosophical few; and in the hands of those who did profess to adopt it, Platonism, uncorrected by Christianity ran to seed in Pantheism and other forms of error.柏拉图的投机教学没有影响任何明显的程度上的希腊罗马世界流行的宗教,它无法转换,甚至哲学的少;并在这些谁没有自称通过它的手,柏拉图主义,基督教裸跑种子在泛神论和其他形式的错误。


Without going into details either by way of exposition or of criticism, it will be sufficient to point out how Old Testament eschatology compares with ethnic systems, and how notwithstanding its deficiencies in point of clearness and completeness, it was not an unworthy preparation for the fullness of Christian Revelation.如果没有深入细节由博览会或批评的方式不满意,这将足以指出如何旧约末世相比之下,种族制度,以及如何不受各点清晰和完整的缺陷,它不是一对丰满不配编制基督教的启示。

(1) Old Testament eschatology, even in its earliest and most imperfect form, shares in the distinctive character which belongs to Old Testament religion generally. (1)旧约末世,即使在其最早和最完美的形式,鲜明的性格属于旧约宗教一般的股票。In the first place, as a negative distinction, we note the entire absence of certain erroneous ideas and tendencies that have a large place in ethnic religions.首先,作为一个消极的区分,我们注意到某些错误思想和倾向,有一个大的地方,整个民族宗教缺席。There is no pantheism or dualism no doctrine of pre-existence (Wisdom 8:17-20 does not necessarily imply this doctrine, as has sometimes been contended) or of metempsychosis; nor is there any trace, as might have been expected, of Egyptian ideas or practices.没有泛神论或二元论没有预先存在主义(智慧8:17-20,并不一定意味着这种学说,因为有时被争辩)或轮回,也没有任何痕迹,因为可能已经预期埃及,想法或做法。 In the next place, on the positive side, the Old Testament stands apart from ethnic religions in its doctrine of God and of man in relation to God.在未来的地方,在积极方面,除了上帝的教义在其宗教和种族有关的神人旧约立场。Its doctrine of God is pure and uncompromising monotheism; the universe is ruled by the wisdom, Justice, and omnipotence of the one, true God.它的上帝的教义是纯粹的,不妥协的一神论;宇宙的智慧,正义,和全能的一个,真正的上帝统治。And man is created by God in His own image and likeness, and destined to relations of friendship and fellowship with Him.而人是上帝创造的,在他自己的形象和相似性,并注定要与他的友谊和友谊关系。Here we have revealed in clear and definite terms the basal doctrines which are at the root of eschatological truth, and which, once they had taken hold of the life of a people, were bound, even without new additions to the revelation, to safeguard the purity of an inadequate eschatology and to lead in time to richer and higher developments.在这里,我们有明确的基础理论方面揭示了其正处于末世论真理的根源,其中,一旦他们已经拍了一个民族的生活里,被束缚的启示,即使没有新的补充,以保障末世的不足和纯度带领时间更丰富和更高的发展。 Such additions and developments occur in Old Testament teaching; but before noticing them it is well to call attention to the two chief defects, or limitations, which attach to the earlier eschatology and continue, by their persistence in popular belief, to hinder more or less the correct understanding and acceptance by the Jewish people as a whole of the highest eschatological utterances of their own inspired teachers.发生这样的补充和发展,在旧约教学,但在此之前注意到他们来说,这是很好的提醒人们注意两个主要缺陷,或局限,重视早期的末世,并继续其在民间信仰的持久性,阻碍或多或少正确理解和接受作为自己的最高末世言论的启发教师全体犹太人民。

(2) The first of these defects is the silence of the earlier and of some of the later books on the subject of moral retribution after death, or at least the extreme vagueness of such passages in these books as might be understood to refer to this subject. (2)这些缺陷首先是较早和道德上的报应主题的一些后来的书籍后,死一般的沉寂,或者至少是这样的通道,作为可能被理解为是指这个极端含糊这些书主题。 Death is not extinction; but Sheol, the underworld of the dead, in early Hebrew thought is not very different from the Babylonian Aralu or the Homeric Hades, except that Jahve is God even there.死亡不是灭绝,但阴间,死者在阴间早期希伯来思想并不十分从巴比伦Aralu或荷马地狱,除了Jahve是上帝,甚至有不同。 It is a dreary abode in which all that is prized in life, including friendly intercourse with God, comes to an end without any definite promise of renewal.这是一个沉闷的居留权,是珍贵的,所有在生活中,包括与神的友好交往,来到一个没有任何明确的承诺续期结束。Dishonour incurred in life or in death, clings to a man in Sheol, like the honour he may have won by a virtuous life on earth; but otherwise conditions in Sheol are not represented as retributive, except in the vaguest way.拒付招致生命或死亡,攀附着一个人在阴间,他可能像一个地球上的生命赢得了荣誉良性,但在阴间条件,否则没有派代表作为报复,除了在模糊的方式。 Not that a more definite retribution or the hope of renewal to a life of blessedness is formally denied and excluded; it simply fails to find utterance in earlier Old Testament records.这并不是说一个较明确的惩罚或重建的希望的幸福生活是正式否认和排除的,它只是没有找到记录旧约早期话语。Religion is pre-eminently an affair of this life, and retribution works out here on earth.宗教是预显然是这种生活的事,和报复的作品出来在地上。This idea which to us seems so strange, must, to be fairly appreciated, be taken in conjunction with the national as opposed to the individual viewpoint [see under (3) of this section]; and allowance must also be made for its pedagogic value for a people like the early Hebrews.这个构想,我们似乎很奇怪,必须是相当赞赏,一并采取的反对个人观点[见第(3)本节]在国家和津贴也必须为它的教学价值进行对于像早期的希伯来人的人民。 Christ himself explains why Moses permitted divorce ("by reason of the hardness of your heart", Matthew 19:8); revelation and legislation had to be tempered to the capacity of a singularly practical and unimaginative people, who were more effectively confirmed in the worship and service of God by a vivid sense of His retributive providence here on earth than they would have been but a higher and fuller doctrine of future immortality with its postponement of moral rewards.基督本人解释了为什么摩西准许离婚(“由你的心硬的原因”,马修19时08分);启示和立法都得到锻炼到一个奇实际和缺乏想像力的人,谁得到了更为有效的确认身份神的崇拜和服务由他报复性普罗维登斯比在地球上,他们将被而是一个更高,更全面的未来不朽与道德回报推迟学说生动的感觉。 Nor must we exaggerate the insufficiency of this early point of view.我们也不能夸大这个观点早一点不足。It gave a deep religious value and significance to every event of the present life, and raised morality above the narrow, utilitarian standpoint.它给了一个深厚的宗教价值和意义的每一个现在的生活事件,并提出以上狭窄的,功利的角度来看道德。Not worldly prosperity as such was the ideal of the pious Israelite, but prosperity bestowed by God as the gracious reward of fidelity in keeping His Commandments.没有世俗的繁荣,就是这样的虔诚以色列人理想,但上帝赐予的繁荣的保真度守他的诫命亲切的奖励。Yet, when all has been said, the inadequacy of this belief for the satisfaction of individual aspirations must be admitted; and this inadequacy was bound to prove itself sooner or later in experience.然而,当一切已经说了,这对于个人抱负的满意度不足,必须承认信仰的人,这是必然的不足,以证明自己的经验迟早。 Even the substitution of the national for the individual standpoint could not indefinitely hinder this result.即使是个人立场的国家替代不能无限期地阻碍了这一结果。

(3) The tendency to sink the individual in the nation and to treat the latter as the religious unit was one of the most marked characteristics of Hebrew faith. (3)下沉的倾向在全国的个人和单位视为后者的宗教是信仰的希伯来最显着的特征之一。And this helped very much to support and prolong the other limitation just noticed, according to which retribution was looked for in this life.这非常有助于支持和延长其他限制刚刚注意到,根据该报应被看为在此生活。 Deferred and disappointed personal hopes could be solaced by the thought of their present or future realization in the nation.递延和失望,个人希望能由他们俩现在或将来在全国实现思想。It was only when the national calamities, culminating in the exile, had shattered for a time the people's hope of a glorious theocratic kingdom that the eschatology of the individual became prominent; and with the restoration there was a tendency to revert to the national point of view.只有当国家灾难,在流亡的高潮,有一段时间,打破了人们的光荣神权王国希望末世的个人成为突出,并与修复有一种倾向,归国家所有点查看。 It is true of the 0.T.这是真正的 a whole that the eschatology of the people overshadows that of the individual, though it is true at the same time that, in and through the former, the latter advances to a clear and definite assurance of a personal resurrection from the dead, at least for the children of Israel who are to share, if found worthy, in the glories of the Messianic Age.作为一个整体在人民黯然失色末世所有个人,虽然它是真,在同一时间,并通过前者,后者前进到了一个明确的个人复活从死保证,至少对于以色列人是谁的份额,如发现值得在弥赛亚时代的辉煌。

It is beyond the scope of this article to attempt to trace the growth or describe the several phases of this national eschatology, which centres in the hope of the establishment of a theocratic and Messianic kingdom on earth (see MESSIAS).这是试图追查增长或描述这次全国末世论,这在地球上的一个神权和救世主王国(见弥赛亚)希望中心的​​成立几个阶段超出了本文的范围。 However spiritually this idea may be found expressed in Old Testament prophecies, as we read them now in the light of their progressive fulfillment in the New Testament Dispensation, the Jewish people as a whole clung to a material and political interpretation of the kingdom, coupling their own domination as a people with the triumph of God and the worldwide establishment of His rule.但是精神上的这一想法可能会发现表示旧约预言,当我们读了他们在新约省却他们逐步实现光现在,作为一个整体紧紧抓住重大和王国,耦合政治解释犹太人民的作为自己的统治与上帝的胜利和世界各地建立他的统治的人民。 There is much, indeed, to account for this in the obscurity of the prophecies themselves.有很多,事实上,以该帐户中的预言自己默默无闻。The Messias as a distinct person is not always mentioned in connexion with the inauguration of the kingdom, which leaves room for the expectation of a theophany of Jahve in the character of judge and ruler.作为一个独特的人该messias并不总是提到的灭失的王国,它保留了一个Jahve在法官和性格的显现统治者期望房间的就职典礼。 But even when the person and place of the Messias are distinctly foreshadowed, the fusion together in prophecy of what we have learned to distinguish as His first and His second coming tends to give to the whole picture of the Messianic kingdom an eschatological character that belongs in reality only to its final stage.但是,即使在人与地方的messias有明显预示,在一起的是我们已经学会分辨出他第一次也是他第二次来往往给的弥赛亚王国全貌一eschatological性格属于融合的预言实际上只进行到最后阶段。 It is thus the resurrection of the dead in Isaias, xxvi, 19, and Daniel, xii, 2, is introduced; and many of the descriptions foretelling "the day of the Lord", the judgment on Jews and Gentiles, the renovation of the earth and other phenomena that usher in that day while applicable in a limited sense to contemporary events and to the inauguration of the Christian Era, are much more appropriately understood of the end of the world.因此,它是在伊萨亚斯,26,19,和丹尼尔,十二,二死人复活,是介绍;和预言,关于犹太人和外邦人的判断,对装修的“主的日子”的描述许多地球,在这一天,同时在有限的意义和对当代事件的基督教时代就职适用,迎来更为恰当的理解世界的尽头等现象。 It is not, therefore, surprising that the religious hopes of the Jewish nation should have be come so predominantly eschatological, and that the popular imagination, foreshortening the perspective of Divine Revelation, should have learned to look for the establishment on earth of the glorious Kingdom of God, which Christians are assured will be realized only in heaven at the close of the present dispensation.这不是,因此,令人惊讶的是犹太民族的宗教希望应该是这样一来主要是末世论,而大众的想象,透视,神圣启示的角度来看,应该​​已经学会了为建立看地球的光荣王国上帝,这是保证基督徒在天上会实现只在本特许关闭。

(4) Passing from these general observations which seem necessary for the true understanding of Old Testament eschatology, a brief reference will be made to the passages which exhibit the growth of a higher and fuller doctrine of immortality. (4)传递这些这似乎为旧约末世,简要地提到将作出的段落其中展出了一个更高,更全面的不朽学说增长的真正理解必要的一般看法。The recognition of individual as opposed to mere corporate responsibility and retribution may be reckoned, at least remotely, as a gain to eschatology, even when retribution is confined chiefly to this life; and this principle is repeatedly recognized in the earliest books.作者:相对于单纯的企业责任和惩罚个人识别可能不容忽视,至少远程,以此作为对末世的增益,甚至当报应是主要局限于此生活,并多次在这个原则是公认的最早的书籍。 (See Genesis 18:25; Exodus 32:33; Numbers 16:22; Deuteronomy 7:10; 24:16; 2 Kings 24:17; 2 Kings 14:6; Isaiah 3:10 sq.; 33:15 sqq.; Jeremiah 12:1 sq.; 17:5-10; 32:18 sq.; Ezekiel 14:12-20; 18:4, 18 sqq.; Psalms, passim; Proverbs 2:21 sq.; 10:2; 11:19, 31; etc.) It is recognized also in the very terms of the problem dealt with in the Book of Job.(参创18点25分,出埃及记32:33;号16点22分,申命记7:10; 24:16 2国王24:17 2国王14时06分;平方米以赛亚书3:10; 33:15 sqq。 ;耶利米12:1平方米; 17:5-10,32:18平方米;以西结14:12-20; 18时04分,18 sqq。诗篇,各处;箴言14:21平方米; 10​​:2; 11:19,31;等),这是公认的处理也是这本书的工作​​与问题非常条款。

But, coming to higher things, we find in the Psalms and in Job the clear expression of a hope or assurance for the just of a life of blessedness after death.但是,更高的东西来,我们发现在诗篇和就业的一个明确表达希望或者保证的只是一个死后的幸福生活。Here is voiced, under Divine inspiration, the innate craving of the righteous soul for everlasting fellowship with God, the protest of a strong and vivid faith against the popular conception of Sheol.这里是表示,根据神的灵感,为与上帝,一个反对阴间流行的概念强烈抗议​​和生动的信念永恒的友谊正义的​​灵魂天生的渴望。 Omitting doubtful passages, it is enough to refer to Psalms xv (AV xvi), xvi (AV xvii), xlviii (AV xlix ), and lxxii (AV lxxiii).省略可疑的通道,它足以指诗篇十五(影音十六),十六(影音十七),48(视听XLIX)号,和lxxii(影音lxxiii)。 Of these it is not impossible to explain the first two as prayers for deliverance from some imminent danger of death, but the assurance they express is too absolute and universal to admit this interpretation as the most natural.这些也并非不可能解释为一些迫在眉睫的死亡危险救祈祷前两个,但保证他们表达的是太绝对和普遍承认的最自然的这一解释。 And this assurance becomes still more definite in the other two psalms, by reason of the contrast which death is asserted to introduce between the fates of the just and the impious.这变得更加保证在其他两个诗篇明确,由其中死亡是断言的正义之间引入和不虔诚的命运反差的原因。The same faith emerges in the Book of Job, first as a hope somewhat questionably expressed, and then as an assured conviction.相同的信念出现在这本书的工作​​,首先是有些questionably表达了希望,并作为定罪,然后放心。 Despairing of vindication in this life and rebelling against the thought that righteousness should remain finally unrewarded, the sufferer seeks consolation in the hope of a renewal of God's friendship beyond the grave: "O that thou wouldest hide me in Sheol, that thou wouldest keep me secret, until thy wrath be past, that thou wouldest appoint me a set time, and remember me. If a man die, shall he live again? All the days of my warfare would I wait, till my release should come" (xiv, 13 sq.).绝望的平反,在此生活和反对正气应保持终于获得报酬的思想反叛,患者要求对一个神的超越死亡的友谊重建希望安慰:“啊,你若藏在阴间我,你若让我秘密,要到你的忿怒过去,愿你为我定了时间,还记得我。人若死了岂能再活呢?我本战天,我会等待,直到我的版本应该是“(14, 13平方米)。In xvii, 18 - xvii, 9, the expression of this hope is more absolute; and in xix, 23-27, it takes the form of a definite certainty that he will see God, his Redeemer: "But I know that my Redeemer liveth and that he shall stand up at the last upon the earth [dust]; and after this my skin has been destroyed, yet from [al. without] my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself and my eyes shall behold, and not another" (25 - 27).在十七,18 - 十七,9日,这个希望是更绝对的表达,并在十九,23-27,它采取的形式明确肯定,他会看到神,他的救赎:“但我知道我的救赎活着,他会站起来在地上[除尘]最后,[。没有人]在这之后我的皮肤已经被摧毁,但我的肉体,从要我见上帝,就是我看到我自己和我的眼睛必看哪,而不是另一个“(25 - 27)。In his risen body he will see God, according to the Vulgate (LXX) reading: "and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth. And I shall be clothed again with my skill, and in my flesh I shall see my God" (25 - 26).在他复活的身体,他所见到上帝,根据该vulgate(LXX的)如下:。“而在最后一天我会在世上兴起,我将再次披上我的技能,在我的血肉,我会看到我的神“(25 - 26)。

The doctrine of the resurrection finds definite expression in the Prophets; and in Isaiah 26:19: "thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall rise again. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust" etc.; and Daniel 12:2: "and many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake: some unto everlasting life, and others to everlasting shame and contempt" etc., it is clearly a personal resurrection that is taught -- in Isaias a resurrection of righteous Israelites; in Daniel, of both the righteous and the wicked.复活的学说认为在先知明确表达,而且在以赛亚书26:19:“你死不得活,我的尸体将再度崛起的觉醒与唱歌,你们这些住在尘土中。”等;和丹尼尔12: 2:“与那些在地球应清醒灰尘睡眠很多:一些祂永恒的生命,并永远的耻辱和蔑视他人”等,这显然是一个个人的复活,这是​​教 - 在复活的伊萨亚斯正义的以色列人,在丹尼尔,双方的正义​​与邪恶。The judgment, which in Daniel is connected with the resurrection, is also personal; and the same is true of the judgment of the living (Jews and Gentiles) which in various forms the prophecies connect with the "day of the Lord".该判决,这在丹尼尔与复活相连,也是个人,以及同样是活的(犹太人和外邦人)在各种不同形式的预言与“主日”就可以判断真实的。 Some of the Psalms (eg 48) seem to imply a judgment of individuals, good and bad, after death; and the certainty of a future judgment of "every work, whether it be good or evil", is the final solution of the moral enigmas of earthly life offered by Ecclesiastes (xii, 13-14; cf. iii, 17).诗篇(如48)有些人似乎暗示着一种个人的判断,好和坏,死后;以及对未来的判断肯定“每一项工作,无论是善或恶”,是道德的最终解决方案谜的人间生活提供了传道书(十二,13-14,比照三,17。)。 Coming to the later (deuterocanonical) books of the 0.说到后来(次经)的0书籍。T. we have clear evidence in II Mach.吨我们在二马赫的明显证据。of Jewish faith not only in the resurrection of the body (vii, 9-14), but in the efficacy of prayers and sacrifices for the dead who have died in godliness (xi, 43 sqq.).犹太人的信仰不只是在身体(七,9-14)复活,但在祈祷和牺牲了谁在虔诚的信徒而死的功效(十一,43 sqq。)。 And in the second and first centuries BC, in the Jewish apocryphal literature, new eschatological developments appear, chiefly in the direction of a more definite doctrine of retribution after death.而在第二和第一公元前数百年,在犹太猜测文学,新eschatological的发展出现,主要是在一个较明确的死后报应学说的方向。 The word Sheol is still most commonly understood of the general abode of the departed awaiting the resurrection, this abode having different divisions for the reward of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked; in reference to the latter, Sheol is sometimes simply equivalent to hell. The阴间仍是最常用的词的一般理解居留权离开等待复活,这有居留权的义奖励和惩罚恶人不同部门,在参考了后者,有时简直相当于阴间地狱。Gehenna is the name usually applied to the final place of punishment of the wicked after the last judgment, or even immediately after death; while paradise is often used to designate the intermediate abode of the souls of the just and heaven their home of final blessedness.地狱通常适用于惩罚恶人决赛席位后,最后判决,甚至死亡的名字后,立即,而天堂是经常被用来指定对他们的公正和最终的幸福天堂的灵魂回家中间居留权。 Christ's use of these terms shows that the Jews of His day were sufficiently familiar with their New Testament meanings.基督对这些术语的使用表明,犹太人,他每天与他们充分熟悉新约的意义。


In this article there is no critical discussion of New Testament eschatology nor any attempt to trace the historical developments of Catholic teaching from Scriptural and traditional data; only a brief conspectus is given of the developed Catholic system.在这篇文章中没有新约圣经末世也不追查任何企图从圣经和传统的数据天主教教学的历史发展关键的讨论,只有一个简短的概论是发达国家给予天主教系统。 For critical and historical details and for the refutation of opposing views the reader is referred to the special articles dealing with the various doctrines.对于重要的和历史的细节,为读者反对被称为具有特殊物品处理各种学说观点的驳斥。The eschatological summary which speaks of the "four last things" (death, judgment, heaven, and hell) is popular rather than scientific.该eschatological摘要,其中的“四末”(死亡,判断,天堂,地狱)讲是受欢迎的,而不是科学。 For systematic treatment it is best to distinguish between (A) individual and (B) universal and cosmic eschatology, including under (A):对于系统的治疗是最好的区分(一)个人和(乙)通用和宇宙末世论,第(一),包括:

death; the particular judgment; heaven, or eternal happiness; purgatory, or the intermediate state; hell, or eternal punishment;死亡的具体判断,天上,或永恒的快乐;炼狱,或中间状态;地狱,或永恒的处罚;

and under (B):和(b)项:

the approach of the end of the world; the resurrection of the body; the general judgment; and the final consummation of all things.对世界的尽头办法;身体复活;一般的判断,以及最后圆满的一切事物。

The superiority of Catholic eschatology consists in the fact that, without professing to answer every question that idle curiosity may suggest, it gives a clear, consistent, satisfying statement of all that need at present be known, or can profitably be understood, regarding the eternal issues of life and death for each of us personally, and the final consummation of the cosmos of which we are a part.天主教末世的优势在于一个事实,即没有自称回答每个问题,闲置的好奇心可能表明,它给一个明确的,一贯的,所有需要,目前已知,或能在赢利的理解,对于满足声明的永恒生死问题对于我们每个个人,以及宇宙的一部分,我们是最后的圆满。

(A) Individual Eschatology(一)个人末世论


Death, which consists in the separation of soul and body, is presented under many aspects in Catholic teaching, but chiefly死亡,这在灵魂和身体分离组成,在许多方面,提出了在天主教教学,但主要是

as being actually and historically, in the present order of supernatural Providence, the consequence and penalty of Adam's sin (Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12, etc.);而实际上,历史的,在超自然的普罗维登斯,后果和亚当的罪的刑罚现存秩序(创2:17;罗马书5:12等);

as being the end of man's period of probation, the event which decides his eternal destiny (2 Corinthians 5:10; John 9:4; Luke 12:40; 16:19 sqq.; etc.), though it does not exclude an intermediate state of purification for the imperfect who die in God's grace; and,因为这是人的试用期,该事件是他永恒的命运决定结束(哥林多后书5:10;约翰9:4,路加福音12:40,16:19 sqq。等),虽然它不排斥对中间状态的不完善谁在上帝的恩典死净化;和

as being universal, though as to its absolute universality (for those living at the end of the world) there is some room for doubt because of I Thess., iv, 14 sqq.; I Cor., xv, 51; II Tim., iv, 1.作为普遍性,但就其绝对的普遍性(对那些在年底的世界里)有一些怀疑,因为我帖前室,四,14 sqq。。。我肺心病,十五,51;二添。 ,四,1。

Particular Judgment特殊判断

That a particular judgment of each soul takes place at death is implied in many passages of the New Testament (Luke 16:22 sqq.; 23:43; Acts 1:25; etc.), and in the teaching of the Council of Florence (Denzinger, Enchiridion, no. 588) regarding the speedy entry of each soul into heaven, purgatory, or hell.每一个灵魂,一个特定的判决发生在死亡地点是在新约的许多段落暗示(路加福音16时22 sqq。23:43,徒1:25,等等),并在教学安理会的佛罗伦萨(登青格,便览,没有。588)关于在每一个灵魂进入天堂,炼狱,地狱迅速生效。


Heaven is the abode of the blessed, where (after the resurrection with glorified bodies) they enjoy, in the company of Christ and the angels, the immediate vision of God face to face, being supernaturally elevated by the light of glory so as to be capable of such a vision.天堂是居留权的祝福,其中(后与荣耀机构复活),他们享有在基督和天使公司,神的眼光来面对眼前的脸,被超自然的荣耀之光这样才能提升能够这样的远景。 There are infinite degrees of glory corresponding to degrees of merit, but all are unspeakably happy in the eternal possession of God.有相应的荣耀度无限度的优点,但都无法形容在上帝的永恒的拥有幸福。Only the perfectly pure and holy can enter heaven; but for those who have attained that state, either at death or after a course of purification in purgatory, entry into heaven is not deferred, as has sometimes been erroneously held, till after the General Judgment.只有完美的纯洁和神圣的可以进入天堂,但对于那些谁已经达到该国无论是在死亡或在炼狱后,进入净化进入天堂的过程中,是不是推迟,因为有时被错误地举行,出炉后的总体判断。


Purgatory is the intermediate state of unknown duration in which those who die imperfect, but not in unrepented mortal sin, undergo a course of penal purification, to qualify for admission into heaven.炼狱是中间状态的持续时间不明,其中死亡的不完善,但谁不悔改的弥天大罪,刑法经历一个净化的过程中,有资格进入天堂入场。 They share in the communion of saints and are benefited by our prayers and good works (see DEAD, PRAYERS FOR THE).他们在分享和共融的圣人是得益于我们的祈祷和优秀作品(见死者,祈祷​​)。The denial of purgatory by the Reformers introduced a dismal blank in their eschatology and, after the manner of extremes, has led to extreme reactions.由炼狱的改革者否认推出了他们的末世凄凉的空白,在经过极端的方式,导致了极端的反应。


Hell, in Catholic teaching, designates the place or state of men (and angels) who, because of sin, are excluded forever from the Beatific Vision.地狱,在天主教教学,指定的男子(天使)谁,因为罪,被排除在幸福的远景永远地方或状态。In this wide sense it applies to the state of those who die with only original sin on their souls (Council of Florence, Denzinger, no. 588), although this is not a state of misery or of subjective punishment of any kind, but merely implies the objective privation of supernatural bliss, which is compatible with a condition of perfect natural happiness.在这个广泛的意义上,它适用于那些谁,只有对自己的灵魂原罪死亡状态(理事会的佛罗伦萨,登青格,没有。588),虽然这不是一个痛苦或惩罚任何形式的主观状态,而仅仅是意味着穷困的超自然幸福的目标,这是一个幸福完美的自然条件兼容。 But in the narrower sense in which the name is ordinarily used, hell is the state of those who are punished eternally for unrepented personal mortal sin.但在狭窄的感觉,即通常使用的名称是,地狱是那些谁是惩罚悔改个人弥天大罪永恒的状态。Beyond affirming the existence of such a state, with varying degrees of punishment corresponding to degrees of guilt and its eternal or unending duration, Catholic doctrine does not go.除了肯定与对应不同的处罚其永恒的负罪感和永无止境的持续时间或度度这样一个国家的存在,天主教教义不走了。It is a terrible and mysterious truth, but it is clearly and emphatically taught by Christ and the Apostles.这是一个可怕而神秘的事实,但它显然并强调基督和使徒教会。Rationalists may deny the eternity of hell in spite of the authority of Christ, and professing Christians, who are unwilling to admit it, may try to explain away Christ's words; but it remains as the Divinely revealed solution of the problem of moral evil.理性可以否认基督的权威,尽管永恒的地狱,并自称基督徒,谁也不愿意承认这一点,可能会尝试解释了基督的话,但它作为道德上的邪恶问题的解决依然神透露。 (See HELL.) Rival solutions have been sought for in some form of the theory of restitution or, less commonly, in the theory of annihilation or conditional immortality. (见地狱。)的主要竞争对手寻求解决方案已经在一些理论或恢复原状,形式较少,在消灭或有条件的不朽的理论。The restitutionist view, which in its Origenist form was condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 543, and later at the Fifth General Council (see APOCATASTASIS), is the cardinal dogma of modern Universalism, and is favoured more or less by liberal Protestants and Anglicans.该restitutionist认为,这在其Origenist形式在谴责安理会的君士坦丁堡在543,后来又在第五次总理事会(见APOCATASTASIS),是现代普遍主义教条枢机主教,是深受自由派新教徒和圣公会或多或少。 Based on an exaggerated optimism for which present experience offers no guarantee, this view assumes the all-conquering efficacy of the ministry of grace in a life of probation after death, and looks forward to the ultimate conversion of all sinners and the voluntary disappearance of moral evil from the universe.在一个夸张的乐观,而现在的经验并没有保证的基础上,这种观点假定在缓刑死后生活的恩典部无坚不摧的功效,并期待着在所有的罪人,最终转化率和道德自愿失踪从宇宙的邪恶。 Annihilationists, on the other hand, failing to find either in reason or Revelation any grounds for such optimism, and considering immortality itself to be a grace and not the natural attribute of the soul, believe that the finally impenitent will be annihilated or cease to exist -- that God will thus ultimately be compelled to confess the failure of His purpose and power. Annihilationists,另一方面,无论是在找不到任何理由或启示这种乐观的理由,并考虑到自己是一个不朽的宽限期,而不是​​灵魂的自然属性,相信最终会被消灭或不知悔改不再存在 - 上帝会因此最终被迫承认了他的目的和电源故障。

(B) Universal and Cosmic Eschatology(乙)通用和宇宙末世论

The Approach of the End of the World该方法的天涯

Notwithstanding Christ's express refusal to specify the time of the end (Mark 13:32; Acts 1:6 sq.), it was a common belief among early Christians that the end of the world was near.尽管基督的表达拒绝指定的结束时间(马克13:32,徒1:6平),它是早期基督教徒之间的共同信念,即世界的末日近了。 This seemed to have some support in certain sayings of Christ in reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, which are set down in the Gospels side by side with prophecies relating to the end (Matthew 24; Luke 21), and in certain passages of the Apostolic writings, which might, not unnaturally, have been so understood (but see 2 Thessalonians 2:2 sqq., where St. Paul corrects this impression).这似乎有一些在某些熟语基督参考支持摧毁耶路撒冷,这是并排订在福音与有关方结束预言(马太24;路加福音21)的使徒,在某些段落著作,这可能,而不是人为地,有这么理解(但是见帖后2:2 sqq。,其中圣保禄纠正这种印象)。On the other hand, Christ had clearly stated that the Gospel was to be preached to all nations before the end (Matthew 24:14), and St. Paul looked forward to the ultimate conversion of the Jewish people as a remote event to be preceded by the conversion of the Gentiles (Romans 11:25 sqq.).另一方面,基督曾明确表示,福音要传给前结束(马太24:14)向所有国家,并期待着圣保罗作为远程事件的犹太人民的最终转化为前面由外邦人转换(罗马书11:25 sqq。)。Various others are spoken of as preceding or ushering in the end, as a great apostasy (2 Thessalonians 2:3 sqq.), or falling away from faith or charity (Luke 18:8; 17:26; Matthew 24:12), the reign of Antichrist, and great social calamities and terrifying physical convulsions.各种其他的口语的,因为在年底之前或迎来,作为一个伟大的叛教,或下降了,从信仰或慈善组织(路加福音十八点08分,17点26分;马太24:12)(2撒罗尼迦2:3 sqq。)对反基督的统治,和社会的巨大灾难和可怕的身体抽搐。Yet the end will come unexpectedly and take the living by surprise.然而,最终会意外地,并采取出其不意的生活。

The Resurrection of the Body身体的复活

The visible coming (parousia) of Christ in power and glory will be the signal for the rising of the dead (see RESURRECTION).可见的未来(圆满)基督在权力和荣耀将是对死亡(见复活)上升的信号。 It is Catholic teaching that all the dead who are to be judged will rise, the wicked as well as the Just, and that they will rise with the bodies they had in this life.这是天主教教学,所有的死者是谁的判断会上涨,以及邪恶的正义,他们的尸体会上升,他们在此生活了。But nothing is defined as to what is required to constitute this identity of the risen and transformed with the present body.但没有什么是界定为需要什么来构成这个身份的复活和本机构转变。Though not formally defined, it is sufficiently certain that there is to be only one general resurrection, simultaneous for the good and the bad.虽然没有正式确定,这是充分肯定的是,还有就是只有一个一般的复活,对好的和坏的同步。(See MILLENNIUM.) Regarding the qualities of the risen bodies in the case of the just we have St. Paul's description in 1 Corinthians 15 (cf. Matthew 13:43; Philippians 3:21) as a basis for theological speculation; but in the case of the damned we can only affirm that their bodies will be incorruptible. (见千年。)就在刚才,我们圣保罗在哥林多前书描述案件15的复活机构的品质(参见马修13时43分;腓3:21)作为神学的猜测的基础,但在该死的情况下,我们只能肯定,他们的尸体将被动摇。

The General Judgment一般判断

Regarding the general judgment there is nothing of importance to be added here to the graphic description of the event by Christ Himself, who is to be Judge (Matthew 25, etc.).对于一般的判断有重要没什么可说这里的图形描述的事件是由基督自己,谁被法官(马太25等)。(See JUDGMENT, GENERAL.) (见判断,一般。)

The Consummation of All Things万物的完善

There is mention also of the physical universe sharing in the general consummation (2 Peter 3:13; Romans 8:19 sqq.; Revelation 21:1 sqq.).有提及在一般圆满物理宇宙共享也(2彼得3:13,罗马书8:19 sqq。。启示录21:1 sqq)。The present heaven and earth will be destroyed, and a new heaven and earth take their place.目前天堂与地球要毁灭,一个新的天地取代他们的位置。But what, precisely, this process will involve, or what purpose the renovated world will serve is not revealed.但是,确切地说,这个过程会涉及,或者是什么目的,世界将重新装修发球没有透露。It may possibly be part of the glorious Kingdom of Christ of which "there shall be no end".它可能是基督的荣耀王国的一部分,其中“不得有结束”。Christ's militant reign is to cease with the accomplishment of His office as Judge (1 Corinthians 15:24 sqq.), but as King of the elect whom He has saved He will reign with them in glory forever.基督的好战统治是停止与他作为法官的职位(哥林多前书15:24 sqq。)的成就,但作为当选国王而他救了他将在与他们的荣耀永远掌权。

Publication information Written by PJ Toner.出版信息撰稿是PJ墨粉。Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.转录由迈克尔廷克勒。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积诉公布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

The Day of the Lord.耶和华的节。

Gen. xlix.第四十九届将军。1; comp.1;比赛。Gen. R. xcviii., "the Messianic end" ; Isa.将军河时候正好,“救世主的结束”。伊萨。ii.二。1; also "the end," Dent. 1,也是“最后,”凹痕。xxxii.三十二。20; Ps.20;诗。lxxiii.lxxiii。17; Ben Sira vii. 17;本西拉七。36, xxviii.36,二十八。6; comp.6;比赛。"Didache," xvi. “十二使徒遗训,”十六。3): The doctrine of the "last things."3):该学说的“最后的事情。”Jewish eschatology deals primarily and principally with the final destiny of the Jewish nation and the world in general, and only secondarily with the future of the individual; the main concern of Hebrew legislator, prophet, and apocalyptic writer being Israel as the people of God and the victory of His truth and justice on earth.主要是和主要与犹太民族的最终命运和整个世界,只有与个人的未来其次犹太末世交易;的希伯来语立委,先知的主要关切,世界末日的作家被视为上帝的子民和以色列在他的真理和正义的胜利在地上。 The eschatological view, that is, the expectation of the greater things to come in the future, underlies the whole construction of the history of both Israel and mankind in the Bible.该eschatological认为,这是整个大东西来,在未来的期待,构成了这一历史和以色列双方在圣经全人类建设。 The patriarchal history teems with such prophecies (Gen. xii. 3, 16; xv. 14; xviii. 18; xxii. 18; xxvi. 4); the Mosaic legislation has more or less explicitly in view the relation of Israel to the nations and the final victory of the former (Ex. xix. 5; Lev. xxvi. 45; Num. xxiii. 10, xxiv. 17-24; Deut. iv. 6; vii. 6 et seq. ; xxviii. 1, 10; xxx. 3 et seq. ; xxxii. 43; xxxiii. 29).与历史上盛产重男轻女这样的预言(创十二3,16。十五14;。。十八18;二十二18;。二十六4。);花叶法例鉴于或多或少明确地以关系到国家与前(出十九最后的胜利 5。列弗二十六45;。。。数量二十三10,二十四17-24;。。申四6;。第七6起。。。二十八1 10; xxx 3起。。三十二43;。三十三29)。。But it was chiefly the Prophets who dwelt with great emphasis upon the Day of the Lord as the future Day of Judgment.但它主要是先知后,谁与主作为判断未来的日子里住日的高度重视。Originally spoken of as the day when Yhwh as the God of heaven visits the earth with all His terrible powers of devastation (comp. Gen. xix. 24; Ex. ix. 23, xi. 4, xii. 12; Josh. x. 11), the term was employed by the Prophets in an eschatological sense and invested with a double character: on the one hand, as the time of the manifestation of God's punitive powers of justice directed against all that provokes His wrath, and, on the other hand, as the time of the vindication and salvation of the righteous.本来口语的,因为有一天天上耶和华为神的访问与他的所有可怕的权力,破坏(可比创十九地球24。。。前九23,十一4,十二12;。。乔希十。 11),这个词是受雇于先知在eschatological常识和一个双重性格的投资:一方面,作为司法的上帝的惩罚权力对所有挑起他的愤怒,导演表现上的时间和,另一方面,作为平反和义得救的时间。 In the popular mind the Day of the Lord brought disaster only to the enemies of Israel; to His people it brought victory.在大众心目中的上帝只带来灾难日向以色列的敌人,他的人民带来胜利。But this is contradicted by the prophet Amos (iii. 2, v. 20).但是,这是矛盾的先知阿摩司(iii. 2,五20)。For Isaiah, likewise, the Day of the Lord brings terror and ruin to Judah and Israel (Isa. ii. 12, x. 3, xxii. 5; comp. Micah i. 3) as well as to other nations (Isa. xiv. 25, xxiv.-xxv.).因为以赛亚,同样地,主一天带来恐怖和毁灭犹大与以色列(以赛亚书二12,十,三,二十二5。。。比赛米卡一3),以及其他国家(以赛亚十四。25,xxiv. -二十五。)。In the same measure, however, as Israel suffers defeat at the hand of the great world-powers, the Day of the Lord in the prophetic conception becomes a day of wrath for the heathen world and of triumph for Israel.在同样的措施,但是,由于受到以色列在伟大的世界列强手中的失败,主日在先知的概念变成了发怒的日子,为异教徒世界和以色列的胜利。 In Zeph.在Zeph。i-iii.第一至第三。it is a universal day of doom for all idolaters, including the inhabitants of Judea, but it ends with the glory of the remnant of Israel, while the assembled heathen powers are annihilated (iii. 8-12).这是一个对所有拜偶像的,包括犹太居民的厄运普遍的一天,但它结束了对以色列所剩下的荣耀,而权力是消灭异教徒组装(iii. 8-12)。This feature of the final destruction, before the city of Jerusalem, of the heathen world-empires becomes prominent and typical in all later prophecies (Ezek. xxxviii., the defeat of Gog and Magog; Isa. xiii. 6-9, Babel's fall; Zech. xii. 2 et seq., xiv. 1 et seq.; Hag. i. 6; Joel iv. [iii.] 2 et seq.; Isa. lxvi. 15 et seq.), the Day of the Lord being said to come as "a fire which refines the silver" (Mal. iii. 2 et seq., 9; comp. Isa. xxxiii. 14 et seq.).此功能之前的最后毁灭了耶路撒冷城的异教徒世界帝国,变得突出,在随后所有的预言(结三十八典型,歌革和玛失败;。。。赛第十三6-9,巴贝尔的秋天;撒加利亚第十二2起,十四1起。。。。。黑格一6。乔尔四第2起。[三。]。伊萨lxvi 15页起),在主日。。。这么说来是“火提炼白银”(玛三2起,9岁;。。比赛赛三十三14起。。。。)。Especially strong is the contrast between the fate which awaits the heathen and the salvation promised Israel in Isa.尤其是强之间的命运,而等待着异教徒并承诺在以色列的救恩伊萨对比。xxxiv.-xxxv., whereas other prophecies accentuate rather the final conversion of the heathen nations to the belief in the Lord (Isa. ii. 1 et seq., xlix. lxvi. 6-21, Zech. viii. 21 et seq., xiv. 16 et seq.).xxxiv. -三十五。,而其他的预言,而加重对异教徒国家最终转化为在主(以赛亚书二信念。1起。,第四十九届。lxvi。6-21,撒加利亚。八。21起。 ,14。16起。)。

Resurrection of the Dead.死者复活。

In addition to this conception of the Day of the Lord, the Prophets developed the hope of an ideal Messianic future through the reign of a son of the house of David-the golden age of paradisiacal bliss, of which the traditions of all the ancient nations spoke (see Dillmann's commentary to Gen. ii-iii., p. 46).除了这个主日的概念,先知发展了一对大卫家,幸福的天堂般的黄金时代,son统治的一个理想的救世主未来的希望,其中的所有古老的民族传统发言(见Dillmann的评注创二,三。,第46页)。 It would come in the form of a world of perfect peace and harmony among all creatures, the angelic state of man before his sin (Isa. xi. 1-10, lxv. 17-25: "new heavens and a new earth").不过也不是在一个完美的和平与和谐的世界所有的生物,人类的天使般的状态之前,他的罪过形式(以赛亚书十一1-10,第六十五17-25:。。“新天新地”) 。It was only a step further to predict the visitation of all the kingdoms of the earth, to be followed by the swallowing up of death forever and a resurrection of the dead in Israel, so that all the people of the Lord might witness the glorious salvation (Isa. xxiv. 21-xxv. 8, xxvi. 19).这仅仅是一步来预测所有的地球王国探视,要通过吞咽后的死亡永远上涨和对以色列的死人复活,使全体人民主可能得救见证辉煌(以赛亚书24。21十五。八,26。19)。 The hope of resurrection had been expressed by Ezekiel only with reference to the Jewish nation as such (Ezek. xxxvii.).复活的希望已发表以西结书只提及在这样的犹太民族(结三十七。)。Under Persian influence, however, the doctrine of resurrection underwent a change, and was made part of the Day of Judgment; hence in Dan.在波斯的影响,然而,经历了一个复活的教义的变化,并取得了审判日的一部分,因此在丹。 xii.十二。2 the resurrection is extended to both the wicked and the righteous: the latter "shall awake to everlasting life," the former "to shame and everlasting horror" (AV "contempt").二是延伸到复活既邪恶和正义:后者“应清醒地永恒的生命,”这位前“羞耻和永恒的恐怖”(视听“蔑视”)。

The Formation of an Eschatological System.一个末世论体系的形成。

It is certainly incorrect to speak of an eschatological system of the Bible, in which there is no trace of an established belief in the future life.这当然是一个不正确的发言eschatological系统的圣经,其中有没有一丝对未来的生活中确立的信念。Both Ben Sira and Tobit still adhere to the ancient view of Sheol as the land of the shades (see Sheol).双方本西拉与Tobit仍然坚持阴间作为色调(见阴间)土地古老的看法。It was the future destiny of the nation which concerned the Prophets and the people; and the hope voiced by prophet, psalmist, and liturgical poet was simply that the Lord as the Only One will establish His kingdom over the whole earth (Ex. xv. 18; Micah ii. 13, iv. 7; Obad. 21; Zech. xiv. 9; Isa. xxiv. 23; Ps. xciii. 1, xcvi. 10, xcvii. 1, xcix. 1).这是民族的,其中涉及的先知和人民的前途命运和先知,诗人表达了希望,诗人只是礼仪,主作为唯一一家将建立对整个地球(出十五祂的国度。 18。米迦二13,四,七。Obad 21;。撒加利亚十四9;。。赛二十四23;。。诗xciii 1,xcvi 10 xcvii 1,xcix 1)。。。。。。This implied not only the reunion of the twelve tribes (Ezek. xxxvii. 16 et seq.; Zeph. iii. 20), but the conversion of the heathen surviving the divine day of wrath as well as the downfall of the heathen powers (Zeph. iii. 8-9; Zech. xiv. 9-19; Isa. lvi. 6, lxiii. 1-6; Ps. ii. 8-12).这意味着不仅是十二个支派团聚(结三十七16起。。。。Zeph三20),但尚存神圣的一天的愤怒以及权力堕落的异教徒异教徒转换(Zeph 。三8-9;。撒加利亚十四9-19。。赛LVI的6 lxiii 1-6;。。。诗二8-12)。。。It seems that, because of the tribulation which the house of Zerubbabel had to undergo-not, as Dalman ("Die Worte Jesu," p. 243) thinks, "because the Messiah was not an essential part of the national hope"-the expectation of a Messiah from the house of David was kept in the background, and the prophet Elijah, as the forerunner of the great Day of the Lord who would reassemble all the tribes of Israel, was placed in the foreground (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlviii. 10; I Mace. xiv. 41).看来,由于磨难,这所罗巴伯房子不得不接受,并非如达尔曼(“死耶稣又写道,”第243页)认为,“因为弥赛亚是不是一个国家的希望的重要组成部分──”期望一个救世主从大卫家被关在后台,和先知以利亚,作为在主大节谁将会重组所有以色列支派,前身是在前台(ecclus. [西拉奇]放置四十八10;。。我梅斯十四41)。。See Elijah.见利亚。

The "Kingdom of God."“上帝的王国”。

It is difficult to say how far the Sadducees or the ruling house of Zadok shared in the Messianic hope of the people (see Sadducees).这是很难说在多大程度上撒都该人或撒督统治家族中的人(见撒都该人)救世主的希望共享。It was the class of the Ḥasidim and their successors, the Essenes, who made a special study of the prophetical writings in order to learn the future destiny of Israel and mankind (Dan. ix. 2; Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, §§ 6, 12; idem, "Ant." xiii. 5, § 9, where the term εἱμαρμένη is to be taken eschatologically).这是的ḥasidim及其继承人,爱色尼,谁作出了特殊的预言著作研究,以了解以色列和全人类(Dan.九类2未来的命运。约瑟夫,“BJ的”二8。 § § 6,12;同上,“蚂蚁。”十三五,§ 9,其中长期εἱμαρμένη是将要采取eschatologically)。。While announcing the coming events in visions and apocalyptic writings concealed from the multitude (see Apocalyptic Literature), they based their calculations upon unfulfilled prophecies such as Jeremiah's seventy years (Jer. xxv. 11, xxix. 10), and accordingly tried to fix "the end of days" (Dan. ix. 25 et seg.; Enoch, lxxxix. 59).虽然公布了视野,从千头万绪(见世界末日文学)隐蔽世界末日的著作即将开展的活动,他们根据如耶利米的七十年后,他们的计算没有实现的预言(耶二十五。11,第29届。10),并据此试图修复“的天“结束(Dan.九赛格等25。。伊诺克,lxxxix 59。)。The Talmud reproachingly calls these men, who frequently brought disappointment and wo upon the people, "mahshebe ḳeẓim" (calculators of the [Messianic] ends: Sanh. 97b; comp. 92b, 99a; Ket. 111a; Shab. 138b; 'Eduy. ii. 9-10; for the expression , see Dan. xii. 4, 13; Assumptio Mosis, i. 18, xii. 4; II Esd. iii. 14; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxvii. 15; Matt. xiii. 39, xxiv. 3).犹太法典reproachingly呼吁这些人,谁经常带来失望和对人民的窝,“mahshebeḳeẓim”(第[弥赛亚]计算器结束:。。。。葬身97b;比赛92b,99A条;氯胺酮111A章;沙巴138B章;'Eduy 。二9-10。为表达,看丹第十二4,13。。Assumptio Mosis岛18,十二4;。二,公共服务电子化三14;。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,二十七15;。马特十三。 。39,二十四。3)。It can not be denied, however, that these Ḥasidean or apocalyptic writers took a sublime view of the entire history of the world in dividing it into great worldepochs counted either after empires or millenniums, and in seeing its consummation in the establishment of "the kingdom of the Lord," called also, in order to avoid the use of the Sacred Name, ("the kingdom of heaven").不能否认,但是,这些Ḥasidean或世界末日作家参加了分成计算后帝国或millenniums要么大worldepochs它一个世界的全部历史崇高的看法,希望看到在“王国的建立及其完善主“,也称为,以避免使用神圣的名字,(”天上的王国“)。 This prophetic goal of human history at once lent to all struggle and suffering of the people of God a higher meaning and purpose, and from this point of view new comfort was offered to the saints in their trials.这在人类历史上曾经预言的目标借给一切斗争和神的人更高的意义和目的的痛苦,从这一观点提供了新的舒适一点是,在他们的审判圣徒。 This is the idea underlying the contrast between the "kingdoms of the powers of the earth" and "the kingdom of God" which is to be delivered over at the end of time to the saints, the people of Israel (Dan. ii. 44; vii. 14, 27).这是基本的想法之间的“大地的权力王国”的对比和“神的国”,这是交付在时间结束的圣人,以色列人民(Dan.二超过44。 ;七14,27)。。It is, however, utterly erroneous to assert, as do Schürer ("Geschichte," ii. 504 et seq.) and Bousset (" Religion des Judenthums," pp. 202 et seq.), that this kingdom of God meant a political triumph of the Jewish people and the annihilation of all other nations.但是这样做,完全错误的主张,因为这样做Schürer(“历史馆,”二。504起。)和Bousset(“宗教德Judenthums,”页202起。),这意味着神的国政治胜利的犹太人民和所有其他国家的毁灭。 As may be learned from Tobit xiii.由于可从以Tobit十三教训。11 et seq., xiv.11起。,14。 6, quoted by Schürer (lc ii. 507), and from the ancient New-Year's liturgy (see also 'Alenu), "the conversion of all creatures to become one single band to do, God's will" is the foremost object of Israel's Messianic hope; only the removal of "the kingdom of violence" must precede the establishment of God's kingdom. 6,由Schürer引用(立法会二。507),从古老的新型新年的礼仪(参见'Alenu),“所有的生物转化成为一个单一波段的事,上帝的意志”,是以色列最重要的对象救世主的希望,只有“暴力的王国”搬迁必须先于神的王国的建立。 This hope for the coming of the kingdom of God is expressed also in the Ḳaddish (comp. Lord's Prayer) and in the eleventh benediction of the "Shemoneh 'Esreh," whereas the destruction of the kingdom of wickedness first found expression in the added (nineteenth) benediction (afterward directed chiefly against obnoxious informers and heretics; see Liturgy), and was in the Hellenistic propaganda literature, the Sibyllines (iii. 47, 767 et al.), emphasized especially with a view to the conversion of the heathen.这对于未来的神的国度还表示,在希望的ḳaddish(可比主祷文),并在第十一届祝福“Shemoneh'Esreh”,而对邪恶王国的覆灭,首次发现添加的表达(第十九)祝福(主要是直接针对后来厌恶告密者和异教徒。看到礼仪),并在古希腊文学是宣传的Sibyllines(iii. 47,767等),尤其是要强调的异教徒转换的看法。


In contrasting the future kingdom of God with the kingdom of the heathen powers of the world the apocalyptic writers were undoubtedly influenced by Parsism, which saw the world divided between Ahuramazda and Angro-mainyush, who battle with each other until finally the latter, at the end of the fourth period of the twelve world-millenniums, is defeated by the former after a great crisis in which the bad principle seems to win the upper hand (see Plutarch, "On Isis and Osiris," ch. 47; Bundahis, xxxiv. 1; "Bahman Yasht," i. 5, ii. 22 et seq. ; "SBE" v. 149, 193 et seq. ; Stade, "Ueber den Einfluss, des Parsismus auf das Judenthum," 1898, pp. 145 et seq.).在对比同世界各国的作家,无疑是世界末日的Parsism,看见之间Ahuramazda和Angro - mainyush,谁与对方战斗,直到最后后者,分在了世界的影响异教徒王国的神权王国的未来十二个​​月的世界千年第四阶段结束时,被打败后,由前一个巨大的危机,其中不良原则似乎赢得了上风(见普鲁塔克,“关于伊希斯和奥西里斯,”胆固醇47;。Bundahis,三十四。1;“巴赫曼戈Yasht,”一,五,二22起。。“SBE法”诉149,193起。体育场,“Ueber书斋Einfluss,德Parsismus奥夫DAS的Judenthum,”1898年,第145起。)。 The idea of four world-empires succeeding one another and represented by the four metals (Dan. ii., vii.), which also has its parallel in Parsism ("Bahman Yasht," i. 3), and in Hindu, Greek, and Roman traditions ("Laws of Manes," i. 71 et seq. ; Hesiod, "Works and Days," pp. 109 et seq. ; Ovid, "Metamorphoses," i. 89), seems to rest upon an ancient tradition which goes back to Babylonia (see Gunkel's commentary on Genesis, 1902, p. 241).四个世界帝国的想法,互相成功的四种金属的代表(Dan.二。,七。),这也有它的Parsism并行(“巴赫曼戈Yasht,”一,三),并在印度,希腊,和罗马的传统(一,71起的“Manes认为,法律”。赫西俄德,“工程及天”,第109页起。奥维德“变形记,”岛89),似乎休息后,一个古老的传统这可以追溯到巴比伦(见gunkel的评论对成因,1902年,第241页)。 Gunkel finds in the twelve millenniums of Persian belief an astronomical world-year with four seasons, and sees the four Babylonian world-epochs reproduced in the four successive periods of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses.贡克尔发现的波斯信仰的世界12个千年天文与四季一年,并认为四巴比伦世界中的四个时代的亚当,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,摩西连续时间转载。 The four periods occur again in Enoch, lxxxix.四个时期再次出现伊诺克,lxxxix。et seq.起。(see Kautzsch, "Pseudepigraphen," p. 294) and Rev. vi.(见的Kautzsch,“Pseudepigraphen”,第294页)和Rev六。1; also in Zech.1;也撒加利亚。 ii.二。1 (AV i. 18), vi.1; and Dan. 1(影音岛18),六.1和丹。viii.八。22; and the four undivided animals in the vision of Abraham (Gen. xv. 9) were by the early haggadists (Johanan b. Zakkai, in Gen. R. xliv.; Apoc. Abraham, xv., xxviii.) referred to the four world-empires in an eschatological sense. 22;(。创十五9)和四个不可分割的动物在亚伯拉罕由早期haggadists视力分别为(。。在将军河四十四哈难乙Zakkai;。。载脂蛋白C亚伯拉罕,十五,二十八)提到四个世界帝国在eschatological常识。

A World-Week.世界周。

The Perso-Babylonian world-year of twelve millenniums, however, was transformed in Jewish eschatology into a world-week of seven millenniums corresponding with the week of Creation, the verse "A thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday" (Ps. xc. 5 [AV 4]) having suggested the idea that the present world of toil ("'olam ha-zeh") is to be followed by a Sabbatical millennium, "the world to come" ("'olam ha-ba'": Tamid vii. 4; RH 31a; Sanh. 97a; Ab. RN i., ed. Schechter, p. 5; Enoch, xxiii. 1; II Esdras vii. 30, 43; Testament of Abraham, A. xix., B. vii.; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 42; Rev. xx. 1; II Peter iii. 8; Epistle of Barnabas, xv.; Irenæus, v. 28, 3).该Perso巴比伦世界的12个千年,但在犹太末世变成了一个世界七千年一周的创作与相应的周,今年的诗句:“在你眼前一万年,但由于昨天”(诗篇越野。5 [影音4]),有建议的观点,即当今世界的辛劳(“'奥兰公顷泽医生”)是由一个安息千年,“未来世界”(“跟着'奥兰公顷英航“:Tamid七4;相对湿度的第31A条,葬身97A条;抗体氡一,教育署谢克特,第5页;伊诺克,二十一;二埃斯德拉斯七30,43;亚伯拉罕的约,答十九。。。。。。。湾七;。维塔Adæ等Evæ,42;启示录二十一。二彼得三世8;。巴拿巴书信,十五。依,诉28,3)。 Of these the six millenniums were again divided, as in Parsism, into three periods: the first 2,000 years devoid of the Law; the next 2,000 years under the rule of the Law; and the last 2,000 years preparing amid struggles and through catastrophes for the rule of the Messiah (Sanh. 97a; 'Ab. Zarah 9a; Midr. Teh. xc. 17); the Messianic era is said to begin 4,291 years after Creation (comp. the 5,500 years after Creation, after the lapse of which the Messiah is expected, in Vita Adæ et Evæ, 42; also Assumptio Mosis, x. 12).在这六千年再次划分,如Parsism,分为三个时期:第一二千年法律缺乏,在以后的2000下的法治年,以及过去的2000年编制并通过斗争中的灾难规则的弥赛亚(Sanh. 97A条。'抗体Zarah 9A条; Midr的XC 17。。。);救世主的时代,据说开始创建后四二九一年(可比5500年以后创作的,失效后,其中弥赛亚预计,在维塔Adæ等Evæ,42;也Assumptio Mosis,十12)。On a probably similar calculation, which placed the destruction of the Second Temple at 3828 (Sanh. lc), rests also the division of the world into twelve epochs of 400 years, nine and a half of which epochs had passed at the time of the destruction of the Temple (II Esdras xiv. 11; comp. vii. 28).在一个大概类似的计算,这给在3828(Sanh. LC)的第二圣殿被毁,也在于把十二个400年,九师时代的世界和一个时代,其中曾在半年的时间过去了毁灭之庙(二埃斯德拉斯十四11;。可比七28。。)。 Twelve periods occur also in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (xxvii., liii.) and the Apocalypse of Abraham (xxix.); the ten millenniums of Enoch xxi.十二期间也发生在叙利亚的巴鲁克启示(xxvii.,liii。)和亚伯拉罕(xxix.)的天启;伊诺克二十一十个千年。 6, however, appear to be identical with the ten weeks in ch.6,然而,似乎是在总的十个星期相同。xciii., that is, 10 x 700 years. xciii。,即10 × 700年。As a matter of course, Biblical chronology was always so construed as to bring the six millenniums into accord with the Messianic expectations of the time; only by special favor would the mystery of the end, known only to God, be revealed to His saints (Dan. xii. 9; II Esd. iv. 37, xi. 44; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, liv. 1, lxxxi. 4; Matt. xxiv. 36; Pes. 54b).作为一个理所当然的事,圣经年表总是如此解释,使之符合时代的救世主的期望,给予6个千年,只有通过特别赞成将已知的只有上帝最后,神秘,被发现向他的圣徒(丹十二9;。。。二,公共服务电子化四37,十一44;。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,丽芙1,捌拾4;。。马特二十四36;。。瘟54B条)。。 The end was believed to be brought about by the merit of a certain number of saints or martyrs (Enoch, xlvii. 4; II Esd. iv. 36; Rev. vii. 4), or by the completion of the number of human souls sent from their heavenly abode to the earth, the number of created souls being fixed (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxiii. 4; 'Ab. Zarah 5a; Yeb. 63b).到底是相信所带来的一个圣人或烈士一定数量的优点约(伊诺克,四十七4;。二公共服务电子化四36;。。致七4。),或由人类灵魂相继完成从天上居留权发送到地球,创造的灵魂之中的数目固定的(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,二十四。。。'抗体Zarah 5A条; Yeb 63B条。)。Finally, it was taught that "he who announces the Messianic time based on calculation forfeits his own share in the future" (R. Jose, in Derek Ereẓ R. xi.) and that "the advent of the Messiah is dependent upon general repentance brought about by the prophet Elijah" (Sanh. 97b; Pirḳe R. El. xliii.; Assumptio Mosis, i. 18).最后,有人告诉我们,“谁宣布救世主的时候计算的基础上赔上自己的未来自己的份额”(在德里克埃雷兹河喜河圣何塞。)以及“来临的弥赛亚,是依赖于一般的忏悔所带来的先知以利亚“(Sanh. 97b;。pirḳe传译下午四十三。Assumptio Mosis岛18)。

Travail of the Messianic Time.劳苦的救世主的时间。

There prevails a singular harmony among the apocalyptic writings and traditions, especially regarding the successive stages of the eschatological drama.其中有一个普遍存在世界末日的著作和传统,特别是关于戏剧的末世论的各个阶段,奇异的和谐。The first of these is the "travail" of the Messianic time (; literally, "the suffering of the Messiah"; comp. Pesiḳ. R. 21, 34; Shab. 118a; Pes. 118a; Sanh. 98b; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 4, 5; or , Matt. xxiv. 8; Mark xiii. 9, taken from Hosea xiii. 13).其中第一项是“阵痛”的救世主的时间(;字面上来看,“痛苦的弥赛亚”;比赛Pesiḳ命令第21条,34;。。沙巴118A条。瘟118A条。葬身98b。。丁酮, Beshallaḥ,Wayassa',4,5;或者马特二十四8;。。马克十三9,从何西阿十三采取13)。。。The idea that the great redemption shall be preceded by great distress, darkness, and moral decline seems to be based on such prophetic passages as Hosea xiii.伟大的救赎认为应以极大痛苦,黑暗,和道德滑坡之前的意见似乎是作为先知何西阿十三通道等基础。13 et seq.; Joel ii. 13起。乔尔二。10 et seq.; Micah vii.10起。米卡七。1-6; Zech.1-6;撒加利亚。 xiv.十四。6 et seq.; Dan.6起。丹。 xii.十二。1.1。The view itself, however, is not that of the Prophets, whose outlook is altogether optimistic and eudemonistic (Isa. xi. 1-9, lxv. 17-25), but more in accordance with the older non-Jewish belief in a constant decline of the world, from the golden and silver to the brass and iron age, until it ends in a final cataclysm or conflagration, contemplated alike by old Teuton and Greek legend.视图本身,但是,是不是的先知,其前景是完全乐观,eudemonistic(以赛亚十一。1-9,第六十五。17-25),但更与旧的非犹太人在一个恒定的信仰根据下降的世界,从金,银的黄铜和铁器时代,直到在最后的大灾难或火灾拟由旧日耳曼和希腊神话一样,结束。 It was particularly owing to Persian influence that the contrast between this world, in which evil, death, and sin prevail, and the future world, "which is altogether good" (Tamid lc), was so strongly emphasized, and the view prevailed that the transition from the one to the other could be brought about only through a great crisis, the signs of decay of a dying world and the birth-throes of a new one to be ushered into existence.特别是由于它是波斯的影响力,这个世界之间的反差,在这种邪恶,死亡和罪恶盛行,和未来世界“,这是完全好”(Tamid立法会),是如此强烈地强调,和流行的观点认为从一个过渡到其他可以通过一个巨大的危机带来了约,仅仅是一个垂死的世界和生育的一个新的阵痛衰退的迹象将迎来成立。 Persian eschatology had no difficulty in utilizing old mythological and cosmological material from Babylonia in picturing the distress and disorder of the last days of the world (Bundahis, xxx. 18 et seq.; Plutarch, lc 47; Bahman, lc ii. 23 et seq., iii. 60); Jewish eschatology had to borrow the same elsewhere or give Biblical terms and passages a new meaning so as to make all terrestrial and celestial powers appear as participants in the final catastrophe.波斯语末世在利用没有想象的痛苦和世界(Bundahis了XXX的最后几天紊乱老神话和宇宙物质从巴比伦王国的困难18起。。普鲁塔克,立法会47;。巴赫曼戈,立法会二23起。,三60)。犹太末世不得不借用同别处或给予圣经条款和段落了新的含义,使所有陆地和天体的权力,在最后的大灾难的参与者出现。 This world, owing to the sin of the first man (II Esd. iv. 30), or through the fall of the angels (Enoch, vi.-xi.), has been laden with curses and is under the sway of the power of evil, and the end will accordingly be a combat of God with these powers of evil either in the heavens above or on earth (Isa. xxiv. 21 et seq., xxv. 7, xxvii. 1; Dan. vii. 11, viii. 9; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 29; Test. Patr., Asher, 7, Dan. 5; Assumptio Mosis, x. 1; Psalms of Solomon, ii. 25 et seq.; and see Gunkel, "Schöpfung und Chaos," pp. 171-398).这个世界上,由于第一人犯罪(二公共服务电子化。四。30),或通过天使(伊诺克,vi.-xi.)秋天,已挂满了诅咒下,在摆动的权力是。。的邪恶,并最终将相应地打击了上帝的邪恶这些权力无论是在天上以上或在地球上(以赛亚书24 21起,二十五七,二十七1;。。丹七11。。八9;。书的jubilees,二十三29;。。测试Patr,亚设,7,丹5。。Assumptio Mosis,十1,所罗门的诗篇,二25起。。和见gunkel,“Schöpfung有限公司混沌,“页171-398)。The whole world, then, appears as in a state of rebellion before its downfall.整个世界,那么,出现如在其垮台前的叛乱状态。 A description of these Messianic woes is given in the Book of Jubilees, xx.对这些救世主的疾苦,说明是由于在的jubilees,二十图书。11-25; Sibyllines, ii.11-25; Sibyllines,二。154 et seq., iii.154起。,三。796 et seq.; Enoch, xcix. 796起。伊诺克,xcix。4 et seq., c.4起。角1 et seq.; II Esd.1起。二,公共服务电子化。v.-vi.; Syriac Apoc. v.-vi.;叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。Baruch xxv.-xxvii., xlviii.巴鲁克xxv. -二十七。,48。31 et seq., lxx.; Matt. 31日起,LXX的;。。马特。xxiv.二十四。6-29; Rev. vi.-ix.; Soṭah ix. 6-29;牧师vi.-ix.;Soṭah九。15; Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x.; Sanh. 15,德里克埃雷兹足踏十;葬身。96b-97a.96B条,97A条。"A third part of all the world's woes will come in the generation of the Messiah" (Midr. Teh. Ps. ii. 9). “一个世界上所有的灾难第三部分将在一代人的弥赛亚”(midr.了。聚苯乙烯。二。9)。In all these passages evil portents are predicted, such as visions of swords, of blood, and of warfare in the sky (Sibyllines, iii. 795; comp. Luke xxi. 21; Josephus, "BJ", vi. 5, § 3), disorder in the whole celestial system (Enoch,lxxx. 4-7; II Esd. v. 4; comp. Amos viii. 9; Joel ii. 10), in the produce of the earth (Enoch, lxxx. 2; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 18; II Esd. vi. 22; Sibyllines, iii. 539), and in human progeny (Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 25; Sibyllines, ii. 154 et seq.; II Esd. v. 8, vi. 21).在所有这些邪恶的预兆是预测通道,如剑愿景,血液,和战争中的天空(sibyllines,三,795;。比赛路加福音二十一21。。约瑟夫,“北京”,六5,§ 3。 ),在整个天体系统(伊诺克,lxxx 4-7紊乱。二公共服务电子化诉4。。比赛阿莫斯八9;。。约珥二10)中的地球(伊诺克,lxxx 2生产,。易经jubilees,二十三18;。二公共服务电子化六22;。。。sibyllines,三,539),并在人类后代(书jubilees,二十三25;。Sibyllines,二154起。。二,公共服务电子化诉8。 ,六。21)。Birds and beasts, trees, stones, and wells will cease to act in harmony with nature (II Esd. v. 6-8, vi. 24).鸟类和野兽,树木,石头,水井将不再采取行动,与自然和谐(二公共服务电子化。五,6月8日,六。24)。

Particularly prominent among the plagues of the time, of which Baruch xxviii.特别是其中最突出的时间瘟疫,其中巴鲁克二十八。2-3 counts twelve, will be "the sword, famine, earthquake, and fire"; according to Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 2-3计数十二,将“刀剑,饥荒,地震,与火”,据书jubilees,二十三。13, "illness and pain, frost and fever, famine and death, sword and captivity"; but greater than the terror and havoc caused by the elements will be the moral corruptionand perversion, the wickedness and unchastity anticipated in prophetic visions, and the power of evil spirits (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lc and lxx. 2-8; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 13-19). 13,“疾病和痛苦,霜冻和发烧,饥荒和死亡,剑和圈养”,但比恐怖和元素引起的将是道德corruptionand颠倒,邪恶和不贞洁预计在先知异象破坏,权力更大对(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,立法会和RSD 2-8。。。书jubilees,二十三13-19)邪灵。This view of the prevalence of the spirit of evil and seduction to sin in the last days received special emphasis in the Ḥasidean schools; hence the striking resemblance between the tannaitic and the apocalyptic picture of the time preceding the Messianic advent: "In the last days false prophets [pseudo-Messiahs] and corrupters will increase and sheep be turned into wolves, love into hatred; lawlessness [see Belial] will prevail, causing men to hate, persecute, and deliver up each other; and Satan, 'the world-deceiver' (see Antichrist), will in the guise of the Son of God perform miracles, and as ruler of the earth commit unheard-of crimes" ("Didache," xvi. 3 et seq.; Sibyllines, ii. 165 et seq., iii. 63; Matt. xxiv. 5-12; II Tim. iii. 1 et seq.).这种对邪恶的和诱惑罪在最后的日子的精神得到普遍观点,特别强调在Ḥasidean学校,因此之间的tannaitic和救世主的来临之前的时间世界末日图片惊人的相似:“在最后的日子假先知[假救世主]和腐化将增加,羊变成狼被打开,爱被仇恨;无法无天[见匪徒]将占上风,导致男人的仇恨,迫害,并提供了对方;和撒旦,'世界骗子'(见箴),将执行中的神的儿子幌子创造奇迹,作为地球的统治者犯下奇闻的罪行“(”十二使徒遗训,“十六3起。。。Sibyllines,二165起。,三63;。。马特四条5-12。二添三,1起)。。。。 The rabbinic description is similar: "The footsteps of the Messiah [, taken from Ps. lxxxix. 52; comp. the term , "the last days of the rule of Esau"="Edom-Rome"; II Esd. vi. 8-10; comp. Gen. R. lxiii.; Yalḳut and Midrash ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, on Gen. xxv. 26; Pirḳe R. El. xxxii.] are seen in the turning of the schoolhouse into a brothel, the desolation of Galilee and Gaulanitis, the going about of the scribes and saints as despised beggars, the insolence and lawlessness of the people, the disrespect of the younger generation toward the older, and the turning of the rulers to heresy" (Soṭah ix. 15; Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x.; Sanh. 97b; Cant. R. ii. 13; Ket. 112b; in these passages amoraim of the second and third centuries are often credited with the views of tannaim of the first; comp. also Shab. 118a with Mek., Beshallaḥ, lc).拉比的描述是相似的:“的弥赛亚[从聚苯乙烯采取的脚步lxxxix 52;比赛的术语。。。”的以扫规则“=”以东,罗马“最后的日子;二公共服务电子化六8。。 -10;比赛创传译lxiii。。。Yalḳut和米德拉士公顷Gadol,教育署谢克特,在将军二十五26;。pirḳe传译下午三十二]是在校舍变成了妓院看到。。在加利利和Gaulanitis,前往约的文士和鄙视乞丐,狂悖和人民无法无天,在对年龄大了,统治者把年轻一代不尊重异端“(soṭah九圣徒悲凉。 15,德里克埃雷兹足踏十;葬身97b。。不敢河二13;。氯胺酮112b。在这些段落的第二和第三世纪亚摩兰往往记与第一tannaim的意见;。比赛也沙巴。118A条与人民圣战者组织。,Beshallaḥ,立法会)。 Simon ben Yoḥai (comp. Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa x. with Sanh. lc) counts seven periods of tribulation preceding the advent of the son of David.西蒙本Yoḥai(可比德里克埃雷兹足踏与葬身十。立法会)计数七个时期的磨难前的儿子大卫的到来。 The Abraham Apocalypse (xxx.) mentions ten plagues as being prepared for the heathen of the time: (1) distress; (2) conflagration; (3) pestilence among beasts; (4) famine; (5) earthquakes and wars; (6) hail and frost; (7) wild beasts; (8) pestilence and death among men; (9) destruction and flight (comp. Isa. xxvi. 20; Zech. xiv. 5); and (10) noises and rumblings (comp. in the sixth period of Simon b. Yoḥai; comp. Test. Patr., Levi, 17, where also seven periods precede the kingdom of God).亚伯拉罕启示(xxx.)提到当作是为在异教徒的时间准备十灾:(1)遇险(2)火灾;(3)在兽疫;(4)饥荒(5)地震和战争;( 6),冰雹和霜冻;(7)野生禽兽;(八)瘟疫和死亡的男性;(9)销毁和飞行(comp.伊萨二十六20;。。。。撒加利亚十四5)和(10)噪声和传言(comp.在第六时期的西门乙yoḥai;比赛测试Patr,利维,17,哪里还七期先于神的国。。。)。

The War of Gog and Magog.gog和玛战争。

An important part in the eschatological drama is assigned to Israel's final combat with the combined forces of the heathen nations under the leadership of Gog and Magog, barbarian tribes of the North (Ezek. xxxviii-xxxix.; see Gog and Magog).末世论戏剧中的一个重要组成部分被分配给以色列的最后打击的国家的异教徒下的歌革和玛,北方蛮族领导的联合部队(结三十八,三十九。看到歌革和玛)。 Assembled for a fierce attack upon Israel in the mountains near Jerusalem, they will suffer a terrible and crushing defeat, and Israel's land will thenceforth forever remain the seat of God's kingdom.对于要求以色列在耶路撒冷附近的山上猛烈攻击组合,他们将遭受可怕的惨败,而以色列的土地将此后永远是上帝的宝座。 Whether originally identical or identified only afterward by Biblical interpretation with the battle in the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel iv. [AViii.] 12; comp. Zech. xiv. 2 and Isa. xxv. 6, where the great warfare against heathen armies is spoken of), the warfare against Gog and Magog formed the indispensable prelude to the Messianic era in every apocalyptic vision (Sibyllines, iii. 319 et seq., 512 et seq., 632 et seq.; v. 101; Rev. xx. 8; Enoch, lvi. 5 et seq., where the place of Gog and Magog is taken by the Parthians and Medes; II Esd. xiii. 5, "a multitude of men without number from the four winds of the earth"; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, LXX. 7-10; Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26, xxiv. 17, Ex. xl. 11, Deut. xxxii. 39, and Isa. xxxiii. 25; comp. Num. xxiv. 7 [Septuagint, Γὼγ for "Agag"]; see Eldad and Medad).不论原先是否相同或只确定了圣经的解释之后,在与约沙法谷(乔尔四[AViii。] 12战斗;。。。。。比赛撒加利亚十四6 2和伊萨二十五,其中对异教徒军队的伟大战争的。谈到),反对战争的歌革和玛形成了不可缺少的前奏,以救世主的时代,在每一个世界末日的愿景(sibyllines,三319起,512起,632起。。。。五,101;启示录二十。 8;伊诺克,LVI的5起,其中发生的歌革和玛由帕提亚和玛代措施;。。。二,公共服务电子化第十三5,“没有从地上四方的风数量众多的男性”。叙利亚。载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,LXX的7-10。。塔尔格也门里亚尔为num十一26,二十四17,防爆加大码11,申三十二39和ISA三十三25;。。。。。。。。。。比赛编号二十四。。。 7 [七十,为“亚甲”Γὼγ]见伊利达,Medad)。

R. Eliezer (Mek., Beshallaḥ, lc) mentions the Gog and Magog war together with the Messianic woes and the Last Judgment as the three modes of divine chastisement preceding the millennium.河埃利泽(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,立法会)歌革和玛提到的救世主的疾苦和作为神的责罚前三千年的战争模式,最后的判决一起。 R. Akiba assigns both to the Gog and Magog war and to the Last Judgment a duration of twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10); Lev.传译秋叶的分配既歌革和玛战争,最后的审判期限为十二个月('Eduy二10。。);列弗。R. xix.传译十九。has seven years instead, in accordance with Ezek.已经七年,而是在以西结书规定。xxxix.三十九。9; Ps.9;诗。ii.二。1-9 is referred to the war of Gog and Magog ('Ab. Zarah 3b; Ber. 7b; Pesiḥ. ix. 79a; Tan., Noah, ed. Buber, 24; Midr. Teh. Ps. ii.).1-9是提到gog和玛战争('抗体Zarah 3B的;。。误码率7B条;Pesiḥ九79A条。。。谈,诺亚,教育署布伯,24岁;。。。Midr的二级私人秘书。。)。

The destruction of Gog and Magog's army implies not, as falsely stated by Weber ("Altsynagogale Theologie," 1880, p. 369), followed by Bousset ("Religion des Judenthums," p. 222), the extermination of the Gentile world at the close of the Messianic reign, but the annihilation of the heathen powers who oppose the kingdom of God and the establishing of the Messianic reign (see Enoch, lvi.-lvii., according to which the tribes of Israel are gathered and brought to the Holy Land after the destruction of the heathen hosts; Sifre, Deut. 343; and Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26). gog和玛军队破坏意味着并非如虚假韦伯指出(“Altsynagogale神学”,1880年,页369),其次是Bousset(“宗教德Judenthums”,第222页),在世界上灭绝的詹蒂莱在救世主的统治结束,但对谁反对神权消灭异教徒王国和救世主的统治建立(见伊诺克,lvi. - 57。,根据该部落的以色列聚集,并提请神圣的土地后的异教徒主机的破坏; Sifre,申343。。。。和塔尔格也门里亚尔为num十一26)。。

The Gentiles who submit to the Law are expected to survive (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxii. 4; Apoc. Abraham, xxxi.); and those nations that did not subjugate Israel will be admitted by the Messiah into the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ. R. 1, after Isa. lxvi. 23).谁向外邦人法律将共存(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,lxxii 4;。。。。载脂蛋白C亚伯拉罕,三十一);和那些国家没有灭亡以色列将在弥赛亚获准进入神的国度(Pesiḥ 。河1,经过伊萨。lxvi。23)。 The Messiah is called "Hadrach" (Zech. ix. 1), as the one who leads the heathen world to repentance (), though he is tender to Israel and harsh toward the Gentiles (: Cant. R. vii. 5).弥赛亚是所谓的“Hadrach”,作为一个谁领导的异教徒世界悔改(),虽然他是以色列的投标,向外邦人苛刻(亚九1。)(:。。不敢河七5)。 The loyalty of the latter will be severely tested ('Ab. Zarah 2b et seq.), while during the established reign of the Messiah the probation time of the heathen will have passed over (Yeb. 24b).后者的忠诚度将受到严重考验('抗体。Zarah 2b干扰素等起。)而在弥赛亚的统治确立,对异教徒试用时间将超过(Yeb. 24B条)通过。"A third part of the heathen world alone will survive" (Sibyllines, iii. 544 et seq., v. 103, after Zech. xiii. 8; in Tan., Shofeṭim, ed. Buber, 10, this third part is referred to Israel, which alone, as the descendants of the three patriarchs, will escape the fire of Gehenna). “阿的异教徒世界第三部分单靠生存”(sibyllines,三544起,诉103,后撒加利亚十三8;。。。。。。在谈,Shofeṭim编布伯,10,这被称为第三部分以色列,其中,仅作为三大元老的后代,将难逃地狱火)。 According to Syriac Apoc.据叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。Baruch, xl.巴鲁克,加大码。1, 2, it is the leader of the Gog and Magog hosts who will alone survive, to be brought bound before the Messiah on Mount Zion and judged and slain.一,二,它是该gog和玛主机谁的意志才能生存下来,被带到开航前对锡安山弥赛亚和判断和被杀的领导者。According to II Esd.根据二可持续发​​展教育。xiii.十三。9 et seq., fire will issue forth from the mouth of the Messiah and consume the whole army. 9起。,火会发出规定从弥赛亚口和消费全军。This indicates an identification of Gog and Magog with "the wicked one" of Isa.这表明了高格,并以“恶人一”赛玛鉴定。xi.十一。4, interpreted as the personification of wickedness, Angro - mainyush (see Armilus).4,作为邪恶的化身解释,Angro - mainyush(见Armilus)。In Midrash Wayosha' (Jellinek, "BH" i. 56) Gog is the leader of the seventy-two nations of the world, minus one (Israel), and makes war against the Most High; he is smitten down by God.在米德拉士Wayosha'(耶利内克,“波黑”一56)歌革是第七两个世界各国领导人,减去一个(以色列),并做针对最高级的战争,他是一见钟情下降了神。 Armilus rises as the last enemy of God and Israel.Armilus上升为神和以色列最后的敌人。

Gathering of the Exiles.聚集的流亡者。

The great event preparatory to the reign of the Messiah is the gathering of the exiles, "ḳibbuẓgaliyyot."伟大的活动的筹备到弥赛亚的统治是流亡者,收集“ḳibbuẓgaliyyot。”This hope, voiced in Deut.这个希望,在申表示。xxx.三十。3; Isa.3;伊萨。xi.十一。12; Micah iv.12,米卡四。 6, vii.六,七。11; Ezek.11;以西结书。xxxix.三十九。27; Zech.27;撒加利亚。xi.十一。10-12 and Isa.10-12和伊萨。 xxxv.三十五。8, is made especially impressive by the description in Isa.8,尤其令人印象深刻的是由在ISA的描述。xxvii.二十七。13 of the return of all the strayed ones from Assyria and Egypt, and by the announcement that "the Gentiles themselves shall carry Israel's sons and daughters on their arms to Jerusalem with presents for the Lord" (Isa. xlix. 22, lx. 4-9, lxvi. 20). 13所有从亚述和埃及,误入的回报,由宣布“外邦人本身应继续他们的武器以色列的儿子和女儿同为上帝的礼物耶路撒冷”(以赛亚书第四十九届。22勒克斯4。 -9,lxvi。20)。It was accordingly dwelt upon as a miraculous act in the synagogal liturgy and song (Shemoneh 'Esreh; Meg. 17a; Cant. xi. 1, xvii. 31), as well as in apocalyptic visions (Apoc. Abraham, xxxi.; II Esd. xiii. 13; Matt. xxiv. 31).遂后,它作为住在synagogal礼仪和歌曲神奇的行为(Shemoneh'Esreh;梅格17A条。。。。不敢析1,十七31),以及在世界末日的愿景(Apoc.亚伯拉罕,三十一。二防静电十三13;。。。马特二十四31)。。 God shall bring them back from the East and the West (Baruch, iv. 37, v. 5 et seq.; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxxvi. 13; Tobit xiii. 13); Elijah shall gather them and the Messiah summon them together (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlviii. 10; Sibyllines, ii. 171-187; Cant. xvii. 26; Targ. Yer. to Ex. vi. 18, xl. 9-10, Num. xxiv. 7, Deut. xxx. 4, Jer. xxxiii. 13).神必将这回从东,西(巴鲁克,四37,五,五起。。。Ecclus [西拉奇]三十六13;。托比十三13。);利亚必收殓他们与弥赛亚传召他们在一起(ecclus. [西拉奇] 48 10;。Sibyllines,二171-187;。不敢十七26;。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔给前六18,加大9-10,编号二十四7,申命记三十。。。。。。。 。4,张哲。三十三。13)。In wagons carried by the winds the exiles shall be borne along with a mighty noise (Enoch, lvii. 1 et seq.; Zeb. 116a; Cant. R. and Haggadat Shir ha-Shirim to Cant. iv. 16; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxxxvii. 6), and a pillar of light shall lead them (Philo, "De Execrationibus," 8-9).在由流亡者应由具有强大的噪声(伊诺克,第五十七号货车沿蜿蜒进行1起。。瑞伯116a。。不敢R.和Haggadat事儿公顷Shirim以斜面四16;。。Midr的。 。到PS。lxxxvii。6),并有充足光线的支柱领他们(斐洛,“德execrationibus,”8-9)。The Lost Ten Tribes shall be miraculously brought back across the mighty waters of the River Euphrates (II Esd. xiii. 39-47; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxvii.; Sanh. x. 13; Tan., Miḳḳez and Shelaḥ, i. 203, iii. 79, ed. Buber, after Isa. xi. 15; see Arzareth; Sambation; Ten Tribes).失去的十年部落奇迹般带过,应在河幼发拉底河(二公共服务电子化大水中背十三39-47;。。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C,lxxvii巴鲁克;葬身十13;。。谈,Miḳḳez示拉岛203,三79,海关布伯后,伊萨十一15;。。。。看到Arzareth; Sambation,十个部落)。

The Days of the Messiah.对弥赛亚的日子。

The central place in the eschatological system is, as a matter of course, occupied by the advent of the messiah.末世论体系中的中心位置,是作为一个理所当然的被占领的弥赛亚的来临。Nevertheless the days of the Messiah ("yemot ha-Mashiaḥ"), the time when the prophetic predictions regarding the reign of the descendant of David find their fulfilment, do not form the end of the world's history, but are merely the necessary preparatory stage to the kingdom of God ("malkut shamayim"), which, when once established, will last forever (Dan. vii. 27; Sibyllines, iii. 47 et seq., 767 et seq.; Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ, end).虽然如此,弥赛亚(“yemot夏mashiaḥ”)的时候,先知预言关于大卫的后裔统治找到自己的履行,不构成对世界的历史的终结,天,但只是进行必要的准备阶段以上帝的王国(“malkut shamayim”),其中,当一旦成立,将持续到永远(Dan.七27;。。。sibyllines,三47起,767起。。丁酮,Beshallaḥ,'亚玛力人,结束)。 The Messiah is merely "the chosen one" (Enoch, xlv. 3, xlix. 2, li. 3 et seq.); he causes the people to seek the Lord (Hosea iii. 5; Isa. xi. 9; Zech. xii. 8; Ezek. xxxiv. 24, xxxvii. 24 et seq.), and, as "the Son of God," causes the nations to worship Him (Enoch, cv. 2; II Esd. viii. 28 et seq., xiii. 32-52, xiv. 9, after Ps. ii. 7, lxxxix. 27 et seq.).弥赛亚是仅仅是“选择之一”(伊诺克,四十五3,第四十九届2,李三起。。。。),他使人们寻求主(何西阿三5。赛十一9;。。撒加利亚。十二8;。。。。。以西结书24第三十四,三十七24起),而且,作为“上帝的儿子”,导致国家崇拜他(伊诺克,简历2。。二,公共服务电子化八28起。。 ,十三。32-52,14。九,经诗。二。七,lxxxix。27起。)。The time of his kingdom is therefore limited according to some to three generations (Mek., lc, after Ex. xvii. 16, ); according to others, to 40 or 70, to 365 or 400 years, or to 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 7,000 years (Sanh. 99a, 97b; Pesiḥ. R. 1, end; Midr. Teh. xc. 17); the number 400, however, based upon a combination of Gen. xv.他国的时间,因此有限的,据一些三代(Mek.,立法会,经过前十七16,。。);根据其他人,到40或70,365或400年或1000,2000, 4000,或7,000年(Sanh.第99A条,97b;Pesiḥ传译1月底。Midr的XC 17。。。);人数400人,然而,是基于对创十五组合。13 and Ps.13和聚苯乙烯。xc.越野。15 (see Pesiḥ. R. 1), is supported by II Esd.15(见Pesiḥ。传译1),二是支持可持续发展教育。vii.七。28 et seq., where it is positively stated that after his 400 years' reign the Messiah will die to rise again, after the lapse of a week, with the rest of the righteous in the world's regeneration.28起。,因为它正在积极地说,经过他的400年在位弥赛亚会死回升,一个星期后失效与义在世界再生休息。 It is probably to emphasize his human character that the Messiah is frequently called the "Son of Man" (Dan. viii. 13; Enoch, xlvi. 2 et seq., xlviii. 2, lxii. 7; See Man, Son of).这或许是要强调他的人的性格,弥赛亚是经常被称为“人子”(Dan.八13;。伊诺克,四十六2起,48 2,第六十二号7。。。。见人,儿子的) 。For it is in order to fulfil the designs of God for Israel and the whole race of man that he is to appear as the triumphant warrior-king to subjugate the nations (Sibyllines, iii. 653-655), to lead in the war against Gog and Magog (II Esd. xiii. 32; Targ. Yer. to Num. xxiv. 17, 20), to annihilate all the powers of wickedness and idolatry, cleanse the Holy Land and city from all heathen elements, build the new house of the Lord "pure and holy," and become the Redeemer of Israel (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxxix. 7 et seq., lxxii. 2; Cant. xvii. 21-30; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 11, Ex. xl. 9, Num. xi. 16, Isa. x. 27; comp. Philo, "De Præmiis et Pœnis," with reference to Num. xxiv. 7): "he is to redeem the entire creation by chastising the evil-doers and making the nations from all the ends of the world see the glory of God" (II Esd. xiii. 26-38; Cant. xvii. 31). ,因为它是为了满足以色列的设计神和人的整场比赛,他将显示为凯旋的勇士,国王征服的国家(sibyllines,三。653-655),以带领争战歌革和玛(二公共服务电子化十三32;。。。。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔为num四条17,20),消灭所有的邪恶和偶像崇拜权力,洗净一切异教元素的圣地和城市建设的新房子。。。上帝“纯洁和神圣”,并成为救赎以色列(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,第39届7起,lxxii 2;。不敢十七21-30;。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔到第四十九届将军11。。 ,防爆加大码9,序号十一16,赛十27;比赛斐洛,“德Præmiis等Pœnis,”参考编号二十四7):。。。。。。“他是为了赎回严惩整个创作。。在恶人以及向所有的世界看到了神的荣耀“结束的国家(二公共服务电子化十三26-38;。。不敢十七31。。)。 "Free from sin, from desire for wealth or power, a pure, wise, and holy king imbued with the spirit of God, he will lead all to righteousness and holiness (Cant. xvii. 32-43; Sibyllines, iii. 49, v. 414 et seq.; Test. Patr., Levi, 18; Midr. Teh. lxxii. 12; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 12, and Isa. xi. 2, xli. 1). “自由从罪,从财富或权力,一个纯粹的,明智的,神圣的国王与上帝的精神充满渴望,他将带领所有的仁义和圣洁(cant.十七32-43;。。sibyllines,三49,诉414起。。测试Patr,利维,18岁;。Midr的lxxii 12。。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔至第四十九届将军12,赛十一第2,四十一1)。。。。。。

Time of Universal Peace.时间普遍和平。

The Messianic time, accordingly, means first of all the cessation of all subjection of Israel by other powers (, Ber. 34b; Sanh. 91b), while the kingdoms and nations will bring tributes to the Messiah (Pes. 118b; Gen. R. lxxviii.; Tan., Yelamdenu, Shofeṭim; Sibyllines, iii. 350, iv. 145, all based upon Ps. lxxii. 10 and lxviii. 32); furthermore, it will be a time of conversion of the heathen world to monotheism (Tobit xiv. 6; Sibyllines, iii. 616, 624, 716 et seq.; Enoch, xlviii. 4 et seq.; 'Ab. Zarah 24a, after Zeph. iii. 9), though the Holy Land itself will not be inhabited by strangers (Cant. xvii. 28; Sibyllines, v. 264; Book of Jubilees, 1. 5).救世主的时候,因此,意味着所有的一切其他权力所隶属以色列停止第一(,误码率34B条。葬身91b。),而王国和各民族带来的贡品,弥赛亚(Pes. 118B条;将军ř 。第七十八号。谈,Yelamdenu,Shofeṭim。。。。sibyllines,三350,四145,全押在诗的lxxii 10和lxviii 32)。。此外,这将是一个异教徒的世界一神教的转换时间(托比书十四6;。sibyllines,三,616,624,716起。。伊诺克,48 4起。。'抗体Zarah 24A条,后Zeph三9。。。),虽然圣地本身将不会被陌生人宅(cant.十七28;。Sibyllines,诉264,书籍的jubilees,1 5。)。Both earth and man will be blessed with wondrous fertility and vigor (Enoch, x. 17-19, "They will live until they have a thousand children"; Sibyllines, iii. 620 et seq., 743; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. 5; comp. Papias' description of the millennium given as coming directly from Jesus, in Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," v. 33, 3-4; Ket. 111b; Shab. 30b, "The earth will produce new fruits daily, women will bear children daily, and the land will yield loaves of bread and garments of silk," all with reference to Ps. lxxii. 16; Deut. xxxii. 1; Gen. xlix. 11; comp. Targ. Yer.).地球和人类将有令人惊奇的生育率和活力(伊诺克,十17-19祝福,“他们将生活,直到他们有一千儿童”; sibyllines,三620起,743。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,第29届。5;比赛帕皮亚的描述作为直接来自耶稣爱任纽,鉴于千年“相反Hæreses,”诉33,3-4。氯胺酮111B条。。沙巴30B条,“地球日将产生新的成果,妇女儿童将承担每天,土地将产生参考的PS面包和丝绸服装,“所有lxxii 16;。。申三十二1。。将军第四十九届11;。比赛塔尔格也门里亚尔)。。。 。The days of the youth of the earth will be renewed; people will again reach the age of 1,000 years (Book of Jubilees, xxx. 27; comp. Isa. lxv. 20); the birth of children will be free from pain (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxiii. 60, after Isa. xiii. 8; Philo, "De Præmiis et Pœnis," 15 et seq.); there will no longer be strife and illness, plague or trouble, but peace, health, and joy (Enoch, x. 16-22; Sibyllines, iii. 371; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxiii. 1-5).对地球的青春的岁月将被更新,人们将再次达到1000年的年龄(书jubilees了XXX,27;。。比赛赛第六十五20。。)出生的儿童将摆脱苦难(叙利亚文。载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,lxxiii 60后,伊萨十三8;。。。斐洛,“德Præmiis等Pœnis,”15起);。不再有纷争和疾病,瘟疫或麻烦,但和平,健康和欢乐(伊诺克,十16-22; sibyllines,三,371。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,lxxiii 1-5)。All physical ailments and defects will be healed (Gen. R. xcv.; Pesiḥ. R. 42 [ed. Friedmann, p. 177, note]; Midr. Teh. cxlvi. 8; Eccl. R. i. 9, after Isa. xxxv. 6; comp. Matt. xi. 5).所有身体上的疾病和缺陷会愈合(创传译xcv。。[。教育署弗里德曼,第177页,注]Pesiḥ河42; Midr的cxlvi 8;。。。。传道书传译一9,后赛三十五6;。。。。比赛马特十一5)。。A spiritual regeneration will also take place, and Israel's sons and daughters will prophesy (Num. R. xv., after Joel iii. 1 [AV ii. 28], a passage which contradicts the statement of Bousset, lcp 229).一个精神上的再生也会发生,而以色列的儿子和女儿将预言(num.传译十五。后,乔尔三。1 [影音二。28],一个通道,其中违反了Bousset,LCP的229声明)。

Renewal of the Time of Moses.续期的时候,摩西。

The Messiah will furthermore win the heathen by the spirit of wisdom and righteousness which rests upon him (Sibyllines, iii. 780; Test. Patr., Levi, 18; Judah, 24; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 12 and Isa. xli. 1).弥赛亚将进一步赢得了智慧和正义的精神在他身上休息(sibyllines,三780异教徒。。。测试Patr,利维,18岁;犹大,24岁;。塔尔格也门里亚尔到将军第四十九届12和伊萨。。 。四十一。1)。He will teach the nations the Noachian laws of humanity and make all men disciples of the Lord (Midr. Teh. xxi.).他将教导人类对noachian国家法律,使所有的人的主的门徒(midr.了。二十一。)。 The wonders of the time of Moses will be repeated on a larger scale in the time of the Messiah (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Shirah, 8, after Micah vii. 15; comp. Hosea ii. 17; Targ.; Tan., Bo, ed. Buber, 6).的时候,摩西之妙将重复上一较大规模的弥赛亚(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,希雷,八,七,15时后米卡。。比赛何西阿书二17;。塔尔格。谭博。 ,编辑。布伯,6)。What Moses, the first redeemer, did is typical of what the Messiah as the last redeemer will do (Eccl. R. i. 9).摩西,第一个救世主,是典型的没有什么救世主弥赛亚将作为最后的活动(传道书传译一9)。The redemption will be in the same month of Nisan and in the same night (Mek., Bo, 14); the same pillar of cloud will lead Israel (Philo, "De Execrationibus," 8; Targ. Yer. to Isa. xxxv. 10): the same plagues will be sent upon Israel's foes (Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, 15; Bo, 6, 19; Midr. Wayosha'; Jellinek, "BH" i. 45); the redeemer will ride on an ass (Zech. ix. 9; comp. Ex. iv. 20); manna will again be sent down from heaven (Ps. lxxii. 16; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 24; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. 8); and water rise from beneath by miraculous power (Joel iv. [AV iii.] 18; comp. Ps. lxxviii. 15 et seq.; Eccl. R. i. 9).赎回将在尼散同一个月在同一天晚上(Mek.,薄熙来,14);云支柱将导致以色列同(斐洛,“德execrationibus,”8。塔尔格也门里亚尔对赛三十五。。 。10):同瘟疫将被发送后,以色列的敌人(Tan.,Wa'era编布伯,15人;博,6,19; Midr Wayosha';耶利内克,“波黑”一45);救世主。。将骑在驴(亚九9;。比赛前四20。。。);甘露将再次从天而降(诗篇lxxii跌16。。赛诗第七十八号24。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,第29届。8);和水从下方上升的神奇的力量(乔尔四18。[影音三。];比赛诗第七十八号15起。。。。。传道书传译一9)。 Like Moses, the Messiah will disappear for 90 or 45 days after his appearance (Pesiḥ. R. 15; Pesiḥ. v. 49b, after Hosea v. 15).像摩西,弥赛亚将消失90或45天之后,他的外观(pesiḥ.传译15;。Pesiḥ诉49B条,经过何西阿15节)。 The same number of people will be redeemed (Sanh. 111a) and the Song of Moses be replaced by another song (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Shirah, 1; Rev. xv. 3).同样数量的人将被赎回(Sanh. 111A章)和摩西的歌是由另一首歌曲(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,希雷,1。启示录第十五3)取代。But, like Moses, the Messiah will die (II Esd. lc); the opinion that the Messiah will not taste death (Midr. Teh. lxxii. 17) seems to be of later origin, and will be discussed in connection with the account of the Messiah from the tribe of Joseph or Ephraim (see below).但是,像摩西,弥赛亚会死(二公共服务电子化信用证。)认为,弥赛亚将不会尝到死亡似乎是后来的原产地,并会在讨论连接与帐户(midr.了lxxii 17。。)的弥赛亚从约瑟夫或以法莲(见下文)部落。

The Cosmic Characters of the Messianic Time.救世主的时间宇宙特性。

Jewish theology always insisted on drawing a sharp line between the Messianic days and the final days of God's sole kingdom.犹太神学始终坚持严格区分的救世主天,上帝的王国中唯一的最后几天急剧线。 Hence the characteristic baraita counting ten world-rulers, beginning with God before Creation, then naming, Nimrod, Joseph, Solomon, Ahab, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, the Messiah, and ending with God last as He was the first (Pirḳe R. El. xi.; Meg. 11a is incomplete).因此,数十个特征baraita的世界统治者,日前开始与上帝创造,然后命名,尼姆罗德,约瑟夫,索罗门,亚哈,尼布甲尼撒,居鲁士,亚历山大大帝,弥赛亚,在上帝最后的结局,因为他是第一个(Pirḳe河萨尔瓦多十一。。。梅格11A条是不完整)。 There are, however, in the personality of the Messiah supernatural elements adopted from the Persian Soshians ("Savior") which lent to the whole Messianic age a specifically cosmic character.有,但是,在从波斯语soshians(“救世主”),其中借给整个宇宙的救世主的时代特征通过一个专门的弥赛亚超自然元素的个性。 An offspring of Zoroaster, born miraculously by a virgin of a seed hidden in a lake for thousands of years, Soshians is, together with a number of associates, six, or seven, or thirty, to bring about the resurrection, slay Angro-mainyush and his hosts of demons, judge the risen dead, giving each his due reward, and finally renew the whole world (Bundahis, xxx.; Windischmann, "Zoroastrische Studien," 1863, pp. 231 et seq.; Böcklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdischchristlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie," 1902, pp. 91 et seq.).琐罗亚斯德的一个后代,出生在一个由一湖隐藏数千年的种子,Soshians是,维尔京奇迹般地连同会的人数,六,七,或三十,实现复活,杀死Angro - mainyush和他的东道主的恶魔,死人复活的判断,让每一个他应有的报酬,最后更新整个世界(Bundahis了XXX。Windischmann,“Zoroastrische Studien与”1863年,第231页起。Böcklen,“模具Verwandtschaft明镜Jüdischchristlichen麻省理工明镜Parsischen Eschatologie,“1902年,第91起。)。Similarly, the Messiah is a being existing from before Creation (Gen. R. i.; Pesiḥ. R. 33; Pirḳe R. El. iii.; Pes. 54a, based on Ps. lxxii. 17), and kept hidden for thousands of years (Enoch, xlvi. 2 et seq., xlviii. 6, lxii. 7; II Esd. xii. 32, xiii, 26; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix.; Midr. Teh. xxi.; Targ. to Micah iv. 8).同样,弥赛亚是一个正在从现有之前创作(创传译一;。Pesiḥ河33条;pirḳe传译下午三;。。。。。瘟54A条,在PS的lxxii 17),并一直隐藏的。。。千百年来(伊诺克,四十六2起,48 6,第六十二号7;。32二,公共服务电子化第十二,十三,26;。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,第29届。Midr第二十一届。。。塔尔格的。米卡四。8)。 He comes "from a strange seed" (: Gen. R. xxiii., with reference to Gen. iv. 25; Gen. R. li., with reference to Gen. xix. 34; Gen. R. lxxxv.; Tan., Wayesheb, ed. Buber, 13, with reference to Gen. xxxviii. 29; comp. Matt. i. 3); or from the North (, which may also mean "concealment": Lev. R. ix.; Num. R. xiii., after Isa. xli. 25; comp. John vii. 27).他出身“从一个陌生的种子”(:将军传译二十三,参照将军四25;李将军河,参照将军十九34;将军河捌拾伍;谈。。。。。 。,Wayesheb编布伯,13,参照将军三十八29;比赛马特一3),或从北(,这也可能意味着“隐藏”:。。。。列夫河第九条;序号。。 。传译十三,赛四十一25后。。。比赛约翰七27)。。。

The Messiah's immortal companions reappear with him (II Esd. xiii. 52, xiv. 9; comp. vi. 26).弥赛亚的不朽与他的同伴再现(二公共服务电子化52十三,十四9;。。。。比赛六26。)。Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa i.德里克埃雷兹足踏岛mentions nine immortals (see Kohler, in "JQR" v. 407-419, and comp. the transposed [hidden] righteous ones in Mandäan lore; Brand, "Die Mandäische Religion," 1889, p. 38).提到九仙(见科勒在“JQR”,诉407-419,可比的换位[隐藏]传说中Mandäan正义的。品牌,“模具Mandäische宗教”,1889年,第38页)。 They are probably identical with "the righteous who raise the dead in the Messianic time" (Pes. 68a).他们很可能具有相同的“正义谁在提高救世主的时候死了”(Pes. 68A条)。Prominent among the companions of the Messiah are: (1) Elijah the prophet (see Elijah in Rabbinical Literature), who is expected as high priest to anoint the Messiah (Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," viii., xlix.; comp. Targ. to Ex. xl. 10; John i. 21); to bring about Israel's repentance (Pirḳe R. El. xliii.) and reunion (Targ. Yer. to Deut. xxx. 4; Sibyllines, v. 187 et seq.), and finally the resurrection of the dead (Yer. Shab. i. 5-3c; Sheḳ. iii. 47c; Agadat Shir ha-Shirim, ed. Schechter, to Cant. vii. 14); he will also bring to light again the hidden vessels of Moses' time (Mek., Beshauah, Wayassa', 5; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 8; comp., however, Num. R. xviii.: "the Messiah will disclose these"); (2) Moses, who will reappear with Elijah (Deut. R. iii.; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42; comp. Ex. R. xviii. and Luke ix. 30); (3) Jeremiah (II Macc. xv. 14; Matt. xvi. 14); (4) Isaiah (II Esd. ii. 18); (5) Baruch (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 8, xiii. 3, xxv. 1, xlvi. 2); (6) Ezra (II Esd. xiv. 9); (7) Enoch (Enoch, xc. 31; Evangelium Nicodemi, xxv.), and others (Luke ix. 8; comp. also Septuagint to Job, end).弥赛亚之间的同伴突出的有:(1)以利亚先知(见利亚在犹太教文学),谁是大祭司傅油弥赛亚(贾斯汀,“dialogus暨tryphone,”八,第四十九届预期;比赛。。。塔尔格给前加大码10。。。约翰一21)。。。来实现以色列的忏悔(pirḳe传译下午XLIII)和留尼汪(targ.层至申命记xxx 4。。Sibyllines,诉187起。),最后是死者复活(yer.沙巴岛5 - 3C型。。石三47C条。。。Agadat事儿公顷Shirim,教育署谢克特,以斜面七14);。他也将带来光再次摩西隐藏船只的时间(Mek.,Beshauah,Wayassa',5;叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,六8;比赛,但是,数量传译十八:。。。。。“弥赛亚会透露这些”); (2)摩西,谁就会重现与以利亚(申命记传译三。。。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔给前十二42;。。。比赛前传译十八和卢克九30。)(3)耶利米(二。排雷十五14;。。马特十六14);。(4)以赛亚(二公共服务电子化二18)。。(5)巴鲁克(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,六八,十三三,二十五一,四十六。。。。。 2),(6)以斯拉(二公共服务电子化十四9)。。(7)伊诺克(伊诺克,越野31;。Evangelium Nicodemi,二十五),以及其他(路加福音第九8;。。比赛也七十来的工作,结束。 )。The "four smiths" in the vision of Zech.“四铁匠”的撒加利亚愿景。ii.二。3 (i. 20, RV) were referred by the Rabbis to the four chiefs, or associates, of the Messianic time; Elijah and the Messiah, Melchizedek and the "Anointed for the War" (Messiah ben Joseph: Pesiḥ. v. 51a; comp. Suk. 55b). 3(一20,RV)的则转交由拉比向四个酋长,或联营公司的救世主的时间;利亚和弥赛亚,麦基洗德和(弥赛亚贲约瑟夫“的战争受膏者”:Pesiḥ诉51。 ;比赛淑55b)。。。The "seven shepherds and the eight princes" (Micah v. 4 [AV 5]) are taken to be: Adam, Seth, Methuselah (Enoch was stricken from the list of the saints in post-Christian times), Abraham, Jacob, and Moses, with David in the middle, forming the set of "shepherds"; Jesse, Saul, Samuel (?), Amos (?), Hezekiah, Zedekiah, Elijah, and the Messiah, forming the set of "princes" (Suk. 52b).“七牧羊人和八王子”(弥五4 [影音5])取为:亚当,塞思,玛土撒拉(以诺是从圣人后基督教时代的清单灾区),亚伯拉罕,雅各,摩西与大卫在中间,形成了“牧羊人”设置;(?)杰西,扫罗,萨穆埃尔,阿莫斯,希西家,西底家,以利亚和弥赛亚,形成了“王子”(淑集(?) 。52B条)。These, fifteen in number, correspond to the fifteen men and women in the company of the Persian Soshians.其中,在15号,对应于十五男女在公司的波斯语soshians妇女。The Coptic Elias Apocalypse (xxxvii., translated by Steindorf), speaks of sixty companions of the Messiah (see Bousset, lcp 221).科普特埃利亚斯启示(xxxvii.,由施泰因多夫译),讲的弥赛亚六十同伴(见Bousset,LCP的221)。

The Messiah of the Tribe of Joseph.该部落的约瑟夫弥赛亚。

The origin and character of the Messiah of the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, are rather obscure.的起源和的约瑟夫,或以法莲支派弥赛亚的性格,是相当模糊的。It seems that the assumed superhuman character of the Messiah appeared to be in conflict with the tradition that spoke of his death, and therefore the figure of a Messiah who would come from the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, instead of from Judah, and who would willingly undergo suffering for his nation and fall as victim in the Gog and Magog war, was createdby the haggadists (see Pesik. R. 37; comp. 34.).看来,承担了弥赛亚超人角色出现冲突与传统,他的死发言,因此,谁的数字弥赛亚将来自约瑟夫,或以法莲支派,而不是从犹大,谁会心甘情愿地接受了他的国家和下降的痛苦如在歌革和玛战争的受害者,被createdby的haggadists(见Pesik河37;。可比34。。)。 To him was referred the passage, "They shall look unto him whom they have pierced and mourn for him" (Zech. xii. 10, Hebr.; Suk. 52a), as well as the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah (see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," lxviii. and xc.; comp. Sanh. 98b, "the Messiah's name is 'The Leper' ['ḥiwwara'; comp. Isa. liii. 4]; the passage quoted in Martini, "Pugio Fidei," p. 417, cited by Gfrörer [lc 267] and others, is scarcely genuine; see Eppstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 26). The older haggadah referred also "the wild ox" who with his horns will "push the people to the ends of the earth" (Deut. xxxiii. 17, Hebr.) to the Ephraimite Messiah (Gen. R. lxxv.; comp. Num. R. xiv.). The Messiah from the tribe of Ephraim falls in the battle with Gog and Magog, whereas the Messiah from the house of David kills the superhuman hostile leader (Angro-mainyush) with the breath of his mouth; then he is universally recognized as king (Suk. 52a; comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xl. 9, 11; Targ. to Isa. xi. 4, Cant. iv. 5; Sefer Zerubbabel, in Jellinek, "BH" ii. 56, where he is introduced with the name of Nehemiah b. Ḥushiel; comp. lc 60 et seq., iii. 80 et seq.).对他来说是一段提到的,“他们要仰望祂就是他们所扎和他的哀悼”(亚十二10,黑布尔。。。淑52A条),以及以赛亚书第五十三届章(见贾斯汀“dialogus暨tryphone”lxviii和XC。。比赛葬身98b。。“弥赛亚的名字是'悦'['ḥiwwara';。比赛赛liii 4。。];中尼引述的推移,”Pugio Fidei“,第417页,由Gfrörer [立法会267]等人指出,这是无法真正见Eppstein,”Bereshit Rabbati“。1888年,第26页)老哈加达还提到的”野牛“谁与他的角将“推人到天涯海角”的以法莲弥赛亚(申命记三十三17,黑布尔。。)(创传译lxxv。。。比赛编号河十四。)从部落的弥赛亚。以法莲的下降,与歌革和玛战斗,而弥赛亚,从大卫家杀死了超人的敌对领导者,而他口中的气(Angro - mainyush),然后,他被普遍承认为国王(淑52A条。比赛塔尔格。也门里亚尔的EX xl的9,11。。。塔尔格到赛十一4,斜面四,五。。。。。之书所罗巴伯,在耶利内克,“波黑”二56,在那里他与尼希米记的名字推出b。 。Ḥushiel;比赛立法会60起,80起第三)。。。。。

"Great will be the suffering the Messiah of the tribe of Ephraim has to undergo for seven years at the hand of the nations, who lay iron beams upon him to crush him so that his cries reach heaven; but he willingly submits for the sake of his people, not only those living, but also the dead, for all those who died since Adam; and God places the four beasts of the heavenly throne-chariot at his disposal to bring about the great work of resurrection and regeneration against all the celestial antagonists" (Pesiḥ. R. 36). “伟大的将是在国家,谁在他身上打下铁梁,粉碎他,使他的呼声达到上天的手痛苦的以法莲支派弥赛亚要经过七年,但他愿意为成全提交他的人民,不仅是生活,而且还死了所有这些谁是亚当死亡;和神地的天上的宝座,他的战车在四活物的处置带来的复活和再生对所有天体的伟大工程拮抗剂“(pesiḥ.传译36)。 The Patriarchs will rise from their graves in Nisan and pay homage to his greatness as the suffering Messiah, and when the nations (104 kingdoms) put him in shackles in the prison-house and make sport of him, as is described in Ps.始祖将从他们的坟墓在尼散祭奠他作为伟大的苦难弥赛亚,当国家(104王国)将在监狱内部束缚他,使他的运动,这在诗描述。 xxii.二十二。8-16, God will address him with the words "Ephraim, My dear son, child of My comfort, I have great compassion on thee" (Jer. xxxi. 20, Hebr.), assuring him that "with the breath of his mouth he shall slay the wicked one" (Isa. xi. 4); and He will surround him with a sevenfold canopy of precious stones, place streams of wine, honey, milk, and balsam at his feet, fan him with all the fragrant breezes of paradise, and then tell the saints that admire and pity him that he has not gone through half the suffering imposed upon him from the world's beginning (Pesiḥ. R. 37). 8-16,神将他的话地址“以法莲,我亲爱的儿子,我安慰的孩子,我对你大慈悲”(耶三十一。20,黑布尔。),向他保证,“与他的气息他嘴里应杀戮恶人之一“(以赛亚书十一4。)以及他将环绕七倍的宝石树冠他,地方流酒,蜂蜜,牛奶和苦瓜在他的脚下,他与所有的风扇香天堂的微风,然后告诉圣徒钦佩和同情他,他没有经过强加给他的一半来自世界各地的开始(pesiḥ.传译37)痛苦了。 The haggadists, however, did not always clearly discriminate between the Ephraimite Messiah, who falls a victim, and the son of David, who is glorified as victor and receives the tributes of the nations (Midr. Teh. xviii. 5, where the former is meant as being the one "insulted" according to Ps. lxxxix. 51 [AV 52]; comp. Targ. Yer. to Num. xi. 26, and Midr. Teh. lxxxvii. 6, where the two Messiahs are mentioned together).The haggadists,然而,并不总是清楚地ephraimite弥赛亚,落在谁是受害者,并且大卫的儿子,谁是美化为胜利者,并在收到国家的贡品(midr.了歧视。十八。五,其中前者是指被称为是一个“侮辱”,根据诗lxxxix 51 [视听52]。。。。比赛塔尔格也门里亚尔为num十一26,Midr The lxxxvii 6个,其中提到两个救世主在一起。。。。。。 )。 According to Tan.据谈。 Yelamdenu, Shofeṭim (end), the nations will first bring tributes to the Messiah; then, seized by a spirit of confusion ("ruaḥ tezazit"), they will rebel and make war against him; but he will burn them with the breath of his mouth and none but Israel will remain (that is, on the battle-field: this is misunderstood by Weber, lc; comp. II Esd. xiii. 9). Yelamdenu,Shofeṭim(完),各国将首先带来的贡品,弥赛亚,然后,抓住一个混乱的精神(“ruaḥtezazit”),他们将反对叛乱,使他的战争,但他会烧他们同呼吸他的嘴,没有但是,以色列将继续(即在战场:。。。这是韦伯,立法会误解;比赛二公共服务电子化十三9)。

In the later apocalyptic literature the Ephraimite Messiah is introduced by the name of Nehemiah ben Ḥushiel, and the victorious Messiah as Menahem ben 'Ammi El ("Comforter, son of the people of God": Jellinek, "BH" ii. 56, 60 et al.).在后来的世界末日文学以法莲弥赛亚是介绍了本Ḥushiel尼希米记的名称,作为梅纳海姆本的茴香萨尔瓦多胜利弥赛亚(“惠,神的人民的儿子”:耶利内克,“波黑”二56,60。等。)。 It appears that the eschatologists were anxious to discriminate between the fourth heathen power personified in Edom (Rome) the wicked, over whom the Ephraimite Messiah alone is destined to carry victory (Pesiḥ. R. 12; Gen. R. lxxiii.; BB 123b), and the Gog and Magog army, over which the son of David was to triumph while the son of Ephraim fell (see Otot ha-Mashiaḥ, Jellinek, lc).看来,eschatologists急于异教徒之间的第四以东(罗马)恶人,人格化权力为谁而以法莲人歧视过弥赛亚单是注定要进行胜利(pesiḥ.传译12;创传译lxxiii。BB心跳123b )和歌革和玛军队,在其中的儿子大卫,是凯旋而以法莲的儿子下降(见Otot夏mashiaḥ,耐克,立法会)。While the fall of the wicked kingdom (Rome) was taken to be the beginning of the rise of the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ. v. 51a), the belief was that between the fall of the empire of Edom = Rome and the defeat of the Gog and Magog army there would be a long interval (see Pesiḥ. xxii. 148a; comp. Pesiḥ. R. 37 [ed. Friedmann, 163b, note]).虽然邪恶王国下跌(罗马)被视为对神的国度(Pesiḥ.诉51)开始兴起,信仰是之间的罗马帝国以东=下降和失败的gog和玛军队将有一个较长的时间(见Pesiḥ二十二148A条。。比赛Pesiḥ河37 [海关弗里德曼,163b,请注意。]。。)。

According to R. Eliezer of Modin (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 4 [ed. Weiss, p. 58b, note]), the Messiah is simply to restore the reign of the Davidic dynasty ("malkut bet Dawid"; comp. Maimonides, Commentary to Sanh. xi.: "The Messiah, the son of David, will die, and his son and grandson will follow him"; on the other hand, Baḥya ben Joseph in his commentary to Gen. xi. 11 says: "The Messiah will not die"); also "the Aaronitic priesthood and Levitic service."根据河的莫丁埃利泽(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,Wayassa',4 [。教育署魏斯,第58B条,注]),弥赛亚是简单地恢复大卫王朝的统治(“malkut打赌dawid”;比赛。。。迈蒙尼德,评注葬身阵容:“弥赛亚,大卫的儿子,会死,他的儿子和孙子会追随他”;另一方​​面,巴希耶伊本约瑟夫在他的评论以将军溪11说。 :“弥赛亚不会死”);也是“aaronitic神职人员和Levitic服务。”

The New Jerusalem.新耶路撒冷。

The apocalyptic writers and many rabbis who took a less sober view of the Messianic future expected a new Jerusalem built of sapphire, gold, and precious stones, with gates, walls, and towers of wondrous size and splendor (Tobit xiii. 15, xiv. 4; Rev. xxi. 9-21; Sibyllines, iii. 657 et seq., v. 250 et seq., 420 et seq.; BB 75a; Pes. 50a; Pesiḥ. xx. 143a; Pesiḥ. R. 32; Midr. Teh. lxxxvii.; in accordance with Isa. liv. 11 et seq., lx. 10; Hag. ii. 7; Zech. ii. 8).世界末日作家和许多拉比谁花了救世主的未来预期少清醒的看法耶路撒冷兴建一个新的蓝宝石,黄金和宝石的大门,围墙,以及奇妙的规模和辉煌塔(以Tobit十三。15日,十四。 4;启示录二十一9-21。sibyllines,三657起,案250起,420起。。。。BB心跳75A条;瘟50A条。。Pesiḥ二十143a。Pesiḥ河32。 Midr的lxxxvii。。。。按照伊萨丽芙11起,10勒克斯;。。。。黑格二第7。撒加利亚二8)。。。The "new" or "upper Jerusalem" (; Ta'an 5a; Ḥag. 12b; Test. Patr., Dan. 5; Rev. xxi. 2, 10; Gal. iv. 26; Heb. xii. 22) seen in visions by Adam, Abraham, and Moses (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, iv. 2-6) will in the days of the Messiah appear in all its splendor (II Esd. vii. 26, x. 50 et seq.; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxxii. 4); it will be reared upon the top of all the mountains of the earth piled one upon the other (Pesiḥ. xxi. 144b, after Isa. ii. 2).“新”或“上耶路撒冷”(; Ta'an 5A条,女巫12B条;。。测试Patr,丹5。。启示录二十一,二,10;。加尔四26;。。希伯来书十二22。。)阅读由亚当,亚伯拉罕,摩西(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,四2-6。。)愿景将在弥赛亚的日子在其所有的辉煌(二公共服务电子化出现七26,十50起。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C 。巴鲁克,三十二4)。这将是在全地球的山顶上堆积饲养后,其他(Pesiḥ.二十一人144b,伊萨后二2)。。。。

This expectation of course includes a "heavenly temple," "miḳdash shel ma'alah" (Enoch, xc. 29 et seq.; comp. Ḥag. lc; Pes. 54, after Jer. xvii. 12).这当然期望有一个“天坛”,“miḳdash谢尔ma'alah”(伊诺克,越野29起。。比赛女巫立法会;。。瘟54,后耶十七12。。。)。 The more sober view is that the Messiah will replace the polluted temple with a pure and holy one (Enoch, liii. 6, xc. 28, xci. 13; Sibyllines, iii. 77b; Psalms of Solomon xvii. 30; comp. Lev. R. ix.: "Coming from the North, the Messiah will erect the temple in the South").越是清醒的看法是,弥赛亚将取代一个纯洁和神圣的一(伊诺克,liii污染寺6,越野28 xci 13。。。sibyllines,三,77B的。所罗门十七诗篇30;。比赛列弗。 。河九:。“来自北方,弥赛亚将竖立在南寺”)。The sacred vessels of the Tabernacle of Moses' time, hidden ever since, are expected to reappear (II Macc. ii. 4-8; Syriac Apoc. Baruch, vi. 7-10; Tosef., Soṭah, xiii. 1; apocryphical Masseket Kelim; Yoma 52b; Tan., Wayeḥi, ed. Buber, 3; comp. Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 4, § 1).对摩西的时候幕神圣的船只,隐藏以来,预计将再现(二排雷二4-8;。。。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,六7-10。Tosef,Soṭah,十三1;。。apocryphical Masseket凯利姆;山脉52B条;谈,Wayeḥi编布伯,3;。。。比赛约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十八4 § 1)。。There will be no sin any more, for "the Lord will shake the land of Israel andcleanse it from all impurity" (Pirḳe R. El. xxxiv. 21, after Job xxxviii. 13).将不会有任何罪以上,而“上帝会动摇以色列的土地andcleanse它的一切污秽”(pirḳe传译下午。三十四。21,作业完成后三十八。13)。 The Messianic time will be without merit ["zekut"] and without guilt ["ḥobah"] (Shab. 151b).救世主的时候将没有法律依据[“zekut”]和没有罪恶感[“ḥobah”](Shab. 151b)。Yet "only the select ones will be allowed to go up to the new Jerusalem" (BB 75b).然而,“只选择那些将被允许进入到新的耶路撒冷”号(BB剥夺32)。

A. New Law.答:新税法。

Whereas the Babylonian schools took it for granted that the Mosaic law, and particularly the sacrificial and priestly laws, will be fully observed in the Messianic time (Yoma 5b et al.), the view that a new Law of God will be proclaimed by the Messiah is occasionally expressed (Eccl. R. ii. 1; Lev. R. xiii., according to Jer. xxxi. 32)-"the thirty commandments" which comprise the Law of humanity (Gen. R. xcviii.).而巴比伦的学校把它理所当然地认为,镶嵌法,特别是祭祀和司铎的法律,将完全在救世主的时间(山脉5B条等。)的观察,认为上帝的新法律将被宣布由弥赛亚是偶尔表达(传道书河二1;列夫河十三,根据耶三十一32。。。。。) - “第三戒律”,这包括人类法(创传译时候正好。)。"Ye will receive a new Law from the Elect One of the righteous" (Targ. to Isa. xii. 3). “你们将得到互选一人的正义的新法律”(Targ.到伊萨。十二。3)。The Holy One will expound the new Law to be given by the Messiah (Yalḳ. ii. 296, to Isa. xxvi.); according to Pes.圣地之一,阐述了新的法律将被给予弥赛亚(Yalḳ.二296,以赛二十六。。。),据瘟。xii.十二。107a, He will only infuse new ideas ("ḥiddush debarim"); or the Messiah will take upon himself the kingdom of the Law and make many zealous followers thereof (Targ. to Isa. ix. 5 et seq., and Iiii. 11-12). 107a,他只注入新的想法(“ḥiddushdebarim”),或根据自己的弥赛亚将采取法律的王国,让很多热心的追随者零件(Targ.赛第九至5起,并至三11。。。。 -12)。"There will be a new covenant which shall not be broken" (Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, ii., after Jer. xxxi. 32).“将会有一个新的盟约,不得被打破”(Sifra,Beḥuḳḳotai,二。后哲。三十一。32)。The dietary and purity laws will no longer be in force (Lev. R. xxii.; Midr. Teh. cxlvii., ed. Buber, note; R. Joseph said: "All ceremonial laws will be abrogated in the future" [Nid. 61b]; this, however, refers to the time of the Resurrection). 。。。。。法律的饮食和纯洁性将不再生效(lev.传译二十二; Midr的cxlvii,教育署布伯说明;河约瑟夫说:[安居“所有仪式的法律将在未来废止” 。61B条]然而,这是指复活的时间)。

Resurrection formed part of the Messianic hope (Isa. xxiv. 19; Dan. xii. 2).复活组成部分的救世主的希望(以赛亚书24 19;。丹第十二2。。)。Martyrs for the Law were specially expected to share in the future glory of Israel (II Macc. vii. 6, 9, 23; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 30), the term for having a share in the future life being "to inherit the land" (Ḳid. i. 10).为法律烈士是专门预计份额在以色列未来的辉煌(二排雷七6,9,23岁;。。。的jubilees,二十三书30),因在未来生活中的份额作为长期“继承土地“(Ḳid.一10)。 The Resurrection was therefore believed to take place solely in the Holy Land (Pesiḥ. R. 1; the "land of the living" in Ps. cxvi. 9 means "the land where the dead live again").复活因此认为只发生在圣地(pesiḥ.传译1。在PS的“居住地”cxvi 9的意思是“土地,在那里死人活一次。”)。 Jerusalem alone is the city whose dead will blossom forth as the grass, for those buried elsewhere will be compelled to creep through holes in the ground to the Holy Land (Ket. 3b; Pesiḥ. R. lc).耶路撒冷仅是城市,其死也将百花齐放当青草规定,对于那些埋在其他地方将被迫爬在地下通孔的圣地(Ket. 3B的。Pesiḥ河立法会)。From this point of view the Resurrection is accorded only to Israel (Gen. R. xiii.).从这个角度来看,复活是只向以色列(创传译十三。)。The great trumpet blown to gather the tribes of Israel (Isa. xxvii. 13) will also rouse the dead (Ber. 15b; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 15; II Esd. iv. 23 et seq.; I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16). (。以赛亚书二十七13)伟大的号角吹到招聚以色列的部落也将振奋死亡(Ber. 15B条。塔尔格也门里亚尔给前二十15。。。二,四,可持续发展教育23起。。。我肺心病。十五52;。帖前四16)。。。

Resurrection formed part of the Messianic hope (Isa. xxiv. 19; Dan. xii. 2).复活组成部分的救世主的希望(以赛亚书24 19;。丹第十二2。。)。Martyrs for the Law were specially expected to share in the future glory of Israel (II Macc. vii. 6, 9, 23; Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 30), the term for having a share in the future life being "to inherit the land" (Ḳid. i. 10).为法律烈士是专门预计份额在以色列未来的辉煌(二排雷七6,9,23岁;。。。的jubilees,二十三书30),因在未来生活中的份额作为长期“继承土地“(Ḳid.一10)。 The Resurrection was therefore believed to take place solely in the Holy Land (Pesiḥ. R. 1; the "land of the living" in Ps. cxvi. 9 means "the land where the dead live again").复活因此认为只发生在圣地(pesiḥ.传译1。在PS的“居住地”cxvi 9的意思是“土地,在那里死人活一次。”)。 Jerusalem alone is the city whose dead will blossom forth as the grass, for those buried elsewhere will be compelled to creep through holes in the ground to the Holy Land (Ket. 3b; Pesiḥ. R. lc).耶路撒冷仅是城市,其死也将百花齐放当青草规定,对于那些埋在其他地方将被迫爬在地下通孔的圣地(Ket. 3B的。Pesiḥ河立法会)。From this point of view the Resurrection is accorded only to Israel (Gen. R. xiii.).从这个角度来看,复活是只向以色列(创传译十三。)。The great trumpet blown to gather the tribes of Israel (Isa. xxvii. 13) will also rouse the dead (Ber. 15b; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 15; II Esd. iv. 23 et seq.; I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16). (。以赛亚书二十七13)伟大的号角吹到招聚以色列的部落也将振奋死亡(Ber. 15B条。塔尔格也门里亚尔给前二十15。。。二,四,可持续发展教育23起。。。我肺心病。十五52;。帖前四16)。。。

The Last Judgment precedes the Resurrection.最后的审判之前的复活。Judged by the Messiah, the nations with their guardian angels and stars shall be cast into Gehenna.由弥赛亚来看,他们的守护天使和星星的国家将被丢到地狱。According to Rabbi Eleazar of Modi'im, in answer to the protests of the princes of the seventy-two nations, God will say, "Let each nation go through the fire together with its guardian deity," when Israel alone will be saved (Cant. R. ii. 1).据在回答拉比Modi'im埃莱亚萨,到了七十二个国家的王子的抗议,上帝会说,“让每一个国家经火其守护神,一起”当以色列单独将被保存(斜面。河二。1)。 This gave rise to the idea adopted by Christianity, that the Messiah would pass through Hades (Test. Patr., Benjamin, 9; Yalḳ., Isa. 359; see Eppstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 31).这引起了基督教通过的想法,即弥赛亚将穿过地狱(Test. Patr,本杰明,9岁;。Yalḳ,伊萨359。。看到Eppstein,“Bereshit Rabbati,”1888年,第31页)。The end of the judgment of the heathen is the establishment of the kingdom of God (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ).该判决的异教徒到底是神的国度(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,'亚玛力)的建立。The Messiah will cast Satan into Gehenna, and death and sorrow flee forever (Pesiḥ. R. 36; see also Antichrist; Armilus; Belial).弥赛亚会投入地狱撒旦,死亡和悲伤逃离永远(pesiḥ.传译36;另见箴; Armilus;恶魔)。

In later times the belief in a universal Resurrection became general.在稍后的时间在一个普遍的复活的信仰很普遍。"All men as they are born and die are to rise again," says Eliezer ben Ḳappar (Abotiv.). “所有的人,因为他们的诞生和死亡的再次上升,说:”埃利泽贲凯谱(Abotiv.)。The Resurrection will occur at the close of the Messianic era (Enoch, xcviii. 10).复活将发生在救世主的时代结束(伊诺克,时候正好。10)。Death will befall the Messiah after his four hundred years' reign, and all mankind and the world will lapse into primeval silence for seven days, after which the renewed earth will give forth its dead and God will judge the world and assign the evil-doers to the pit of hell and the righteous to paradise, which is on the opposite side (II Esd. vii. 26-36).死亡会降临后,他的四百年'在位弥赛亚,全人类,世界将进入失效七天,之后将提出新的地球原始沉默的死亡,上帝会审判世界,并指派恶人到了地狱坑和天堂,而在另一侧是正义的(二公共服务电子化。七。26-36)。 All evildoers meet with everlasting punishment.所有的恶会见永远的惩罚。It was a matter of dispute between the Shammaite R. Eliezer and the Hillelite R. Joshua whether the righteous among the heathen had a share in the future world or not (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2), the dispute hinging on the verse "the wicked shall return to Sheol, and all the Gentiles that forget God" (Ps. ix. 18 [AV 17], Hebr.).这是一个与Shammaite河埃利泽和R.约书亚的Hillelite争议事项是否在列国中义曾在未来世界的份额或没有(Tosef.,葬身。十三。2),争议的诗句链接超“恶人将回到阴间,所有的外邦人,就是忘记神”(诗九。18 [视听17],黑布尔。)。The doctrine "All Israelites have a share in the world to come" (Sanh. xi. 1) is based upon Isa.该学说:“所有以色列人在未来世界出一分力”(Sanh.十一。1)在基于ISA。Ix.九。21: "Thy people, all of them righteous, shall inherit the land" (Hebr.).21:“你的人,他们都是正义的,应继承土地”(Hebr.)。 At first resurrection was regarded as a miraculous boon granted only to the righteous (Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; Luke xiv. 14), but afterward it was considered to be universal in application and connected with the Last Judgment (Slavonic Enoch, lxvi. 5; comp. second blessing of the "Shemoneh 'Esreh").在第一次复活被视为一种神奇的实惠只给予正义(Test. Patr,西麦,6;。路加福音十四14。),但后来它被认为是普遍适用,并与最后的审判(斯拉夫伊相连, lxvi 5。可比的“Shemoneh'Esreh”第二次祝福)。。Whether the process of the formation of the body at the Resurrection is the same as at birth is a matter of dispute between the Hillelites and Shammaites (Gen. R. xiv.; Lev. R. xiv.).无论是在复活的身体在形成过程是一样的,出生时是该hillelites之间的争议事项和Shammaites(创传译十四;。。。列夫河十四)。 For the state of the soul during the death of the body see Immortality and Soul.对于灵魂的过程中看到的身体和灵魂不朽的死亡状态。

Regeneration of the World.再生的世界。

Owing to the gradual evolution of eschatological conceptions, the Rabbis used the terms, "'olam ha-ba" (the world to come), "le-'atid la-bo" (in the coming time), and "yemot ha-Mashiaḥ" (the Messianic days) promiscuously or often without clear distinction (see Geiger, "Lesestücke aus der Mischnah," p. 41; idem, "Jüd. Zeit." iii. 159, iv. 124).由于对末世论的观念逐步演变,拉比所使用的词语,“'奥兰公顷巴”(未来世界),“乐'atid腊波”(在未来的时间)和“yemot夏, Mashiaḥ“(救世主天)胡乱地或经常没有明显的区别(见盖格,”Lesestücke澳大利亚明镜Mischnah。。“第41页;同上,”士宰特“三159,四124。。)。 Thus, for instance, the question is discussed whether there will be death for the Gentiles "in the coming time" or not (Gen. R. xxvi.).因此,举例来说,问题是讨论是否会有死亡的外邦人“在未来的时间”或没有(创传译二十六。)。 R. Eleazar of Modi'im, of the second century (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', ed. Weiss, p. 59, note) distinguishes between the Messianic time("malkut bet Dawid"), the "'olam ha-ba" (the future world), which is that of the souls, and the time of the Resurrection, which he calls "'olam ḥadash" (the new world, or world of regeneration).的R. Modi'im埃莱亚萨,'区别(主编。魏斯,第59页,注意在救世主的时间(“malkut打赌dawid”)的“第二世纪Mek.,Beshallaḥ,Wayassa)'奥兰公顷巴“(未来世界),这就是灵魂,和复活,他称之为一次”'奥兰ḥadash“(新的世界,还是世界的再生)。 This term, used also in the "Ḳaddish" prayer "Le-Ḥadata 'Alma" (The Renewal of the World), is found in Matt.这个词,用在“ḳaddish的”祈祷“乐Ḥadata阿尔玛”(世界重建)也被发现在马特。xix.十九。28 under the Greek name παλινγένεσις: "In the regeneration when the Son of Man shall sit on the throne of his glory" and judge the world in common with the twelve Apostles (for the last words see the twelve judges for the twelve tribes of Israel in Testament of Abraham, A. 13, and compare the seventy elders around the seat of God in heaven in Lev. R. xi.)根据希腊名字28παλινγένεσις:“在复兴的时候,人子坐在他荣耀的宝座”,判断与十二使徒的共同世界(最后的话看到以色列十二支派的十二法官在亚伯拉罕,答:13日,约,比较周围的神在天上的座位在列弗。河十一大的七十个长老)。

Concerning this regeneration of the world Pirḳe R. El.对于这个世界pirḳe传译下午再生。i.says, with reference to Isa.说,参照伊萨。xxxiv.三十四。4, li.4,李。6, lxv.6,第六十五。17; Hosea vi.17;何西阿六。 2: "Heaven and earth, as well as Israel, shall be renewed; the former shall be folded together like a book or a garment and then unfolded,and Israel, after having tasted death, shall rise again on the third day." 2:“天,地,以及以色列,则新的,前者应折叠像一本书或成衣在一起,然后展开,以色列,尝到死亡后,应在第三日上升了。”"All the beauty of the world which vanished owing to Adam's sin, will be restored in the time of the Messiah, the descendant of Perez [Gen. R. xii.]-the fertility of the earth, the wondrous size of man [Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, 1-2], the splendor of sun and moon" (Isa. xxx. 26; Targ. to II Sam. xxiii. 4; comp. Apoc. Mosis, 36). “所有的消失而由于亚当的罪恶世界,美将恢复在弥赛亚,佩雷斯后裔时间[创传译十二。] -地球,人类[Sifra奇妙大小的生育,Beḥuḳḳotai1-2],太阳和月亮“的辉煌(。以赛亚书三十26;塔尔格到二山姆二十三4;。。。比赛载脂蛋白C Mosis,36。。)。Ten things shall be renewed (according to Ex. R. xv.; comp. Tan., Wayiggash, ed. Buber, 9): The sun and moon shall regain their splendor, the former endowed with healing powers (Mal. iii. 20 [AV iv. 2]); the fountains of Jerusalem shall flow, and the trees grow (Ezek. xlvii. 12); desolate cities like Sodom shall rise from their ruins (Ezek. xvi. 55); Jerusalem, rebuilt of precious stones, shall shine like the sun (Isa. liv. 11 et seq.); peace shall reign among the beasts (Isa. xi. 7); and between them and Israel (Hosea ii. 20 [AV 18]); weeping and death shall cease (Isa. 1xv. 19, xxv. 8-10); joy only shall reign (Isa. xxxv. 10); the "yeẓer ha-ra'" (evil desire) shall be slain by God (Suk. 52a).这十件事情应更新(根据前河十五;比赛谈,Wayiggash编布伯,9。。。。。):太阳和月亮应恢复其辉煌,具有得天独厚的自愈能力(原玛三20。 [影音四第2。]);耶路撒冷的喷泉都要流,树木生长(结四十七12)。荒凉的城邑必像所多玛上升,从废墟(结十六55)。耶路撒冷,重建的宝石应明亮如太阳(以赛亚丽芙11起。。);平安,必在野兽统治(以赛亚十一7。)之间以及它们与以色列(何西阿二20 [视听18]。)哭泣和死亡应当停止(以赛亚1xv 19日,二十五8-10。。);喜悦,只应元年(以赛亚书三十五10。)的“yeẓer公顷岭'”(邪恶的欲望)应被神(淑52)被杀。This regeneration of the world is to be brought about by a world-conflagration ("mabbul shel esh" = "a floor of fire" = ἐκπύρωσις: Sibyllines, iii. 542, 689; iv. 174; ii. 296; Hippolytus, "Refutatio Omnium Hæresium," ix. 30).这个世界的再生所带来的世界大火约(“mabbul谢尔的ESH”=“一个火楼”=ἐκπύρωσις:sibyllines,三,542,689,四174;二296,西波吕,“。。。 Refutatio Omnium公司Hæresium,“九。30)。This view, borrowed from the Stoics, is based upon Isa.这一观点,从斯多葛借来的,是根据伊萨。xxxiv.三十四。4 (comp. Bousset, "Der Antichrist," p. 159).4(可比Bousset,“明镜箴”,第159页)。In this world-conflagration Belial himself will be consumed (Sibyllines, iii. 73; compare the burning up of the primeval serpent Gohithar in Bundahis, xxx. 31).在这个世界上,大火恶魔本人也将被消耗掉(sibyllines,三73;。比较烧起来的原始蛇Gohithar在Bundahis了XXX 31。)。Thus the fire of Gehenna which consumes the wicked angels and the stars (Enoch, xc. 24 et seq., et al.) was turned into a cosmic force bringing about the world's renewal.因此,火灾所消耗的地狱邪恶天使和星星(伊诺克,越野。24起。,等。),变成了宇宙对世界的重建带来力量。

The Last Judgment.最后的审判。

The Messianic kingdom, being at best of mere earthly splendor, could not form the end, and so the Great Judgment was placed at its close and following the Resurrection.弥赛亚的王国,善于单纯的人间辉煌最好的,不能形成的结局,然后在大审判被放置在其关闭,之后复活。Those that would not accept the belief in bodily resurrection probably dwelt with greater emphasis on the judgment of the souls after death (see Abraham, Testament of; Philo; Sadducees; Wisdom, Book of).那些不会接受身体复活,可能与更大的死后的灵魂住判决强调信仰(见亚伯拉罕,全书的;斐洛,撒都该人,智慧,书)。Jewish eschatology combined the Resurrection with the Last Judgment: "God summons the soul from heaven and couples it again on earth with the body to bring man to judgment" (Sanh. 91b, after Ps. l. 4).犹太末世论相结合,与最后的审判复活:“上帝召唤它从天上和夫妻双方再次在地球上的灵魂与身体,使男人的判断”(Sanh. 91b后,诗湖4。)。In the tenth week, that is, the seventh millennium, in the seventh part, that is, after the Messianic reign, there will be the great eternal judgment, to be followed by a new heaven with the celestial powers in sevenfold splendor (Enoch, xci. 15; comp. lxxxiv. 4, xciv. 9, xcviii. 10, civ. 5).在第十周,即第七项千年,在第七部分,也就是救世主的统治后,将会有很大的永恒的判断,由一个在七倍辉煌(伊诺克新天堂的天体权力之后, xci 15;。比赛lxxxiv 4,xciv 9,时候正好10,持续输注5)。。。。。。On "the day of the Great Judgment" angels and men alike will be judged, and the books opened in which the deeds of men are recorded (lxxxi. 4, lxxxix. 70 et seq., xc. 20, ciii. 3 et seq., civ. 1, cviii. 3) for life or for death; books in which all sins are written down, and the treasures of righteousness for the righteous, will be opened on that day (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxiv. 1).在天使和男人一样“的大审判日”,将审判,案卷中打开人的事迹被记录(lxxxi. 4,lxxxix。70起。,越野。20 ciii。三起。,持续输注1,cviii 3)生活或死亡。。在所有的罪过都写下来的书籍,为义义的宝藏,将开放的这一天(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C巴鲁克,二十四1)。。 。"All the secret thoughts of men will then be brought to light."“所有的男人秘密的想法将被揭露。”"Not long-suffering and mercy, but rigid justice, will prevail in this Last Judgment"; Gehenna and Paradise will appear opposite each other for the one or the other to enter (II Esd. vii. 33 et seq.). “没有长期的痛苦和怜悯,但呆板的公平,将在这最后的判决为准”;地狱和天堂会出现相反的对方的一个或另一个进入(二公共服务电子化七33起。。。)。

This end will come "through no one but God alone" (ib. vi. 6).本月底将出现“通过任何人,但只有上帝”(ib.六。6)。"No longer will time be granted for repentance, or for prayer and intercession by saints and prophets, but the Only One will give decision according to His One Law, whether for life or for everlasting destruction" (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxxv. 9-12). “不再将时间给予悔过书,或为祈祷和圣徒与先知的调解,但只有一个会给予他的一个决定,根据法律,无论是对永恒的生命或毁灭”(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。巴鲁克,捌拾伍9。 -12)。The righteous ones will be recorded in the Book of Life (Book of Jubilees, xxx. 22, xxxvi. 10; Abot ii. 1; "Shepherd of Hermas," i. 32; Luke x. 20; Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xx. 15).义的人将被记录在生命之书(书jubilees了XXX,22,三十六10;。。。Abot二1;“的牧人,”岛32;路加福音十20;。牧师三5十三。8,第xx。15)。 The righteous deeds and the sins will be weighed against each other in the scales of justice (Pesiḥ. R. 20; Ḳid. 40b).义人的事迹和罪孽将权衡彼此的正义天平(pesiḥ.传译20。孩子40B条)。According to the Testament of Abraham (A. xiii.), there are two angels, one on either side: one writes down the merits, the other the demerits, while Doḳiel, the archangel, weighs the two kinds against each other in a balance; and another, Pyroel ("angel of fire"), tries the works of men by fire, whether they are consumed or not; then the just souls are carried among the saved ones; those found unjust, among those who will meet their punishment.根据亚伯拉罕(。答:十三)约,有两个天使,一边一个:一个写下来的优点,其他的缺点,而Doḳiel,天使长,重量平衡,对每一个其他两种以及另一名,Pyroel(“火天使”),试图用火的人的作品,无论是消费或没有;则属于正义的灵魂得救的人进行的;发现在那些不公正的,谁将会满足他们的处罚。 Those whose merits and demerits are equal remain in a middle state, and the intercession of meritorious men such as Abraham saves them and brings them into paradise (Testament of Abraham, A. xiv.).那些优点和缺点都是平等的一个中间状态仍然存在,对有功的人如亚伯拉罕和调解节省了他们带入天堂(亚伯拉罕,甲十四约。)。 According to the sterner doctrine of the Shammaites, these souls must undergo a process of purgation by fire; "they enter Gehenna, swing themselves up again, and are healed."根据该Shammaites严厉的教义,这些灵魂必须经过净化处理的火;“。他们进入地狱,再次摆自己,并治愈” This view, based upon Zech.这种观点认为,根据撒加利亚基础。xiii.十三。9, seems to be something like the Christian purgatory.9,似乎是像基督教炼狱东西。According to the Hillelites, "He who is plenteous in mercy inclines the scale of justice toward mercy"-a view which shows (against Gunkel, "Der Prophet Ezra," 1900, p. 15) that Judaism believed in divine mercy independently of the Pauline faith (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3).据该hillelites,“谁倾斜丰盛的怜悯慈悲的对正义的规模”- a查看,显示(和贡克尔,“明镜先知以斯拉,”1900年,第15页),犹太教相信独立的神圣慈悲宝莲信仰(Tosef.,葬身。十三。3)。As recorder of the deeds of men in the heavenly books, "Enoch, the scribe of righteousness," is mentioned in Testament of Abraham, xi.; Lev.作为在圣书的人的事迹记录,“以诺,文士的正义”中提到的亚伯拉罕,十一全书。列弗。 R. xiv.河十四。has Elijah and the Messiah as heavenly recorders, a survival of the national Jewish eschatology.有以利亚和弥赛亚作为天朝录音机,一个国家的犹太末世生存。


There is no Scriptural basis for the belief in retribution for the soul after death; this was supplied by the Babylonians and Persians, and received a Jewish coloring from the word "Gehinnom" (the valley of Hinnom), made detestable by the fires of the Moloch sacrifices of Manasseh (II Kings xxiii. 10).有没有报应的灵魂在死后圣经信仰的基础,这是供应的巴比伦人和波斯人,并收到来自单词“Gehinnom”犹太着色(欣嫩谷),取得可恨由火灾火神牺牲玛拿西(二国王二十三。10)。 According to 'Er.根据'呃。 19a, the smoke from subterranean fires came up through the earth in this place; "there are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers and of those who work wickedness and pervert the words of the Prophets" (Enoch, cviii. 6). 19A条,大火浓烟从地下上来,通过在地球上这个地方,“有投罪人和blasphemers和那些谁邪恶和妨碍工作的先知所说的话的精神”(伊诺克,cviii 6。)。Gehinnom has a double purpose, annihilation (Enoch, xciv. 1 et seq.) and eternal pain (II Esd. vii. 36 et seq.). Gehinnom有双重目的,湮灭(伊诺克,xciv。1起。)和永远的痛(二公共服务电子化。七。36起。)。Gehinnom has seven names: "Sheol," "Abbadon," "Pit of Corruption," "Horrible Pit," "Mire of Clay," "Shadow of Death," and "Nether Parts of the Earth" (Jonah ii. 3; Ps. lxxxviii. 12 [AV 11], xvi. 10, xl. 3 [AV 2], cvii. 14; Ezek. xxvi. 20). Gehinnom有七个名字:。“阴间”,“Abbadon”,“腐败坑”,“可怕的坑”,“粘土沼泽”,“死亡阴影”和“幽冥的地球”(约拿第二部分3; 。诗lxxxviii 12 [视听11],十六10,加大三[影音2],cvii 14;。。。。以西结书二十六20)。。。It is also called "Tophet" (Isa. xxx. 33).它也被称作“陀斐特”(以赛亚书三十。33)。It has seven departments, one beneath the other (Soṭah 10b).它有七个部门,下方的其他(Soṭah10B条)之一。There are seven kinds of pains (II Esd. vii. 81 et seq.).有七种疼痛(二公共服务电子化。七。81起。)。According to rabbinical tradition, thieves are condemned to fill an unfillable tank; the impure sink into a quagmire; thosethat sinned with the tongue are suspended thereby; some are suspended by the feet, hair, or eyelids; others eat hot coals and sand; others are devoured by worms, or placed alternately in snow and fire.根据犹太教的传统,小偷的人注定要填补unfillable罐;陷入泥潭的不纯汇; thosethat用舌头被暂停,从而犯了罪,有些人的脚,头发,或眼睑暂停;别人吃热煤和砂,其他正在吞噬蠕虫,或置于火中雪和交替。On Sabbath they are respited (see Dumah).他们在安息日respited(见度玛)。These conceptions, ascribed chiefly to Joshua ben Levi, have their parallel in the apocalyptic literature appropriated by the Christian Church (see Gehenna).这些观念,主要归因于对约书亚本列维,也有他们的基督教教会中拨出的世界末日文学(见地狱)并行。The punishment of the wicked endures twelve months, according to R. Akiba; the generation of the Flood will in time be released (Gen. R. xxviii.), but the punishment of those who have led others into heresy or dealt treacherously against the Law will never cease (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 5).该十二个月惩罚恶人等外,根据传译秋叶;的洪水一代将在日后公布(创传译二十八。),但这些谁导致他人或处理成异端对背信弃义的惩罚法将永不停止(Tosef.,葬身。十三。5)。

Gan 'Eden.甘'伊甸园。

The Garden of Eden is called the "Garden of Righteousness" (Enoch, xxxii. 3), being no longer an earthly paradise (ib. lx. 8, lxi. 12, lxx. 3).伊甸园的是所谓的“正义之花园”(伊诺克,三十二。3),已经不再是一个人间天堂(同上勒克斯。八,LXI的。12,LXX的。3)。 It is above the earth, and its inhabitants are "clothed with garments of light and eternal life, and eat of the tree of life" (ib. lviii. 3) in the company of the Lord and His anointed.它是在地球上空,它的居民是“有光明和永生穿衣服,吃的生命树”(同上lviii。三)在上帝和他的受膏者公司。 In Slavonic Enoch its place is in the third heaven; its four streams pour out honey and milk, oil and wine (compare Sibyllines, ii. 318).在斯拉夫伊取而代之的是在第三天堂,它的四流倾诉蜂蜜和牛奶,油,酒(比较Sibyllines,二318。)。It is prepared for the "righteous who suffer innocently, who do works of benevolence and walk without blame before God."它准备为“正义谁无辜受害,谁的作品,善走,没有责怪上帝面前。”It has been created since the beginning of the world, and will appear suddenly at the Judgment Day in all its glory (II Esd. vi.; comp. Pes. 54a).它已创建以来,世界开始,将出现在审判日突然在其所有的荣耀(二公共服务电子化六;。。比赛瘟54A条。。)。The righteous dwell in those heights where they enjoy the sight of the heavenly "ḥayyot" that carry God's throne (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, li. 11).在这些高峰,他们享受的天堂“活物”的执行上帝的宝座视线正义住(叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。巴鲁克,李。11)。As the wicked have a sevenfold pain the righteous have a sevenfold joy (II Esd. vii. 88 et seq.).由于恶人有七倍疼痛正义有七倍的喜悦(二公共服务电子化。七。88起。)。There are seven divisions for the righteous, which shine like the sun (Judges v. 31; comp. Matt. xiii. 43), the moon (Ps. lxxxix. 37), the firmament (Dan. xii. 3), lightnings, torches (Nahum ii. 5 [AV 4]), and lilies (Ps. xlv. 1, Hebr.).有七个部门的正义,就像阳光照(法官诉31;。。。比赛马特十三43),月亮(。诗篇lxxxix 37),苍穹(。Dan.十二3),闪电,火炬(内厄姆二。5 [影音4]),百合(诗篇四十五。1,黑布尔。)。Each of these divisions is placed differently before the face of God.这些部门均放在不同在上帝的脸。Each of the righteous will have a mansion, and God will walk with them and lead them in a dance (Yer. Meg. ii. 73b).义人的每个都有一个家,而神会与他们走,带领他们的舞蹈(yer.梅格。二。514 131)。See Eden, Garden of.见伊甸园的花园。

The Banquet.夜宴。

According to Ascensio Isaiæ, viii.据Ascensio Isaiæ,八。26, ix.26日,九​​。18, xi.18日,十一。40, the righteous on the arrival of the Messiah receive in the seventh heaven garments of light as well as crowns and thrones.40,对正义的弥赛亚到来的光接收第七天堂服装以及冠和王座。No small part in the future bliss is played by the eating of the heavenly bread or manna (Sibyllines, Proœmium, 87; Ḥag. 12b; Tan., Beshallaḥ, ed. Buber, p. 21; comp. "the mysterious food," II Esd. ix. 19), the ambrosial milk and honey (Sibyllines, ii. 318, iii. 746), and, according to R. Joshua b.在未来的幸福没有小部分所起的天堂面包或甘露(Sibyllines,Proœmium,87吃。女巫12B条;。谈,Beshallaḥ,布伯版,第21页。可比“神秘的食物”。二,公共服务电子化。九。19),特别美味的牛奶和蜂蜜(Sibyllines,二。318,三。746),并根据传译约书亚乙 Levi, "the wine prepared from the beginning of the world" (Ber. 34b; comp. Matt. xxvi. 29).利维,“从一开始的世界编写的酒”(Ber. 34B条。。比赛马特二十六29。)。The very name for the highest bliss of the future is "the banquet" (Abot iii. 16), which is the same as "sitting at the table of the Messiah" (Rev. xix. 9; Luke xiii. 28-29, xxii. 30, et al.).对于未来的极乐世界最高的名字是“夜宴”,这是因为(启示录十九“在坐在桌子的弥赛亚”相同9(abot三16)。。路加福音第十三28-29。二十二。30,等。)。 It is called in rabbinical literature "se'uddat ha-liwyatan" (the banquet of the leviathan), that is to say, in accordance with Job xl.这就是所谓的犹太文学“se'uddat公顷liwyatan”(即对庞大宴会),即在工作xl的根据。30 (AV xli. 6) the "ha-barim, or pious ones, shall hold their meal over it" (see Leviathan). 30(影音四十一。六)“公顷barim,或虔诚的,应当持有其超过它的饭”(见利维坦)。It seems that the Persian ox, "hadhayos," whose marrow imparts immortality to the eater (Bundahis, xxx. 25), gave rise to the idea of the behemoth and leviathan meal which is dwelt on in Enoch, lx.看来,波斯语牛,“hadhayos”,其骨髓赋予不朽的吃(Bundahis,三十。25),给人们带来的巨兽和利维坦菜式是建立在以诺,lx的住的想法。 7 et seq.; Syriac Apoc. 7起。叙利亚文载脂蛋白C。Baruch, xxix.巴鲁克,第29届。4; II Esd.4;二,公共服务电子化。 vi.六。52; Targ.52;塔尔格。Yer.也门里亚尔。to Num.为num。xi.十一。26, Ps.26,聚苯乙烯。civ.持续输注。26; BB 74b; Tan., Beshallaḥ, at end.26,BB心跳74B条;谈,Beshallaḥ,在年底。。

But while this eudemonistic view is the popular one, based upon Isa.但是,虽然这eudemonistic查看流行的一种,根据基于ISA。lxv.第六十五。13 and Ps.13和聚苯乙烯。xxiii.二十三。5 (Num. R. xxi.), there is also the higher and more spiritual view taught by Rab: "In the world to come there is neither eating, drinking, nor procreation, neither barter nor envy, neither hatred nor strife; but the righteous sit with their crowns on their heads and enjoy the splendor of the Shekinah; for it is said: 'And they saw God and did eat and drink'; that is, their seeing God was meat and drink to them" (Ber. 17a). 5(。num.传译二十一),也有更高,更精神鉴于饶教授:“在未来世界既不存在吃,喝,也没有生育,既不易货贸易也不嫉妒,没有仇恨,也没有冲突,但义人坐在他们头上的冠冕,享受的Shekinah辉煌,因为它是说:'他们看见了上帝,也吃了喝',这就是他们看到上帝是肉类和饮料给他们“(Ber. 17A条)。More characteristic still is the view of Rab's Palestinian contemporary R. Johanan: All the bliss for the future promised by the Prophets refers only to the Messianic time, whereas in regard to that which is in store for the righteous in the world to come it is said: "No eye hath seen it beside thee, O God" (Isa. lxiv. 3 [AV 4]; Ber. 34b; comp., however, Ex. R. xlv., at end, according to which God showed to Moses all the treasures in store for the doers of benevolent works).更具特色的仍然是饶的巴勒斯坦当代河Johanan查看:所有由先知所承诺的未来幸福只是指救世主的时候,而在这方面的商店是为在世界上是正义来说:“没有你的眼睛也看见旁边,阿神”(以赛亚lxiv 3 [影音4]苏贝34B条;比赛,但是,前河第四十五,在年底,根据该神展示给。。。。。摩西的所有的德政工程的实干家财宝在存储)。The New Testament sentence, "Many shall be last [there] that are first [here], and first [there] that are last [here]" (Matt. xix. 30, Greek), finds its explanation in the saying of a son of R. Joshua b.新约一句,“有许多人成为最后的[有]这是第一[这里],先[有]这是最后的[这里]”(太十九。30日,希腊文),认定其在一种说法的解释R的儿子约书亚乙 Levi: "A contrary order of things I have seen in the world beyond: the high in station are low there, the lowly are placed on high" (Ber. 50a).列维:“对我在世界上所出现相反的命令之外的事情:在那里站高是低,卑微的安置在高处”(Ber. 50A条)。

Only in the esoteric Essene circles whence the apocalyptic literature emanated were attempted all the elaborate descriptions of paradise that found their way into the Midrash Konen, the Ma'aseh Gan 'Eden, and similar midrashim of the geonic time given in Jellinek's "BH" ii.只有在深奥厄何处世界末日文学圈所发出的尝试所有的天堂打入了米德拉士Konen的Ma'aseh甘'伊甸园的道路,以及在耶利内克的“波黑”二,由于类似的米大示若尼克时间精心描述。 28, 52 et seq.; iii. 28日,52起;。三。131, 191 et seq.; but these descriptions can be traced through early Christian back to Jewish sources (see "JQR" vii. 595). 131,191起。但这些描述可以通过早期基督教回(见“JQR”七595)。犹太来源追踪。Mystics like Naḥmanides in his "Sha'ar ha-Gemul" adopted these views; Maimonides and his school rejected them.就像在他的“Sha'ar公顷,Gemul”Naḥmanides神秘通过这些看法;迈蒙尼德和他的学校拒绝了他们。The whole eschatological system of retribution through paradise and hell never assumed in Judaism the character of a dogmatic belief, and Talmudic Judaism boldly transferred the scene of the heavenly judgment from the hereafter to the annual Day of Judgment at the beginning of the year (RH 16b; see New-Year).整个系统的报应末世通过天堂与地狱从来没有在承担了犹太教信仰的教条的性格,和塔木德犹太教大胆地转移到了天上以后的判决在审判现场,当天在每年年初(相对湿度16B条见新的一年)。 For Samaritan eschatology see Samaritans.对于撒玛利亚末世见撒玛利亚。The account above deals only with the early stages of the Jewish eschatological views, roughly speaking, down to the end of the Talmudic period.以上仅与犹太eschatological意见的初期交易帐户,粗略地讲,下至塔木德期间结束。For later development and present-day views see Immortality; Judgment, Day of; Messiah; Resurrection.为以后的发展和当今的意见见不朽的判决,日,弥赛亚;复活。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Schürer, Gesch. Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., ii.三维版。,二。496-556, where an extensive literature is given; Bousset, Die Religion des Judenthums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, pp. 199-273, 473-483, Berlin, 1903; Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity, London, 1899; E. Böcklen, Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie, Göttingen, 1902; Hastings, Dict. 496-556,其中给出了详尽的文献,Bousset,模具宗教德Judenthums即时Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter,第199-273,473-483,柏林,1903年,查尔斯,一个在以色列的一个关键的历史学说未​​来生活,在犹太教,基督教和伦敦,1899年;大肠杆菌Böcklen,模具Verwandtschaft明镜Jüdisch - Christlichen麻省理工明镜Parsischen Eschatologie,哥廷根,1902年黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible; Cheyne and Black, Encyc.圣经进益和黑色,Encyc。Bibl.; Hamburger, RBT sv Auferstehung, Wiederbelebung der Todten, Messianische Zeit, Paradies Zukunftsmahl; Weber, System der Altsynagogalen Palestinischen Theologie, pp. 322-386, Leipsic, 1880 (to be consulted with caution); Drummond, Jewish Messiah, London, 1877; P. Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, Leipsic, 1903.K. Bibl。汉堡包,仙踪林希沃特Auferstehung,Wiederbelebung明镜Todten,Messianische宰特,帕拉迪斯Zukunftsmahl,韦伯,系统明镜Altsynagogalen Palestinischen神学,第322-386,普西克,1880年(与谨慎咨询);德拉蒙德,犹太人的弥赛亚,伦敦,1877年;体育福尔茨,Jüdische文学Eschatologie丹尼尔冯双秋叶,普西克,1903.K.

Also, see:此外,见:
Second Coming of Christ耶稣第二次来
Dispensation, Dispensationalism配药, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium意见千年
Last Judgement最后审判
Rapture, Tribulation破裂,磨难
Tribulation, Great Tribulation磨难,伟大的磨难

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