Historical Controversy over Sin歷史罪惡的爭議

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In the fifth century, Augustine challenged the views of the British monk Pelagius, who saw sin basically as an outward act transgressing the law and regarded man as free to sin or desist from sin. Appealing to the witness of Scripture, Augustine maintained that sin incapacitates man from doing the good, and because we are born as sinners we lack the power to do the good.在第五世紀,奧古斯丁的觀點提出質疑,英國和尚伯拉糾,誰看到了罪,基本上作為一個外向型的行為違反了法律,把人作為自由罪或停止了罪。呼籲以證人的經文,奧古斯丁認為,罪使人渾身無力男人做的好,因為我們生來就是罪人,我們沒有權力做的好。 Yet because we willfully choose the bad over the good, we must be held accountable for our sin.然而,因為我們故意選擇在好不好,我們必須承擔責任為我們的罪。 Augustine gave the illustration of a man who by abstaining from food necessary for health so weakened himself that he could no longer eat.奧古斯丁給了一個人的畫像誰棄權必要的健康食品,以便削弱自己,他再也不能吃。 Though still a human being, created to maintain his health by eating, he was no longer able to do so.雖然仍然是一個人,他的創造,保持健康的飲食,他已不再能這樣做。 Similarly, by the historical event of the fall, all humanity has become incapable of that movement toward God, the very life for which it was created.同樣,歷史事件的秋天,已成為全人類無法對這一運動的上帝,很生活它被創建。

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Pelagius held that one could raise oneself by one's own efforts toward God, and therefore grace is the reward for human virtue. Augustine countered that man is helpless to do the good until grace falls upon him, and when grace is thus given he is irresistibly moved toward God and the good. 伯拉糾認為,人們可以提出自己的一個自己的努力向神,因此恩典是獎勵對人類的美德。奧古斯丁反駁說,人是無奈去做善事,直到寬限期瀑布在他身上,當寬限期被賦予he是不可抗拒的動議對上帝和好。

At the time of the Reformation, Luther powerfully reaffirmed the Pauline and Augustinian doctrine of the bondage of the will against Erasmus, who maintained that man still has the capacity to do the right, though he needs the aid of grace if he is to come to salvation.當時的宗教改革,路德有力地重申了寶蓮和奧古斯丁學說的束縛對伊拉斯謨的意志,誰的人仍然認為,有能力做正確的,但他需要援助的寬限期,如果他是來得救。 Luther saw man as totally bound to the powers of darkness, sin, death, and the devil.路德認為人是完全約束的權力黑暗,罪惡,死亡和魔鬼。 What he most needs is to be delivered from spiritual slavery rather than inspired to heroic action.他最需要的是從精神奴役交付,而不是啟發,英雄的行動。

In our own century, the debate between Karl Barth and Emil Brunner on human freedom is another example of the division in the church through the ages on this question.在我們自己的世紀,雙方爭論卡爾巴特和埃米爾布倫納對人的自由是另一個例子,該師在教會歷代關於這個問題的。 Though firmly convinced that man is a sinner who can be saved only by the unmerited grace of God as revealed and conveyed in Jesus Christ, Emil Brunner nonetheless referred to an "addressability" in man, a "capacity for revelation," that enables man to apprehend the gospel and to respond to its offer.雖然堅信,人是一個罪人誰可以保存只能由不必要的恩典作為發現和傳達耶穌基督,埃米爾布倫納還是提到了“尋址”的人,一個“能力的啟示”,使男人逮捕的福音,並回應其報價。 For Barth, not even a capacity for God remains within our fallen nature; therefore, we must be given not only faith but also the condition to receive faith.對於巴特,甚至沒有能力在我們的神仍然下跌的性質,因此,我們必須有信心,而且不僅條件得到信心。 In this view, there is no point of contact between the gospel and sinful humanity.根據這種觀點,也沒有接觸點之間的福音和有罪的人類。 Brunner vehemently disagreed, contending that there would then be no use in preaching.布倫納強烈反對,認為這樣一來就沒有用的說教。

Barth argued that the Spirit must create this point of contact before we can believe and obey.巴特認為,這種精神必須建立聯繫點,才可以相信和服從。 In contrast to Brunner he affirmed the total depravity of man; yet he did not believe that human nature is so defaced that it no longer reflects the glory of God. In his later writings, Barth contended that sin is alien to human nature rather than belonging to this nature.相反,他肯定要布倫納總墮落的人,但他不相信人類的天性就是如此污損,它不再反映神的榮耀。在他後來的著作中,巴特辯稱,罪是格格不入的人性,而不是屬於這個性質。 Nonetheless, he continued to affirm that every part of our nature in infected by the contagion of sin, and this renders us totally unable to come to God on our own.儘管如此,他仍然肯定,每個部分的自然感染,傳染罪,這使得我們完全不能來上帝對我們自己的。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

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