Divine Immanence神圣的内在性 中文 - Zhong Wen

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In philosophy and theology, divine immanence refers to the omnipresence of God in the universe.在哲学和神学,神圣的内涵是指在宇宙中无所不在的神。The theory in its extreme form is Pantheism, in which God and the world are virtually identical. Proponents of Monotheism, however, have tempered the concept of immanence by positing the parallel doctrine of divine Transcendence. Thus, in Judaism and Christianity, God is considered omnipresent and active in human affairs as creator, sustainer, judge, and redeemer, but is also considered elevated above and distinguished from the universe.该表格在其理论极限是泛神论,在上帝和世界的几乎相同。 一神教的支持者,然而,这样的超越神圣的锻炼。平行的概念内涵的positing学说的基督教,犹太教和,被认为是上帝无所不在,作为创造者,维持者,法官,和救赎人类事务的积极,但也被认为高架以上来自宇宙区别开来。

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Immanence is a conception in philosophy and theology that the intelligent and creative force or being that governs the universe pervades the natural world.内在是一个在哲学和神学观念,智能和创造性的力量或正在支配宇宙弥漫在自然世界。Immanence is a fundamental doctrine of pantheism and can be contrasted with transcendence, which conceives of the intelligent and creative force as existing outside the natural world. In pantheistic systems of thought, for example, all material objects in the universe are pervaded with the infinite divine presence.内在是一个泛神论的基本教义,可与世界对比超越性,创造性的设想的智慧和力量自然的,因为现有之外。pantheistic系统在思想,例如,在宇宙中所有物质对象都弥漫着神圣与无限存在。

In Judeo-Christian religions, however, God both participates in the universe, that is, is present and active in the natural world; and at the same time, transcends, that is, figuratively, rises above, the universe he created.在犹太教和基督教的宗教,但是,上帝都参与了宇宙,即是当前和自然界活跃,并在同一时间,超越,就是形象,上升到高于中,他创造了宇宙。


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(Lat. in manere , to remain in)(拉丁语在manere,留在)

Immanence is the quality of any action which begins and ends within the agent.内在性是任何行动的开始和结束范围内代理质量。Thus, vital action, as well in the physiological as in the intellectual and moral order, is called immanent, because it proceeds from that spontaneity which is essential to the living subject and has for its term the unfolding of the subject's constituent energies.因此,重要的行动,以及在如在生理知识和道德秩序,是所谓的内在的,因为它来自于该自发性这是生活必不可少的课题,其任期内为主体的组成部分精力开展有收益。 It is initiated and is consummated in the interior of the same being, which may be considered as a closed system.它启动,并在同一所,这可能是考虑作为一个封闭的系统内部完善。But is this system so shut in as to be self-sufficient and incapable of receiving anything from without?但这样在以自给自足和没有接受任何不能关闭这个系统?-- or can it enrich itself by taking up elements which its environment offers and which are at times even necessary, as nourishment is to the immanent activity of the body?- 还是可以丰富内容,采取了哪些优惠和它的环境,有时甚至是必要的本身,因为营养是身体内在的活动?This is the problem which the philosophies of immanence propose and attempt to solve, not only in respect to man considered as a particular being, but also in respect to the universe considered as a whole.这就是问题的内在性的理念,并试图提出解决不仅尊重,特别是作为一个人,而且在尊重作为一个整体来考虑宇宙考虑。It is, indeed, with reference to this latter aspect that the controversy arose in ancient times.这的确是,参照本后一方面的争议出现在远古时代。


The doctrine of immanence came into existence simultaneously with philosophical speculation.该学说的内涵,同时也开始存在与哲学思辨。This was inevitable, since man first conceived all things after his own likeness.这是不可避免的,因为人类第一次怀孕后,他自己的肖像一切。He regarded the universe, then, as a living thing, endowed with immanent activity, and working for the full unfolding of its being.他认为,宇宙,那么,作为一个有生命的东西赋予与内在的活动,并为全面开展工作,其正。Under the veil of poetic fictions, we find this view among the Hindus, and again among the sages of Greece.在小说的诗意的面纱,我们发现这其中的印度教徒认为,并再次在希腊先哲。The latter hold a somewhat confused Hylozoism: as they see it, the cosmos results from the evolution of a single principle (water, air, fire, unity), which develops like an animal organism.后者持有有点困惑物活论:在他们看来,从一个单一的原则(水,气,火,团结),它就像一个动物的器官进化的宇宙开发成果。 But Socrates, coming back to the study "of things human", refuses to look upon himself as merely part and parcel of the Great All.但是,苏格拉底,回到了“买东西”的研究,拒绝看待自己看作仅仅是一部分,所有的大包裹。He asserts his independence and declares himself distinct from the universe; and thus he shifts the pivotal problem of philosophy.他声称他的独立性,并宣布自己从宇宙不同,因而他的哲学转变的关键问题。What he professes is, indeed, the immanence of the subject, but that immanence he does not conceive as absolute, for he recognizes the fact that man is subject to external influences.他自称是什么,事实上,这一问题的内在性,但他没有内在设想为绝对的,因为他认识到一个事实,即人是受外来因素影响。 Thenceforward, these two conceptions of immanence are to alternate in ascendancy and decline.从此以后,这两个概念的内涵是在崛起和衰退交替。After Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, absolute immanence regains its sway through Zeno of Cittium, who gives it its clearest expression.经过苏格拉底,柏拉图,亚里士多德,绝对通过芝诺恢复其内在的Cittium,谁给它一个清晰的表达摇摆。 In turn it falls back before the preaching of Christianity, which sets forth clearly the personality of man and the distinction between God and the world.反过来,它落回前的基督教,其中规定了明确的个性的人与上帝和世界之间的区别的说教。The Alexandrians, in the wake of Philo, impart a new lustre to the doctrine of absolute immanence; but St. Augustine, borrowing from Plotinus the Stoic notion of "seminal principles", contends for relative immanence which in the Middle Ages triumphs with St. Thomas.在亚历山大,在斐洛后,传授给学说的绝对内在新的光彩,但圣奥古斯丁,从普罗提诺借用了“开创性的原则”,斯多葛概念的相对内在辩称这在中世纪街的胜利托马斯。 With the Renaissance comes a renewal of life for the theory of absolute immanence.随着文艺复兴时期出现的绝对理论的内在生命的延续。 In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, on the contrary, Descartes and Kant maintain the transcendency of God, though recognizing the relative immanence of man.在十七和十八世纪,相反,笛卡尔和康德维持神的超越,虽然认识到相对人的内在。But their disciples exaggerate this latter fact and thus fall into subjective monism: the ego is shut up in its absolute immanence; it posits the non-ego.但他们的弟子夸大事实,后者从而陷入主观的一元论:自我是绝对的内在关在其注册,它假定非自我。After Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, the same path is taken by Cousin, Vacherot, Bergson, and many others.经过费希特,谢林,黑格尔,相同的路径是由表哥,瓦舍罗,柏格森,等等。The principle of absolute immanence becomes a dogma which they seek to impose upon contemporary philosophy.绝对的内在性原则变成教条,他们试图强加对当代哲学。It confronts revealed religion, and appears as one of the sources of modernism, which it thus brings into close proximity with liberal Protestantism.它面对揭示了宗教,并作为现代主义的来源,它与自由,从而将人带进了接近新教出现。The notion of immanence is at the present day one of the centres around which the battle is being fought between the Catholic religion and monism.概念的内涵是在周​​围的战斗正在天主教之间的一元论宗教和战斗中心目前的那一天。

Before passing on to larger development, we note that;之前传递到更大的发展,我们注意到;

(1) under its various aspects, the conception of immanence is the interpretation and extension of a fact observed in the living subject; (1)根据其各个方面,内在性概念的解释和事实的延伸,观察到的生活主题;

(2) in every age it takes on two parallel and opposite forms, which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" defines in an eminently philosophical way, as follows: "Etenim hoc quærimus; an ejusmodi 'immanentia' Deum ab homine distinguat necne? Si distinguit, quid tum a catholica doctrina differt aut doctrinam de revelatione cur rejicit? Si non distinguit, pantheismum habemus. Atqui immanentia haec modernistarum vult atque admittit omne conscientiæ phenomenon ab homine, ut homo est, proficisci" (For, we ask, does this "immanence" make God and man distinct or not? If it does, then in what does it differ from the Catholic doctrine? or why does it reject what is taught in regard to revelation? If it does not make God and man distinct, it is Pantheism. But this immanence of the Modernists would claim that every phenomenon of consciousness proceeds from man as man).(2)在每一个时代是在两条平行,方向相反的形式,而谕“Pascendi gregis”在一个遥不可及的方式定义需要的哲学,内容如下:“Etenim特别quærimus;一ejusmodi'immanentia'赞美颂抗体homine distinguat necne泗distinguit ,槟榔量子一catholica doctrina differt引渡doctrinam德revelatione电流rejicit?Si无distinguit,pantheismum habemus。Atqui im​​manentia haec modernistarum vult atque admittit omne conscientiæ现象从头homine,UT斯达康美国东部时间同质,proficisci“(因为,我们要问,这个”内在“使神和人不同的或不呢?如果是这样,那么什么是从天主教教义有什么不同?或者为什么它拒绝什么是教方面的启示?如果它不使神和人不同,它是泛神论。但这种现代主义内在会说每一个从人之为人的意识收益)的现象。


From this general consideration of the subject the following division arises.从这个主题下面的分裂产生的一般性审议。

A. The doctrine of immanence,答:内在性原则,

(1) absolute,(1)绝对的,

(2) relative.(2)相对。

And, as this doctrine has of late years given birth to a new method in apologetics, we shall next consider:而且,具有这种学说的生了一个新的方法在护晚年,下一步我们将考虑:

B. The employment of the method of immanence,b.于法的内在性就业,

(1) absolute,(1)绝对的,

(2) relative.(2)相对。

A. The Doctrine of Immanence答学说的内在

(1) Absolute Immanence(1)绝对内在性

(a) Its Historical Evolution(一)及其历史演变

At its outset the doctrine of immanence, properly so called, was concerned with solving the problem of the world's origin and organization: the universe was the resultant of an absolutely necessary, immanent evolution of one only principle.一开始就在其内在性原则,所谓正确,是关心解决世界的起源和组织的问题:宇宙是一个绝对必要的,一个内在的演变产生的唯一原则。 The Stoics, who gave it its first exact formula, virtually revived the pre-Socratic cosmogonies.该stoics,谁给了它的第一个确切的公式,几乎恢复了前苏格拉底cosmogonies。But they shut up in matter first the "Demiurgic Word", in which Plato saw the efficient cause of the cosmos; and, then, the transcendently lovable and desirable "Supreme Intelligence", postulated by Aristotle as the final cause of universal activity.但是,他们在事关先“造物词”,在这种柏拉图看到了宇宙的高效率的原因,以及,那么,transcendently可爱和可取的“最高智慧”,亚里士多德被假定为普及活动的最终原因。 There existed, then, but one principle under a seeming duality; it was corporeal, though it expressed itself sometimes in terms of passivity, when it was called matter, and sometimes in terms of activity, when it was called force, or cause.存在的话,但有一个看似对偶原则下,它是有形的,尽管它有时表示被动本身而言,当它被要求的事,有时在活动,当它被称为力量,或导致条款。 It was the technic fire presiding over the genesis of the world; it was the Divine seminal principle from which all things were born (pyr technikon, Logos spermatikos).这是在工艺火灾成因主持的世界,它是神圣的开创性的原则,从万物诞生(芘technikon,商标spermatikos)。 This principle, which is the first to move, is also the first to be moved, since nothing is outside of it; all beings find in it their origin and their end, they are but successive moments in its evolution, they are born and they die through its perpetual becoming.这个原则,这是第一个提出,也是第一个被感动,因为没有它的外,所有的人在那里找到的起源和结束时,他们不过是在其演进的连续时刻,他们都是土生土长的,他们通过其永久成为死。 The fiery spirit seems to move the chaotic mass as the soul moves the body, and this is why it is called the "soul of the world".火热的精神似乎动议混乱质量为魂移动身体,这就是为什么它被称为“世界灵魂”。Human souls are but sparks from it, or rather its phenomena, which vanish at death and are re-absorbed into the bosom of nature.但是从人类的灵魂是它,或者更确切地说,它的现象,这在死亡和消失是重返大自然的怀抱吸收火花。This is Hylozoism carried to its ultimate expression.这是物活论进行,其最终的表达。

The Greek and Roman Stoics changed nothing in this conception.希腊和罗马的斯多葛学派没有改变这一观念。Philo alone, before Christianity, attempted to transform it.斐洛独自前基督教,试图改变它。Pursuing the syncretic method which he brought into repute in the School of Alexandria, he undertook to harmonize Moses, Plato, and Zeno.追求合一的方法,他把名声带来的亚历山大学校,他承诺将协调摩西,柏拉图,芝诺。 Thus he was led into a sort of inverted Stoicism, setting up at the origin of all things no longer a corporeal seminal principle, but a spiritual God, perfect, anterior to matter, from whom everything is derived by a process of outflow and downflow continued without limit.因此,他被带到一倒斯多葛排序,设置在所有的事情不再是有形的开创性思想的渊源,但上帝的精神,完善,前到物质,从他们的一切是由一个流出过程中得到持续下行流没有限制。 Proclus, Porphyry, Jamblicus, and Plotinus adopted this emanationist Pantheism, which formed the basis of their neo-Platonism. Proclus,斑岩型,Jamblicus,和普罗提诺通过本emanationist泛神论,从而形成了自己的新柏拉图主义的基础。From Egypt the Alexandrian ideas spread over the West through two channels.从埃及在西方的传播通过两个渠道亚历山大的想法。First, in the fourth century, they entered Spain with a certain Mark, who had lived at Memphis; in Spain they developed by amalgamating with Manichæism under the influence of Priscillian, and after the German conquest of Spain they passed into Gaul.首先,在第四世纪,他们进入了一定的马克,谁曾住在孟菲斯西班牙,在西班牙他们开发的合并与摩尼教的影响下,普里西利安,西班牙和德国之后,他们把征服高卢通过。 In the latter country, moreover, they were propagated by the Latin translations of Boethius.在后者的国家,而且,他们所宣扬的拉丁文翻译波爱修斯。Later on, we find traces of them in Scotus Eriugena (ninth century), then in Abelard (twelfth century), Amaury of Bêne, and David of Dinant (twelfth and thirteenth centuries), and especially in the celebrated Meister Eckhart (fourteenth century).后来,我们发现在司各脱Eriugena(第九世纪),然后在他们的痕迹阿伯拉尔(12世纪),对贝内阿莫里和迪南(第十二和第十三世纪)大卫,特别是在庆祝艾克哈(十四世纪) 。Soon after this the Renaissance restores the ancient doctrines to honourable consideration, and the philosophy of immanence reappears in the commentaries of Pomponatius on Aristotle and those of Marsilio Ficino on Plotinus.不久之后,这种古老的文艺复兴恢复向各位审议的学说,而内在理念,在亚里士多德和Marsilio菲奇诺那些普罗提诺的Pomponatius评会重新出现。 Giordano Bruno saw in God the monad of monads, who by an inward necessity produces a material creation which is inseparable from Himself.布鲁诺看见神的单子单子,谁的必要性产生了一种内在的物质创造是从自己分不开的。 Vanini made God immanent in the forces of nature, while, according to Jacob Böhme, God acquires reality only through the evolution of the world. Vanini在自然力量的神内在的,同时,根据雅各伯梅,神获得只有通过世界的发展现实。By an unbroken tradition, then, the doctrine of immanence comes down to modern times.通过一个完整的传统,那么,内在性主义归结到近代。The Cartesian revolution seems even to favour its development.笛卡尔的革命似乎更青睐它的发展。Exaggerating the distinction between soul and body, the former of which moves the latter by means of the pineal gland, the mechanical theories prepared the way for Malebranche's occasionalism: God alone acts; "there is but one true cause, because there is but one true God."夸大之间的灵魂和身体的区别,前者的移动由松果腺指后者,力学理论准备了马勒伯朗士的偶方式:只有上帝的行为,“只有一个真正的原因,因为只有一个真正的神。“ Spinoza, too, admits only one cause.斯宾诺莎,也承认只有一个原因。A disciple of Descartes in the geometrical rigour of his deductive processes, but still more a disciple of the rabbis and of Giordano Bruno in the spirit of his system, he sets up his natura naturans unfolding its attributes by an immanent progression.一个在他的演绎过程严格弟子笛卡尔几何,但更是在他的体系精神的拉比和布鲁诺的弟子,他列出了他的Natura naturans展开了一个内在的发展它的属性。This is all but the revival of Alexandrian thought.这是所有,但亚历山大复兴的思想。

True Cartesianism, however, was not favourable to theories of this sort, for it is based on personal evidence, and it distinguishes sharply between the world and its transcendent cause.真正的笛卡儿,不过,这也不利于这类理论,因为它是基于个人的证据,并迅速与世界的区别和超越的原因。With its vivid realization of the importance and independence of the individual, it follows, rather, the Socratic tradition.凭借其生动的实现的重要性和个人,因此,更确切地说,苏格拉底传统的独立性。That insight, defined and purified by Christianity, had all along served as a barrier against the encroachment of the doctrine of absolute immanence.这种洞察力,界定和基督教纯化,一直担任反对学说的绝对内在性侵犯的屏障。 It could not but derive fresh strength from the philosophy of Cogito, ergo sum, and it was indeed strengthened even to excess.但它不能获得从我思,ETM总之理念新的力量,它确实加强了,甚至过剩。Jealous of its own immanence, which it had learned to know better than ever, the human mind overshot its first intention and turned the doctrine of absolute immanence to its own profit.其自身的内在性,它已经学会了比以往更懂得嫉妒,人的心灵超越了第一意图,转身学说的绝对内在自身的利润。At first it sought only to solve the problem of knowledge, while keeping entirely clear of empiricism.起初它只是试图解决问题的知识,经验主义的同时保持完全清楚。In the Kantian epoch it still claimed for itself only a relative immanence, for it believed in the existence of a transcendent Creator and admitted the existence of noumena, unknowable, to be sure, but with which we maintain relations.在康德的时代它仍然声称自己只是一个相对的内在性,因为它在一个超越造物主的存在相信并承认,本体,不可知的,存在的肯定,但与我们保持关系。 Soon the temptation becomes stronger; having hitherto pretended to impose its own laws on knowable reality, thought now credits itself with the power of creating that reality.不久,诱惑变得更强;有假装强加其自身的规律可知现实迄今为止,认为现在学分与创造的现实权力本身。For Fichte, in fact, the ego not only posits knowledge, it also posits the non-ego.对于费希特,其实,不只是第一步,自我认识,它也假定非自我。It is the pre-eminent form of the Absolute (Schelling).这是绝对(谢林)卓越的形式。No longer is it the Substance that, as natura naturans, produces the world by a process of derivation and degradation without limit; it is an obscure germ, which in its ceaseless becoming, rises to the point of becoming man, and at that point becomes conscious of itself.它不再是物质,作为的Natura naturans,生产由推导和退化过程无极限的世界,它是一个模糊的胚芽,在其不断的成为,上升到成为男人一点,在这一点上变得意识到本身。The absolute becomes Hegel's "idea", Schopenhauer's "will", Hartmann's "unconscious", Renan's "time joined to the onward tendency" (le Temps joint à la tendance au progrès), Taine's "eternal axiom", Nietzsche's "superman", Bergson's "conscience".绝对成为黑格尔的“理念”,叔本华的“意志”,哈特曼的“无意识”,Renan的“时间加入到前进的趋势”(乐Temps的联合点菜服侍坳进步党),丹纳的“永恒的公理”,尼采的“超人”,柏格森的“良心”。 Under all the forms of evolutionistic monism, lies the doctrine of absolute immanence.在所有形式的evolutionistic一元论,在于内在的绝对主义。

Considering the religious tendencies of our age, it was inevitable that this doctrine should have its corresponding effect in theology.考虑到我们这个时代的宗教倾向,这是不可避免的这一学说也应该有相应的效果,在神学。The monism which it preaches, setting aside the idea of separateness between God and the world, also removes entirely the distinction between the natural order and the supernatural.它宣扬的一元论,撇开上帝和世界之间分开的想法,也完全消除自然之间的秩序与超自然的区别。It denies anything transcendent in the supernatural, which, according to this theory, is only a conception springing from an irresistible need of the soul, or "the ceaseless palpitation of the soul panting for the infinite" (Buisson).它否定了超自然的,而根据这一理论,只是一个概念从一个不可抗拒的灵魂需要雨后春笋,或(爱德华比松)“的灵魂的无限气喘吁吁不断心悸”任何东西超越。 The supernatural is but the product of our interior evolution; it is of immanent origin, for "it is in the heart of mankind that the Divine resides".超自然的,不过是我们的内部进化的产物,它是内在的原产地,“它在人类的心是神圣的所在。”"I am a man, and nothing Divine is foreign to me" (Buisson).“我是一个男人,并没有什么神圣的是国外对我”(爱德华比松)。Such is the origin of religion in this view.这就是宗教在这种观点的起源。And herein we recognize the thesis of liberal Protestantism as well as that of the Modernists.而在此我们认识到自由新教以及该论文的现代主义。

(b) The actual content of the doctrine of Absolute Immanence(二)学说的绝对内在的实际内容

As it is nowadays presented, the doctrine of absolute immanence is the resultant of the two great currents of contemporary thought.由于它是当今主办,绝对的内在性学说是当代思想的两个大电流产生的。 Kant, reducing everything to the individual consciousness, and declaring all metaphysical investigation to be illusory, locks the human soul in its own immanence and condemns it thenceforth to agnosticism in regard to transcendent realities.康德,减少一切个体意识,并宣布所有形而上的调查,是虚幻的,锁在自己的内在人的灵魂和谴责它此后对于超越现实,不可知论。 The Positivist movement reaches the same terminus.实证主义运动达到相同的终点。Through mistrust of that reason which Kant had exalted to such a degree, Comte rejects as worthless every conclusion that goes beyond the range of experience.通过这一崇高的康德曾到这种程度的不信任的原因,孔德拒绝一切结论,即如草芥的经验范围之外去。Thus the two systems, setting out from opposite exaggerations, arrive at one and the same theory of the unknowable: nothing is left us now but to fall back upon ourselves and contemplate the phenomena which emerge from the depths of our own ego.因此,两个系统,建立了从相反的夸张,在一个到达和不可知同样的理论:没有什么,就离开了我们,但现在回落后,自己和思考的现象,从我们自己的自我的深处浮现。 We have no other means of information, and it is from this inner source that all knowledge, all faith, and all rules of conduct flow out by the immanent evolution of our life, or rather of the Divine which thus manifests itself through us.我们的消息没有其他手段,它从这种内在的来源,所有的知识,坚定的信念和行为流量我们生命的内在的演化,或者更确切地说,它的神圣从而通过我们自己表现出来的所有规则。 This initial position determines the solutions which the doctrine of immanence furnishes for the problems concerning God and Man.这最初的位置决定了解决方案,其中的内在furnishes的关于上帝和人的问题的学说。

(i) God (一)神

The problems of the Divine life and action are among the foremost to interest the partisans of absolute immanence.生命的神圣和行动的问题是首要的利息之间的绝对内在的支持者。They talk incessantly of Trinity, Incarnation, and Redemption, but only, as they claim, to do away with the mysteries and to see in these theological terms merely the symbols that express the evolution of the first principle.他们不停地谈论三位一体,化身,以及赎回,但只能作为他们声称,为了消除的奥秘,看到这些神学术语只是符号,表达了第一的原则的演变。 Philo's Trinity, like that of neo-Platonism, was an attempt to describe this evolution, and the moderns have only resuscitated the Alexandrian allegory.斐洛的三位一体,这样的新柏拉图主义,是为了描述这种演变,现代人只有复苏的亚历山大寓言。The great being, the great fetish, and the great medium (Comte), the evolving idea, the evolved idea, and their relation (Hegel), unity, variety and their relation (Cousin) -- all these, in the thought of their originators, are but so many revivals of the Oriental myths.伟大的是,伟大的迷信,和伟大的介质(孔德),演变中的理念,发展思路,他们的关系(黑格尔),团结,种类和它们之间的关系(堂弟) - 所有这些,在他们的思想原创,只不过是这么多的东方神话复兴。But conscience now demands the abolition of all such symbols.但现在要求良心所有这些符号取消。"The religious soul is in fact forever interpreting and transforming the traditional dogmas" (Sabatier), because the progress of the absolute reveals to us new meanings as it makes us more fully conscious of the Divinity that is immanent in us. “宗教的灵魂,其实是永远解释和改造传统教条”(萨巴蒂尔),因为绝对的进步展现给我们带来了新的含义,因为它使我们更充分的神是在我们的内在意识。 Through this progress the incarnation of God in humanity goes on without ceasing, and the Christian mystery (they make the blasphemous assertion) has no other meaning.通过这种进步的化身,上帝在人类的推移而停止,和基督教的奥秘(它们使亵渎断言)没有别的意思。There can be no further question of a redemption; nor could there have been an original fall, since in this view, disobedient Adam would have been God Himself.不可能有任何进一步的赎回问题,也不可能有过的原始下降,因为在这种观点,不听话的亚当本来上帝。At most the pessimists admit that the Supreme will, or the unconscious, which blundered into the production of the world, will recognize its blunder as it rises to consciousness in individuals, and will repair that blunder by annihilating the universe.在大多数的悲观主义者承认,最高法院会,或昏迷,其中进入世界总产量的失误,将承认其错误,因为它上升到个体意识,并将修复消灭宇宙失误。 In that hour of cosmic suicide, according to Hartmann, the Great Crucified will have come down from his cross.在这宇宙自杀小时,据哈特曼,大十字架将有所回落,从他的十字架。Thus is Christian terminology incessantly subjected to new interpretations.因此,是基督教的术语不断受到新的诠释。 "We still speak of the Trinity . . ., of the Divinity of Christ, but with a meaning more or less different from that of our forefathers".“我们仍然谈论三位一体。。。,基督的神性,但其意义或多或少不同于我们的祖先说”。 Buisson, in his "La Religion, la Morale et la Science", thus explains the influence of the doctrine of immanence upon the interpretation of dogmas in liberal Protestantism.爱德华比松,在他的“香格里拉宗教,士气等香格里拉科学报”,从而解释了内在性自由后,在新教教义的解释学说的影响。

(ii) The World, Life, and the Soul(二)的世界观,人生观,灵魂

To explain the origin of the world, the evolution of the Divine principle is put forward.为了解释世界的起源,演化的神圣原则,提出了。This hypothesis would also account for the organization of the cosmos.这个假设也解释了宇宙组织。Hence the universal order is considered as the outcome of the action of blind energies, and no longer as the realization of a plan conceived and executed by a providence.因此,世界秩序被认为是能量的盲目行动的结果,而不再作为一个普罗维登斯设想和计划执行的实现。From the physico-chemical forces life issues; the absolute slumbers in the plant, begins to dream in the animal, and at last awakens to full consciousness in man.从物理化学部队生活问题,在工厂的绝对安然入睡,就开始梦想的动物,和人的全面意识在最后唤醒。Between the stages of this progress there is no breach of continuity; it is one and the same principle which clothes itself in more and more perfect forms, yet never withdraws from any of them.之间的这种进展的阶段,没有违反连续性,这是同一个原则,即自己的衣服在越来越多的完美的形式,但从来没有从其中任何撤回。 Evolutionism and transformism, therefore, are but parts of that vast system of absolute immanence in which all beings enfold one another, and none is distinct from the universal substance.进化论与transformism,因此是绝对的,而是内在的庞大系统中,所有的人拥抱彼此,没有一个是从宇宙物质不同的部分。 Consequently, there is no longer any abyss between matter and the human soul; the alleged spirituality of the soul is a fable, its personality an illusion, its individual immortality an error.因此,不再有任何物质与人类灵魂的深渊,灵魂的指控灵性一则寓言,它的个性是一种幻想,其个人不朽的错误。

(iii) Dogma and Moral(三)教条和道德

When the Absolute reaches its highest form in the human soul, it acquires self-consciousness.当到达绝对的人类灵魂的最高形式,它收购的自我意识。This means that the soul discovers the action of the Divine principle, which is immanent in it as constituting its essential nature.这意味着灵魂发现的神圣原则,这是它内在的构成它的基本性质的行动。But the perception of this relation with the Divine -- or, rather, of this "withinness" of the Divine -- is what we are to call Revelation itself (Loisy).但是,这种看法与神的关系 - 或者更确切地说,这个“withinness”的神, - 就是我们要调用的启示本身(卢瓦西)。At first confused, perceptible only as a vague religious feeling, it develops by means of religious experience (James), it becomes clearer through reflexion, and asserts itself in the conceptions of the religious consciousness.起初迷茫,感觉到的只是一个模糊的宗教感情,它是由宗教经验是指开发(詹姆斯),它变得更清晰,通过反思,并断言在宗教意识的概念本身。 These conceptions formulate dogmas -- "admirable creations of human thought" (Buisson) -- or rather of the Divine principle immanent in human thought.这些概念制定教条 - (爱德华比松)“令人钦佩的创作人的思想” - 或在人类思想内在的,而神圣的原则。But the expression of dogmas is always inadequate, for it marks but one moment in the religious development; it is a vesture which the progress of Christian faith and especially of Christian life will soon cast off.但是,教条的表达总是不充分的,因为它标志着只有一个宗教发展的时刻,这是一个笼罩其中的基督教信仰和基督徒生活的进步,特别是即将摆脱。 In a word all religion wells up from the depths of the sub-conscious (Myers, Prince) by vital immanence; hence the "religious immanence" and the more or less agnostic "symbolism" with which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" reproaches the Modernists.总之所有的宗教井从潜意识的重要内涵(迈尔斯,王子)深处注册,因此“宗教内涵”和不可知论或多或少“象征主义”与该通谕“Pascendi gregis”责备现代派。

The human soul, creator of dogmas, is also the creator of moral precepts, and that by an absolutely autonomous act.人的灵魂,教条的创造者,也是道德戒律的创造者,而且,由完全自主的行为。 Its will is the living and sovereign law, for in it is definitively expressed the will of the God immanent in us.它的意志是生活和主权的法律,在它处于明确表达了在我们内在的神的意志。The Divine flame, which warms the atmosphere of our life, will enevitably cause those hidden germs of morality to develop which the absolute has implanted.神圣的火焰,温暖了我们的生活氛围,将enevitably导致那些隐藏细菌的道德发展的绝对已植入。Hence, there can be no longer any question of effort, of virtue, or of responsibility; these words have lost their meaning, since there is neither original sin nor actual and freely willed transgression.因此,可以不再有任何问题的努力,美德,或责任,这些话已经失去了意义,因为既没有原罪,也没有实际性和自由意志的罪过。 There is no longer any blameworthy concupiscence; all our instincts are impregnated with Divinity, all our desires are just, good, and holy.不再有任何责备concupiscence,所有我们的本能与神浸渍,我们所有的欲望,只是,好,和神圣。To follow the impulse of passion, to rehabilitate the flesh (Saint-Simon, Leroux, Fourrier), which is one form under which the Divinity manifests itself (Heine), this is duty.要按照冲动的激情,恢复肌肤(圣西门,勒鲁,Fourrier),这是一种形式下表现出来的神(海涅),这是职责。In this way, indeed, we cooperate in the redemption which is being accomplished day by day, and which will be consummated when the absolute shall have completed its incarnation in humanity.通过这种方式,事实上,我们合作,在这一天所完成的一天,这将是完善时,绝对应完成其对人性的化身赎回。The part which moral science has to play consists in discovering the laws which govern this evolution, so that man in his conduct may conform to them (Berthelot) and thus ensure the collective happiness of humanity; social utility is to be hence-forward the principle of all morality; solidarity (Bourgeois), which procures it, is the most scientific form of immanent morality, and of this man is, in the universe, the beginning and the end.道德科学的部分必须发挥在于发现了这个法律管治的演变,以便在他的行为人可以符合他们(活脱),从而确保人类集体幸福,社会效用,因此要进的原则所有的道德,团结(资产阶级),这促使它是内在的道德最科学的形式,而这名男子是在宇宙中,开始和结束。

(2) Relative Immanence(2)相对内在

(a) Its Historical Evolution(一)及其历史演变

Since the day when Socrates, abandoning the useless cosmogonic hypotheses of his predecessors, brought philosophy back to the study of the human soul, whose limits and whose independence he defined -- since that time the doctrine of relative immanence has held its ground in conflict with the doctrine of absolute immanence.那一天起,当苏格拉底,放弃他的前任无用的宇宙起源假说,使哲学回到了人的灵魂,其限制和界定其独立性,他的研究 - 自那时以来的相对内在矛盾学说曾在其地基绝对内在性的学说。Relative immanence recognizes the existence of a transcendant God, but it also recognizes, and with remarkable precision, the immanence of Psychical life.相对内在承认一个超越神的存在,但它也承认,并具有显着的精度,内在的精神生存生活。It is upon the evidence of this fact, indeed, that the admirable pedagogical method, known as maieutic, is founded.它是建立在这一事实,实际上,这是令人钦佩的教学方法,如产婆式着称,是成立的证据。Socrates thoroughly understood that knowledge does not enter our minds ready made from without; that it is a vital function, and therefore immanent.苏格拉底充分了解这些知识不进入我们的脑海中从没有现成的,这是一个重要的功能,因此,无处不在。He understood that a cognition is not really ours until we have accepted it, lived it, and in some sort made it over for ourselves.他了解到,我们的认识是不是真的,直到我们所接受了,住它,并在某种作出自己过来。This certainly attributes to the life of thought a real immanence, not, however, an absolute immanence; for the soul of the disciple remains open to the master's influence.这当然属性,一个真正的思想内涵的生活,不是,但是,绝对的内在性;仍然开放到主的影响力对于弟子的灵魂。

Again we find this conception of relative immanence in Plato.我们再次找到这种相对的概念在柏拉图内在。He transports it, in a rather confused manner, into the cosmological order.他运输它,在一个比较混乱的方式,进入宇宙秩序。He thinks, in fact, that, if there are things great and good and beautiful, they are such through a certain participation in the ideas of greatness, goodness, and beauty.他认为,其实,如果有好东西伟大而美丽的,他们是通过在伟大,善,美的思想一定参与等。But this participation does not result from an emanation, an outflowing from the Divinity into finite beings; it is only a reflection of the ideas, a resemblance, which the reasonable being is in duty bound to perfect, as far as possible, by his own energy.但是,这种参与不会导致从气,从人到神流出有限,它只是一个想法,一个相似性,合理的反映是必然要被完美的责任,尽可能通过自己的能源。 With Aristotle this notion of an immanent energy in individuals acquires a new definiteness.这与亚里士多德在个人内在能量的概念获得了一种新的定性。The very exaggeration with which he refuses to admit in God any efficient causality, as something unworthy of His beatitude, leads him to place at the heart of finite being the principle of the action which it puts forth with a view to that which is supremely lovable and desirable.很夸张,使他拒绝承认在任何有效的因果关系为神,他的乐的东西不值得,导致他在有限的地方作为它的行动提出了看法提出的原则,即心里却是无比可爱和可取的。 Now, according to him, these principles are individualized; their development is limited; their orientation determined to a definite aim; and they act upon one another.现在,据他说,这些原则是个性化,他们的发展是有限的,它们的方向确定一个明确的目标,他们对彼此的行为。It is, therefore, a doctrine of relative immanence which he maintains.这是,因此,一个相对内在,他坚持原则。After him the Stoics, reviving the physics of Heraclitus, came back to a system of absolute immanence with their theory of germinal capacities.在他之后的斯多葛学派,振兴赫拉克利特物理,回来一个绝对内在性与生殖能力的理论体系。The Alexandrian Fathers borrowed this term from them, taking out of it, however, its pantheistic sense, when they set themselves to search in the writings of the pagans for "the sparks of the light of the Word" (St. Justin), and, in human souls, for the innate capacities which render the knowledge of God so easy and so natural.在亚历山大的父亲借了他们这个名词,它采取了,但其泛神论意义上说,当他们为自己寻找在为异教徒“的火花的Word光”(圣贾斯汀)的著作,在人类的灵魂,因为先天的能力,其中提供的神如此简单和自然知识等。 St. Augustine, in his turn defines these capacities as "the active and passive potentialities from which flow all the natural effects of beings", and this theory he employs to demonstrate the real, but relative, immanence of our intellectual and moral life.圣奥古斯丁,轮到他定义为“主动和被动的潜力从中流中所有的人自然效果”这些能力,他雇用了这个理论证明了我们的知识和道德生活的真实,但相对的,内在性。 Our natural desire to know and our spontaneous sympathies do not germinate in us unless their seeds are in our soul.我们自然希望知道,我们自发的同情并不在我们的种子发芽,除非他们是在我们的灵魂。These are the first principles of reason, the universal precepts of the moral consciousness.这是理性的第一原则下,道德意识的普遍戒律。St. Thomas calls them "habitus principiorum", "seminalia virtutum" "dispositiones naturales", "inchoationes naturales".圣托马斯称他们为“体质principiorum”,“seminalia virtutum”“dispositiones naturales”,“inchoationes naturales”。He sees in them the beginnings of all our physiological, intellectual, and moral progress, and, following the course of their development, he carries to the highest degree of precision the concept of relative immanence.他认为,在他们所有的生理,智力和道德进步的开始,并按照其发展过程中,他随身携带的精确度最高的相对内在的概念。 The Thomist tradition -- continuing after him the struggle against empiricism and positivism on the one side and, on the other, against rationalism carried to the extreme of monism -- has always defended the same position.托马斯主义传统 - 继续打击后,他的经验主义和实证主义为一方,另一方面,斗争,反对理性主义进行到一元论的极端 - 一向捍卫了同样的立场。It recognizes the fact of immanence, but rejects every exaggeration on either side.它认识到内在的事实,但拒绝对任何一方都夸张。

(b) Actual Content of the Doctrine of Relative Immanence(二)实际内容的相对内在主义

This doctrine rests upon that innermost experience which reveals to man his individuality, that is to say his inward unity, his distinctness from his environment, and which makes him conscious of his personality, that is to say, of his essential independence with respect to the beings with which he is in relation.这一学说休息后的内心经验,揭示了人类自己的个性,也就是他内心的团结,他从他的环境明显,这使他和他的个性,也就是他的基本独立性,关于意识在人,同他的关系。 It, moreover, avoids all imputation of monism, and the manner in which it conceives of immanence harmonizes excellently with Catholic teaching.它,而且能够避免所有的一元论归集,以及以何种方式在它的内在和谐与天主教的教学设想很好。 "An ejusmodi immanentia Deum ab homine distinguat, necne? Si distinguit, quid tum a catholica doctrina differt?" “赞美颂安ejusmodi immanentia从头homine distinguat,necne?泗distinguit,嚼食敦一catholica doctrina differt?”(Encycl. "Pascendi"). (Encycl.“Pascendi”)。

(i) God (一)神

God, then, transcends the world which He has created, and in which He manifests His power.上帝,那么,它超越了他所创造的世界,和他在其中体现自己的权力。We know His works; through them we can demonstrate His existence and find out many of His attributes.我们知道他的作品,通过他们,我们可以证明他的存在,并找出他的许多属性。But the mysteries of His inner life escape us; Trinity, Incarnation, Redemption are known to us only by revelation, to which revelation the immanence of our rational and moral life presents no obstacle whatever.但他的内心生活的奥秘躲避我们,三位一体,化身,是已知的只有赎回启示我们,对我们的启示理性和道德生活的内在礼物没有什么障碍。

(ii) The World, Life, and the Soul(二)的世界观,人生观,灵魂

The organization of the world is governed by Divine Providence, whose ordering action can be conceived in diverse ways, whether we suppose successive interventions for the formation of various beings, or whether, following St. Augustine, we prefer to maintain that God created all things at the same time -- "Deus simul omnia creavit" (De Genesi ad lit.).在这个世界组织是由天意,其顺序动作可以在不同方式的设想,我们是否想为各种生物的形成连续的干预,还是继圣奥古斯丁,我们更愿意认为,上帝创造万物在同一时间 - “天主模拟器上OMNIA公司creavit”(德Genesi广告点亮。)。In the latter case we should invoke the hypothesis of germinal capacities, according to which hypothesis God must have deposited in nature energies of a determinate sort -- "Mundus gravidus est causis nascentium" (ibid.) -- the evolution of which at favourable junctures of time would organize the universe.在后一种情况下,我们应该调用的生发能力的假设,根据这些假设上帝必须在一个确定的那种性质的能量沉积 - “Mundus的gravidus东部causis nascentium”(同上) - 在这些有利的发展关头时间将举办宇宙。This organization would be due to an immanent development, indeed, but one proceeding under external influences.这个组织将是由于一种内在的发展,确实,但一外部影响下进行。Thus did plants, animals, and men appear in succession, though there could be no question of attributing to them a common nature; on the contrary, the doctrine of relative immanence draws a sharp line of demarcation between the various substances, and particularly between matter and soul; it is extremely careful to maintain the independence of the human person.因此,没有植物,动物,和男人相继出现,虽然有可能归于他们没有一个共同的性质问题,相反,相对主义内在吸引,特别是与物质之间的划界线的各种物质急剧和灵魂,这是非常小心地维护人的独立性。 Not only does this doctrine, joining issue with sensualism, demonstrate that the mind is a living energy, which, far from letting itself be absorbed by influences from without, forms its necessary and universal principles by its own action under the pressure of experience -- not only this, but it also safeguards the autonomy of human reason against that encroachment of the Divine which the ontologists maintained.这不仅学说,加入与感觉论的问题,就说明了思想是一个生命的能量,其中,让自己远离被吸收无影响,形成了其经验的压力下,自己的行动及其必要的和普遍的原则 - 不仅如此,而且还针对该保障的神圣而本体论者认为侵犯人类理性的自主权。

(iii) Dogma and Moral(三)教条和道德

The human soul, then, enjoys an immanence and an autonomy which are relative indeed but real, and which Divine Revelation itself respects.人的灵魂,那么,内在性和享有自主权,但确实是相对真实的,这神圣的启示本身的敬意。Supernatural truth is, in fact, offered to an intelligence in full possession of its resources, and the reasonable assent which we give to revealed dogmas is by no means "a bondage" or "a limitation of the rights of thought".超自然的真理是,事实上,提供给一个完全拥有的智力资源,合理的同意,我们给透露教条是没有的意思是“束缚”或“的思想的权利的限制”。 To oppose Revelation with "a preliminary and comprehensive demurrer" ("une fin de non-recevoir préliminaire et globale" -- Le Roy) in the name of the principle of immanence, is to misinterpret that principle, which, rightly understood, involves no such exigencies (see below, "The Method of Immanence").反对以“一个初步的和全面的异议”的启示(“新英格兰鳍德非recevoir préliminaire等globale” - 莱罗伊)在名字的内在原则,是误解了这一原则,其中,正确地理解,不涉及(见下文“的内在法”)等紧急情况。Nor does the fact of relative immanence stand in the way of progress in the understanding of dogmas "in eodem sensu eademque sententia" (Conc. Vatic., sess. III).也没有相对内在站在教条的理解中的“在eodem意义上eademque sententia”进步的事实(Conc. Vatic。,自编码扩频通信。三)。The human soul, then, receives the Divine verities as the disciple receives his master's teaching; it does not create those verities.人类的灵魂,那么,接收的神圣真理的门徒收到他的主人的教学,它不创建这些真理。Neither does it create principles of moral conduct.它也不创建道德行为准则。The natural law is certainly not foreign to it, being graven upon the very foundation of man's constitution.自然法则是肯定不会陌生吧,是对人类的宪法的基础雕刻。It lives in the heart of man.它生活在人的心。This law is immanent to the human person, which consequently enjoys a certain autonomy.这部法律是对人的内在,它因此享有一定的自主权。No doubt it recognizes its relation to a transcendent legislator, but none the less true is it that no prescription coming from another authority would be accepted by the conscience if it was in opposition to the primordial law, the requirements of which are only extended and clearly defined by positive laws.毫无疑问,它承认它关系到一个超越的立委,但没有一个较低的事实是,没有处方,另一当局未来会接受的良心,如果它在反对原始法律的要求,其中仅延长,并明确通过明确的法律界定。 In this sense the human will preserves its autonomy when, in obeying a Divine law, it acts with a fundamentally inviolable liberty.在这个意义上,人类将保留其自主性时,在服从一个神圣的法律,它以从根本上不可侵犯的自由的行为。 This liberty, however, may be aided by natural and supernatural helps.这种自由,但是,可能是借助于自然和超自然的帮助。Conscious of its weakness, it seeks and obtains the assistance of grace, but grace does not absorb nature; it only adds to nature, and in no way infringes upon our essential immanence.意识到它的弱点,它寻求和获得援助的宽限期,但宽限期,不吸收性质,它只是增加了自然,而绝不是对我们的基本内涵侵犯。

B. Employment of the Method of ImmanenceB.就业的内在方法

The notion of immanence occupies so large a place in contemporary philosophy that many make an axiom of it.占有概念的内涵在当代哲学那么大的地方,许多作出它的公理。It is held to be a directing principle of thought and Le Roy makes bold to write that "to have acquired a clear consciousness of the principle of immanence is the essential result of modern philosophy" (Dogme et Critique, 9).它认为是一种思想指导原则,大胆地去乐罗伊写道:“有收购的内在性原则明确的意识,是现代哲学的基本结果”(道格玛等批判,9)。 Now it is in the name of this principle that "a preliminary and comprehensive demurrer" (ibid.) is presented in bar of all Revelation, for in the light of it "a dogma has the appearance of a subjection to bondage, a limitation of the rights of thought, a menace of intellectual tyranny" (ibid.).现在它在这一原则的名称是“一个初步的和全面的抗辩”(同上),提出在所有的启示,在它的酒吧轻“的教条具有一种隶属外观为奴,一个限制思想的权利,知识产权暴政的威胁“(同上)。 And this creates a religious situation with which apologetics is deeply concerned, and with good reason.这将创建一个宗教状况与该护深,有充足的理由担心。All the efforts of this science will be vain, all its arguments inconclusive, if it cannot, first of all, compel minds imbued with the prejudice of absolute immanence to take under consideration the problem of the transcendent.这个科学的所有努力将白费,所有的争论没有定论,如果不能,首先,迫使绝对内在充满偏见正在考虑采取的超越问题的头脑。 Without this precaution, antinomy is inevitable: on the one hand, it is claimed, the mind cannot receive a heterogeneous truth; on the other, revealed religion proposes to us truths which go beyond the range of any finite intelligence.如果没有这种预防措施,矛盾是不可避免的:一方面,它声称,头脑不能接受一个异构的真理,另一方面,建议我们揭示了宗教的真理,这超出了任何有限的情报范围去。 To solve this difficulty we have recourse to the method of immanence.为了解决这个困难,我们必须诉诸于内在性的方法。But this method has been understood in two different ways which lead to diametrically opposite results.但是,这种方法已经被理解为两个截然相反的结果会导致不同的方式。

(1) Method Based on the Idea of Absolute Immanence(1)在绝对内在的思想为基础的方法

This is the positivist and subjectivist method.这是实证主义和主观主义的方法。It consists in accepting off-hand the postulate of an absolute immanence of the rational and moral life.具体做法是在接受副手的一个理性和道德生活的绝对内在性的假说。It is therefore obliged to lower revealed truth to the level of scientific truths which the mind attains solely by its own energy.因此,必须降低揭示真理的心,其中仅达到其自身的能源科学真理的水平。Thus, some, like Lechartier, have proposed to modify dogmatic formulæ and "dissolve the symbols" of them in order to harmonize both with the aspirations of the soul which thinks them.因此,有些像Lechartier,提出修改公式和教条式的“解散符号”,其中,以协调与灵魂,都认为他们的愿望。By this means "the higher realities, which religious myths have for so many centuries striven to express, will be found identical with those which positive science has just established".用这种方法“更高的现实,宗教神话的努力表示有这么多世纪以来,会被发现,与那些积极科学刚刚建立的相同”。 Revealed truth will then appear as coming from us; it will present itself as the reflexion of our soul, which changes its formulæ according as it can or cannot find itself in them.发现真理,就会出现由我们来了,它会表现为我们的灵魂,从而改变其反射的公式,根据自身,因为它可以或不可以在其中找到自己。 In this way there will no longer be any antinomy, since human reason will be the principle of dogmas.如此一来,将不会再有任何矛盾,因为人类理性将是教条的原则。Others following Loisy, hope to find in themselves, through a psychological analysis, the expression of revelation.追随者卢瓦西,希望能找到自己,通过心理分析,表达的启示。This would be the outcome of an immanent progress, "the consciousness which man has acquired of his relations with God".这将是一个内在的进展,“这名男子已与上帝的关系,收购意识”的结果。Revelation is realized in man, but it is "the work of God in him, with him, and by him".启示是实现人,但它是“上帝在他的工作,与他,由他和”。Thus the difficulty arising out of the opposition between the natural order and the supernatural would disappear -- but at the price of a return to the doctrine of absolute immanence.因此,所产生的困难之间的自然秩序与超自然就会消失反对 - 但在一个学说的绝对内在退货价格。It seems, too, that Laberthonnière, though in spite of his principles, ends by accepting this very same doctrine which he had undertaken to combat, when he writes that "since our action is at once ours and God's, we must find in it the supernatural element which enters into its constitution".看来,那就是,Laberthonnière,虽然在他的原则,尽管接受本同样的学说,他所承担的打击,当他写完,“由于我们的行动是一次我们和上帝的,我们必须找到它的超自然的元素纳入其宪法“进入。 According to this view, psychological analysis will discover the Divine element immanent in our action, the inward God "more present to us than we ourselves".根据这种观点,心理分析会发现在我们的行动神圣的元素内在的,外来的神“现在比我们自己更要我们”。Now this "living God of conscience" can be discerned only through an intuition which we get by a sort of moral and dynamic ontologism.现在,这个“活着的上帝的良心”,可以看出,只有通过一种直觉,我们通过一个有道德和动态ontologism排​​序得到的。 But how will this presence of the Divine manifest itself in us?但如何将这种神圣的存在表现在我们自己?By the true and imperative demand of our nature which calls for the supernatural.到了我们的本性真实和迫切需求,这对于超自然的电话。-- Such is the abuse of the method of immanence which the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" points out and deplores: "And here again we have reason for grievous complaint, because among Catholics there are to be found men who, while repudiating the doctrine of immanence as a doctrine, make use of it nevertheless for apologetic purposes, and do this so recklessly that they seem to admit in human nature a genuine exigency properly so called in regard to the supernatural order."- 这就是法的内在性虐待而谕“Pascendi gregis”指出,痛惜:“在这里我们再次因为天主教徒之间的严重投诉的原因,也有被发现,男性谁,而批判学说作为一种学说的内在性,但利用它的歉意目的,这样做如此猖狂,他们似乎对人性的承认这样一个真正的紧急情况妥善关于超自然的顺序被调用。“ With still tess reserve, those whom the Encyclical calls inteqralistœ boast of showing the unbeliever the supernatural germ which has been transmitted to humanity from the consciousness of Christ, and hidden in the heart of every man.与仍然苔丝储备,这些人的通谕呼吁inteqralistœ,显示了异教徒的超自然的细菌传染给人类已经从基督的意识,在每个人心中隐藏的自夸。 This is the thought of Sabatier and of Buisson, theologians of the liberal Protestant school -- "I am a man, and nothing Divine is foreign to me" (Buisson).这是萨巴蒂尔和爱德华比松认为,自由新教神学家的学校 - “我是一名男子,并没有什么神圣的是国外对我”(爱德华比松)。

(2) Method Based on the Idea of Relative Immanence(2)对相对内在的思想为基础的方法

There is another application of the method of immanence much more reserved than the one just described since it keeps within the natural order and confines itself to stating a philosophic problem, viz.: Is man sufficient for himself?还有一种方法应用的内涵远比刚才描述的,因为它在自然秩序和保持自身局限在一个保留,说明一个哲学问题,即:。是人对自己是否足够? or is he aware of his insufficiency in such a way as to realize his need of some help from without?或者是他对自己的不足,知道在这样一种方式,以实现从没有他的一些需要帮助吗?Here we are not at all concerned -- as the Encyclical "Pascendi gregis" reproaches the Modernists -- "with inducing the unbeliever to make trial of the Catholic religion"; we are concerned only with;在这里,我们不是在所有有关方面 - 作为谕“Pascendi gregis”责备现代派 - “异教徒和诱导,使天主教宗教审判”,我们只关注;

(1) compelling a man who analyzes his own being to break through the circle within which, supposedly, the doctrine of immanence confines him, and which makes him reject a priori, as out of the question, the whole argument of objective apologetics; and then (一)强迫一个人谁分析他自己的存在,突破圈在其中,据说,他的学说的内在局限,而且使得他拒绝作为一个先验的问题,客观整个论点进行辩护;及然后

(2) with bringing him to recognize in his soul "a capacity and fitness for the supernatural order which Catholic apologists, using the proper reservations, have demonstrated" (Encycl. "Pascendi gregis"). (2)使他承认在他的灵魂“的能力和超自然的秩序天主教辩护士,使用适当的保留,表明健身”(Encycl.“Pascendi gregis”)。

In other words, this method has in itself nothing that calls for condemnation.换句话说,这种方法本身没有什么可以谴责电话。It consists, says Maurice Blondel, its inventor, "in equating within our own consciousness, what we seem to think, to wish, and to do with what we really do, wish and think, in such a way that in the fictitious negations, or the ends artificially desired, those profound affirmations and irrepressible needs which they imply shall still be found" (Lettre sur les exigences).它由说,莫里斯布隆德尔,它的发明者,“在这样的方式等同于在我们自己的意识,我们似乎认为,祝愿,并做我们真正做的,希望和相信,在虚构的否定,或人为的两端需要,这些深刻而他们肯定意味着仍应发现“(Lettre河畔莱紧迫性)挡不住的需求。 This method endeavours to prove that man cannot shut himself up in himself, as in a little world which suffices unto itself.这种方法努力,以证明人不能把自己关在自己身处一个小世界,就够你们本身。To prove this, it takes an inventory of our immanent resources; it brings to light, on the one hand, our irresistible aspirations towards the infinitely True, Good, and Beautiful, and, on the other hand, the insufficiency of our means to attain these ends.为了证明这一点,我们需要一个内在的资源清单,它揭示了一方面,对我们不可抗拒的愿望的无限真,善,美,和,另一方面,我们的手段的不足,达到这些目标。 This comparison shows that our nature, left to itself, is not in a state of equilibrium; that, to achieve its destiny, it needs a help which is essentially beyond it -- a transcendent help.这个比较表明,我们的本性,留给自己,是不是处于平衡状态;,为实现自己的命运,它需要一个帮助它实质上是超越它 - 一个超越的帮助。Thus, "a method of immanence developed in its integrity becomes exclusive of a doctrine of immanence".因此,“一个完整的开发在其内在的方法成为一种内在性主义独家”。In fact, the internal analysis which it prescribes brings the human soul to recognize itself as relative to a transcendent being, thereby setting before us the problem of God.事实上,内部分析,它规定带来的人类灵魂承认相对于一个超越存在本身,从而在我们面前设置了神的问题。Nothing more is needed to make it evident that the "preliminary and comprehensive demurrer", which it sought to set up against Revelation in the name of the principle of immanence, is an unwarranted and arrogant exaggeration.没有更多的需要,使其明显看出,“初步的,全面的异议”,它试图在对立的启示的内在性原则的名义,是无理和傲慢的夸张。 The psychologic examination of conscience which is just now being made, far from ruling out the traditional apologetic, rather appeals to it, opens the way for it, and demonstrates its necessity.良心的是刚才正在远离传统的歉意排除,而呼吁它,为它打开心理检查的方式,证明了其必要性。

To this preliminary clearing of the ground the method adds a subjective preparation which shall dispose the individual for the act of faith by exciting in him the desire to enter into relations with the transcendent God.为了达到这个初步的地面清除方法将一个主观制剂应处理方案在他的信念采取行动的愿望,令人兴奋的进入与超越的神关系的个人。 And the result of this preparation will be not only intellectual and theoretical, but also moral and practical.此外,这项准备的结果将不仅知识和理论,还有道义和实用。Arousing in him a more vivid consciousness of his weakness and his need of help, the method will impel a man to acts of humility which inspire prayer and attract grace.在他唤起了他的弱点更加生动的意识和他需要帮助,该方法将推动一个人行为的谦卑祈祷鼓舞和吸引恩典。

Such is the twofold service which the method based on the idea of relative immanence can render.这就是双重的服务,该方法就可以呈现相对内在思想的基础。Within these limits, it is rigorous.在这些限制,它是严格的。But could it not go farther, and open to us a view of the nature of this transcendent being whose existence it compels us to recognize?但可能不会走得更远,并开放给我们对这种被超越的存在迫使我们认识到它的性质?Might it not, for example, bring the unbeliever to hear and heed "the appeal of preventive or sanctifying grace" which would then express itself in psychologic facts discernible by observation and philosophical analysis (Cardinal Dechamps)?会不会,例如,把异教徒听取和听取然后将表达心理事实,观察和哲学分析(红衣主教Dechamps)辨别自己是“预防性或sanctifying宽限期上诉”? Would it not enable us to experience God, or at least "to find in our action the supernatural element which is said to enter into His Constitution" (Père Laberthonnière)?难道不足以让我们经历神,或者至少是“在我们的行动找到超自然元素,据说是进入他的宪法”(Père的Laberthonnière)? Would it not, finally, justify us in affirming with certainty that the object of our "irrepressible aspirations" is a "supernatural Unnamed" (Blondel), an object which is "beyond and above the natural order" (Ligeard)?难道没有,最后,在肯定的理由肯定我们,我们的“挡不住的期望”,对象是一个“超自然无名”(布隆德尔),一个对象,它是“超越和高于自然秩序”(Ligeard)?

At this point the method of immanence stirs the delicate problem of the relation between nature and the supernatural; but it is doubtful whether the method can solve this problem by its immanent analysis.在这一点上的内在方法搅拌之间自然和超自然的关系微妙的问题,但它是有疑问的方法可以解决这个问题,其内在的分析。 All the attempts referred to above when they lead to anything, seem to do so only at the price of confounding the notion of the transcendent with that of the preternatural, or even of the supernatural -- or, again, at the price of confounding the Divine co-operation and Divine grace.所有上面提到的企图时,它们会导致什么,这样做似乎只是在混淆与超自然的,甚至是超自然的是,超越价格的概念 - 或者,再次在混杂的价格,神圣的合作和神的恩典。In a word, if the psychologic analysis of the tendencies of human nature ends in "showing, without recourse to what Revelation gives us, that man desires infinitely more than the natural order can give him" (Ligeard), it does not follow that we can say with any certainty that this "desired increase" is a supernatural Unnamed.总之,如果对人性的心理倾向分析完的“无追索权展示给我们什么启示,那人的欲望无限多的自然秩序,可以给他”(Ligeard),但这并不表示我们可以有把握地说,这个“希望增加”是一个超自然的命名。 As a matter of fact,由于事实上,

(1) the natural order far exceeds in vastness the object of my analysis; (1)自然顺序远远超过了我的分析对象在浩瀚;

(2) between my nature and the supernatural there is the preternatural; (2)与我的本性和超自然存在着超自然的;

(3) the aids to which my nature aspires, and which God gives me, are not necessarily of the supernatural order.(3)对艾滋病的渴望我的本性,以及对上帝给我,是不是超自然秩序必然。

Besides, even if a supernatural action does in fact manifest itself under these religious aspirations, immanent analysis, apprehending only psychological phenomena, cannot detect it.此外,即使一个超自然的行动其实也体现在这些宗教的愿望,内在分析本身,逮捕只是心理现象,无法检测到它。But the question is still under consideration; it is not for us to solve the mystery of the transcendent in a definitive manner and from the point of view of the method of immanence.但问题仍在考虑,是不是我们的最终解决方式,从方法的角度来看,内在的超越之谜。

Publication information Written by E. Thamiry.出版信息书面由E. Thamiry。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积七。 Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


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Also, an entirely different concept is:同时,一个完全不同的概念是:
Imminence 急迫性

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