Martin Luther馬丁路德

General Information 一般信息

Martin Luther was a German theologian and a major leader of the Protestant Reformation. He is sometimes called the father of Protestantism, and one of the major branches of Protestantism - Lutheranism - is named after him.馬丁路德是德國神學家和主要領導的新教改革。 他有時也被稱為新教的父親,和一個主要分支新教-路德教-是他的名字命名。

Early Life早年生活

Luther, the son of a Saxon miner, was born at Eisleben on Nov.路德的兒子一撒克遜礦工,出生於11月艾斯勒本 10, 1483. 10,1483。 He entered the University of Erfurt when he was 18 years old.他進入愛爾福特大學時他只有18歲。 After graduation he began to study law in 1505.畢業後,他開始學習法律,1505年。 In July of that year, however, he narrowly escaped death in a thunderstorm and vowed to become a monk.在這一年7月,但他逃過一劫在雷暴和發誓要成為一名僧人。 He entered the monastery of the Augustinian Hermits at Erfurt, where he was ordained in 1507.他走進寺院的奧古斯丁隱士在埃爾富特,他在1507年被祝聖。 The following year he was sent to Wittenberg, where he continued his studies and lectured in moral philosophy.次年,他被送往維滕貝格,他在那裡繼續他的研究和講授道德哲學。 In 1511 he received his doctorate in theology and an appointment as professor of Scripture, which he held for the rest of his life. Luther visited Rome in 1510 on business for his order and was shocked to find corruption in high ecclesiastical places.在1511年他獲得了博士學位,在神學和聖經被任命為教授,他認為對於其他人的生命。 路德在1510年訪問了羅馬,他對商業秩序,震驚地發現腐敗的高教會的地方。

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He was well acquainted with the scholastic theology of his day, but he made the study of the Bible, especially the epistles of Saint Paul, the center of his work. Luther found that his teachings diverged increasingly from the traditional beliefs of the Roman church. His studies had led him to the conclusion that Christ was the sole mediator between God and man and that forgiveness of sin and salvation are effected by God's Grace alone and are received by faith alone on the part of man.他熟悉的那一神學他一天,但他的研究聖經,尤其是書信的聖保羅,他的工作中心。路德發現他的教誨分歧越來越多地從傳統信仰的羅馬教會。 他的研究使他得出結論說,基督是唯一的調停人與上帝和寬恕的罪惡和救贖的影響是上帝的恩典單獨和收到的信仰是孤立無援的一部分人。 This point of view turned him against scholastic theology, which had emphasized man's role in his own salvation, and against many church practices that emphasized justification by good works. His approach to theology soon led to a clash between Luther and church officials, precipitating the dramatic events of the Reformation. 這個角度把他反對學術神學,它強調人的作用,在他自己的救恩,並針對許多教堂的做法,強調理由好的作品。他的方法,以神學很快導致了衝突之間的路德和教會官員,也促成了戲劇性事件的改造。

Dispute over Indulgences爭議的縱容

The doctrine of Indulgences, with its mechanical view of sin and repentance, aroused Luther's indignation. The sale by the church of indulgences - the remission of temporal punishments for sins committed and confessed to a priest - brought in much revenue. The archbishop of Mainz, Albert of Brandenburg, sponsored such a sale in 1517 to pay the pope for his appointment to Mainz and for the construction of Saint Peter's in Rome. 該學說的放縱,其機械鑑於罪惡和懺悔,引起了路德的憤慨。出售由教會的放縱-緩解顳處罰的罪過承諾並供認一名神父-帶來多少收入。總主教美因茨,艾伯特勃蘭登堡,主辦這樣的銷售在1517年支付教宗任命為他的美因茨和建造聖彼得在羅馬舉行。 He selected Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, to preach the indulgences and collect the revenues.他選擇約翰特策爾,多米尼加修士,宣揚寬容和收集的收入。 When Tetzel arrived in Saxony, Luther posted his famous 95 theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517. Although some of the theses directly criticized papal policies, they were put forward as tentative objections for discussion.當特策爾抵達薩克森州, 路德發表了著名的論文95篇的門城堡的教堂在維滕貝格的1517年10月31日。雖然一些論文直接批評教皇的政策,他們提出的初步反對意見的討論。

Copies of the 95 theses were quickly spread throughout Europe and unleashed a storm of controversy. During 1518 and 1519, Luther defended his theology before his fellow Augustinians and publicly debated in Leipzig with the theologian Johann Eck, who had condemned the ideas of Luther. 副本的論文95篇,很快傳遍了歐洲,引發了風暴的爭論。在1518年和1519年,路德神學辯護,他在他的同胞奧古斯丁和公開辯論在萊比錫與神學家約翰埃克,譴責誰的思想路德。 Meanwhile, church officials acted against him.與此同時,教會官員對他採取行動。 The Saxon Dominican provincial charged him with heresy, and he was summoned to appear in Augsburg before the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan.多米尼加的薩克森省囑咐他與異端,他被傳喚到出現在奧格斯堡前教皇使節,樞機cajetan。 Refusing to recant, he fled to Wittenberg, seeking the protection of the elector Frederick III of Saxony. When the Wittenberg faculty sent a letter to Frederick declaring its solidarity with Luther, the elector refused to send Luther to Rome, where he would certainly meet imprisonment or death.拒絕放棄信仰,他逃到維滕貝格,尋求保護選民弗雷德里克三薩克森州。 維滕貝格當老師寫信給弗雷德里克宣布聲援路德,選民拒絕送路德到羅馬,在那裡他一定會被監禁或死亡。


In 1520, Luther completed three celebrated works in which he stated his views.在1520年,路德完成了三個著名的作品中,他說他的意見。 In his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, he invited the German princes to take the reform of the church into their own hands; in A Prelude Concerning the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, he attacked the papacy and the current theology of sacraments; and in On the Freedom of a Christian Man, he stated his position on justification and good works.在他的地址,以基督教貴族的德意志民族,他請德國王子採取改革的教會在他們自己手中,在一個前奏關於巴比倫籠養的教會,他攻擊教皇和目前的聖禮神學;以及關於自由的一個基督教的男人,他說他的立場的理由和良好的工程。 The bull of Pope Leo X Exsurge Domine, issued on June 15 that same year, gave Luther 60 days to recant, and Decet Romanum Pontificem of Jan. 3, 1521, excommunicated him.公牛教皇利奧X Exsurge多米,發出同年6月15日,60日給路德放棄信仰,並Decet Romanum Pontificem的1521年1月3日,驅逐他。

Summoned before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in April 1521, Luther again refused to recant and was put under the ban of the empire.在神聖羅馬帝國皇帝召見查理五世在國會的蠕蟲在1521年4月,路德再次拒絕放棄信仰而被置於禁令的帝國。 He took refuge in the Wartburg castle, where he lived in seclusion for eight months.他避難的瓦特堡城堡,在那裡他住在與世隔絕了8個月。 During that time he translated the New Testament into German and wrote a number of pamphlets.在此期間,他翻譯成德語的新約,寫一個數字的小冊子。 In March 1522 he returned to Wittenberg to restore order against enthusiastic iconoclasts who were destroying altars, images, and crucifixes.在1522年3月他回到維滕貝格恢復秩序對熱心反對偶像崇拜誰在破壞祭壇,圖片和十字架。 His reforming work during subsequent years included the writing of the Small and Large Catechisms, sermon books, more than a dozen hymns, over 100 volumes of tracts, treatises, biblical commentaries, thousands of letters, and the translation of the whole Bible into German.他的改革工作在隨後的幾年包括書面的小和大要理問答,布道書,十幾個讚美詩,超過100冊的傳單,論文,聖經評論,數以千計的信件,並翻譯成德文的整本聖經。

With Philipp Melanchthon and others, Luther organized the Evangelical churches in the German territories whose princes supported him.隨著菲利普梅蘭希和其他組織的福音路德教會在德國領土,其首領的支持他。 He abolished many traditional practices, including confession and private mass.他廢除了許多傳統習俗,包括供詞和私人彌撒。 Priests married; convents and monasteries were abandoned.牧師已婚,修道院和寺院被遺棄。 These were difficult times. Luther lost some popular support when he urged suppression of the Knights' Revolt (1522) and the Peasants' War (1524 - 26); his failure to reach doctrinal accord with Ulrich Zwingli on the nature of the Eucharist (1529) split the Reform movement. Nonetheless, Luther found personal solace in his marriage (1525) to a former Cistercian nun, Katherina von Bora; they raised six children.這些困難的時期。路德失去了一些民心,他呼籲鎮壓騎士'起義(1522年)和農民戰爭(1524 - 26), 他未能達成符合烏爾里希溫格利理論的性質的聖體(1529年)分裂的改革運動。儘管如此,在路德發現個人安慰他的婚姻(1525年)到原修道院的修女,凱瑟琳馮寶來,他們提出的六個孩子。

At Worms, Luther had stood alone. 在蠕蟲,路德獨自站在。 When the Evangelicals presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V and the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, many theologians, princes, and city councils subscribed to that classic Protestant statement of faith. By the time of Luther's death, a large part of northern Europe had left the Roman Catholic church for new Evangelical communities. 當福音派提出的奧格斯堡自白書查爾斯五世和國會的奧格斯堡於1530年,許多神學家,王子,以及市議會簽署的經典新教信仰宣言。到時候路德的死亡,大部份的歐洲北部已離開羅馬天主教會為新的基督教社區。 Late in 1545, Luther was asked to arbitrate a dispute in Eisleben; despite the icy winter weather, he traveled there.晚於1545年,路德被要求仲裁的爭端艾斯勒本,儘管天氣冰冷的冬天,他前往那裡。 The quarrel was settled on Feb. 17, 1546, but the strain had been very great and Luther died the next day.這場爭吵是定居於1546年2月17日,但帶來的壓力已經很大,路德於第二天死亡。

Luther left behind a movement that quickly spread throughout the Western world. His doctrines, especially justification by faith and the final authority of the Bible, were adopted by other reformers and are shared by many Protestant denominations today. As the founder of the 16th - century Reformation, he is one of the major figures of Christianity and of Western civilization.路德留下了運動,迅速傳遍西方世界。 他的學說,尤其是正當理由的信仰,最後權威的聖經,還通過了其他改革派和共享許多新教教派今天。由於創始人在16 -世紀改革,他是其中一個重要人物,基督教和西方文明。

Lewis W Spitz劉易斯 W施皮茨

Bibliography 書目
P Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther (1966); J Atkinson, Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism (1968) and The Trial of Luther (1971); R Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (1951); H Boehmer, Road to Reformation (1946); G Brendler, Martin Luther: Theology and Revolution (1990); WD Cargill Thompson, The Political Thought of Martin Luther (1984); M Edwards, Martin Luther and the False Brethren (1975); EH Erikson, Young Man Luther (1958); RH Fife, The Revolt of Martin Luther (1957); VHH Green, Luther and the Reformation (1964); M Hoffman, ed., Martin Luther and the Modern Mind (1985); M Luther, Luther's Works (1955); A McGrath, Luther's Theology of the Cross (1985); HA Oberman, Luther: Man between God and the Devil (1990); J Pelikan, ed., Interpreters of Luther (1968); G Ritter, Luther: His Life and Work (1964); G Rupp, Luther's Progress to the Diet of Worms (1964); EG Schwiebert, Luther and His Times (1950); B Tierney, ed., Martin Luther, Reformer or Revolutionary? P斯,馬丁路德的神學(1966年); J阿特金森,馬丁路德和新教的誕生(1968年)和審判的路德(1971)與r班頓,在這裡,我立場:生活的馬丁路德(1951年); Ĥ博默,道改造(1946年); Ğ布蘭德勒,馬丁路德:神學與革命(1990年);的WD嘉吉湯普森,政治思想的馬丁路德(1984年),間愛德華茲,馬丁路德和假弟兄(1975年);高血壓埃里克森,年輕人路德(1958年);生殖健康法伊夫,起義中的馬丁路德(1957年);鹵代烴綠色,路德和宗教改革(1964年),間霍夫曼,編輯。馬丁路德與現代心靈(1985年),間路德,路德的作品(1955年);阿麥格拉思,路德的神學的十字架(1985年);醫管局奧伯曼,路德:人與上帝與魔鬼(1990); J伯利坎,編輯。,口譯的路德(1968年); Ğ裡特,路德:他的生活和工作(1964年); Ğ魯普,路德的進展向國會蟲(1964年);乙二醇Schwiebert,路德和他的時代(1950年);乙蒂爾尼,編輯。馬丁路德,重整或革命? (1977). (1977年)。

Martin Luther (1483 - 1546)馬丁路德(1483年至1546年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Martin Luther was a major leader of the German Reformation.馬丁路德是一個主要領導的德國改革。 Luther's father came from peasant background, but achieved success in the mining industry so that he was able to afford an excellent education for his son. Luther began his studies at the Ratschule in Mansfeld and probably attended the Cathedral School at Magdeburg, where he came under the influence of the Brethren of the Common Life.路德的父親來自農民的背景,但取得的成功,採礦業,使他能夠負擔得起一個很好的教育他的兒子。路德開始了他的研究在Ratschule在曼斯費爾德,可能參加了教會學校在馬格德堡,在那裡他受到影響的弟兄們的共同生活。 He completed his preparatory education at the Georgenschule in Eisenach before entering the University of Erfurt in 1501.他完成了他的預備教育在Georgenschule在愛森納赫才能進入愛爾福特大學於1501年。 He received his BA in 1502 and his MA in 1505.他於1502年獲得學士學位和碩士學位,他於1505年。 In accordance with his father's wishes he had begun study for a law degree when a brush with death in a thunderstorm, July, 1505, caused him to make a vow to become a monk.按照父親的意願,他已經開始學習了法律學位時,刷死在雷雨,7月,1505年,使他宣誓,成為一名僧人。

While in the monastery Luther began the serious study of theology at Erfurt.而在修道院路德開始了認真的研究神學在愛爾福特。 In 1508 he was sent to Wittenberg to lecture on moral philosophy at the newly founded University of Wittenberg.在1508年,他被送往維滕貝格講授道德哲學在新成立的大學維滕貝格。 In 1509 he returned to Erfurt, where he continued his studies and delivered lectures in theology.在1509年他回到埃爾富特,他在那裡繼續他的研究和講授神學。 His teachers at Erfurt adhered to the nominalist theology of William of Ockham and his disciple, Gabriel Biel, which disparaged the role of reason in arriving at theological truth and placed a greater emphasis on free will and the role of human beings in initiating their salvation than did traditional scholasticism.他的老師在愛爾福特堅持唯名神學奧卡姆的威廉和他的弟子,加布里埃爾比爾,而輕視的作用,原因在到達神學真理,放在一個更加強調自由意志和人類的作用,他們在發起拯救比沒有傳統的經院哲學。 In 1510 - 11 Luther made a trip to Rome on a mission for his order.在1510年至1511年路德進行了訪問,以羅馬為他的命令執行任務。 While in Rome he was shocked by the worldliness of the clergy and disillusioned by their religious indifference.而在羅馬,他被震驚了世俗的神職人員和幻想破滅了他們的宗教漠不關心。 In 1511 he was sent back to Wittenberg, where he completed his studies for the degree of Doctor of Theology in October, 1512. In the same year he received a permanent appointment to the chair of Bible at the university.在1511年,他被送回維滕貝格,在那裡他完成他的學業程度為10月神學博士學位,1512年。同年,他獲得了永久委任為主持聖經在大學。

During the period 1507 - 12 Luther experienced intense spiritual struggles as he sought to work out his own salvation by careful observance of the monastic rule, constant confession, and self - mortification. Probably as a result of the influence of popular piety and the teachings of nominalism Luther viewed God as a wrathful judge who expected sinners to earn their own righteousness. Partly because of his contact with the vicar general of his order, Johann von Staupitz, and his reading of Augustine, but primarily through his study of the Scriptures as he prepared his university lectures, Luther gradually changed his view of justification. His "tower experience," in which he achieved his major theological breakthrough and came to the full realization of the doctrine of justification by faith alone, has normally been dated before 1517.期間1507年至1512年路德experienced激烈spiritual鬥爭作為他努力制訂his own得救by careful遵守of rule的寺院,constant confession,意思- mortification。Probably,結果影響之的popular的孝與teachings唯名論路德認為上帝作為一個憤怒的法官預計罪人誰賺取自己的正義。部分是因為他接觸的副主教他的命令,約翰馮Staupitz,奧古斯丁和他的閱讀,但主要是通過他的研究聖經,因為他準備他的大學演講, 他認為路德逐漸改變的理由。他的“塔的經驗,” 在其中取得突破,其主要神學來充分實現這一學說的理由,由信仰卻是唯一月以前通常是1517。

However, recent scholarship has suggested that Luther was correct when he stated near the end of his life that it did not occur until late 1518. This interpretation maintains that Luther gradually progressed in his understanding of justification from the nominalist view, which gave human beings a role in initiating the process, to the Augustinian view, which attributed the beginning of the process to God's free grace but believed that after conversion human beings could cooperate.然而,最近的學術研究表明,路德是正確的,他說接近結束他的生命,它並沒有出現,直到1518年底。 這種解釋認為,路德在他的理解逐步取得進展的唯名的正當理由的看法,這使人類一在啟動過程中的作用,對奧古斯丁認為,這歸功於該進程的開始,神的恩典,但認為自由轉換後人類可以合作。 The fully developed Lutheran doctrine, which viewed justification as a forensic act in which God declares the sinner righteous because of the vicarious atonement of Jesus Christ without any human merit rather than a lifelong process, was not clearly expressed in Luther's writings until his sermon Of the Threefold Righteousness, published toward the end of 1518. 充分發展路德學說,認為理由作為一個法醫act在上帝宣布的罪人正義因為替代贖罪耶穌基督不必有任何好處,而不是一個終身的過程中,沒有明確表示在路德的著作until他的布道在該三重義,發表對1518年底。

The Reformation began in October, 1517, when Luther protested a major abuse in the sale of indulgences in his Ninety - five Theses. These were translated into German, printed, and circulated throughout Germany, arousing a storm of protest against the sale of indulgences. 10月開始的改革,1517年,當路德抗議虐待的一個主要銷售的寬容在他95 - 5論文。這些被翻譯成德文,印製,分發和整個德國,風暴引起的抗議反對出售贖罪券。 When the sale of indulgences was seriously impaired, the papacy sought to silence Luther.當銷售受到嚴重損害的放縱,教皇尋求沉默路德。 He was first confronted at a meeting of his order held in Heidelberg on April 26, 1518, but he used the Heidelberg disputation to defend his theology and to make new converts. In August of 1518 Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of heresy, even though he had not taught contrary to any clearly defined medieval doctrines. Because Luther was unlikely to receive a fair trial in Rome, his prince, Frederick the Wise, intervened and asked the papacy to send representatives to deal with Luther in Germany.他首先面臨的一次會議上對他的命令在海德堡舉行的1518年4月26日,但他用了海德堡爭論,以捍衛自己的神學,並作出新的轉換。 路德在1518年8月被傳喚到羅馬來回答指控的異端,儘管他沒有告訴任何明確違反中世紀的學說。由於路德是不可能得到公正的審判在羅馬,他的王子弗雷德里克智者,干預,並要求教皇派代表來處理路德在德國。 Meetings with Cardinal Cajetan in October, 1518, and Karl von Miltitz in January, 1519, failed to obtain a recantation from Luther, although he continued to treat the pope and his representatives with respect.會議與樞機cajetan 10月,1518年和卡爾馮米爾蒂茨1月,1519年,未能獲得一個變節從路德,但他繼續治療,教皇和他的代表與尊重。

In July, 1519, at the Leipzig debate Luther questioned the authority of the papacy as well as the infallibility of church councils and insisted on the primacy of Scripture. This led his opponent, Johann Eck, to identify him with the fifteenth century Bohemian heretic, Jan Hus, in an effort to discredit Luther.今年7月,1519年,在萊比錫辯論路德質疑教皇的權威,以及犯錯誤教會理事會和堅持中至高無上的聖經。這使他的對手,約翰埃克,以確定他與15世紀波希米亞邪教,胡斯,努力抹黑路德。 After the debate Luther became considerably more outspoken and expressed his beliefs with increasing certainty.在經過辯論路德成為相當多的直言不諱,並表示他的信念越來越明確。 In 1520 he wrote three pamphlets of great significance.在1520年,他寫了三小冊子具有重要意義。

The first, the Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, called upon the Germans to reform the church and society, since the papacy and church councils had failed to do so.第一,地址,以基督教貴族的德意志民族,呼籲德國人在教會和社會改革,因為教皇和教會議會沒有這樣做。

The second, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, clearly put Luther in the ranks of the heterodox, because it attacked the entire sacramental system of the medieval church. Luther maintained there were only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord's Supper, or at most three, with penance possibly qualifying as a third, rather than seven sacraments. He also denied the doctrines of transubstantiation and the sacrificial Mass.第二,巴比倫籠養的教會,明確提出路德在隊伍中的異端,因為它襲擊了整個聖禮系統中的中世紀教堂。 路德保持只有兩個聖禮,洗禮和聖餐,或最多3 ,與懺悔排位賽可能作為第三方,而不是七個聖禮。 他還否認理論的質變與社馬薩諸塞州

The third pamphlet, The Freedom of the Christian Man, was written for the pope.第三小冊子,基督教的自由人,寫了教皇。 It was nonpolemical and clearly taught the doctrine of justification by faith alone.這是nonpolemical並明確教教義的理由,由單獨的信念。

Even before the publication of these pamphlets a papal bull of excommunication was drawn up to go into effect in January, 1521.即使在出版這些小冊子教皇公牛的絕罰的制定到今年1月生效,1521。 In December, 1520, Luther showed his defiance of papal authority by publicly burning the bull.去年12月,1520年,路德表明他無視教皇的權威,公開焚燒牛市。 Although condemned by the church, Luther still received a hearing before an imperial diet at Worms in April, 1521.雖然譴責了教堂,路德仍然收到聽證會之前,在沃爾姆斯帝國議會在4月,1521。 At the Diet of Worms he was asked to recant his teachings, but he stood firm, thereby defying also the authority of the emperor, who placed him under the imperial ban and ordered that all his books be burned.在國會的蠕蟲要求他放棄信仰他的教誨,但他立場堅定,從而也不畏權威的皇帝,誰把他的帝國下禁令,並命令他的所有書籍被燒毀。 On the way home from Worms, Luther was abducted by friends who took him to the Wartburg castle, where he remained in hiding for nearly a year.在回家的路上由Worms,路德是誰綁架了他朋友的瓦特堡城堡,在那裡他仍然躲藏了近一年。 While at the Wartburg he wrote a series of pamphlets attacking Catholic practices and began his German translation of the Bible.雖然在瓦特堡,他寫了一系列的小冊子,攻擊天主教的做法,開始他的德語翻譯的聖經。 In 1522 Luther returned to Wittenberg to deal with disorders that had broken out in his absence, and he remained there for the rest of his life. 1522年路德在維滕貝格返回處理疾病的爆發在他缺席時,他在那裡停留了其他人的生命。 In 1525 he married Catherine von Bora, a former nun, who bore him six children.在1525年他結婚凱瑟琳馮寶來,前尼姑,誰承擔他的六個孩子。 Luther had an extremely happy and rich family life, but his life was marred by frequent ill health and bitter controversies.路德曾非常高興和豐富的家庭生活,但他的生活被破壞了頻繁的不健康和痛苦的爭論。

Luther often responded to opponents in a polemical fashion, using extremely harsh language.路德回應對手往往在一論戰時尚,使用極為苛刻的語言。 In 1525 when the peasants of south Germany revolted and refused to heed his call to negotiate their grievances peacefully, he attacked them viciously in a pamphlet entitled Against the Murdering Horde of Peasants.在1525年時,德國南部的農民起義,並拒絕聽從他的呼籲和平談判的不滿,他們惡毒攻擊他在一本小冊子,題為對農民的殺人部落。 A controversy with the Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli over the Lord's Supper split the Protestant movement when an effort to resolve the differences at a meeting in Marburg failed in 1529.阿爭議與瑞士的改革者烏爾里希溫格利在聖餐分裂的新教運動時,努力解決分歧的一次會議上未能在1529年在馬爾堡。 Throughout his life Luther maintained an overwhelming work load, writing, teaching, organizing the new church, and providing overall leadership for the German Reformation. Among his more important theological writings were the Smalcald Articles published in 1538, which clearly defined the differences between his theology and that of the Roman Catholic Church.在他的整個生命路德保持了壓倒性的工作負荷,寫作,教學,組織了新教堂,並提供全面的領導為德國的改革。 在他的更重要的神學著作是smalcald文章發表在1538年,其中明確了他的神學之間的差異,而羅馬天主教會。

Luther never viewed himself as the founder of a new church body, however. He devoted his life to reforming the church and restoring the Pauline doctrine of justification to the central position in Christian theology. In 1522, when his followers first began to use his name to identify themselves, he pleaded with them not to do this. 路德從來沒有認為自己是創辦一個新的教會機構,但是。他畢生致力於改革的教堂和恢復寶蓮學說的理由,向中央位置,在基督教神學。 在1522年,當他的追隨者第一次開始使用他的名字自己的身份,他懇求他們不要這麼做。 He wrote: "Let us abolish all party names and call ourselves Christians, after him whose teaching we hold . . . I hold, together with the universal church, the one universal teaching of Christ, who is our only master." He died at Eisleben on February 18, 1546, while on a trip to arbitrate a dispute between two Lutheran nobles. 他說:“讓我們廢除了所有政黨名稱,並呼籲自己的基督徒,他的教學後,我們舉行。。。我認為,與普世教會,一個普遍的教學基督,誰是我們唯一的主人。”他死在艾斯勒本02月18日1546,而在旅途爭議仲裁兩個路德貴族。 He was buried in the Castle Church at Wittenberg.他被安葬在城堡教堂維滕貝格。

Bibliography 書目
J Pelikan and HT Lehmann, eds., Luther's Works; HT Kerr, ed., A Compend of Luther's Theology; P Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther; EG Rupp, The Righteousness of God; U Saarnivaara, Luther Discovers the Gospel; AG Dickens, The German Nation and Martin Luther; J Atkinson, Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism; RH Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther; H Boehmer, Martin Luther: Road to Reformation; RH Fife, The Revolt of Martin Luther; H Grisar, Luther; HG Haile, Luther: An Experiment in Biography; EG Schwiebert, Luther and His Times; JM Todd, Martin Luther: A Biographical Study. J伯利坎和HT萊曼合編。,路德的作品;羥色胺克爾,編輯。,阿提要路德的神學; P斯,在神學馬丁路德;乙二醇魯普,正義的,神; ü薩爾尼瓦拉,路德發現了福音;公司狄更斯,德國民族和馬丁路德; J阿特金森,馬丁路德和新教的誕生;相對濕度班頓,在這裡,我立場:生活的馬丁路德; Ĥ博默,馬丁路德:路改造;生殖健康法伊夫,起義中的馬丁路德; Ĥ格里薩爾,路德;氫化海爾,路德:一個實驗,傳記;乙二醇Schwiebert,路德和他的時代; JM托德,馬丁路德:一個傳記研究。

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