Mennonites门诺 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The Mennonites, a Protestant religious group descended from the 16th century Anabaptists, take their name from Menno Simons, a Dutch Roman Catholic priest converted to the Anabaptist faith, whose moderate leadership, after the militant excesses of the fanatical Anabaptist Kingdom of Munster (1534 - 35), restored balance to the movement.门诺,一个新教宗教团体的后代从16世纪再洗礼派,以狂热后的再洗礼派的王国的穆斯特(1534好战的过激他们从门诺西门子,荷兰的罗马天主教神父转换为再洗礼派的信仰,其温和的领导,姓名 - 35),恢复平衡的运动。He was active in the Netherlands and also developed a following in Holstein and along the lower Rhine and the Baltic.他是活跃在荷兰和荷斯坦还制定并沿莱茵河下游和波罗的海一以下。

The Mennonites rejected infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, military service, and worldliness.门诺拒绝婴儿的洗礼,宣誓就职的,兵役,和世俗。They practiced strong church discipline in their congregations and lived simple, honest, loving lives in emulation of the earliest Christians. As summarized by the Dordrecht Confession of 1632, Mennonite theological principles stress the direct influence of the Holy Spirit on the heart of the believer and the importance of the Bible, with its message of salvation through the mystical experience of Christ's presence in the heart. 在他们的毕业典礼,他们实行强有力的教会纪律和生活简单,诚实,1632生活在爱的自白仿真最早多德雷赫特基督徒。,作为总结,门诺神学原则强调精神的信徒对心脏的直接的和神圣的影响圣经的重要性,其救恩的讯息,通过基督的心中存在的神秘经验。

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Because Mennonites refused to assume state offices, to serve as police or soldiers, or to take oaths of loyalty, they were considered subversive and as such severely persecuted.因为门诺教派拒绝承担国家机关,担任警察或士兵,或采取宣誓效忠,他们被视为颠覆,因此受到严重迫害。These persecutions led at various times to the emigration of Mennonite groups: to the American colonies (1683), where they settled in Pennsylvania; to Russia (1788); and, in the 20th century, from Russia and North America to Latin America.在不同时期导致了这些迫害移民门诺集团:向美国殖民地(1683年),他们在那里定居在宾夕法尼亚州,俄罗斯(1788),以及在20世纪从俄罗斯和北美,拉丁美洲。 In Europe they gradually gained a measure of toleration in Holland, Switzerland, the Palatinate, and northern Germany.在欧洲,他们逐渐获得了在荷兰,瑞士,普法尔茨宽容措施,和德国北部。

In the New World the Mennonites branched into several factions, of which the (Old) Mennonite Church - still the largest - is the parent group.在新世界的门诺教派分支分成几个派别,其中的(旧)门诺教会 - 仍然是最大的 - 是母公司集团。Other groups include the General Conference Mennonite Church and the Mennonite Brethren Church.其他群体包括大会门诺教会和门诺教会的弟兄。The Amish Church, named for Jacob Ammann, a 17th century Swiss Mennonite bishop, remains insular and conservative.阿米绪堂,为雅各阿曼,一个17世纪的瑞士门诺派的主教,命名仍然封闭和保守。Old Order Amish avoid modern technology in farming and manufacturing, wear old fashioned clothing fastened by hooks and eyes instead of buttons, worship in private homes, and continue to speak a German English amalgam (Pennsylvania Dutch).旧秩序的阿米甚避免在农业和制造业的现代技术,穿老式服装的鱼​​钩和眼睛而不是按钮,在私人家庭礼拜,并继续讲德语英语汞合金(宾夕法尼亚荷兰语)紧固。 The Conservative Amish differ only in their adoption of English and Sunday schools.保守党的阿米什差别只在他们的英语和周日学校采用。The churches meet together once every 6 years at the Mennonite World Conference.聚在一起的教会每6到门诺世界会议年。American Mennonites reside principally in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas.美国门诺教派主要居住在宾夕法尼亚,俄亥俄,印第安纳州和堪萨斯。Significant numbers also live in Canada.相当数量也住在加拿大。

Lewis W Spitz刘易斯W施皮茨

Bibliography 参考书目
HS Bender and HC Smith, Mennonites and Their Heritage (1964) and, as eds., Mennonite Encyclopedia (1954 - 59); B Davies, String of Amber: The Heritage of the Mennonites (1973); CJ Dyck, ed., Introduction to Mennonite History (1981); JW Fretz, The Waterloo Mennonites (1989); R Friedmann, Mennonite Piety Through the Centuries (1949); JA Hostetler, Mennonite Life (1983); CW Redekop, Mennonite Society (1989); CH Smith, The Story of the Mennonites (1950); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962).房协及HC德尔史密斯,门诺教派及其遗产(1964年),作为主编,门诺大百科全书(1954 - 59);乙戴维斯,弦琥珀:。。本门诺教派(1973)遗产;终审法院首席法官戴克,编,导言到门诺历史(1981年); JW弗雷茨,滑铁卢门诺教派(1989)与r弗里德曼,几个世纪以来(1949年)门诺孝;茉莉霍斯泰特勒,门诺人寿(1983);连续Redekop,门诺会(1989年);甲烷史密斯,作者:门诺教派(1950)故事;生长激素威廉姆斯,激进改革(1962年)。


General Information一般资料


Mennonites are a Protestant evangelical religious group, which originated in Switzerland and the Netherlands at the time of the Protestant Reformation.门诺教派是基督教福音派宗教组织,在瑞士和荷兰起源于新教改革的时间。


Mennonites are divided into a number of separate bodies, some of them more conservative and withdrawn from modern society than others; but they hold in common the ideal of a religious community based on New Testament models and imbued with the spirit of the Sermon on the Mount.门诺教派陷入一种独立的机构数量划分,其中一些较为保守和现代社会比其他人撤回,但他们持有共同的一个宗教社区为基础的新约模式和对登山宝训精神,充满理想。 Most of the principal tenets of the Mennonites are found in a confession of faith promulgated at Dordrecht, the Netherlands, in 1632.作者:门诺的主要原则大多一个认罪的信仰发现颁布了多德雷赫特,荷兰,在1632年。 The Bible as interpreted by the individual conscience is regarded as the sole authority on doctrinal matters, and no powers of mediation between an individual and God are conceded to the ministry.圣经的解释是:作为对理论问题的唯一权威都把个人的良知,和调解没有权力个人与神的人承认该部。Baptism is administered only on the profession of faith; infant baptism is rejected.洗礼实施的对象仅限于专业的信念,婴儿的洗礼,被拒绝。The Lord's Supper (see Eucharist) is celebrated, although not as a sacrament, and the rite of foot washing is sometimes observed in connection with it.主的晚餐(见圣体圣事),是庆祝,虽然不是作为一个圣餐,和脚洗仪式,有时与它的连接情况。

Mennonites were among the first to espouse the principle of separation of church and state and to condemn slavery.门诺是第一批被拥护的政教分离原则,并谴责奴隶制。They have traditionally obeyed the civil laws, but many refuse to bear arms or to support violence in any form (see Pacifism), to take judicial oaths, and to hold public office.他们历来遵守有关民事法律,但许多不携带武器或支持任何形式(见和平主义)的暴力行为,采取司法宣誓,并担任公职。 The more conservative Mennonite groups are distinguished by plain living and simplicity of dress.更为保守的门诺集团的特点是生活简朴,衣着简单。


The Mennonites emerged in Switzerland in the 1520s as radical Protestants who went beyond the positions held by the Swiss reformer Huldreich Zwingli. They broke with him over the issue of infant baptism, and so were called Anabaptists, or "rebaptizers." Because these Swiss Brethren rejected the concept of a state church and refused to sanction war or to accept military service, they were regarded as subversive and were persecuted.门诺瑞士出现在1520年代的激进的新教徒改革者Huldreich谁去瑞士茨温利的立场之外举行的。 他们打破了他对这些问题的婴儿洗礼,因此被称为再洗礼派,或“rebaptizers。”因为这些瑞士弟兄拒绝了国家教会的概念,并拒绝接受制裁战争或军事服务,他们被视为颠覆和被迫害。

A parallel movement emerged at about the same time in the Netherlands, led by Menno Simons, from whom the name Mennonite is derived.一个平行运动出现在大约由门诺西门子为首的荷兰,同时,从门诺是谁的名字而得。Educated for the priesthood and ordained in 1524, Menno Simons gradually moved to a radical position, until by 1537 he was preaching believer's baptism and nonresistance.受过教育的神职人员和在1524年晋铎,门诺西门子逐渐转移到激进立场,直到1537年,他鼓吹信徒的洗礼和不抵抗。 As they did in Switzerland, Anabaptists in the Netherlands experienced years of persecution.当他们在瑞士一样,在荷兰再洗礼派经历了多年的迫害。Similar groups sprang up in southern Germany and also in Austria, where they were led by Jakob Hutter and called Hutterites or Hutterian Brethren.类似团体兴起,在德国南部和奥地利也,他们在那里领导的雅各布胡特尔弟兄们 ,并呼吁哈特莱特Hutterian。

The Swiss Brethren continued to suffer harassment and persecution into the 18th century, and many fled to the Rhineland and the Netherlands, others to America (Pennsylvania), and still others to eastern Europe.瑞士弟兄们继续遭受骚扰和迫害进入18世纪,许多逃到了莱茵兰和荷兰,美国(宾夕法尼亚州)其他,还有人认为是东欧。 In the Netherlands outright persecution ceased by the end of the 16th century, although some coercion and discrimination in favor of the state church persisted.在荷兰,彻底停止迫害由16世纪末,虽然有些胁迫和在国家教会赞成歧视依然存在。Like the Swiss Brethren, many Dutch Mennonites immigrated, some to Pennsylvania, others eastward to Prussia and Poland, reaching, by the early 19th century, the Ukraine and other parts of Russia.像瑞士的弟兄们,许多荷兰门诺教派移民,一些宾夕法尼亚州,普鲁士和其他东移,波兰,达到了19世纪初,乌克兰和俄罗斯其他地区。

In Pennsylvania Mennonites were among those who settled Germantown in 1683.在宾夕法尼亚州门诺是在那些在1683年日耳曼谁解决。Both Swiss and Dutch Mennonites went to the colony in the following years.瑞士和荷兰的门诺教派都去了,在随后几年的殖民地。Distinctive among them, although not numerically the most important, were followers of a 17th-century Swiss Mennonite bishop, Jakob Amman, who were called Amish or Amish Mennonites. Their very conservative dress and other customs - especially their use of shunning as a method of discipline - set them apart from the surrounding society.其中特色,虽然不是最重要的数值,是其他追随者一个17世纪的瑞士门诺派的主教,雅各布安曼,谁被称为阿米什阿米斯 - 门诺教派。他们非常保守的服装和风俗,特别是其使用方法作为回避学科 - 设置它们除了周围的社会。

Later waves of emigration from Europe introduced variant strands of the Mennonite tradition into the United States.来自欧洲的移民浪潮介绍了后来成为美国诺传统变种股。In each case the tendency was to take up land on what was at the time the western frontier.在每一种情况的趋势是采取什么就在当时的西部边疆的土地。In the first half of the 19th century Mennonites from Switzerland and southern Germany settled in Ohio and other states westward to Missouri.在19世纪前半从瑞士门诺派和德国南部定居在俄亥俄州和其他国家向西到密苏里州。 After the American Civil War Mennonites from Russia, primarily of Dutch stock, settled in Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota.美国南北战争结束后从俄罗斯门诺教派,主要是荷兰的股票,在堪萨斯州,内布拉斯加州和南达科他州定居。Following World War I Russian Mennonites migrated to Canada, especially Saskatchewan.第一次世界大战后俄罗斯门诺教派移民到加拿大,尤其是萨斯喀彻温省。More came after World War II, but the destinations of the most recent Mennonite emigrants have been Mexico, Paraguay, and Brazil.走进来的时候第二次世界大战后,但最近的诺已经移民的目的地墨西哥,巴拉圭和巴西。

In North America the largest Mennonite bodies are the Mennonite Church ("Old Mennonites"), with roots in colonial Pennsylvania, and the General Conference Mennonite Church, organized in Iowa in 1860.在北美最大的门诺机构是门诺教会 (“旧门诺派”),根在与宾夕法尼亚殖民地,和大会门诺教会,爱荷华州在1860年举办。In 1980 the Mennonite Church had about 109,000 members in the US and Canada and 33,000 in related overseas churches; the General Conference Mennonite Church had about 60,000 members in the US and Canada. 1980年,有大约10.9万门诺教会在美国和加拿大相关海外教会33,000名成员;大会门诺教会曾在美国和加拿大的约60,000个成员。Local churches are organized into district conferences, which send delegates to a general conference, or assembly.当地教会组织到地区年会,这派代表到大会或大会。Many of the clergy serve their churches part time while engaged in secular employment.许多服务的神职人员在教堂的一部分时间,而在世俗受雇。

Throughout much of their history, Mennonites have been a rural people, traditionally farmers.纵观其历史上,门诺教派是一个农村人,传统的农民。In the 20th century the largest Mennonite bodies in the US have begun to play a significant role in society at large.在20世纪的美国最大的门诺机构已经开始在全社会发挥了重要作用大。The traditional use of the German language in worship survives only in the most conservative groups.在德语中的崇拜才得以流传下来的传统使用最保守的群体。Both the Mennonite Church and the General Mennonite Church sponsor institutions of higher education.无论是门诺教会和一般门诺教会赞助的高等教育机构。The Mennonite Central Committee, with representatives from 17 Mennonite bodies, is a cooperative relief and service agency dedicated to advancing the cause of peace and alleviating human suffering throughout the world.门诺派中央委员会由17门诺机构的代表,是一个合作的救济和服务机构,致力于推进和平事业和世界各地的人减轻痛苦。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Mennonites are a large body of Anabaptist groups today, descendants of the Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists (the Swiss Brethren, as they came to be known) of the sixteenth century.门诺教派是当今再洗礼派团体大的身体,荷兰和瑞士再洗礼派的后裔(瑞士弟兄们,因为他们后来被称为)的16世纪。 The basic doctrines of the original Swiss Anabaptists, as well as the Peace Wing of the Dutch Anabaptists, are reflected in the 1524 Programmatic Letters of Conrad Grebel; in the Seven Articles of Schleitheim, 1527; in the voluminous writings of Pilgram Marpeck (d. 1556); in the writings of Menno Simons and of Dirk Philips (Enchiridion or Handbook of the Christian Doctrine); in the Swiss Brethren hymn book, the Ausbund (1564); and in the huge Martyrs Mirror of 1660.原瑞士再洗礼派的基本教义,以及和平的荷兰再洗礼派荣,反映在1524年的纲领性康拉德格列伯信件;在施莱特海姆,1527年的七篇文章,在皮尔格拉姆Marpeck(四的大量著作1556年);在门诺西门子和德克飞利浦(便览或基督教教义手册)的著作,在瑞士弟兄们赞美诗书,Ausbund(1564),以及在巨大的烈士镜1660。

The Swiss Brethren were the Free Church wing of the Zwinglian Reformation.瑞士弟兄们是自由教会的Zwinglian改革翼。Initially the pioneer leaders such as Conrad Grebel and Felix Mantz had nothing but praise for Zwingli.最初,如康拉德格列伯和Felix曼茨先驱领袖们只是为茨温利的一致好评。But by the fall of 1523 they became increasingly uneasy about the tempo of the Reformation in Zurich, and particularly about Zwingli's practice of allowing the Great Council of the 200 to decide what Catholic forms of doctrine, piety, and practice were to be dropped.但是到了1523年秋天,他们越来越感到不安关于在苏黎世的改革步伐,特别是关于茨温利的,允许对200大议会决定什么样的学说,虔诚的天主教和实践形式被丢弃的做法。 These young radicals felt that Zwingli was too lukewarm and slow in carrying out his strongly biblical vision for an evangelical Reformed Church in Zurich.这些年轻的激进分子认为,茨温利太冷淡,并在实施中的一个福音归正教会圣经在苏黎世他的强烈视觉缓慢。But they did nothing until they were ordered to have their infants baptized and forbidden to conduct any more Bible study sessions.但他们没有什么,直到他们被命令让他们的婴儿受洗,并禁止进行任何更多的圣经学习班。It was then that they met, and after earnest prayer ventured to inaugurate believer's baptism and to commission each other to go out as preachers and evangelists.就在这时,他们相遇了,经过认真的祈祷大胆开创信徒的洗礼,并委托对方去的传教士和福音了。The date of organization of this Swiss Free Church was January 21, 1525.瑞士的这个日期是自由教会组织1525年1月21日。

At this organization meeting the three strongest leaders were Conrad Grebel, who died in 1526; Felix Mantz, who died as a martyr early in 1527; and George Blaurock, who was severely beaten and banished from Zurich in 1527, only to be burned to death in the Tirol in 1529.在这次会议上最强的三个组织是康拉德格列伯领导人,谁在1526年去世;费利克斯曼茨,谁是烈士早在1527年死了,乔治Blaurock,谁是严重殴打,被流放在1527年从苏黎世,只有被烧死在1529年蒂罗尔。 After the original leaders were off the scene, the mantle of leadership fell upon a former Benedictine monk of South Germany named Michael Sattler.后,原来的领导人离开现场,领导地幔落在前南笃和尚名叫迈克尔德国萨特勒。 It was Sattler who helped the scattered and sometimes differing Swiss Brethren to settle upon what was a biblical faith and way of life.这是美国海军陆战队谁帮助这些分散的,有时不同的瑞士弟兄定居后,什么是圣经的信仰和生活方式。 This was realized at a village in Schaffhausen called Schleitheim in 1527.这是实现在一个村庄叫沙夫豪森在1527年施莱特海姆。 Seven articles were worked over and finally adopted unanimously by the "brethren and sisters" who were present.七篇文章的工作了,最后通过的“兄弟姐妹”谁是目前一致。These seven articles may be summarized thus:这七条可概括这样的:

(1) Baptism is to be given to people who have repented and believed on Christ, who manifest a new way of life, who "walk in the resurrection," and who actually request baptism.(1)的洗礼,是必须考虑到人谁已经悔改并相信基督,谁表现出一种新的生活方式,谁“走在复活”,并要求究竟是谁的洗礼。 (Infants and children are considered saved without ceremony, but infants are often "dedicated.") (婴儿和儿童被认为没有保存仪式,但婴儿往往是“专用”。)

(2) Before the breaking of bread (the Lord's Supper), special effort shall be made to reclaim from any form of sin any brothers or sisters who may have strayed from Christ's way of love, holiness, and obedience. (2)在破面包(主的晚餐),应作出特别的努力收回任何形式的任何罪恶的兄弟谁可能从基督的爱,圣洁,和服从的方式偏离姐妹。Those who are overtaken by sin should be twice warned privately, then publicly admonished before the congregation.谁是这些罪恶超越应两次私下警告,然后会众面前公开训诫。The rite of exclusion of impenitent sinners the Swiss Brethren called the ban.不知悔改的罪人排斥仪式的瑞士弟兄们称为禁令。

(3) The Lord's Supper is to be celebrated by those who have been united into the body of Christ by baptism.(3)主的晚餐是被那些谁已经进入基督的​​身体联合庆祝洗礼。The congregation of believers must keep themselves from the sinful ways of the world in order to be united in the "loaf" of Christ.教会的信徒必须保持从世界的罪恶,以自己的方式是统一于“面包”的基督。

(4) Disciples of Christ must carefully avoid the sins of a Christ - rejecting world. (4)基督信徒必须小心避免一个基督的罪 - 拒绝的世界。They cannot have spiritual fellowship with those who reject the obedience of faith.他们不能与那些谁拒绝服从的信念精神团体。 Accordingly there are two classes of people: those who belong to the devil and live in sin, and those who have been delivered by Christ from this evil way of life.因此,有两类人:那些谁属于魔鬼和罪恶的生活,和那些谁被基督发表这样的生活,从恶之路。We must break with every form of sin, and then he will be our God and we will be his sons and daughters.我们必须打破一切形式的罪恶,然后他将是我们的上帝,我们将是他的儿子和女儿。

(5) Every congregation of true Christians needs a shepherd. (5)每一个真正的基督徒会众的需要牧羊人。The shepherd (or pastor) shall meet NT qualifications, "the rule of Paul."牧羊人(或牧师)应符合资格新台币,“保罗法则”。He is to read God's Word, exhort, teach, warn, admonish, discipline or ban in the congregation, properly preside in the congregational meetings and in the breaking of bread.他是读神的话语,劝告,教导,警告,告诫,在众学科或禁令,妥善主持会议,并在堂中擘饼。If he has financial needs the congregation shall give him support.如果他有经济需要的会众应给予他的支持。Should he be led away to martyrdom, another pastor shall be ordained in "the same hour."如果他被带出去殉道,另一个牧师应祝圣“相同的时刻。”

(6) The section on being nonresistant suffers is entitled "The Sword." (6)一节被不抵抗遭受的标题是“剑”。The sword is ordained of God "outside the perfection of Christ" (the church).剑是上帝命定“外完美的基督”(教会)。The only method the church has to deal with transgressors is the ban (exclusion).唯一的方法,教会来处理罪犯,是禁止(排除)。 Disciples of Christ must be utterly nonresistant.基督信徒必须完全不抵抗。They cannot use the sword to cope with the wicked or to defend the good.他们不能用剑来对付恶人或捍卫好。Nonresistant Christians cannot serve as magistrates; rather, they must react as Christ did: he refused when they wished to make him king.不抵抗的基督徒不能作为裁判,而是他们必须作出反应,为基督做的:他拒绝时,他们希望他作王。 Under no circumstances can Christians be other than Christlike.在任何情况下,基督信徒比其他。

(7) Finally, by the word of Christ, Christians cannot swear any kind of oath. (7)最后,由基督的话,基督徒也不敢保证任何种类的宣誓。Christian disciples are finite creatures; they cannot make one hair grow white or black.基督教门徒是有限的动物,它们不能使一根头发生长的白色或黑色。They may solemnly testify to the truth, but they shall not swear.他们可能会郑重证明了的真理,但他们不得发誓。

In the covering letter accompanying the Seven Articles, Sattler acknowledges that some of the brothers had not fully understood God's will aright, but now they do.在所附的七篇文章,包括信件,萨特勒承认,有些人的兄弟没有完全理解上帝的旨意的戒律,但现在他们做的。All past mistakes are truly forgiven when believers offer prayer concerning their shortcomings and guilt; they have perfect standing "through the gracious forgiveness of God and through the blood of Jesus Christ."所有过去的错误,是真正的信徒提供祈祷原谅的时候,有关他们的缺点和内疚,他们有完善的站在“通过上帝的仁慈宽恕,并通过耶稣基督的血。”

In 1693 Jakob Ammann, a Swiss elder in Alsace, founded the most conservative wing of the Mennonites, the Amish.雅各布阿曼在1693年,瑞士在阿尔萨斯长老,成立了门诺派,阿米什最保守的右翼。

Down through the centuries the Mennonites have produced numerous confessions of faith, catechisms, printed sermons, and hymn books.向下通过几个世纪的门诺教派产生了无数的自白信,理问答,印刷布道,和圣歌书籍。

Mennonites hold to the major doctrines of the Christian faith and feel free to confess the Apostles' Creed. They are dissatisfied, however, with the creed's moving directly from the birth of Christ to his atoning death. They feel that it is also important to study Christ's way of life, his beautiful example of love, obedience, and service. They cannot believe that seeking to be faithful to both the letter and the spirit of the NT is legalism, if such obedience is based on love for God and love for man. 门诺教派坚持基督教信仰的重大理论和随意承认使徒们的信条。不满意的,但死亡,与信仰的移动直接出生在基督的赎罪。 他们觉得这也是很重要的研究基督的生命方式,他和服务美丽的例子爱,顺从。他们不能相信,谋求成为忠实的 ​​文字和NT精神,是法家,如果这种顺从是神为基础的爱情和男人的爱。Indeed, Michael Sattler wrote a moving essay in 1527: Two Kinds of Obedience.事实上,迈克尔萨特勒说在1527年一个移动的文章:两种服从种。They are (1) slavish obedience, which is legalism; it involves a low level of performance and produces proud "Pharisees."他们是:(1)盲目服从,这是法家,它涉及到的性能水平低,生产骄傲“法利赛人。”(2) Filial obedience, which is based on love for God and can never do enough, for the love of Christ is so intense Mennonites see the will of God revealed in a preparatory but nonfinal way in the OT but fully and definitively in Christ and the NT. (2)孝,这是基于对上帝爱的人,不可能做足够的基督的爱,是如此强烈的门诺教派看到了上帝的意志透露,在加时赛中,但非最终准备充分和明确的方式,但在基督和新台币。

Violent suppression of the Mennonites practically led to their extermination in Germany.门诺教派暴力的镇压实际上导致了他们在德国灭绝。In Switzerland they survived chiefly in two areas, the Emme valley of Berne and the mountainous areas of the Jura.在瑞士,他们幸存下来,主要在两个方面,在伯尔尼艾蒙山谷和汝拉山区。William I of the House of Orange brought toleration of a sort to the "Mennists" (the name coined by Countess Anna in Friesland in 1545 to designate the Peace Wing of the Dutch Anabaptists) of the Netherlands about 1575.奥兰治的威廉家,我带了一个排序容忍的“Mennists”(这个名字的顺口溜:弗里斯兰省于1545年由女伯爵安娜和平指定的荷兰再洗礼派部)约1575荷兰。 The severe persecution of the Swiss Taufgesinnten, the Dutch Doopsgezinden, and the Frisian Mennists effectively silenced their evangelistic and mission concerns for several centuries, but these were revived slowly in the nineteenth century, first in Europe and then in North America.瑞士Taufgesinnten,荷兰Doopsgezinden和弗里斯兰Mennists严重的迫害有效地压制了几个世纪的福音和任务的关注,但这些都在十九世纪的复兴,首先是在欧洲,然后慢慢地在北美洲。 Mennonite missions have been most successful in Africa, Indonesia, and in India, and have started in Latin America.门诺派代表团一直在非洲最成功,印度尼西亚和印度,并在拉丁美洲开始。

JC Wenger赛马温格

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Mennonite Encyclopedia; TJ van Braght, Martyrs Mirror; CJ Dyck, ed., Introduction to Mennonite History; J Horsch, Mennonites in Europe; GF Hershberger, War, Peace, and Nonresistance; M Jeschke, Discipling the Brother; JA Hostetler, Amish Society; SF Pannabecker, Open Doors; JA Toews, Mennonite Brethren Church; JC Wenger, Introduction to Theology and Mennonite Church in America.门诺百科全书; TJ面包车Braght,烈士镜;终审法院首席法官戴克,教育署,介绍门诺历史;。Ĵ Horsch,欧洲门诺;绿赫什伯格,战争,和平与不抵抗〔M Jeschke,门徒的哥哥茉莉霍斯泰特勒,阿米什协会;科幻Pannabecker,打开门;茉莉托斯,教会门诺弟兄赛马温格,介绍神学与基督教门诺教会在美国。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland.欧洲和美洲的新教教派在瑞士的出现在十六世纪,导出其从门诺西门子,其在荷兰的领导人的名字。Menno Simons was born in 1492 at Witmarsum in Friesland.门诺出生于Witmarsum西蒙斯在弗里斯兰省于1492年。In 1515 or 1516 he was ordained to the Catholic priesthood and appointed assistant at Pingjum not far from Witmarsum.在1515年或1516年,他被祝圣的天主教神职人员和Pingjum职的助理不远处Witmarsum。aater (1532) he was named pastor of his native place, but 12 January, 1536, resigned his charge and became an Anabaptist elder.aater(1532),他被任命为牧师,他的故乡,但1536年1月12日辞职,由他负责,并成为一个再洗礼派的长老。 The rest of his life was devoted to the interests of the new sect which he had joined.他的余生专门讨论新教派的,他加入了利益。 Though not an imposing personality he exercised no small influence as a speaker and more particularly as a writer among the more moderate holders of Anabaptist views.虽然不是一个强加的个性,他没有行使作为演讲者,更特别是作为一个中间的再洗礼派的看法比较温和的人作家的影响很小。 His death occurred 13 January, 1559, at Wustenfelde in Holstein.他的死亡发生在1559年1月13日在Wustenfelde,荷斯坦。The opinions held by Menno Simons and the Mennonites originated in Switzerland.由门诺西门子和门诺举行的意见起源于瑞士。 In 1525 Grebel and Manz founded an Anabaptist community at Zurich.在1525年成立于曼茨格列伯和苏黎世的再洗礼派社区。Persecution followed upon the very foundation of the new sect, and was exercised against its members until 1710 in various parts of Switzerland.其次迫害后的新教派的基础,并对其行使成员,直至1710年在瑞士各地。 It was powerless to effect suppression and a few communities exist even at present.这是无能为力的效果镇压和目前存在的一些社区,甚至。About 1620 the Swiss Mennonites split into Amish or Upland Mennonites and Lowland Mennonites.关于1620年瑞士门诺教派分裂成门诺教派阿米什或高地和低地门诺教派。The former differ from the latter in the belief that excommunication dissolves marriage, in their rejection of buttons and of the practice of shaving.前者不同于后者的信念罚溶解婚姻,在他们的排斥和按钮的剃须的做法。During Menno's lifetime his followers in Holland divided (1554) into "Flemings" and "Waterlanders", on account of their divergent views on excommunication.在门诺的一生分为他的追随者在荷兰(1554年)编成的“弗雷明斯”和“Waterlanders”,对在禁教他们不同的意见。 The former subsequently split up into different parties and dwindled into insignificance, not more than three congregations remaining at present in Holland.前者后来分裂成不同的党派和萎缩成无足轻重,不超过三个教区在荷兰目前剩余。Division also weakened the "Waterlanders" until in 1811 they united, dropped the name of Mennonites and called themselves "Doopsgezinde" (Baptist persuasion), their present official designation in Holland.司也削弱了“Waterlanders”,直到1811年,他们团结起来,放弃了门诺教派的名字,称自己是“Doopsgezinde”(浸会说服),他们目前在荷兰的正式名称。 Menno founded congregations exclusively in Holland and Northwestern Germany.专门成立门诺在荷兰​​和德国西北部的教会。Mennonite communities existed at an early date, however in South Germany where they were historically connected with the Swiss movement, and are found at present in other parts of the empire, chiefly in eastern Prussia.门诺社区存在早日然而,在德国南部,在那里他们与瑞士历史相连运动,被发现在其他地区的帝国目前,在东部的普鲁士为主。 The offer of extensive land and the assurance of religious liberty caused a few thousand German Mennonites to emigrate to Southern Russia (1788).在广泛的土地和宗教自由的保证提供造成几千德国门诺教派移民到俄罗斯南部(1788)。This emigration movement continued until 1824, and resulted in the foundation of comparatively important Mennonite colonies.这种移民活动一直持续到1824年,并在门诺殖民地基础比较重要的结果。In America the first congregation was founded in 1683 at Germantown, Pennsylvania.在美国,第一堂始建于1683年在Germantown,宾夕法尼亚州。Subsequently immigration from Germany, Holland, Switzerland, and since 1870 from Russia, considerably increased the number of the sect in North America.随后来自德国,荷兰,瑞士,由于移民来自俄罗斯1870,大大增加了在北美节数。There are twelve different branches in the United States in some of which the membership does not reach 1000.有在美国十二个不同分支,在其中的成员没有达到1000年的一些。Among the peculiar views of the Mennonites are the following: repudiation of infant baptism, oaths, law-suits, civil office-holding and the bearing of arms.门诺教派之间的特有的意见如下:婴儿洗礼,宣誓,依法诉讼,民事办公室举行和携带武器的批判。Baptism of adults and the Lord's Supper, in which Jesus Christ is not really present, are retained, but not as sacraments properly so-called.成人的洗礼和主的晚餐,其中耶稣基督是不是真的存在,是保留,但不作为圣礼妥善所谓。Non-resistance to violence is an important tenet and an extensive use is made of excommunication.不抵抗暴力是一个重要的宗旨,广泛的使用是罚制成。All these views, however, are no longer universally held, some Mennonites now accepting secular offices.所有这些意见,但是,不再是普遍举行,现已接受世俗的门诺教派的一些办事处。The polity is congregational, with bishops, elders, and deacons.在政体是公理,与主教,长老,和执事。The aggregate membership of the Mennonites is now usually given as about 250,000; of these there are some 60,000 in Holland; 18,000 in Germany; 70,000 in Russia; 1500 in Switzerland; 20,000 in Canada, and according to Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, New York, 27 January, 1910), 55,007 in the United States.总的门诺教派的成员现在通常定为约25万;其中有一些在荷兰60000,在德国18,000 70,000在俄罗斯,在瑞士1500年,在加拿大20,000,并根据医生卡罗尔(基督教主张,新纽约1月27日,1910年),在美国55007。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息写不适用韦伯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


CRAMER, Bibliotheca Reformatoria Neerlandica, II and V (The Hague, 1903, sqq.); CARROLL, Religious Forces of the United States (New York, 1896), 206-220; WEDEL, Geschichte der Mennoniten (Newton, Kansas, 1900-1904); SMITH, The Mennonites of America (Goshen, Indiana, 1909); CRAMER and HORSCH in New Schaff-Herzog Encycl.克拉默,书目Reformatoria Neerlandica,II和V(海牙,1903年,sqq。)卡罗尔,宗教势力的美国(纽约,1896),206-220;威德尔,史明镜Mennoniten(牛顿,堪萨斯州,1900 - 1904年);史密斯,美国(歌珊,印第安纳州,1909年)门诺教派,在新的沙夫-赫尔佐克Encycl Cramer和HORSCH。sv (New York, 1910).希沃特(纽约,1910年)。

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