Salvation, Soteriology救国,救世神学 中文 - Zhong Wen

jiùshì jūn

General Information一般资料

Salvation (from the Latin salus, "health," "safety," "well being") is a religious concept that refers either to the process through which a person is brought from a condition of distress to a condition of ultimate well being or to the state of ultimate well being that is the result of that process.救赎(来自拉丁语salus,“健康”,“安全”,“幸福”)是一个宗教概念,是指无论对一个人是通过从危难条件带到一个进程的最终条件或福祉其最终福祉是这一进程的结果状态。 The meaning of the concept varies according to the different ways religious traditions understand the human plight and the ultimate state of human well being.这一概念的含义根据不同的宗教传统的理解人类的困境和人类福祉的最终状态不同的方式。Ideas of salvation may or may not be linked to the figure of a savior or redeemer or correlated with a concept of God.得救的想法可能也可能不会被链接到一个救世主或救世主或以神的概念相关的数字。

In Christianity, salvation is variously conceived. 在基督教里,救恩是各种设想。One prominent conception emphasizes justification - the process through which the individual, alienated from God by sin, is reconciled to God and reckoned just or righteous through faith in Christ. Other religions present other views. 一个突出的概念,强调的理由-通过这一过程的个人意见,上帝疏远的罪恶,是与神和其他计算的公正或正义通过信仰基督。其他宗教的存在。 In certain forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, salvation is understood as liberation from the inevitable pain of existence in time by means of religious disciplines that ultimately achieve a state of being that is not determined by time bound perceptions and forms of thought.印度教和佛教中的某些形式,例如,拯救被理解为从生存的时间必然疼痛解放的宗教学科,最终达到一个被认为是不受时间约束的观念和思想形式确定一个国家的手段。

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These and other ideas of salvation rest on the notion that the human condition is marked by fundamental forms of distress that prevent persons from attaining true and enduring well being.这些和拯救的,人类的状态是由基本形式的困扰,防止实现真正和持久的幸福感的人休息的概念标记其他想法。Salvation, then, is the process through which true well being is realized.救赎,那么,通过它实现了真正的福祉的过程。

William S Babcock威廉S巴布科克

Bibliography 参考书目
K Klostermaier, Liberation, Salvation, Self Realization: A Comparative Study of Hindu, Buddhist, and Christian Ideas (1973); AW Pink, The Doctrine of Salvation (1975); CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Salvation: A Study of the Atonement (1969). K表Klostermaier,解放,救赎,自我实现:一个印度教,佛教的比较研究,以及(1973)基督教思想,胡粉,救恩学说(1975年);铬史密斯,救恩圣经的教义:研究的赎罪(1969年)。


General Information一般资料

Salvation is perceived in a variety of ways by different Christians and even different Christian Churches.救恩是认为在一个由不同的基督徒的不同方式,甚至不同的基督教教会。The Salvation process is unique to each individual.救世军过程是独一无二的每一个人。In some cases, it can be a slow, methodical procedure.在某些情况下,它可以是一个缓慢的,有条不紊的程序。In others, an instantaneous flash of insight causes a miraculous transformation!在其他国家,一个瞬间闪光的洞察力使一个神奇的转变!For most people, the Salvation process is somewhere between these extremes.对于大多数人来说,拯救的过程是介于这两个极端。

In all cases, the central human condition involved for Salvation is absolute total trust in God.在所有情况下,中央参与拯救人类的条件是绝对的完全信任上帝。

A very analytical way of looking at it involves the following:一个在寻找它非常的分析方式涉及以下内容:
(This presents a generalized Protestant perspective. Catholics and Orthodox are taught rather different views on Salvation.) (这提出了一个广义新教的观点。天主教徒和东正教徒讲授拯救相当不同的意见。)

Many Christian Churches consider only some of these 'stages' to be part of the Salvation process.许多基督教教会只考虑这些'阶段,有一些是在拯救过程的一部分。Various Denominations describe their concept of Salvation in different ways.各种面额不同的方式描述他们的拯救概念。In addition, the indwelling Holy Spirit understands what unique sequence and process is necessary for each individual, so sweeping generalities (like this description!) are often incorrect.此外,留置圣灵明白什么独特的顺序和过程是每一个人,所以笼统泛泛必要的(像这样的描述!)往往不正确。These matters make precise general discussion on the subject somewhat difficult.这些问题作出明确的关于这个问题的一般性讨论有些困难。

In addition, this listing is a specifically Protestant description.此外,这个清单是一个专门新教的描述。Catholic and Orthodox desciptions have some differences, and generally discuss fewer "stages".天主教和东正教desciptions有一些分歧,一般较少讨论“阶段”。Also, where Protestant beliefs insist on Salvation being totally by the Grace of God, with no input by the person, Catholic beliefs include finding substantial value in the Good Works of the person.此外,在新教信仰的救赎是完全由上帝的恩典,没有被人投入,坚持,天主教信仰包括寻找在该人的优秀作品有重大价值。

(BELIEVE contains individual presentations on these different matters. See the very end of this page for links to them.)(相信包含对这些不同事项的个别介绍。见这个网页,链接到他们十分结束。)


Advanced Information先进的信息

The saving of man from the power and effects of sin.从罪恶的力量和影响的人储蓄。

The Biblical Idea圣经中的观念

The common Hebrew words for salvation, deriving from the root yasa' (width, spaciousness, freedom from constraint, hence, deliverance) obviously lend themselves to broad development in application.共同为拯救希伯来文的话,从根本上产生亚萨合'(宽度,宽敞,自由的约束,因此,解脱)明显借给自己广阔的应用发展。 Literally, they cover salvation from any danger, distress, enemies, from bondage in Egypt (Exod. 14:13; 15:2), exile in Babylon (Isa. 46:13; 52:10 - 11), adversaries (Ps. 106:10), defeat (Deut. 20:4), or oppression (Judg. 3:31; etc.).从字面上看,它们包括从任何危险,危难,从埃及的奴役敌人,拯救(出14点13分,15点02分),在巴比伦流亡(以赛亚书46:13; 52:10 - 11),对手(诗篇106:10),失败(申命记20:4),或压迫(Judg. 3:31,等等)。Metaphorically, in salvation from social decay (Hos. 1:7) and from want, the meaning approaches moral and personal welfare ("prosperity"; Job 30:15); in Ps.比喻,从社会衰减(Hos. 1:7)和想要得救,意思道德和个人福利的办法(“繁荣”;就业30:15),在PS。28:9, religious blessing in general.28:9,宗教祝福一般。"The Lord is. . . my salvation" is the heart of OT testimony, always with an overtone of underserved mercy. “耶和华是。。。我的救赎”是OT的证词的心始终与怜悯泛音的不足。Later Judaism anticipated a messianic deliverance, which might include political, national, or religious elements (Pss. Sol. 10:9; T Benj. 9:10; cf. Luke 1:69, 71, 77).后来犹太教预期救世主解脱,这可能包括政治,民族或宗教元素(Pss.溶胶10:9。T Benj 9:10。。比照路加福音1:69,71,77)。

Soteria therefore gathered a rich connotation from LXX to carry into NT. Soteria因此聚集了丰富的内涵,从LXX的带进新台币。There, too, it means deliverance, preservation, from any danger (Acts 7:25; 27:31; Heb. 11:7).在那里,也意味着解脱,从任何危险保存,(徒7:25; 27:31;希伯来书11:7)。。The roots saos, sozo, however, add the notion of wholeness, soundness, health, giving "salvation" a medical connotation, salvation from affliction, disease, demon possession, death (Mark 5:34; James 5:15; etc.).骨肉瘤的根,sozo,但是,添加的整体性,稳健,健康的概念,使“救赎”的医疗内涵,救恩从痛苦,疾病,妖藏,死亡(马克17:34;詹姆斯5:15;等) 。Sometimes this meaning is literal; peace, joy, praise, faith are so interwoven with healing as to give "saved" a religious significance also.有时,这是字面意思,和平,喜乐,赞美,信仰是如此的愈合给“拯救”一个宗教意义也交织在一起。Jesus' self description as "physician" (Mark 2:17) and the illustrative value of the healing miracles in defining his mission show how readily physical and spiritual healing unite in "salvation" (Luke 4:18 - 19).耶稣的自我描述为“医生”(马可福音2:17)和愈合的奇迹在界定自己的使命展示如何轻易的身体和精神康复团结“救赎”阐发值(路加福音4:18 - 19)。

Much of the most frequent use of soteria and derivatives is for deliverance, preservation from all spiritual dangers, the bestowal of all religious blessings.对soteria和衍生工具最经常使用的大部分是解脱,从一切精神的危害,保护所有宗教祝福恩赐。Its alternative is destruction (Phil. 1:28), death (2 Cor. 7:10), divine wrath (1 Thess. 5:9); it is available to all (Titus 2:11), shared (Jude 3), eternal (Heb. 5:9).其办法是销毁(腓1:28),死亡,神的愤怒(1帖5点09分。)(2肺心病7时10分。),它是提供给所有(多2:11),共享(裘德3) ,永恒的(希伯来书5:9)。It is ascribed to Christ alone (Acts 4:12; Luke 19:10), "the pioneer of salvation," and especially to his death (Heb. 2:10; Rom. 5:9 - 10).这是归因于基督单(徒4:12;路加福音19:10),“拯救的先驱”,特别是对他的死亡(希伯来书2:10,罗马书5:9 - 10。)。In that sense salvation was "from the Jews" (John 4:22), though for Gentiles too (Rom. 11:11).在这个意义上得救是“从犹太人”(约4:22),但也为外邦人(罗马书11:11)。It is proclaimed (taught) as a way of thought and life (Acts 13:26; 16:17; Eph. 1:13), to be received from God's favor by faith alone, a confessed confidence and trust (Acts 16:30 - 31; Eph. 2:8) focused upon the resurrection and Lordship of Christ (Rom. 10:9), "calling" upon him (Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:13).这是宣布(教)作为一种思想和生活方式(徒13:26,16:17;。弗1:13),与神的恩惠的信仰,仅一个交待信心和信任(徒16:30 - 31;弗2:8)后,复活和基督的大法官(罗马书10:9),“呼叫”集中在他(徒2:21,罗马书10:13)。。。Once received, salvation must not be "neglected" but "held fast," "grown up to," humbly "worked out" (Heb. 2:3; 1 Cor. 15:2; 1 Pet. 2:2; Phil. 2:12), some being only narrowly saved in the end (1 Cor. 3:15; 1 Pet. 4:18).一旦收到,拯救绝对不能“忽视”,而是“坚守”,“长大了,”虚心“制定了”(希伯来书2:3; 1肺心病15点02分。1宠物2:2;。菲尔。 2:12),有些是只狭义的结束(1肺心病3:15得救。彼前4:18)。。

The Comprehensiveness of Salvation全面性的拯救

The comprehensiveness of salvation may be shown:救恩的全面性可能会显示:

(1) By what we are saved from.(1)我们所救。This includes sin and death; guilt and estrangement; ignorance of truth; bondage to habit and vice; fear of demons, of death, of life, of God, of hell; despair of self; alienation from others; pressures of the world; a meaningless life.这包括罪恶和死亡,罪恶和隔阂;真理的无知;束缚习惯和缺陷;恶魔的恐惧,死亡,生命,上帝,地狱;转让他人的;;世界的压力,绝望中的自我无意义的生活。 Paul's own testimony is almost wholly positive: salvation has brought him peace with God, access to God's favor and presence, hope of regaining the glory intended for men, endurance in suffering, steadfast character, an optimistic mind, inner motivations of divine love and power of the Spirit, ongoing experience of the risen Christ within his soul, and sustaining joy in God (Rom. 5:1 - 11).保罗自己的证词几乎是完全肯定的:拯救带来了与上帝他安宁,获得上帝的青睐和存在,重新获得男子故意以荣耀的盼望,忍耐的痛苦,坚定的性格,乐观的心目中,神圣的爱和力量的内在动机的精神,复活的基督持续的体验他的灵魂,对上帝的持续的喜悦(罗马书5时01分 - 11)。Salvation extends also to society, aiming at realizing the kingdom of God; to nature, ending its bondage to futility (Rom. 8:19 - 20); and to the universe, attaining final reconciliation of a fragmented cosmos (Eph. 1:10; Col. 1:20).救世军也延伸到社会,在实现目标的神的国度,自然,结束了束缚徒劳(罗马书8:19 - 20);以及宇宙,达到了一个支离破碎的宇宙最终和解(以弗所书1:10 ;上校1:20)。

(2) By noting that salvation is past (Rom. 8:24; Eph. 2:5, 8; Titus 3:5 - 8); present (1 Cor. 1:18; 15:2; 2 Cor. 2:15; 6:2; 1 Pet. 1:9; 3:21); and future (Rom. 5:9 - 10; 13:11; 1 Cor. 5:5; Phil. 1:5 - 6; 2:12; 1 Thess. 5:8; Heb. 1:14; 9:28; 1 Pet. 2:2).(2)注意到,救恩是过去(罗马书8:24弗2:5,8;提多书3:5 - 8。)出示(1肺心病1:18; 15时02分,2肺心病2:。。 。月15日; 6点02分,1宠物1:9; 3:21)和未来(罗马书5点09 - 10; 13时11分,1肺心病五时05分;菲尔1:5 - 6 2。。: 12;一帖5:8。。希伯来书1:14; 9:28;彼得2​​:2)。。That is, salvation includes that which is given, freely and finally, by God's grace (forgiveness, called in one epistle justification, friendship; or reconciliation, atonement, sonship, and new birth); that which is continually imparted (santification, growing emancipation from all evil, growing enrichment in all good, the enjoyment of eternal life, experience of the Spirit's power, liberty, joy, advancing maturity in conformity to Christ); and that still to be attained (redemption of the body, perfect Christlikeness, final glory).也就是说,救恩包括认为这是给予,自由,最后由上帝的恩典,(宽恕,在一个书信理由,友谊调用;或和解,赎罪,的sonship,新出生),这是不断传授(santification,生长解放从所有的邪恶,增长都好丰富,永恒的生命,精神的权力,自由体验,快乐的享受,推进符合基督里成熟),以及仍然要达到(赎回的身体,完美的像基督,最终荣耀)。

(3) By distinguishing salvation's various aspects: religious (acceptance with God, forgiveness, reconciliation, sonship, reception of the Spirit, immortality); emotional (strong assurance, peace, courage, hopefulness, joy); practical (prayer, guidance, discipline, dedication, service); ethical (new moral dynamic for new moral aims, freedom, victory); personal (new thoughts, convictions, horizons, motives, satisfactions, selffulfillment); social (new sense of community with Christians, of compassion toward all, overriding impulse to love as Jesus has loved). (3)通过区分得救的各个方面:宗教(接受与神,宽恕,和解,的sonship,接待的精神,不朽),情绪(强有力的保证,和平,勇气,充满希望,喜悦);实际(祈祷,指导,纪律,敬业,服务);伦理(新的道德活力的新的道德目的,自由,胜利),个人(新的思想,信念,视野,动机,满意度,selffulfillment),社会(社区新的意义与基督徒的同情,对所有,作为压倒一切的冲动,爱耶稣爱)。

Salvation in the NT救世军在新台币

Distinctive approaches underline the richness of the concept.独特的方式强调这一概念的丰富性。Jesus presupposed the universal sin and need of men, originating in rebelliousness (Matt. 7:23; 13:41; 24:12 "lawless"; 21:28 - 29), and causing "sickness" of soul (Mark 2:17), which lies deep within personality, defiling from within (Matt. 7:15 - 16; 12:35; cf. 5:21 - 22, 27 - 28; 15:19 - 20; 23:25), and leaving men in debt to God for unpaid duty (6:12; 18:23 - 24).耶稣的先决条件的普遍罪恶的男人和需要,在反抗原(太23分; 13时41分; 24:12“无法无天”; 21时28分 - 29),并造成“病”的灵魂(马克2时17 ),它位于在人格深处,从内部(太7点15分亵渎 - 16; 12点35;比照5时21分 - 22,27 - 28;。15点19 - 20; 23:25),和离开男人未付的债务责任,神(6:12; 18时23 - 24)。He therefore called all to repentance (Mark 1:15; Luke 5:32; 13:3, 5; 15:10), to a change of outlook and life style that enthrones God (Luke 8:2; 19:9 (John 8:11); Matt. 9:9; etc.), urged daily prayer for forgiveness, himself offered forgiveness (Mark 2:5), and commended humble penitence as the only acceptable basis upon which to approach God (Luke 18:9 - 10).因此,他呼吁所有的忏悔(马克1:15;路加福音5:32,13时03分,5; 15:10),在世界观和生活方式的改变,enthrones神(路加福音8:2; 19:9(约翰8:11);马特9时09分。等),每天祈祷呼吁宽恕,宽恕自己提供的(马可福音2:5),并赞扬作为唯一可接受的基础,使接近神(路加福音18时09分谦卑忏悔 - 10)。

In Jesus' openness and friendship toward sinners, the loving welcome of God found perfect expression.在耶稣的公开性和友谊对罪人,神的爱欢迎找到完美的体现。Nothing was needed to win back God's favor.什么也没有需要赢回上帝的青睐。It waited eagerly for man's return (Luke 15:11 - 24).它等待着人们的热切回报(路加福音15:11 - 24)。The one indispensable preliminary was the change in man from rebelliousness to childlike trust and willingness to obey.初步的一个不可缺少的是在人从叛逆到稚气的信任,并愿意服从改变。That shown, there followed life under God's rule, described as feasting, marriage, wine, finding treasure, joy, peace, all the freedom and privilege of sonship within the divine family in the Father's world.这表明,生活在上帝之下,跟随的规则,因为宴会,结婚,葡萄酒描述,发现在神圣家族在父亲的世界财富,欢乐,和平,自由和所有的sonship特权。

Peter also called to repentance (Acts 2:38), promising forgiveness and the Spirit to whoever called upon the Lord.彼得还呼吁悔改(徒2:38),有前途的宽恕和精神谁后,主调用。Salvation was especially from past misdeeds and for conformity to a perverse generation (vss. 23 - 40); and with a purpose, inheritance, and glory still to be revealed (1 Pet. 1:3 - 5; etc.).救赎是从过去的罪行,并特别为符合一个悖谬的世代(vss. 23 - 40),以及与一个目的,继承和荣耀还有待揭示了(彼前1:3 - 5。等)。

In John's thought salvation is from death and judgment.在约翰的思想救恩是从死亡和判断。He restates its meaning in terms of life, rich and eternal (thirty six times in Gospel, thirteen in 1 John), God's gift in and with Christ, beginning in total renewal ("new birth"); illumined by truth ("knowledge," "light"); and experienced as love (John 3:5 - 16; 5:24; 12:25; 1 John 4:7 - 11; 5:11).他重申在生活,丰富的和永恒的条款(三十六倍福音十三在约翰一)它的意义,上帝的礼物,与基督,在总续期(“新生”)开始;的真理照亮(“知识, “”轻“),并经历,因为爱(约翰3:5 - 16; 5:24; 12:25;约翰一书4:7 - 11; 5:11)。

Paul saw his own failure to attain legal righteousness reflected in all men and due to the overmastering power ("rule") of sin, which brought with it death.保罗看见他自己未能实现法律正义的体现在所有的人,并且由于overmastering功率罪,这与它带来的死亡(“规则”)。 Salvation is therefore, first, acquital, despite just condemnation, on the ground of Christ's expiation of sin (Rom. 3:21 - 22); and second, deliverance by the invasive power of the Spirit of holiness, the Spirit of the risen Christ.救恩是因此,第一,acquital,尽管只是谴责,对基督的罪恶赎罪(罗马书3:21 - 22)的理由;第二,由圣洁的灵,复活的基督的灵创力救。The faith which accepts and assents to Christ's death on our behalf also unites us to him so closely that with him we die to sin and rise to new life (Rom. 6:1 - 2).信仰,这是接受和允许书,以基督的死亡也代表我们团结我们对他如此密切,我们与他死的罪,上升到新的生活(罗马书6:1 - 2)。 The results are freedom from sin's power (vss. 7, 18; 8:2); exultation in the power of the indwelling Spirit and assurance of sonship (ch. 8); increasing conformity to Christ.结果是从罪的权力,自由(vss. 7日,18岁; 8:2);在留置精神动力和保证的sonship大喜(8章);增加符合基督。By the same process death is overcome, and believers are prepared for life everlasting (6:13, 22 - 23; 8:11).根据同样的过程死亡是克服,是生命永恒的信徒准备(6:13,22 - 23; 8:11)。

Further Development进一步发展

It is evident, even from this brief outline, that need would arise for endless analysis, comparison, systematization, and restatement in contemporary terms of all that salvation means to Christian faith.这是显而易见的,即使从这个简短的提纲,需要将引起无休止的分析,比较,系统化,并在所有方面,救恩当代重述手段,以基督教信仰。 This is the task of soteriology, the doctrine of soteria, salvation.这是救世神学,教义的soteria,拯救任务。How far, for example, did the mystery religions of the first century influence the Christian hope derived from Judaism?有多远,例如,没有影响的第一个世纪,基督教从犹太教希望得到的神秘宗教?They offered salvation, as "all the blessings it is possible to desire," and above all else, immortality.他们提出的拯救,因为“所有的祝福是有可能的愿望,”高于一切,不朽。Before becoming absorbed in Christology, patristic reflection probed especially the meaning of the ransom Christ had paid for man's salvation and freedom.在基督之前成为吸收,反射探测教父尤其是基督对人类的救赎和自由支付赎金的意义。

Later, the Eastern Church traced the effect of Adam's fall chiefly in man's mortality, and saw salvation as especially the gift of eternal life through the risen Christ. 后来,东部教会追踪死亡率下降主要是在人的效果亚当的,看到基督的救赎,特别是通过增加生活的永恒的礼物。The Western Church traced the effect of Adam's fall chiefly in the inherited guilt (Ambrose) and corruption (Augustine) of the race, and saw salvation as especially the gift of grace through Christ's death. 西方教会追踪(种族奥古斯丁)的效果,亚当的堕落,主要是在继承的内疚(刘汉铨)和腐败,看到死亡救赎特别的礼物透过基督的恩典。 Divine grace alone could cancel guilt and deliver from corruption.神的恩典能够单独取消有罪,并提供从腐败。

Anselm and Abelard explored further the relation of man's salvation to the cross of Jesus as satisfaction for sin, or redeeming example of love; Luther, its relation to man's receiving faith; Calvin, its relation to God's sovereign will. anselm和阿贝拉尔进一步探讨人类的救恩就满意作为罪,或爱情救赎例如耶稣的十字架,路德,它关系到人的接收信;卡尔文,它关系到神的主权意志。 Roman Catholic thought has emphasized the objective sphere of salvation within a sacramental church; and Protestantism, the subjective experience of salvation within the individual soul.罗马天主教思想强调在圣教会的救恩的目标范围;和基督教的救赎灵魂内的个人主观经验。Modern reflection tends to concentrate on the psychological process and ethical results of salvation, emphasizing the need to "save" society.现代反思往往把注意力集中在心理过程和拯救道德的结果,强调要“救”的社会。

REO White选举事务处的白

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
LH Marshall, Challenge of NT Ethics; HR Mackintosh, Christian Experience of Forgiveness; V Taylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation; E Kevan, Salvation; U Simon, Theology of Salvation.LH的马歇尔,新台币伦理挑战;人力资源麦金托什,基督教经验赦免; v泰勒,宽恕与和解,电子商务古朴,救赎; ü西蒙的救赎神学。


Soteriological Ordering救世订购

Advanced Information先进的信息

There are four major ways of ordering the soteriological elements of God's eternal decree.有四种订购上帝的永恒的法令,救世元素的重要渠道。

Arminianism亚米纽斯主义 Supralapsarianism Supralapsarianism Infralapsarianism Infralapsarianism Amyraldianism Amyraldianism
  1. Create创建
  2. Permit Fall秋季许可证
  3. Provide salvation for all为所有人提供拯救
  4. Call all to salvation呼吁所有的救赎
  5. Elect those who believe选举这些谁相信
  1. Elect some, reprobate rest选出一些,混蛋休息
  2. Create创建
  3. Permit Fall秋季许可证
  4. Provide salvation for elect为选出得救
  5. Call elect to salvation选择呼叫得救
  1. Create创建
  2. Permit Fall秋季许可证
  3. Elect some, pass over the rest选出一些,越过休息
  4. Provide salvation for elect为选出得救
  5. Call elect to salvation选择呼叫得救
  1. Create创建
  2. Permit Fall秋季许可证
  3. Provide salvation sufficient for all所有提供足够的拯救
  4. Elect some, pass over rest选出一些,为了休息
  5. Call elect to salvation选择呼叫得救

The distinction between infralapsarianism and supralapsarianism has to do with the logical order of God's eternal decrees, not the timing of election.该supralapsarianism区别infralapsarianism的事情而与永恒的法令上帝的逻辑顺序的,而不是选时机。 Neither side suggests that the elect were chosen after Adam sinned.任何一方都不表明,选举被选定后,亚当犯了罪。 God made His choice before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4), long before Adam sinned.上帝创造了世界前的(弗1:4)的基础他的选择,早在亚当犯了罪。Both infras and supras (and even many Arminians) agree on this.双方infras和supras(甚至许多阿敏念派)同意这一点。

SUPRALAPSARIANISM is the view that God, contemplating man as yet unfallen, chose some to receive eternal life and rejected all others. SUPRALAPSARIANISM认为是神,人尚未unfallen考虑,选择了一些拒绝接受永恒的生命和所有其他人。So a supralapsarian would say that the reprobate (non-elect) vessels of wrath fitted for destruction (Rom. 9:22) were first ordained to that role, and then the means by which they fell into sin was ordained.因此,一个supralapsarian会说,坏人(非选)受戒船只为怒预备销毁(罗马书9:22)首次受戒这一角色, 然后以何种方式把他们罪恶的下跌。In other words, supralapsarianism suggests that God's decree of election logically preceded His decree to permit Adam's fall, so that their damnation is first of all an act of divine sovereignty, and only secondarily an act of divine justice.换句话说,supralapsarianism表明,神的选举法令,在逻辑上之前他的法令,允许亚当的堕落,使他们的诅咒,首先是所有神圣主权的行为,其次才是神圣的正义的行为。

Supralapsarianism is sometimes mistakenly equated with "double predestination." Supralapsarianism有时错误地等同于“双重宿命。”The term "double predestination" itself is often used in a misleading and ambiguous fashion.所谓“双重宿命”本身是常用的一种误导,模糊的时尚。Some use it to mean nothing more than the view that the eternal destiny of both elect and reprobate is settled by the eternal decree of God.有的用它来表示无非是,两者的选举权和堕落的永恒的命运是由上帝的永恒的法令落户更多。 In that sense of the term, all genuine Calvinists hold to "double predestination" and the fact that the destiny of the reprobate is eternally settled is clearly a biblical doctrine (cf. 1 Peter 2:8; Romans 9:22; Jude 4).在这一任期内意义上的, 一切真正加尔文坚持“双重宿命”,而且这一学说的命运这一事实是永远的堕落的解决显然是一个圣经(参见彼得2:8,罗马书9:22;裘德4) 。But more often, the expression "double predestination" is employed as a pejorative term to describe the view of those who suggest that God is as active in keeping the reprobate out of heaven as He is in getting the elect in. (There's an even more sinister form of "double predestination," which suggests that God is as active in making the reprobate evil as He is in making the elect holy.)但更多的时候,表达“双重宿命”作为一个贬义词来形容,这些谁认为上帝在天上的坏人保持了那么积极,他在当选者观点得到就业英寸(有一个更险恶形式的“双重宿命”,这表明,上帝是在使堕落的邪恶,因为他在作出选择圣洁有效。)

This view (that God is as active in reprobating the non-elect as He is in redeeming the elect) is more properly labeled "equal ultimacy" (cf. RC Sproul, Chosen by God, 142).这种观点(即上帝是活跃在reprobating选出的非选的,他是在挽救),是比较恰当标有“平等的终极”(见区局斯普劳尔选择上帝,142)。 It is actually a form of hyper-Calvinism and has nothing to do with true, historic Calvinism.它实际上是一种超加尔文表并没有任何真实,历史悠久的加尔文主义。Though all who hold such a view would also hold to the supralapsarian scheme, the view itself is not a necessary ramification of supralapsarianism.虽然所有谁持有这种看法也抱到supralapsarian计划,视图本身不是supralapsarianism必要的含义。

Supralapsarianism is also sometimes wrongly equated with hyper-Calvinism. Supralapsarianism有时也错误地等同于超加尔文。All hyper-Calvinists are supralapsarians, though not all supras are hyper-Calvinists.所有Hyper -加尔文是supralapsarians,但并非所有supras是超加尔文教派。

Supralapsarianism is sometimes called "high" Calvinism, and its most extreme adherents tend to reject the notion that God has any degree of sincere goodwill or meaningful compassion toward the non-elect. Supralapsarianism有时也被称为“高”加尔文主义,其最极端的信徒往往拒绝概念,即上帝有任何真诚的善意或对非选举有意义的同情程度。 Historically, a minority of Calvinists have held this view.历史上,少数的加尔文教派持这一观点。

But Boettner's comment that "there is not more than one Calvinist in a hundred that holds the supralapsarian view," is no doubt an exaggeration.但是Boettner的意见,“有一个不超过一百年的持有supralapsarian查看加尔文主义”,无疑是夸张。 And in the past decade or so, the supralapsarian view seems to have gained popularity.而在过去的十年左右,supralapsarian观点似乎已经获得了普及。

INFRALAPSARIANISM (also known sometimes as "sublapsarianism") suggests that God's decree to permit the fall logically preceded His decree of election. INFRALAPSARIANISM(也称为“有时被称为”sublapsarianism)认为,上帝的法令,允许秋季之前,他的当选逻辑法令。 So when God chose the elect and passed over the non-elect, He was contemplating them all as fallen creatures.因此,当上帝选择的选举和对非选举过去了,他正在考虑他们都为堕落。

Those are the two major Calvinistic views.这些是两个主要加尔文意见。Under the supralapsarian scheme, God first rejects the reprobate out of His sovereign good pleasure; then He ordains the means of their damnation through the fall.根据supralapsarian计划,上帝首先拒绝了他的堕落的主权好高兴,然后他注定的下降意味着通过对他们的诅咒。 In the infralapsarian order, the non-elect are first seen as fallen individuals, and they are damned solely because of their own sin.infralapsarian秩序,非选举是第一次被视为堕落的个人,他 ​​们是该死的罪,只是因为他们自己。Infralapsarians tend to emphasize God's "passing over" the non-elect ( preterition ) in His decree of election.Infralapsarians倾向于强调神是他的选举法令“掠过”preterition)非(当选。

Robert Reymond, himself a supralapsarian, proposes the following refinement of the supralapsarian view: (See Robert Reymond, Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith, 489).罗伯特雷蒙德,自己是一个supralapsarian,提出以下看法supralapsarian细化为:(见Robert雷蒙德, 系统 489 神学的基督教信仰)。

Reymond's Modified雷蒙德的改性
Supralapsarianism Supralapsarianism
  1. Elect some sinful men, reprobate rest选出一些罪人,混蛋休息
  2. Apply redemptive benefits to the elect申请的选举利益救赎
  3. Provide salvation for elect为选出得救
  4. Permit Fall秋季许可证
  5. Create创建

Notice that in addition to reording the decrees, Reymond's view deliberately stresses that in the decree of election and reprobation, God is contemplating men as sinners.请注意,除了reording的法令,雷蒙德的看法刻意强调,在选举和reprobation法令,神正在考虑为罪人的人。 Reymond writes, "In this scheme, unlike the former [the classic supra- order], God is represented as discriminating among men viewed as sinners and not among men viewed simply as men."雷蒙德写道,“在这个方案中, 不像前 [经典超令],上帝是男人看男人一样代表之间的歧视视为罪人的人一样简单,而不是中间。”Reymond's refinement avoids the criticism most commonly leveled against supralapsarianism, that the supralapsarian has God damning men to perdition before He even contemplates them as sinners.雷蒙德的细化避免最常见的批评对supralapsarianism层次,即supralapsarian有上帝咒骂男人灭亡之前,他甚至考虑他们的罪人。 But Reymond's view also leaves unanswered the question of how and why God would regard all men as sinners even before it was determined that the human race would fall.但雷蒙德的看法,也留下的深沉如何以及为什么上帝会认为所有的人问题的罪人,甚至被确定之前,人类将会下降。(Some might even argue that Reymond's refinements result in a position that, as far as the key distinction is concerned, is implicitly infralapsarian.) (有人甚至认为,雷蒙德的改进中的立场,至于关键的区别而言,是隐含infralapsarian结果。)

All the major Reformed Creeds are either explicitly infralapsarian, or else they carefully avoid language that favors either view. No major creed takes the supralapsarian position. (This whole issue was hotly debated throughout the Westminster Assembly. William Twisse, an ardent supralapsarian and chairman of the Assembly, ably defended his view. But the Assembly opted for language that clearly favors the infra position, yet without condemning supralapsarianism.) 所有主要改革的信条是要么明确infralapsarian,否则他们小心地避免语言有利于任何看法。 没有大的信条是以supralapsarian位置。(这是整个问题的激烈辩论,整个西敏寺议会。威廉Twisse,殷切supralapsarian及主席大会,干练地捍卫了他的看法。但大会的语言,显然有利于基础设施的位置,还没有​​谴责supralapsarianism选择。)

"Bavinck has pointed out that the supralapsarian presentation 'has not been incorporated in a single Reformed Confession' but that the infra position has received an official place in the Confessions of the churches" (Berkouwer, Divine Election, 259). “巴文克指出,在supralapsarian介绍'并没有被纳入在一个改革忏悔但该红外线立场得到了官方的教会地点在自白”(色谱Berkouwer, 神圣的选举,259)。

Louis Berkhof's discussion of the two views (in his Systematic Theology ) is helpful, though he seems to favor supralapsarianism.路易斯伯克霍夫的意见讨论的两个(在他的系统神学 )是有益的,但他似乎赞成supralapsarianism。I take the Infra view, as did Turretin, most of the Princeton theologians, and most of the leading Westminster Seminary men (eg, John Murray).我借此红外线看法一样,特里,普林斯顿神学家的最多,领先的威斯敏斯特神学院的男性(例如,约翰穆雷)最多。These issues were at the heart of the "common grace" controversy in the first half of the Twentieth Century.这些问题在“普遍恩典”在二十世纪上半叶争论的核心。Herman Hoeksema and those who followed him took such a rigid supralapsarian position that they ultimately denied the very concept of common grace.赫尔曼Hoeksema和那些谁跟着他参加了这样一个僵化的supralapsarian立场,即他们最终否定了共同的恩典的概念。

Finally, see the chart ( above ), which compares these two views with Amyraldism (a kind of four-point Calvinism) and Arminianism.最后,请参阅图表( 以上 ),其中比较这两种意见,Amyraldism(一加尔文种四点)和亚米纽斯主义。My notes on each view ( below ) identify some of the major advocates of each view.每个视图我的笔记上( )找出一些观点主张各专业。

Notes on the Order of the Decrees债券在订购的法令

Supralapsarianism Supralapsarianism

Beza, who held this view, often is credited with formulating the supralapsarian position, but he did not. Beza,谁持这一观点的,往往是归功于制订supralapsarian立场,但他没有。Other historic supras include Gomarus, Twisse, Perkins, Voetus, Witsius, and Comrie.其他历史supras包括戈马鲁斯,Twisse,帕金斯,Voetus,Witsius和科姆里。Louis Berkhof sees value in both views, but seems to lean slightly toward supralapsarianism.路易伯克霍夫认为,在两种意见的价值,但似乎倾向于supralapsarianism略有下降。 Karl Barth felt supralapsarianism was more nearly correct than infralapsarianism.卡尔巴特认为supralapsarianism更接近正确比infralapsarianism。 Robert Reymond's Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith takes the supralapsarian view and includes a lengthy defense of supralapsarianism.罗伯特雷蒙德的系统神学的基督教信仰是以supralapsarian意见,并包括一个supralapsarianism冗长的辩护。 Turretin says supralapsarianism is "harsher and less suitable" than infralapsarianism.特里说,supralapsarianism是“更严厉的并不太适合”比infralapsarianism。 He believes it "does not appear to agree sufficiently with [God's] unspeakable goodness".他认为,“似乎不同意[神]的不可告人的善良足够”。Herman Hoeksema and the entire leadership of the Protestant Reformed Churches (including Homer Hoeksema, Herman Hanko, and David Engelsma) are determined supralapsarians, often arguing both implicitly and explicitly that supralapsarianism is the only logically consistent scheme. This presumption clearly contributes to the PRC's rejection of common grace. In fact, the same arguments used in favor of Supralapsarianism have been employed against common grace.赫尔曼Hoeksema和改革教会的整个领导的基督教(包括荷马Hoeksema,赫尔曼汉口,大卫Engelsma)决心supralapsarians,常常争论既含蓄并明确表示supralapsarianism是唯一的逻辑上一致的计划。 这项推定显然助长中共的排斥反应普遍恩典。事实上,赞成Supralapsarianism中所用相同的论点已被用来对付共同的恩典。 So supralapsarianism may have in it a tendency that is hostile to the idea of common grace.因此,它可能在supralapsarianism一种倾向是敌对的普遍恩典的想法。(It is a fact that virtually all who deny "common grace" are supralapsarians.) Supralapsarianism also necessitates the harshest sort of "double predestination." (这是一个事实,几乎所有谁否认“普遍恩典”是supralapsarians。)Supralapsarianism,也有必要最严厉的那种“双重宿命。” It is hard to find exponents of supralapsarianism among the major systematic theologians.这是很难找到各主要系统的神学家supralapsarianism指数。RA Webb says supralapsarianism is "abhorrent to metaphysics, to ethics, and to the scriptures. It is propounded in no Calvinistic creed and can be charged only upon some extremists." Webb说supralapsarianism类风湿性关节炎是“令人憎恶的形而上学,伦理,和经文。这是提出在没有加尔文的信条,可只有在一些极端分子的罪名。” ( Christian Salvation, 16).基督教救世军,16)。[Webb is a 19th-cent. [韦伯是19美分。southern Presbyterian.]南长老会。]

Infralapsarianism Infralapsarianism

This view is also called "sublapsarianism."这一观点也被称为“sublapsarianism。”John Calvin said some things that seem to indicate he would have been in sympathy with this view, though the debate did not occur in his lifetime (see Calvin's Calvinism, trans. by Henry Cole, 89ff; also William Cunningham, The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation, 364ff).约翰加尔文说,有些事情,似乎表明他会一直在查看同情,不过这辩论并没有出现在他的一生(见Calvin的加尔文主义,神学 。亨利科尔,89ff;也威廉坎宁安, 改革者和的改革,364ff)。WGT Shedd, Charles Hodge, L Boettner, and Anthony Hoekema held this view. wgt谢德,查尔斯Hodge,午Boettner,和安东尼赫克玛持这一观点。Both RL Dabney and William Cunningham lean decidedly to this view but resist arguing the point.双方RL达布和精益威廉坎宁安断然拒绝这一看法,但争论的问题。They believe the whole debate goes beyond scripture and is therefore unnecessary.他们认为,整个辩论超越圣经,因此是不必要的。Dabney, for example, says "This is a question which ought never to have been raised" ( Systematic Theology, 233).达布,例如,说:“这是一个应该提出的问题是从来没有被”( 系统神学,233)。Twisse, the supralapsarian, virtually agreed with this.Twisse的supralapsarian,几乎对此表示赞同。He called the difference "merely apex logicus, a point of logic. And were it not a mere madness to make a breach of unity or charity in the church merely upon a point of logic?"他所谓的差异只是“ 顶点logicus,逻辑点。并它不是一个单纯的疯狂逻辑,使只在一个点违反统一或慈善教会了?”(cited in Cunningham, The Reformers, 363).(转引自363坎宁安,改革者)。GC Berkouwer also agrees: "We face here a controversy which owes its existence to a tresspassing of the boundaries set by revelation."气相色谱Berkouwer也同意:“我们这里面对争议,其中欠它的存在是由启示制定的范围tresspassing。” Berkouwer wonders aloud whether we are "obeying the teaching of Scripture if we refuse to make a choice here" ( Divine Election, 254-55).色谱Berkouwer奇迹大声我们是否“服从圣经教学,如果我们拒绝做出选择在这里”( 神圣的选举,254-55)。Thornwell does not agree that the issue is moot.桑韦尔不同意,这个问题是没有实际意义。He says the issue "involves something more than a question of logical method. It is really a question of the highest moral significance. . . . Conviction and hanging are parts of the same process, but it is something more than a question of arrangement whether a man shall be hung before he is convicted" ( Collected Writings, 2:20).他说,这个问题“涉及的不只是一个逻辑方法的问题更多的东西。它实际上是一个最高的道德意义的问题。。。。信念和悬挂都是同一进程的一部分,但它是一个不是问题,是否有更多的安排一个人应当悬挂之前,他被裁定“( 丛谈,2:20)。Thornwell is vehemently infralapsarian.桑韦尔是强烈infralapsarian。Infralapsarianism was affirmed by the synod of Dordt but only implied in the Westminster standards. Infralapsarianism是肯定的Dordt主教,但只有在威斯敏斯特标准的暗示。Twisse, a supralapsarian, was the first president of the Westminster Assembly, which evidently decided the wisest course was to ignore the controversy altogether (though Westminster's bias was arguably infralapsarian) . Twisse,一supralapsarian,是在西敏寺议会,这显然是最明智的决定忽视的争议完全(尽管威斯敏斯特的偏见应该说是infralapsarian)第一任总统。 The Westminster Confession, therefore, along with most of the Reformed Creeds, implicitly affirmed what the Synod of Utrecht (1905) would later explicitly declare: "That our confessions, certainly with respect to the doctrine of election, follow the infralapsarian presentation, [but] this does not at all imply an exclusion or condemnation of the supralapsarian presentation."威斯敏斯特信条,因此,随着大部分的归正信条,含蓄地肯定什么,乌得勒支主教(1905年),后来明确宣布:“鉴于我们的供述中,肯定与尊重的选举原则,遵循infralapsarian介绍,[但]这并不意味着在所有的supralapsarian介绍了排斥或谴责。“

Amyraldism Amyraldism

Amyraldism is the preferred spelling, not Amyraldianism ). Amyraldism是首选的拼写,而不是Amyraldianism)。

Amyraldism is the doctrine formulated by Moise Amyraut, a French theologian from the Saumur school.Amyraldism是由莫斯Amyraut,一位来自法国神学家索米尔学校制定的原则。(This same school spawned another aggravating deviation from Reformed orthodoxy: Placaeus' view involving the mediate imputation of Adam's guilt). (这同一所学校产生了另一个归正正统加剧偏差:Placaeus的意见,涉及调解亚当的罪行归责)。By making the decree to atone for sin logically antecedent to the decree of election, Amyraut could view the atonement as hypothetically universal, but efficacious for the elect alone.通过使该法令赎罪的罪恶逻辑上先行,以选举法令,Amyraut可以假设普遍认为赎罪,而是单独的选举有效。Therefore the view is sometimes called "hypothetical universalism."因此,观点有时也被称为“假设的普遍性。”Puritan Richard Baxter embraced this view, or one very nearly like it.清教徒理查德巴克斯特接受了这一观点,或一个非常接近喜欢它。 He seems to have been the only major Puritan leader who was not a thoroughgoing Calvinist.他似乎一直是唯一的主要清教徒领袖谁没有一个彻底的加尔文主义。Some would dispute whether Baxter was a true Amyraldian.有些人会争论是否巴克斯特是一位真正的Amyraldian。(See, eg George Smeaton, The Apostles' Doctrine of the Atonement [Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1991 reprint], Appendix, 542.) But Baxter seemed to regard himself as Amyraldian.(见,例如乔治斯米顿, 该赎罪使徒的教训 [爱丁堡:再版旗真理,1991]附录,542。)但是巴克斯特似乎把自己作为Amyraldian。This is a sophisticated way of formulating "four-point Calvinism," while still accounting for an eternal decree of election.这是制定“四点加尔文主义”,而仍然是永恒的选举法令​​,会计复杂的方式。But Amyraldism probably should not be equated with all brands of so-called "four-point Calvinism."但是Amyraldism可能根本不应该等同于所谓的所有品牌的“四点加尔文主义。”In my own experience, most self-styled four-pointers are unable to articulate any coherent explanation of how the atonement can be universal but election unconditional.在我自己的经验,最自封四个三分球是无法表达任何选举无条件相干解释如何可以通用,但赎罪。 So I wouldn't glorify their position by labeling it Amyraldism.因此,我没有美化它的标签Amyraldism他们的立场。(Would that they were as committed to the doctrine of divine sovereignty as Moise Amyraut! Most who call themselves four-pointers are actually crypto-Arminians.) AH Strong held this view ( Systematic Theology, 778). (会,他们作为致力于Amyraut教义的神圣主权莫斯!大多数谁自称四个三分球实际上是加密阿敏念派。)阿强持这一观点( 系统神学,778)。He called it (incorrectly) "sublapsarianism."他把它称为(错误)“sublapsarianism。”Henry Thiessen, evidently following Strong, also mislabeled this view "sublapsarianism" (and contrasted it with "infralapsarianism") in the original edition of his Lectures in Systematic Theology (343).亨利泰森,显然下面的强,这个观点也标示不实“sublapsarianism”(和对比,“它与”infralapsarianism)在343)原始神学 (版他的演讲有系统His discussion in this edition is very confusing and patently wrong at points.他在这个版本的讨论是非常混乱,显然在点错了。 In later editions of his book this section was completely rewritten.在他的著作后来的版本这部分是完全改写。


Henry Thiessen argued for essentially this view in the original edition of his Systematic Theology. The revised edition no longer explicitly defends this order of the decrees, but Thiessen's fundamental Arminianism is still clearly evident.亨利泰森主张基本上是这样的神学观点在他原来的版本的系统。修订后的版本不再明确捍卫这个顺序的法令,但泰森的根本亚米纽斯主义仍然是显而易见的。 Most Arminian theologians decline to deal with God's eternal decree, and extreme Arminians even deny the very concept of an eternal decree.大多数阿民念主义神学家下降到处理与上帝的永恒的法令,极端阿敏念派甚至否定的一个永恒的法令的概念。Those who acknowledge the divine decree, however, must end up making election contingent upon the believer's response to the call of the gospel.谁承认这些神圣的法令,但必须使选举结束后,信徒福音队伍的反应,是时代的呼唤。Indeed, this is the whole gist of Arminianism.事实上,这是整个亚米纽斯主义精神。

PR Johnson公关约翰逊


Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Greek soteria; Hebrew yeshu'ah).(希腊soteria;希伯来语yeshu'ah)。

Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security (1 Samuel 11:13; 14:45; 2 Samuel 23:10; 2 Kings 13:17).救世军在圣经的语言,从拮据或其他罪恶一般意义上的解放,并成一个自由和安全(1塞缪尔11:13国家翻译; 14:45; 2塞缪尔23:10 2国王13: 17)。At times it expresses God's help against Israel's enemies, at other times, the Divine blessing bestowed on the produce of the soil (Isaiah 45:8).有时它表达上帝对以色列的敌人的帮助下,在其他时候,神赐福的土壤(以赛亚书45:8)产生赐予的。As sin is the greatest evil, being the root and source of all evil, Sacred Scripture uses the word "salvation" mainly in the sense of liberation of the human race or of individual man from sin and its consequences.如罪是最大的罪恶,即根,万恶之源,神圣的经文使用这个词主要是在人类的解放感或自罪及其后果个别人“救赎”。 We shall first consider the salvation of the human race, and then salvation as it is verified in the individual man.我们将首先考虑人类的救恩,然后得救,因为它是在个别人核实。


We need not dwell upon the possibility of the salvation of mankind or upon its appropriateness.我们不必纠缠后,拯救人类的可能性,或根据其是否适当。Nor need we remind the reader that after God had freely determined to save the human race, He might have done so by pardoning man's sins without having recourse to the Incarnation of the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity.我们不必提醒读者,上帝自由地决定后,拯救人类的种族,他可能通过赦免,而不必诉诸最神圣的三位一体的第二位化身人的罪过的。 Still, the Incarnation of the Word was the most fitting means for the salvation of man, and was even necessary, in case God claimed full satisfaction for the injury done to him by sin (see INCARNATION).尽管如此,化身字,是为人类的救赎最合适的手段,甚至必要的,如果上帝声称通过对他的伤害罪完全满意(见化身)。 Though the office of Saviour is really one, it is virtually multiple: there must be an atonement for sin and damnation, an establishment of the truth so as to overcome human ignorance and error, a perennial source of spiritual strength aiding man in his struggle against darkness and concupiscence.虽然办公室是真正的救世主之一,它实际上是多方面的:必须有一个罪恶和诅咒,是对真理的编制,以克服人类的无知和谬误的精神力量源泉常年协助斗争的人在他的赎罪黑暗和concupiscence。 There can be no doubt that Jesus Christ really fulfilled these three functions, that He therefore really saved mankind from sin and its consequences.不可能有任何疑问,耶稣基督真正实现这三大职能,因此,他真的挽救了人类的罪恶及其后果。As teacher He established the reign of truth; as king He supplied strength to His subjects; as priest He stood between heaven and earth, reconciling sinful man with his angry God.作为老师,他建立了真理的统治;作为国王他供应实力,他的臣民;作为牧​​师,他站在天地间,调和与他的愤怒的上帝罪人。

A. Christ as Teacher答:基督为教师

Prophets had foretold Christ as a teacher of Divine truth: "Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the Gentiles" (Isaiah 55:4).先知曾预言,作为教师的神圣真理的基督:“看哪,我已经给他作见证的人,对于一个领导者和他的主人外邦人”(以赛亚书55:4)。 Christ himself claims the title of teacher repeatedly during the course of His public life: "You can call me Master, and Lord; and you say well, for so I am" (John 13:13; cf. Matthew 23:10; John 3:31).基督本人一再声称,在他的公共生活中对教师的标题:“你可以叫我师父,和主,你说的不错,所以我为”(约翰13时13分;比照马修23点10分,约翰。 3:31)。The Gospels inform us that nearly the whole of Christ's public life was devoted to teaching (see JESUS CHRIST).福音书告诉我们,近基督的公共生活的全部都用于教学(见耶稣基督)。There can be no doubt as to the supereminence of Christ's teaching; even as man, He is an eyewitness to all He reveals; His truthfulness is God's own veracity; His authority is Divine; His words are the utterance of a Divine person; He can internally illumine and move the minds of His hearers; He is the eternal and infinite wisdom of God Incarnate Who cannot deceive and cannot be deceived.不可能有任何作为,以基督的教学出类拔萃疑问,连作为人,他是所有他目击者透露,他的真实性是神自己的真实性,他的权力是神圣的,他的话是一个神圣的人的话语,他可以国内照亮和移动,他的听众的心中,他是神的化身永恒和无穷的智慧谁不能欺骗,不能被欺骗。

B. Christ as King二基督为王

The royal character of Christ was foretold by the Prophets, announced by the angels, claimed by Christ Himself (Psalm 2:6; Isaiah 9:6-7; Ezekiel 34:23; Jeremiah 23:3-5; Luke 1:32-33; John 18:37).基督的预言皇家的性质是由基督本人(诗篇2点06分自称天使,宣布先知;以赛亚书9:6-7;以西结书34:23;耶利米书23:3-5;路加福音1时32 - 33,约翰18:37)。His royal functions are the foundation, the expansion and the final consummation of the kingdom of God among men.他的皇家职能是基础,扩大和神的国度在人间最后的圆满。The first and last of these acts are personal and visible acts of the king, but the intermediate function is carried out either invisibly, or by Christ's visible agents.第一个和最后的这些行为是个人和可见国王的行为,但中间的功能是进行任何看不见的,由基督的代理人或可见。The practical working of the kingly office of Christ is described in the treatises on the sources of revelation; on grace, on the Church, on the sacraments, and on the last things.在基督的王道办公室实际工作中描述的启示来源的论文;在恩典,在教会,在圣礼,并在最后的东西。

C. Christ as Priest三基督作为牧师

The ordinary priest, is made God's own by an accidental unction, Christ is constituted God's own Son by the substantial unction with the Divine nature; the ordinary priest is made holy, though not impeccable, by his consecration, while Christ is separated from all sin and sinners by the hypostatic union; the ordinary priest draws nigh unto God in a very imperfect manner, but Christ is seated at the right hand of the power of God.普通祭司,是由一个偶然的基神的自己,基督是构成所具有的神性重大基神自己的儿子,普通祭司成为圣洁,虽然并非无懈可击他的奉献,而基督是一切的罪分开工会和本质的罪人;普通祭司画在一个非常完美的方式几乎给神,但基督是在神权能的右边坐下。 The Levitical priesthood was temporal, earthly, and carnal in its origin, in its relations to God, in its working, in its power; Christ's priesthood is eternal, heavenly, and spiritual. Levitical铎是暂时的,尘世的,并在其原产地肉体,在上帝的关系,在其工作,在其权力;基督的圣职是永恒的,天上的,和精神。The victims offered by the ancient priests were either lifeless things or, at best, irrational animals distinct from the person of the offerer; Christ offers a victim included in the person of the offerer.由古代祭司提供的受害者之一或无生命的东西,最好的,非理性的动物从发货人不同,基督的受害者提供了一个在要约人包括在内。 His living human flesh, animated by His rational soul, a real and worthy substitute for mankind, on whose behalf Christ offers the sacrifice.人肉他的生活中,他的理性的灵魂,为人类真正的和值得的替代品,提供其所代表基督的牺牲动画。 The Aaronic priest inflicted an irreparable death on the victim which his sacrificial intention changed into a religious rite or symbol; in Christ's sacrifice the immutation of the victim is brought about by an internal act of His will (John 10:17), and the victim's death is the source of a new life to himself and to mankind.祭司的亚伦是造成了关于他打算成为一个宗教祭祀仪式或符号改变了无法弥补受害人死亡的,在基督的牺牲所带来的受害者immutation是他的意志的一个内部行为(约翰10时17分)左右,与受害人的死亡是一个新的生命之源,以自己和人类。 Besides, Christ's sacrifice, being that of a Divine person, carries its own acceptance with it; it is as much of a gift of God to man, as a sacrifice of man to God.此外,基督的牺牲,这是一个神圣的人,进行了与它自己的验收,它是作为神的恩赐很大的人作为神的人牺牲。

Hence follows the perfection of the salvation wrought by Christ for mankind.因此,遵循了人类造成的基督的救恩完善。On His part Christ offered to God a satisfaction for man's sin not only sufficient but superabundant (Romans 5:15-20); on God's part supposing, what is contained in the very idea of man's redemption through Christ, that God agreed to accept the work of the Redeemer for the sins of man, He was bound by His promise and His justice to grant the remission of sin to the extent and in the manner intended by Christ.基督对他的部分提供给上帝为人类的罪的满意度,不仅充分而有余(罗马书5:15-20)神的部分假设,什么是在人的赎回透过基督,这种想法中,上帝同意接受工作的救赎人的罪,他是受自己的诺言,他的正义罪给予减免的程度和基督预期方式。 In this way our salvation has won back for us the essential prerogative of the state of original justice, ie, sanctifying grace while it will restore the minor prerogatives of the Resurrection.这样,我们的救恩为我们赢回了原义,即国家的基本权力,圣洁的恩典而它会恢复的复活未成年人的特权。At the same time, it does not at once blot out individual sin, but only procures the means thereto, and these means are not restricted only to the predestined or to the faithful, but extend to all men (1 John 2:2; 1 Timothy 2:1-4).同时,它不会一下子抹煞个人的罪恶,而只是促使及其手段,这些手段并不只限于命中注定,还是忠实的,而是延伸到所有的人(约翰一书2:2; 1提摩太前书2:1-4)。Moreover salvation makes us coheirs of Christ (Romans 8:14-17), a royal priesthood (1 Peter 2:9; cf. Exodus 19:6), sons of God, temples of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 3:16), and other Christs--Christianus alter Christus; it perfects the angelical orders, raises the dignity of the material world, and restores all things in Christ (Ephesians 1:9-10).此外救恩,使我们coheirs基督(罗马书8:14-17),皇家神职人员(1彼得时09分;。比照出埃及记19:6),神的儿子,寺庙的圣灵(哥林多前书3:16)和其他基督 - Christianus改变克里斯特斯,它完善了天使般的订单,提高了物质世界的尊严,并恢复在基督(以弗所书1:9-10)所有的东西。By our salvation all things are ours, we are Christ's, and Christ is God's (1 Corinthians 3:22-23).通过我们的拯救所有的东西都是我们自己,我们是基督的,基督是神的(哥林多前书3:22-23)。


The Council of Trent describes the process of salvation from sin in the case of an adult with great minuteness (Sess. VI, v-vi).安理会的遄达介绍,从单在一个非常微小(sess.六,五,六)成年情况下,拯救的过程。

It begins with the grace of God which touches a sinner's heart, and calls him to repentance.它是从神的恩典,这触动了罪人的心,并呼吁他悔改。This grace cannot be merited; it proceeds solely from the love and mercy of God.此宽限期不能得的;它的收益完全来自上帝的爱和怜悯。Man may receive or reject this inspiration of God, he may turn to God or remain in sin.人可以接受或拒绝这个神的灵感,他可能会变成神或留在罪中。Grace does not constrain man's free will.格雷斯并不限制人的自由意志。

Thus assisted the sinner is disposed for salvation from sin; he believes in the revelation and promises of God, he fears God's justice, hopes in his mercy, trusts that God will be merciful to him for Christ's sake, begins to love God as the source of all justice, hates and detests his sins.从而协助是从罪得救处置罪人,他的启示相信和上帝的承诺,他担心上帝的正义,在他的怜悯的希望,相信上帝会为基督的缘故怜悯他,开始爱为源神所有的正义,不喜欢和讨厌他的罪过。

This disposition is followed by justification itself, which consists not in the mere remission of sins, but in the sanctification and renewal of the inner man by the voluntary reception of God's grace and gifts, whence a man becomes just instead of unjust, a friend instead of a foe and so an heir according to hope of eternal life.这种气质其次是理由本身,它不在于的罪孽只是缓解,但在圣洁的神的恩典和礼物,自愿接收里面的人重建何处一个男人,而不是不公正而成,一个朋友,而不是一个敌人,所以继承人依希望永生。 This change happens either by reason of a perfect act of charity elicited by a well disposed sinner or by virtue of the Sacrament either of Baptism or of Penance according to the condition of the respective subject laden with sin.发生这种变化不是由一个完美的慈善行为引起的原因,以及处理罪人,或因在任洗礼或忏悔根据各自的主题与罪满载状况圣美德。 The Council further indicates the causes of this change.安理会进一步说明了这种变化的原因。By the merit of the Most Holy Passion through the Holy Spirit, the charity of God is shed abroad in the hearts of those who are justified.到了最神圣的激情,通过圣灵的优点,慈善的上帝是大棚国外的那些谁是有道理的心。

Against the heretical tenets of various times and sects we must hold针对不同时期的邪教教义和宗派,我们必须持

that the initial grace is truly gratuitous and supernatural;,最初的宽限期,是真正的无偿和超自然的;

that the human will remains free under the influence of this grace; ,人类将始终根据此宽限期因素影响;

that man really cooperates in his personal salvation from sin;那个男人在他的合作,真正从个人救赎罪恶;

that by justification man is really made just, and not merely declared or reputed so;这名男子是真正的理由作出公正,而不是只申报或被誉为左右;

that justification and sanctification are only two aspects of the same thing, and not ontologically and chronologically distinct realities;这一理由和成圣只有两个方面,同样的事情,而不是本体论和时序上不同的现实;

that justification excludes all mortal sin from the soul, so that the just man is no way liable to the sentence of death at God's judgment-seat.排除所有的理由从灵魂弥天大罪,从而使正直的人是没有办法的死亡承担责任在上帝的判决议席的句子。

Other points involved in the foregoing process of personal salvation from sin are matters of discussion among Catholic theologians; such are, for instance,在从个人救赎罪恶上述过程中涉及的其他方面之间的天主教神学家讨论的问题,这样的是,例如,

the precise nature of initial grace,在最初的宽限期的确切性质,

the manner in which grace and free will work together,以何种方式在恩典和自由意志,共同努力,

the precise nature of the fear and the love disposing the sinner for justification,对爱的恐惧和处置的理由罪人的确切性质,

the manner in which sacraments cause sanctifying grace.以何种方式在圣礼事业sanctifying恩典。

But these questions are treated in other articles dealing ex professo with the respective subjects.但这些问题的处理在处理与各学科前professo其他物品。The same is true of final perseverance without which personal salvation from sin is not permanently secured.同样是最后的毅力,没有这些,从单个人的救恩是不是真正的永久安全。

What has been said applies to the salvation of adults; children and those permanently deprived of their use of reason are saved by the Sacrament of Baptism.什么有人说,适用于成年人拯救儿童以及那些永久剥夺其使用的原因是由洗礼得救。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录的唐纳德J福音。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

Salvation is the goal of Christianity, and the purpose of the Church. 救恩是基督教的目标,和教会的目的。The theology of salvation is called soteriology .救恩的神学称为救世神学Orthodox Christianity strongly believes that God became man, so that man may become like God.东正教坚信,神成为人,使人类有可能成为像神。This concept of theosis, rejects that salvation is a positive result to a legalistic dilemma, but is instead a healing process.这种theosis概念,拒绝,救恩是一个积极的结果,一个墨守成规的困境,但不是一个愈合的过程。Orthodoxy views our inclination to sin as a symptom of a malady that needs treatment, not just a transgression that requires retribution.我们的正统观点倾向罪作为一个病需要治疗,而不仅仅是一种侵犯,要求报复的症状。One of the distinctive characteristics of Orthodox Christian thinking is that it sees the Gospel message not as law, but as relationship.基督教的正统思想的鲜明特点之一是,它看到了福音信息没有法律,而是作为关系。It speaks of the mystery of the Holy Trinity in terms of the relationship of love that exists among them.它讲在爱的关系,它们之间存在的条款的圣灵三位一体的奥秘。To join in that love is the work that will lead to salvation.参加爱是工作,这将导致得救。

Salvation history救世军的历史

God created man in his own image and likeness上帝创造了他自己的形象和相似的人

Man, according to the scriptures, is created in the "likeness" and "image" of God (Gen 1:26-27).人,根据圣经,是建立在“似”与“形象”的神(创1:26-27)。

To be like God, through the gift of God, is the essence of man's being and life.要像神,通过神的恩赐,是人类的福祉和生活的精髓。In the scriptures it says that God breathed into man, the "breath (or spirit) of life" (Gen 2:7).它在圣经说,上帝把人的“呼吸(或精神)的生命”(创2:7)呼吸。This teaching has given rise to the understanding in the Orthodox Church that man cannot be truly human, truly himself, without the Spirit of God.这种教学已引起了东正教教会的理解如果没有上帝的精神,人不能真正的人,真正的自己。

The image of God signifies man's free will, his reason, his sense of moral responsibility, everything, which marks man out from the animal creation and makes him a person.上帝的形象象征着人的自由意志,他的理由,他的道德责任,应有尽有,这标志着人类从动物创造出来,使他一个人的感觉。 But the image means more than that.但图像的手段不止于此。It means that we are God's 'offspring' (Acts 27:28), his kin; it means that between us and him there is a point of contact, an essential similarity.这意味着我们是神的'后代'(徒27:28),他的亲属,这意味着我们与他有一种联系,其中一个重要的相似点。 The gulf between creature and Creator is not impassable, for because we are in God's image we can know God and have communion with him.生物与造物主之间的鸿沟不是不可逾越的,因为我们对神的形象,我们可以知道上帝,并与他交流。

Fall of man秋季人

The story of creation, and specifically of Adam and Eve, tells of the goodness of all things that exist, and the superiority of man over other beings.创造的故事,亚当和夏娃具体地说,诉说着一切事物存在的善良,和人比其他人优越。It shows how the origin of evil does not lie in God but in his most perfect creature whose free act of sin brought wickedness and death to the world, how man lost the "likeness" of God, his response to God's love.它显示了如何恶的起源不在于上帝,但在他最完美的生物,其自由的行为所带来的罪恶和死亡的邪恶世界,人怎样失去了“似”神,他的回应神的爱。

The Church teaches that when we do not respond to God's love, we are diminished as human beings.教会教导我们,当我们不回应神的爱,我们作为人类减少。The act of faith that he asks of us is not so very different from the faith and trust we place in those people who surround us.他的信仰行为是对我们的要求并不很大的信心和我们周围的人谁相信我们的地方不同。When we do not respond to the love given us by the people who love us, we become shallow and hardened individuals.当我们不回应的爱给予我们的人谁爱我们,我们变得浅薄和硬化个人。


Since man still was of God's image, the search for meaning was as critical for human existence as are air and water.既然人仍然是神的形象,为寻求意义是作为人类生存的空气与水的临界。Creation itself, as the handiwork of God pointed to him.创作本身,作为上帝的杰作指着他。Yet, before the coming of Christ, the meaning of the world and our place in it remained difficult to understand.然而,仍然在基督,世界的意义,我们在其中的位置来难以理解。People created stories to help themselves explain the great mystery of their own existence, the world around them, and the one who was responsible for bringing them into being.人民创造的故事来帮助自己解释自己存在的伟大的奥秘,他们周围的世界,一个谁对他们负责将应运而生。Yet, knowledge of the true God eluded them.然而,真正的上帝的知识躲避他们。The Holy Scriptures speak of this lack of knowledge as darkness.圣经讲这种黑暗知识的缺乏。So God sent messengers to speak for him, holy men and women through whom he worked wonders, prophets to announce the coming salvation.所以神差遣使者为他说话,神圣的男人和女人借着他创造了奇迹,先知宣布未来的拯救。Finally, God sent his own Son, Jesus Christ.最后,上帝派他自己的儿子,耶稣基督。When he came, the very one who had created the world was now clearly made known to the world, giving light to those who had been sitting in darkness.当他来的时候,很一个谁创造了世界现在显然向全世界公布,让那些谁的光在黑暗中坐了。


But because man fell, the Incarnation is not only an act of love but an act of salvation.但由于他跌倒,化身不仅是爱的行为,而是一种救赎的行为。Jesus Christ, by uniting man and God in his own person, reopened for man the path to union with God.基督耶稣的人团结在自己的人与神,人的路径重新开始与上帝的结合。In his own person Christ showed what the true 'likeness of God' is, and through his redeeming and victorious sacrifice he set that likeness once again within man's reach.基督在他自己的人表明什么是真正的'上帝那样'是,透过他的救赎,胜利的牺牲,他设置在人的肖像再次达到这个。Christ, the Second Adam, came to earth and reversed the effects of the first Adam's disobedience.基督,第二个亚当,来到地球,并扭转了第一亚当的悖逆之影响。

The Church教会

Salvation means that the world is not an end in and of itself.救国意味着世界是不是本身并结束。It is a reality that points to the larger reality of God's love for us and all that surrounds us.这是一个现实的天主对我们和我们周围的一切爱较大的现实问题。The world, time, history, our very lives are "an epiphany of God, a means of his revelation, presence and power."世界,时间,历史,我们的生命是“神的一个,他的启示,存在和权力手段的顿悟。”

God did not abandon his people after Christ's ascension into heaven.上帝并没有抛弃后,基督的升天他的人民。His Church, starting on Pentecost, is still with us today.他的教会,在圣灵降临节开始的,是与我们至今。

Final Judgment最后的审判

Christ will judge all people exclusively on the basis of how they have served him by serving each other, the least of the brethren.基督要审判所有的人完全放在如何,他们曾担任他的基础上通过服务对方,最少的弟兄。 This will show how each person loved God and each other.这将显示每个人如何热爱上帝和对方。The love for God and the love for man, becoming one and the same love.为上帝的爱和对人的爱,成为同一个爱。It is accomplished in Christ and is Christ.还没有成就,是在基督耶稣。To love with this love is to love with the love of Christ and to fulfill his "new commandment" to "love one another even as I have loved you."要爱上这个爱是爱与基督的爱,并履行他的“新诫命”到“彼此相爱,像我爱你们。” (John 13:34-35, 15:12) In this is the whole of spiritual life.(约翰福音13:34-35,15时12分),这是在整个生活的精神。In this, and this alone, man will be finally judged.在此,仅此一点,人类将最终判断。It is the crown of all virtue and prayer, the ultimate and most perfect fruit of God's Spirit in man.这是所有美德和祈祷,上帝的精神最终和最完美的果实在男子冠。

The final coming of Christ will be the judgment of all men.最后未来的基督将是所有男人的判断。His very presence will be the judgment.他的存在将成为判断。For those who love the Lord, his presence will be infinite joy, paradise and eternal life.对于那些谁爱主,他的存在将是无限的欢乐,天堂和永恒的生命。For those who hate the Lord, the same presence will be infinite torture, hell and eternal death.对于那些谁恨主,同样存在将是无限的折磨,地狱和永恒的死亡。

May they all be one也许他们都被一

'May they all be one,' Christ prayed at the Last Supper; "As Thou, Father, art in me and I in Thee, so also may they be in us" (John 17:21). '愿他们都合而为一,'基督祈祷在最后的晚餐,“像你,爸爸,我和艺术的你我在一起,所以也愿他们在我们”(约17:21)。Just as the three persons of the Trinity 'dwell' in one another in an unceasing movement of love, so man, made in the image of the Trinity, is called to 'dwell' in the Trinitarian God.正如三位一体'住在彼此的三个爱的不断运动,所以人,在三位一体的形象造,人被称为为'住在三位一体的神。

Outside the Church there is no salvation教会之外无救恩

Saint Cyprian wrote, 'A man cannot have God as his Father if he does not have the Church as his Mother'.圣塞浦路斯说,'一个人不能因为他的父亲上帝,如果他没有为他的母亲教会。God is salvation, and God's saving power is mediated to man in His Body, the Church.上帝是救恩,上帝的拯救力量是介导男子在他的身体,教会。This stated the other way around by Georges Florovsky: 'Outside the Church there is no salvation, because salvation is the Church'.这说明,周围的其他方式乔治Florovsky:'教会之外没有救恩,因为救恩是教会的。

The Church is the unity of those united with the Trinity.教会是与美国的三位一体的统一。The One Church united as the three persons of Trinity are united.教会作为一个三位一体的三名人士团结统一。If one in the Church makes proper use of this Church, for communion with God, then he will become 'like' God, he will acquire the divine likeness; in the words of John Damascene, he will be 'assimilated to God through virtue.'如果在一个教会正确使用,使这个教会的共融与上帝,那么他将成为像'上帝,他将获得神圣的相似,在大马士革的约翰的话,他将是'神同化以德治校。 'To acquire the likeness is to be deified, it is to become a 'god by grace,' [not by nature or essence].为了得到肖像是要神化,这是成为一个'上帝的恩典,'[不是自然或本质]。

Also, see:此外,见:
Conversion 转换
Regeneration 再生
Justification 理由
Sanctification 成圣
Confession 自白
Predestination 宿命
Arminianism arminianism
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism

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