Mercersburg Theology梅塞神學

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Mercersburg Theology is a romantic Reformed theology which during the midnineteenth century stood opposed to the main developments of American religious thought.梅塞神學是一個浪漫的改革神學,其中在midnineteenth世紀站在反對美國的主要發展宗教思想。 It was the work of John Williamson Nevin (1803 - 86), a theologian, and Philip Schaff (1819 - 93), a church historian, who taught at the seminary of the German Reformed Church in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, in the 1840s and 1850s.這是工作的約翰威廉姆森內溫(1803 - 86),一個神學家,和菲利普沙夫(1819 - 93),教會歷史學家,誰任教於神學院的德國歸正教會在梅塞斯堡,賓夕法尼亞州,在19世紀40年代和19世紀50年代。

Nevin had graduated from Presbyterian Princeton, had lectured there briefly, and then taught for a decade at a Presbyterian seminary in Pittsburgh before joining Mercersburg in 1840.內溫長老曾畢業於普林斯頓大學,曾出現短暫演講,然後教了10年在美國匹茲堡長老神在1840年之前加入梅塞。 He detailed the theological pilgrimage which undergirded his move away from a Princeton form of Calvinism in The History and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism, doctrinal standard of the German Reformed, exhibited the Reformation at its best before its modern decline into a rationalistic and mechanical "Puritanism."他詳細介紹了他的神學朝聖的undergirded脫離普林斯頓形式的加爾文主義的歷史和天才的海德堡問答,理論水平的德國改革,展示了改革前,在其最現代化的下降成為一個理性的和機械的“清教“。 Nevin criticized the direction of American Protestantism in The Anxious Bench (1843), a work which attacked revivalism for being too individualistic, too emotional, and too much concerned with the "new measures" (such as the anxious bench for souls under conviction) which drew attention to human foibles and away from the work of Christ and the church.內文批評美國新教的方向在惶惶不安(1843年),一個工作,攻擊復古過於個人主義,太情緒化,過多關注的“新措施”(如惶惶不安的靈魂在定罪),其中提請注意人類弱點,遠離工作的基督和教會。 To remedy these ills Nevin proposed a return to classic Reformed convictions about Christ and his work.為了糾正這些弊端內溫提出了改革的信念回到經典的關於基督和他的工作。

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The Mystical Presence (1846) argued that the views of the Reformers, especially Calvin, provided a means to overcome superficial and subjectivistic Protestantism.神秘的存在(1846)認為,改革者的意見,特別是卡爾文,提供了一個方法,以克服主觀膚淺和新教。 It began with the dramatic assertion that "Christianity is grounded in the living union of the believer with the person of Christ; and this great fact is emphatically concentrated in the mystery of the Lord's Supper."它始於戲劇性的說法,即“基督教是植根於生活聯盟的信徒與基督的人,其實是和這個偉大的重點集中在神秘的主的晚餐。” Against the view of Communion as a mere memorial, Nevin presented a case for the "real spiritual presence."對共融的觀點只是作為一個紀念館,內文介紹了案件的“真正的精神風貌。” God, he taught, comes to the church objectively, though not materially, in the Lord's Supper. The Supper in turn should become the focus of worship, and its presentation of the incarnate Christ the center of theology.上帝,他教,來到教堂的客觀,雖然沒有重大,在主的晚餐。 晚飯又應成為重點的崇拜,其介紹的化身基督中心的神學。

When Philip Schaff came to Mercersburg in 1844 from the University of Berlin, he brought along an appreciation for Germany's new idealistic philosophy and for its pietistic church renewal as well.當菲利普沙夫來到梅塞在1844年從柏林大學,他帶來了一個讚賞德國新唯心主義哲學和教會的虔誠,以及重建。 His early work at Mercersburg urged Protestants toward a fuller appreciation of the Christian past.他的早期工作梅塞呼籲新教徒走向更全面的理解基督教的過去。 In The Principle of Protestantism (1844) he suggested, for example, that the Reformation continued the best of medieval Catholicism.在基督教的原則(1844年),他建議,例如,最好的改革繼續中世紀天主教。 And he looked forward to the day when Reformed, Lutheran, and even eventually Catholic believers could join in Christian union.他期待著有一天改革,路德會,天主教的信徒,甚至最終可能加入基督教工會。 Such views led to charges of heresy, from which Schaff cleared himself only with difficulty.這種觀點導致了收費的異端,從中沙夫只清除自己的困難。

The influence of Nevin and Schaff was slight in the 1840s and 1850s. American Protestants were ill at ease with immigrants and with anyone who spoke a good word for any aspect of Roman Catholicism. They were wholeheartedly given to revivalism.內溫的影響是輕微和沙夫在19世紀40年代和19世紀50年代。美國新教徒不安與移民和誰說話的人一個很好的字,任何方面的羅馬天主教。給予他們全心全意復興。 They were busy making plans for interdenominational cooperation and did not look kindly on Mercersburg's new reading of history.他們忙於計劃教派間的合作,並沒有看請於梅塞的新的閱讀的歷史。 And America's dominant Protestant philosophy, commonsense realism, had little room for the developmental ideas of Nevin and Schaff.而美國的新教佔主導地位的哲學,常識的現實主義,幾乎沒有空間的發展思路和沙夫的內溫。

The two Mercersburg stalwarts were able to work closely together for barely a decade.這兩個梅塞中堅分子能緊密合作,以不到10年。 Nevin, after editing the Mercersburg Review from 1849 to 1853, retired because of illness and disillusionment.內文後,編輯梅塞審查1849年至1853年,退休是因為生病和失望。 Schaff left Mercersburg in 1863 for teaching posts at Andover and Union seminaries, where he participated actively in the general evangelical life of America.沙夫在1863年離開了梅塞擔任教師在多佛和聯盟神學院,在那裡他積極參加了一般福音生活的美。 Nonetheless, the works of the Mercersburg men remain a guide - post for Christians who share their convictions: that the person of Christ is the key to Christianity; that the Lord's Supper, understood in a classic Reformed sense, is the secret to the ongoing life of the church; and that study of the church's past provides the best perspective for bringing its strength to bear on the present.然而,工程的梅塞男子仍然是指導-後基督徒誰分享他們的信念: 該人的基督的關鍵是基督教,這是主的晚餐,理解在一個典型的改革意識,是秘密進行中的生活在教堂,並認為研究教會的過去提供了最好的角度為使自己的力量,承擔對本。

Mark A Noll標誌著諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
JH Nichols, Romanticism in American Theology: Nevin and Schaff at Mercersburg and (ed.) The Mercersburg Theology. JH尼科爾斯,浪漫主義在美國神學:內文和沙夫在梅塞和(編)的梅塞神學。

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