Monothelitism Monothelitism

General Information 一般信息

Monothelitism was a 7th - century Byzantine doctrine that accepted the teaching of two natures in Jesus Christ, as defined (451) at the Council of Chalcedon, but declared that he had only one will or mode of activity (energeia). The Monothelitic formula was adopted (624) by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius as a compromise that might be acceptable to the Monophysites (Monophysitism) of Egypt and Syria. Monothelitism是7 -世紀拜占庭式的理論,接受了教學的兩個性質在耶穌基督的定義,(451)在安理會的chalcedon,但宣稱,他將只有一個或模式的活動(energeia)。公式的Monothelitic通過(624)由拜占庭皇帝希拉克略是一個讓步,可能會接受該monophysites(基督一)埃及和敘利亞。 Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, championed the doctrine and won the support of the Egyptian and Armenian Monophysites.謝爾蓋,君士坦丁堡牧首,倡導的原則,贏得了支持埃及和亞美尼亞基督一性。

The Christological controversies of an earlier age soon reappeared, however.在基督爭議的是早期很快又出現了,但是。 Sergius sought the support of Pope Honorius I, who approved the Monothelitic formula, specifically rejecting the Chalcedonian teaching of "two wills."謝爾蓋尋求支持教宗何諾我,誰批准了Monothelitic公式,特別拒絕迦克教學“兩個遺囑。” Monothelitism was condemned by Honorius's successors and by the Third Council of Constantinople (680). Monothelitism譴責了諾的繼任者,由第三屆理事會君士坦丁堡(680)。 Because the writings of Honorius had contributed to the spread of this teaching, he also was condemned, although he was not accused of the formal teaching of heresy.由於著作的何諾傳播作出了貢獻,這種教學,他也遭到了譴責,雖然他沒有被控正式教學的異端。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安

Monothelitism Monothelitism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Monothelitism was a heresy especially prevalent in the Eastern church in the seventh century which said that as Christ had but one nature (monophysitism) so he had but one will (Greek monos, "alone"; thelein, "to will"). Emperor Heraclius attempted to reconcile the monophysite bishops, who held that the human and divine natures in Christ were fused together to form a third, by offering in his ecthesis (statement of faith) in 638 the view that Christ worked through a divine - human energy. Monothelitism是異端邪說,尤其是流行在東部教會在第七世紀的基督曾表示,由於只有一個性質(一元神),所以他只上過一會(希臘莫諾,“獨”; thelein,“到會”)。皇帝希拉克略試圖調和基督一主教,誰認為,人類和神聖的性質,在基督的融合在一起,形成第三,通過提供在其ecthesis(報表的信仰)在638認為,通過神聖的基督的工作-人的能量。 This compromise was at first accepted by Constantinople and Rome, but Sophronius soon to be Bishop of Jerusalem, organized the orthodox opposition to monothelitism.這一妥協是在第一次接受了君士坦丁堡和羅馬,但Sophronius即將耶路撒冷主教,組織了反對正統monothelitism。 A fine defense of the person of Christ as one in two natures with two wills was given by John of Damascus.阿細人的辯護基督作為一個在兩個性質給出兩個遺囑由約翰大馬士革。 The Council of Chalcedon had declared that "Christ has two natures."安理會的chalcedon宣布,“基督有兩個性質。” This was now amended by the Council of Constantinople, which declared that Christ had two wills, his human will being subject to his divine will.這是現在修訂了理事會君士坦丁堡,宣布基督有兩個遺囑,他的人會受到他的神聖意志。

WN Kerr十五分克爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
John of Damascus, Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, III; A Harnack, History of Dogma, IV; AA Luce, Monophysitism; HP Liddon, The Divinity of Our Lord.約翰大馬士革博覽會的東正教信仰,三;阿哈納克,歷史的教條,四,機管局盧斯,基督一性;惠普利敦,在神我們的主。

Monothelitism and Monothelites Monothelitism和Monothelites

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai, but the eta is more naturally transliterated into late Latin by i.) A heresy of the seventh century, condemned in the Sixth General Council. (有時書面MONOTHELETES,從monotheletai,但更自然譯音埃塔進入後期拉丁語由島)是異端邪說的公元7世紀,譴責在第六總理事會。 It was essentially a modification of Monophysitism, propagated within the Catholic Church in order to conciliate the Monophysites, in hopes of reunion.它基本上是修改基督一性,傳播天主教教會內,以調解該monophysites,在希望的團聚。


The Monophysites were habitually represented by their Catholic opponents as denying all reality to the human nature of Christ after the union.該monophysites被習慣性地代表他們的天主教對手否認所有的現實對人性的基督後的工會。 This was perhaps a logical deduction from some of their language, but it was far from being the real teaching of their chief doctors.這也許是一個合乎邏輯的推論從他們的一些語言,但還遠遠沒有真正教他們主要的醫生。

Yet at least it is certain that they made the unity of Christ (on which they insisted against real and supposed Nestorianizers) imply only one principle of intention and will, and only one kind of activity or operation (energeia). Personality seemed to them to be manifested in will and action; and they thought a single personality must involve a single will and a single category of action. The Person of Christ, being divino-human, must therefore involve one divino-human will and one divino-human activity (see EUTYCHIANISM; MONOPHYSITES AND MONOPHYSITISM).但至少可以肯定的是他們的團結基督(上,他們堅持對現實和應該Nestorianizers)暗示只有一個原則的意圖和意志,只有一種活動或操作(energeia)。人格似乎他們體現在意志和行動,他們認為一個人必須有一個統一的意志和單一類的行動。基督的人,被迪維努,人力,因此必須涉及一個迪維努,人的意志和一迪維努,人類活動(見EUTYCHIANISM; monophysites和東正教基督一)。

A. The two Wills.答:兩個遺囑。

The Catholic doctrine is simple, at all events in its main lines.天主教教義是簡單的,在所有的事件在其主要線路。 The faculty of willing is an integral part of human nature: therefore, our Lord had a human will, since He took a perfect human nature.該學院的一個組成部分願意是人性:因此,我們的主有一個人的意志,因為他參加了一個完美的人性。 His Divine will on the other hand is numerically one with that of the Father and the Holy Ghost.他的神的意志,另一方面是同一個數值,該父親和聖靈。 It is therefore necessary to acknowledge two wills in Christ.因此,必須承認兩個遺囑在基督。

But if the word will is taken to mean not the faculty but the decision taken by the will (the will willed, not the will willing), then it is true that the two wills always acted in harmony: there were two wills willing and two acts, but one object, one will willed; in the phrase of St. Maximus, there were duo thelemata though mia gnome.但是,如果將這個詞的意思是不是教師,但有關決定採取的將(意志的意志,而不是將願意),那麼這是事實,這兩個意志做事總是和諧:有兩個遺囑願意和2行為,但一個對象,人會意志,在這句話的聖鮃,雖然有兩名thelemata米亞gnome的。 The word will is also used to mean not a decision of the will, but a mere velleity or wish, voluntas ut natura (thelesis) as opposed to voluntas ut ratio (boulesis).將這個詞也用來指不是一個決策的意願,但只有velleity或希望,塔斯UT斯達康的Natura(thelesis)相對於塔斯UT斯達康比(boulesis)。 These are but two movements of the same faculty; both exist in Christ without any imperfection, and the natural movement of His human will is perfectly subject to its rational or free movement.這些只不過是兩個運動相同的教職員工都存在於基督沒有任何缺陷,與自然的運動,他的人的意志,是完全符合其理性或自由流動。 Lastly, the sensitive appetite is also sometimes entitled will.最後,敏感的食慾有時也有權將。 It is an integral part of human nature, and therefore exists in the perfect human nature of Jesus Christ, but without any of the imperfection induced by original or actual sin: He can have no passions (in that sense of the word which implies a revolt against the reason), no concupiscence, no "will of the flesh".這是一個不可分割的組成部分人性,因此存在於完美的人性的耶穌基督,但沒有任何缺陷引起的正本或實際罪:他可以沒有激情(在這個意義上的字,意味著反抗反對的原因),沒有 concupiscence,沒有“意志的肉”。 Therefore this "lower will" is to be denied in Christ, in so far as it is called a will, because it resists the rational will (it was in this sense that Honorius was said by John IV to have denied that Christ had a lower will); but it is to be asserted in Him so far as it is called will, because it obeys the rational will, and so is voluntas per participationem: in fact in this latter sense the sensual appetite is less improperly called will in Christ than in us, for quo perfectior est volens, eo magis sensualitas in eo de voluntate habet.因此,這種“低意願”是要否認基督,只要它被稱為會,因為它會抗拒理性的(這是在這個意義上說是由約翰何諾四有否認基督較低會),但不能斷言它是迄今為止在他所謂的,因為它是會,因為它服從理性的意志,因此是塔斯每participationem:實際上在這後一種意義上的感官胃口不太所謂不當會比在基督在我們,因為現狀perfectior預測沃倫斯,行政主任馬吉斯sensualitas在埃奧德voluntate habet。 But the strict Sense of the word will (votuntas, thelema) is always the rational will, the free will. It is therefore correct to say that in Christ there are but two wills: the Divine will, which is the Divine nature, and the human rational will, which always acts in harmony with and in free subjection to the Divine will.但嚴格意義上的字會(votuntas,thelema)始終是理性的意志,自由意志。因此,正確地說,在基督裡,但有兩個遺囑:神的意志,這是神聖的性質,以及人類理性的意志,它總是與行為和諧和自由服從神的意志。 The denial of more than one will in Christ by the heretics necessarily involved the incompleteness of His human nature.否定一個以上將在基督的異端必然涉及的不完備,他的人性。 They confounded the will as faculty with the decision of the faculty.他們將作為教師的困惑與決策的教師。 They argued that two wills must mean contrary wills, which shows that they could not conceive of two distinct faculties having the same object.他們認為,兩個遺囑必須表示遺囑相反,這表明他們無法想像兩個不同的學系具有相同的對象。 Further, they saw rightly that the Divine will is the ultimate governing principle, to hegemonikon, but a free human will acting under its leadership seemed to them to be otiose.此外,他們看到正確地指出,神的意志是最終的主導原則,以hegemonikon,而是一個自由人的意志行事的領導下似乎他們是多餘的。 Yet this omission prevents our Lord's actions from being free, from being human actions, from being meritorious, indeed makes His human nature nothing but an irrational, irresponsible instrument of the Divinity - a machine, of which the Divinity is the motive power.然而,這遺漏防止我們的主的行動被自由,從人的行動,從功臣,確實使他的人性,不過是一種非理性的,不負責任的文件,有關的神-一台機器,其中的神,是動力。 To Severus our Lord's knowledge was similarly of one kind - He had only Divine knowledge and no human cognitive faculty.為了塞維魯我們的主的知識是同樣的一種-他只有神聖的知識,沒有人的認知能力。 Such thoroughgoing conclusions were not contemplated by the inventors of Monothelitism, and Sergius merely denied two wills in order to assert that there was no repugnance in Christ's human nature to the promptings of the Divine, and he certainly did not see the consequences of his own disastrous teaching.這種徹底的結論是沒有預想到的發明家的Monothelitism,和謝爾蓋只是否認兩個遺囑,以斷言,沒有任何的反感,在基督的人性的激勵了神的,他肯定沒有看到這樣的後果他自己的災難性教學。

B. The two operations二,兩個操作

Operation or energy, activity (energeia, operatio), is parallel to will, in that there is but one activity of God, ad extra, common to all the three Persons; whereas there are two operations of Christ, on account of His two natures.操作或能源,活動(energeia,手術),平行於會,在這只有一個活動的上帝,廣告多,是所有的3人;而有兩項行動中,基督,就交代他的兩個性質。 The word energeia is not here employed in the Aristotelean sense (actus, as opposed to potentia, dynamis), for this would be practically identical with esse (existentia), and it is an open question among Catholic theologians whether there is one esse in Christ or two.這個詞energeia不在這裡受僱於亞里士多德意義(行為致,而不是勢的,潛能),因為這是幾乎相同的埃塞(existentia),它是一個開放的問題,天主教神學家之間是否有一埃塞在基督或2。 Nor does energeia here mean simply the action (as Vasquez, followed by de Lugo and others, wrongly held) but the faculty of action, including the act of the faculty.這裡的意思也不energeia簡單的動作(如巴斯克斯,其次是德盧戈和其他人,錯誤地舉行),但教師的行動,包括對教師的行為。 Petavius has no difficulty in refuting Vasquez, by referring to the writers of the seventh century; but he himself speaks of duo genera operationum as equivalent to duo operationes, which introduces an unfortunate confusion between energeia and praxeis or energemata, that is between faculty of action and the multiple actions produced by the faculty. Petavius沒有困難巴斯克斯在反駁,指的是由作家七世紀,但他自己講的兩人屬operationum等同二人operationes,它引入了一個不幸的混亂和praxeis之間energeia或energemata,即教師之間的行動和多行動所產生的教員。 This confusion of terms is frequent in modern theologians, and occurs in the ancients, eg St. Sophronius.這種混亂的術語是經常在現代神學家,並且發生在古人,如聖Sophronius。 The actions of God are innumerable in Creation and Providence, but His energeia is one, for He has one nature of the three Persons.上帝的行動是在創作和普羅維登斯無數,但他的energeia是其中之一,因為他有一個本質的3人。 The various actions of the incarnate Son proceed from two distinct and unconfused energeiai, because He has two natures.的各種行動的化身兒子要從兩個不同的和unconfused energeiai,因為他有兩個性質。 All are the actions of one subject (agent or principium quod), but are either divine or human according to the nature (principium quo) from which they are elicited.所有的行動都是一個主體(代理人或原理狴),但不是神或人類根據大自然(原理不變)由它們所引起。 The Monophysites were therefore quite right in saying that all the actions, human and divine, of the incarnate Son are to be referred to one agent, who is the God-man; but they were wrong in inferring that consequently His actions, both the human and the Divine, must all be called "theandric" or "divino-human", and must proceed from a single divino-human energeia.該monophysites因此說得很對,所有的行動,人力和神聖的,兒子的化身,是被稱為一個代理,誰是神人,但他們是錯誤的推斷,因此才在他的行為,無論是人和神聖的,都必須被稱為“theandric”或“迪維努-人”,必須要從單一迪維努人與人energeia。 St. Sophronius, and after him St.聖Sophronius,經過他的聖 Maximus and St. John Damascene, showed that the two energeia produce three classes of actions, since actions are complex, and some are therefore mingled of the human and the divine.大菱鮃和聖約翰大馬士革,表明這兩個energeia生產三類行動,因為行動是複雜的,有些是相互交織的,因此人類與神聖。

(1) There are Divine actions exercised by God the Son in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost (eg the creation of souls or the conservation of the universe) in which His human nature bears no part whatever, and these cannot be called divino-human, for they are purely Divine. (一)有神聖的行動,行使上帝的兒子共同與父親和聖靈(如創造的靈魂或保護的宇宙)在其中他的人自然承擔任何一部分的任何,這些不能稱之為迪維努人與人,因為他們是純粹的神聖。 It is true that it is correct to say that a child ruled the universe (by the communicatio idiomatum), but this is a matter of words, and is an accidental, not a formal predication - He who became a child ruled the universe as God, not as a child, and by an activity that is wholly Divine, not divino-human.誠然,這是正確地說,一個孩子統治宇宙(由交際idiomatum),但是這是一個問題的話,是偶然的,不是一個正式的預測-他成了一個孩子誰統治宇宙神,而不是作為一個孩子,由一個神聖的活動,是完全不迪維努-人類。

(2) There are other Divine actions which the Word Incarnate exercised in and through His human nature, as to raise the dead by a word, to heal the sick by a touch. (二)有其他行動,神聖的化身字,並通過行使他的人性,以提高打死一個字,醫治病人的觸摸。 Here the Divine action is distinguished from the human actions of touching or speaking, though it uses them, but through this close connexion the word theandric is not out of place for the whole complex act, while the Divine action as exercised through the human may be called formally theandric, or divino-human.在這裡,神聖的行動,是區別於人類行為的觸摸或者說,雖然它使用他們,而是通過這種密切的聯接詞theandric是並不過分的地方整個複雜的行為,而行動,行使神聖的人可能會通過所謂正式theandric,或迪維努-人類。

(3) Again, there are purely human actions of Christ, such as walking or eating, but these are due to the free human will, acting in response to a motion of the Divine will. (3)同樣,純粹的人的行動有基督,如走路或吃東西,但這些都是由於自由人的意志行事響應議案的神聖意志。 These are elicited from a human potentia, but under the direction of the Divine.這些引起了一個人勢的,但在神聖的方向。 Therefore they are also called theandric, but in a different sense - they are materially theandric, humano-divine.因此,他們也被稱為theandric,但在不同的意義-它們有重大theandric,humano神的。 We have seen therefore that to some of our Lord's actions the word theandric cannot be applied at all; to some it can be applied in one sense, to others in a different sense.因此,我們已經看到,為了我們的一些主的行動字theandric不能適用於所有;一些可以應用在某種意義上,對他人在不同的意義。 The Lateran Council of 649 anathematized the expression una deivirilis operatio, mia theandrike energeia, by which all the actions divine and human are performed.拉特蘭會詛咒649烏納deivirilis手術的表達,米婭theandrike energeia,其中所有神和人的行動是執行。 It is unfortunate that the respect felt for the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita has prevented theologians from proscribing the expression deivirilis operatio altogether.不幸的是,尊重感受到的著作偽狄奧尼Areopagita阻止神學從禁制完全表達deivirilis手術。 It has been shown above that it is correct to speak of deiviriles actus or actiones or energemata.它已被證明是正確的,它上面講的deiviriles行為致或actiones或energemata。 The kaine theandrike energeia, of Pseudo-Dionysius was defended by Sophronius and Maximus as referring to the Divine energeia when producing the mixed (formally theandric) acts; theandric thus becomes a correct epithet of the Divine operation under certain circumstances, and that is all.在凱恩theandrike energeia,偽狄奧尼修斯是辯護Sophronius和鮃,它是指當神聖的energeia生產混合(正式theandric)行為; theandric從而成為一個正確的神聖稱號的運作在某些情況下,這是所有。

Though the Monophysites in general spoke of "one theandric operation", yet a speech of St. Martin at the Lateran Council tells us that a certain Colluthus would not go even so far as this, for he feared lest "theandric" might leave some operation to the human nature; he preferred the word thekoprepes, Deo decibilis (Mansi, X, 982).雖然該monophysites一般所說的“一theandric行動”,但講話的聖馬丁在拉特蘭會告訴我們,一定Colluthus不會去,即使這樣,在這方面,因為他擔心,以免“theandric”可能給一些操作對人性,他更喜歡用thekoprepes,迪奧decibilis(曼西,第十,982)。 The denial of two operations, even more than the denial of two wills, makes the human nature of Christ an inanimate instrument of the Divine will.否定的兩次手術,甚至比剝奪兩個遺囑,使得人性的一個沒有生命的工具基督的神聖意志。 St. Thomas points out that though an instrument participates in the action of the agent who uses it, yet even an inanimate instrument has an activity of its own; much more the rational human nature of Christ has an operation of its own under the higher motion it receives from the divinity.聖托馬斯指出,雖然文書參與行動的代理誰使用它,但即使是一個沒有生命的儀器具有1活性its自己的,很多人越多rational human nature的基督有其自身的運作下higher motion它接收從神性。 But by means of this higher motion, the two natures act in concert, according to the famous words of St. Leo's Tome: "Agit enim utraque forma cum alterius communione quod proprium est; Verbo scilicet operante quod Verbi est, et carne exsequente quod carnis est. Unum horum coruscat miraculis, aliud succumbit injuriis" (Ep. 28, 4).但是,這意味著更高的議案,兩個性質採取一致行動,根據著名詞聖利奧的湯姆:“地理信息技術應用enim utraque預計暨alterius communione狴proprium預測;韋爾博scilicet operante狴Verbi預測,等卡恩exsequente狴carnis建於教科文組織貨幣單位霍魯姆coruscat miraculis,aliud succumbit injuriis“(插曲28日,4)。 These words were quoted by Cyrus, Sergius, Sophronius, Honorius, Maximus, etc., and played a large part in the controversy.這些話是引述了居魯士,謝爾蓋,Sophronius,諾,鮃等,發揮了很大一部分的爭議。 This intercommunication of the two operations follows from the Catholic doctrine of the perichoresis, circuminsessio, of the two unconfused and inseparable natures, as again St. Leo: "Exprimit quidem sub distinctis actionibus veritatem suam utraque natura, sed neutra se ab alterius connexione disjungit" (Serm. liv, 1). St.這兩項行動的通話如下從天主教教義的perichoresis,circuminsessio,兩個unconfused和不可分割的性質,也再次聖利奧:“Exprimit quidem分distinctis actionibus veritatem蘇阿姆utraque的Natura,桑達紐特勒本身從頭alterius connexione disjungit” (Serm.麗芙,1)。街 Sophronius (Mansi, XI, 480 sqq.) and St. Maximus (Ep. 19) expressed this truth at the very outset of the controversy as well as later; and it is insisted upon by St. John Damascene. Sophronius(曼西,第十一,480時12 sqq。)和聖鮃(插曲19)對這個真理在一開始的爭議以及更高版本;,這是堅持由聖約翰大馬士革。 St. Thomas (III, Q. xix, a. 1) well explains it: "Motum participat operationem moventis, et movens utitur operatione moti, et sic utrumque agit cum communicatione alterius".聖托馬斯(三,問:十九,甲一)較好地解釋的那樣:“莫特姆participat operationem moventis,等movens utitur operatione莫蒂,碳化矽等地理信息技術應用暨communicatione alterius utrumque”。 Krüger and others have doubted whether it could be said that the question of two operations was already decided (as Loofs held), in Justinian's time.克魯格等人懷疑它是否可以說,這個問題的兩個行動已經決定(如盧夫斯舉行),在查士丁尼的時間。 But it seems that St. Leo's words, yet earlier, were clear enough.但似乎聖利奧的話,還早,是十分清楚。 The writings of Severus of Antioch assumed that his Catholic opponents would uphold two operations, and an obscure monk in the sixth century, Eustathius (De duabus naturis, PG, LXXXVI, 909) accepts the expression.塞維魯的著作,他的假設安提天主教對手將堅持兩個操作,一個不起眼的和尚在第六世紀,歐斯塔修斯(德duabus naturis,前列腺素,捌拾,909)接受的表達。 Many of the numerous citations from the Greek and Latin Fathers adduced at the Lateran Council and on other occasions are inconclusive, but some of them are clear enough.許多從眾多引用希臘和拉丁教父援引在拉特蘭會議和其他場合都沒有結果,但其中一些相當清楚。 Really learned theologians like Sophronius and Maximus were not at a loss, though Cyrus and Honorius were puzzled.確實學到神學家一樣Sophronius和鮃沒有出現虧損,但居魯士和諾感到很奇怪。 The Patriarch Eulogius of Alexandria (580-607) had written against those who taught one will, but his work was unknown to Cyrus and Sergius.宗主教Eulogius亞歷山大(580-607)的書面反對那些誰教一會,但他的工作是陌生的賽勒斯和謝爾蓋。


The origin of the Monothelite controversy is thus related by Sergius in his letter to Pope Honorius.在原產地的Monothelite因此有關爭議由謝爾蓋教皇在他的信諾。 When the Emperor Heraclius in the course of the war which he began about 619, came to Theodosiopolis (Erzeroum) in Armenia (about 622), a Monophysite named Paul, a leader of the Acephali, made a speech before him in favour of his heresy.當皇帝希拉克略在戰爭過程中,他開始約619,來到Theodosiopolis(埃爾澤魯姆)在亞美尼亞(約622),一名叫保羅基督一,領導者的Acephali,發表講話前,他贊成他的異端邪說。 The emperor refuted him with theological arguments, and incidentally made use of the expression "one operation" of Christ.皇帝與神學駁斥他的論點,並順帶表達了使用“一個操作”基督。 Later on (about 626) he inquired of Cyrus, Bishop of Phasis and metropolitan of the Lazi, whether his words were correct.後來(約626),他詢問了居魯士,主教症狀困擾評估和大都市的拉孜,不論他的話是正確的。 Cyrus was uncertain, and by the emperor's order wrote to Sergius the Patriarch of Constantinople, whom Heraclius greatly trusted, for advice.賽勒斯是不確定的,由皇帝的命令說,以謝爾蓋君士坦丁堡牧首,其中赫拉克留大大信任,徵求意見。 Sergius in reply sent him a letter said to have been written by Mennas of Constantinople to Pope Vigilius and approved by the latter, in which several authorities were cited for one operation and one will.謝爾蓋在回答寄給他的信中說已經書面Mennas君士坦丁堡,教皇Vigilius並批准了後者,其中列舉了幾個部門的運作,並為一人會。 This letter was afterwards declared to be a forgery and was admitted to be such at the Sixth General Council.這封信後來被宣布為是偽造的,並承認是這樣的第六次總理事會。 Nothing more occurred, according to Sergius, until in June, 631, Cyrus was promoted by the emperor to the See of Alexandria.沒有什麼更多的發生,根據謝爾蓋,直到6月,631,賽勒斯晉升由皇帝到見亞歷山大。 The whole of Egypt was then Monophysite, and it was constantly threatened by the Saracens. Heraclius was doubtless very anxious to unite all to the Catholic Church, for the country was greatly weakened by the dissensions of the heretics among themselves, and by their bitterness against the official religion.整個埃及當時monophysite,並不斷威脅是由撒拉遜人。赫拉克留無疑是非常渴望團結一切的天主教教會,為國家大大削弱了糾紛的異端之間,以及他們對苦味官方宗教。 Former emperors had made efforts for reunion, but in the fifth century the Henoticon of Zeno had been condemned by the popes yet had not satisfied all the heretics, and in the sixth century the condemnation of the Three Chapters had nearly caused a schism between East and West without in the least placating the Monophysites. Cyrus was for the moment more successful.前皇帝作出了努力團聚,但在第五世紀Henoticon的芝諾已經譴責了教皇還不能滿足所有的異教徒,並在第六世紀譴責了三章造成分裂了近東,西沒有在最不安撫該monophysites。賽勒斯是暫時的成功。 Imagining, no doubt, as all Catholics imagined, that Monophysitism involved the assertion that the human nature of Christ was a nonentity after the Union, he was delighted at the acceptance by the Monophysites of a series of nine Capitula, in which the Chalcedonian "in two natures" is asserted, the "one composite hypostasis", and physike kai kath hypostasin enosis, together with the adverbs asygchytos, atreptos, analloiotos. St.想像,毫無疑問,因為所有的天主教徒想像,即基督一所涉及的斷言,即人性的基督是一個無足輕重的聯盟後,他很高興在接受由該monophysites一個系列9投降,其中迦克“在兩個性質“的斷言,”一個複合hypostasis“,並physike偕凱思hypostasin希塞統一,加上副詞asygchytos,atreptos,analloiotos。街 Cyril, the great doctor of the Monophysites, is cited; and all is satisfactory until in the seventh proposition our Lord is spoken of as "working His Divine and His human works by one theandric operation, according to the divine Dionysius".西里爾,偉大的醫生的基督一性,是引用,一切是令人滿意的,直到第七個命題是我們的主說的是“神聖的工作,他和他的人的作品之一theandric操作,根據神聖的狄奧尼修斯”。 This famous expression of the Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite is taken by modern critics to show that he wrote under Monophysite influences. But Cyrus believed it to be an orthodox expression, used by Mennas, and approved by Pope Vigilius.這個著名的表達了偽狄奧尼修斯的Areopagite是由現代的批評,以證明他說基督一性的影響下。賽勒斯認為它不過是一個正統的表達,使用Mennas,並批准由教皇Vigilius。 He was triumphant therefore at the reunion to the Church of a large number of Theodosian Monophysites, so that, as Sergius phrases it, all the people of Alexandria and nearly all Egypt, the Thebaid, and Libya had become of one voice, and whereas formerly they would not hear even the name of St. Leo and of the Council of Chalcedon, now they acclaimed them with a loud voice in the holy mysteries.因此,在他勝利的團聚,教會了大量Theodosian基督一性,所以,它作為謝爾蓋短語,所有的人幾乎所有的亞歷山大和埃及,Thebaid,利比亞已經成為一個聲音,而原他們不會聽的名字,甚至聖里奧和安理會的chalcedon,現在他們稱讚他們,大聲在神聖的奧秘。 But the Monophysites saw more clearly, and Anastasius of Mount Sinai tells us that they boasted "they had not communicated with Chalcedon, but Chalcedon with them, by acknowledging one nature of Christ through one operation".但該monophysites更清楚地看到,與阿納斯塔修斯的西奈山告訴我們,他們吹噓“他們沒有溝通卡爾西,但卡爾西與他們所承認一個自然的基督通過一個行動”。

St. Sophronius, a much venerated monk of Palestine, soon to become Patriarch of Jerusalem, was in Alexandria at this time.聖Sophronius,一個和尚非常崇敬的巴勒斯坦,不久將成為主教的耶路撒冷,在亞歷山大在這個時候。 He strongly objected to the expression "one operation", and unconvinced by Cyrus's defence of it, he went to Constantinople, and urged on Sergius, upon whose advice the expression had been used, that the seventh capitulum must be withdrawn.他強烈反對的表達“一個行動”,由賽勒斯和信服的辯護吧,他到君士坦丁堡,並敦促謝爾蓋,表達其意見後,已被運用,使第七小頭必須撤回。 Sergius thought this too hard, as it would destroy the union so gloriously effected; but he was so far impressed that he wrote to Cyrus that it would be well for the future to drop both expressions "one operation" and "two operations", and he thought it necessary to refer the whole question to the pope.謝爾蓋認為這太難了,因為這將破壞工會等光榮影響,但他至今印象深刻,他寫信給賽勒斯,這將是未來的良好前景下降兩個表達式“一個行動”和“兩個行動”,並他認為有必要把整個問題的教皇。 (So far his own story.) This last proceeding must warn us not to judge Sergius too harshly. (到目前為止,他自己的故事。)這最後的程序必須提醒我們不要過於嚴厲的法官謝爾蓋。 It may be invention that he was born of Monophysite parents (so Anastasius of Sinai); at all events he was an opponent of the Monophysites, and he based his defence of "one operation" on the citations of Fathers in the spurious letter of his orthodox predecessor Mennas, which he believed to have had the approval of Pope Vigilius.這可能是他發明的基督一出生父母(所以阿納斯塔修斯的西奈半島),在所有比賽中,他是對手的基督一性說,他根據他的辯護“一行動”的引用父親在信中他的雜散正統的前任Mennas,他相信已批准了教皇Vigilius。 He was a politician who evidently knew little theology.他是一位政治家,誰知道一點顯然神學。 But he had more to answer for than he admits.但他有更多的回答比他承認。 Cyrus had not really been doubtful at first. His letter to Sergius with great politeness explains that he had said the emperor was wrong, and had quoted the famous words of St. Leo's Tome to Flavian: "Agit utraque natura cum alterius communione quod proprium est" as plainly defining two distinct but inseparable operations; Sergius was responsible for leading him into error by sending him the letter of Mennas.賽勒斯並沒有真正被懷疑在第一。謝爾蓋的信非常禮貌的解釋說,他曾表示,皇帝是錯誤的,並引用了這句名言聖利奧的湯姆向弗拉維安:“地理信息技術應用utraque的Natura暨alterius communione狴proprium預測“作為兩個不同的定義,但顯然離不開業務;謝爾蓋是負責領導他錯了,派他的信Mennas。 Further, St. Maximus tells us that Sergius had written to Theodore of Pharan asking his opinion; Theodore agreed.此外,聖Maximus的告訴我們,謝爾蓋曾寫信給西奧多Pharan詢問他的意見;西奧多表示同意。 (It is probable that Stephen of Dora was mistaken in making Theodore a Monothelite before Sergius.) He also worked upon the Severian Paul the one-eyed, the same with whom Heraclius had disputed. (很可能是斯蒂芬的多拉是錯誤的決策之前,謝爾蓋西奧多1 Monothelite。)他還曾呼籲塞韋里安保羅一個眼睛,與他們同赫拉克留了爭議。 He had requested George Arsas, a Monophysite follower of Paul the Black of Antioch, to furnish him with authorities for the "one operation", saying in his letter that he was ready to make a union on this basis.他要求喬治Arsas,一個跟隨保羅的基督一黑的安提阿,向他提供的有關當局就“一個行動”,在信中說,他準備讓工會在此基礎上。 The Alexandrian St. John the Almsgiver (609 or 619) had taken this letter from Arsas with his own hand, and was only prevented by the irruption of the Saracens (619) from using it to obtain the deposition of Sergius.在亞歷山大的聖約翰的慈善家(609或619)已採取此信Arsas用自己的手,才阻止了突的撒拉遜人(619)使用它,以獲取沉積謝爾蓋。

In the letter to Honorius, Sergius unwittingly develops another heresy.在信諾,謝爾蓋無意中開發另一個異端。 He admits that "one operation", though used by a few Fathers, is a strange expression, and might suggest a denial of the unconfused union of two natures. But the "two operations" are also dangerous, by suggesting "two contrary wills, as though when the Word of God wished to fulfil His saving Passion, His humanity resisted and contradicted His will, and thus two contrary wills would be introduced, which is impious, for it is impossible that in the same subject there should be two wills at once, and contrary to one another as to the same thing".他承認,“一個行動”,雖然使用了由少數的父親,是個奇怪的表達,可能意味著剝奪了unconfused聯盟的兩個性質。但是,“兩個行動”也危險,暗示“兩種相反的意志,就像當上帝的話,他希望履行節約的激情,他的人性反抗,違背他的意願,從而將兩種相反的意志介紹,這是大不敬的,因為它是不可能的,在同一主題遺囑應當有兩個在一次,彼此相反,以同樣的事情“。 So far he is right; but he continues: "For the saving doctrine of the holy Fathers clearly teaches that the intellectually animated flesh of the Lord never performs its natural movement apart from, and by its own impetus contrariwise to, the direction of the Word of God hypostatically united to it, but only at the time and in the manner and to the extent that the Word of God wishes," just as our body is moved by our rational soul.到目前為止,他是對的,但他繼續說:“為了節約教義的聖神父清楚教導我們,智力動畫肉主從未履行其自然的運動,除了,並且在此相反,以自己的動力,方向的Word神hypostatically團結,但只是在時間和方式,以及在多大程度上是上帝的話的願望,“正如我們的身體是我們的理性的靈魂感動。 Here Sergius speaks of the natural will of the flesh, and of the Divine will, but makes no mention of the higher free will, which indeed is wholly subject to the Divine will.這裡謝爾蓋談到了自然會的肉,和神的意志,但並沒有提到更高的自由意志,這的確是完全受神的意志。 He may indeed be understood to include this intellectual will in "the intellectually animated flesh", but his thought is not clear, and his words simply express the heresy of one will.他可能確實被理解為包含此知識將在“智力動畫肉”,但他的思想不明確,他的話只是表達了異端的人會。 He concludes that it is best simply to confess that "the only begotten Son of God, who is truly both God and Man, works both the Divine and the human works, and from one and the same incarnate Word of God proceed indivisibly and inseparably both the Divine and the human operations as St. Leo teaches: Agit enim utraque, etc."他認為,最好是簡單地承認說,“上帝的獨生子,誰是真正的上帝和人,作品既有神和人的作品,從同一個體現神的話語和不可分割的兩個不可分割地進行神和人的行動的聖利奧教導:地理信息技術應用enim utraque,等等“ If these words and the quotation from St. Leo mean anything, they mean two operations; but Sergius's error lies precisely in deprecating this expression.如果這些話,帶從聖利奧意味著什麼,他們指的兩次行動,但謝爾蓋的錯誤恰恰在於貶低這個字眼。 It cannot be too carefully borne in mind that theological accuracy is a matter of definition, and definition is a matter of words.它不能太認真銘記,神學的準確性是一個定義的問題,並定義是一個問題的話。 The prohibition of the right words is always heresy, even though the author of the prohibition has no heretical intention and is merely shortsighted or confused.此項禁令的話永遠是異端的權利,即使該禁令的作者的意圖並沒有邪教只是短視或混淆。 Honorius replied reproving Sophronius, and praising Sergius for rejecting his "new expression" of "two operations".何諾說,譴責Sophronius,讚美謝爾蓋拒絕他的“新表達”的“兩個行動”。 He approves the recommendations made by Sergius, and has no blame for the capitula of Cyrus.他批准謝爾蓋提出的各項建議,並沒有責怪投降古列。 In one point he goes further than either, for he uses the words: "Wherefore we acknowledge one Will of our Lord Jesus Christ."在1點,他比任何更進一步,為他所用的字眼:“人哪,我們承認一會我們的主耶穌基督。” We may easily believe the testimony of Abbot John Symponus, who wrote the letter for Honorius, that he intended only to deny a lower will of the flesh in Christ which contradicted His higher will, and that he was not referring at all to His Divine will; but in connexion with the letter of Sergius such an interpretation is scarcely the more obvious one.我們可以很容易相信約翰Symponus住持的證詞,誰寫的信諾,他本來只打算否認意願較低的肉,他在基督的矛盾將會更高,而且他不是指在所有他的神將,但在Connexion公司與信謝爾蓋這樣解釋,這是無法比較明顯的例子。 It is clear that Honorius was not any more a wilful heretic than was Sergius, but he was equally incorrect in his decision, and his position made the mistake far more disastrous.很顯然,諾沒有任何更多的是故意的異端比謝爾蓋,但他同樣不正確的,他決定,他的立場的錯誤更是災難性的。 In another letter to Sergius he says he has informed Cyrus that the new expressions, one and two operations, are to be dropped, their use being most foolish.在另一封信中,以謝爾蓋,他說他已經通知賽勒斯說,新的表現形式,一,兩個行動,是被丟棄,它們的使用是最愚蠢的。

In one of the last four months of 638 effect was given to the pope's letter by the issue of an "Exposition" composed by Sergius and authorized by the emperor; it is known as the Ecthesis of Heraclius.在一個過去4個月的638效果給予了教宗的信中所發出的“博覽會”組成,由謝爾蓋並授權由皇帝,它是被稱為Ecthesis的赫拉克留。 Sergius died 9 Dec., a few days after having celebrated a council in which the Ecthesis was acclaimed as "truly agreeing with the Apostolic teaching", words which seem to be a reference to its being founded on the letter of Honorius.謝爾蓋12月9日去世,幾天後,一個慶祝會,其中Ecthesis譽為“真正的使徒,同意與教學”,即這似乎是一個參考的是建立在信諾。 Cyrus received the news of this council with great rejoicings.賽勒斯接到消息後,本局非常rejoicings。 The Ecthesis itself is a complete profession of Faith according to the five General Councils.該Ecthesis本身是一個完整的職業信仰按照五個總議會。 Its peculiarity consists in adding a prohibition of the expression one and two operations, and an assertion of one will in Christ lest contrary wills should be held.它的特點在於增加了禁止表達一個和兩個行動,並斷言的人會在基督以免違反遺囑應當舉行。 The letter of Honorius had been a grave document, but not a definition of Faith binding on the whole Church.該信諾一直是嚴重的文件,但沒有一個定義的信仰約束力的整個教會。 The Ecthesis was a definition.該 Ecthesis是一個定義。 But Honorius had no cognizance of it, for he had died on 12 Oct. The envoys who came for the emperor's confirmation of the new Pope Severinus refused to recommend the Ecthesis to the latter, but promised to lay it before him for judgment (see MAXIMUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE).但何諾沒有認識到它,因為他死在10月12日的使節誰來抓皇帝的確認新教宗Severinus拒絕推薦Ecthesis後者,但它承諾奠定他面前的判決(見鮃君士坦丁堡)。 Severinus, not consecrated until May, 640, died two months later, but not without having condemned the Ecthesis. Severinus,而不是神聖的,直到5月,640,兩個月後死亡,但已同意譴責Ecthesis。 John IV, who succeeded him in December, lost no time in holding a synod to condemn it formally.約翰四世,誰接替他在12月,又不失時機地在舉行會議,以正式譴責。 When Heraclius, who had merely intended to give effect to the teaching of Honorius, heard that the document was rejected at Rome, he disowned it in a letter to John IV, and laid the blame on Sergius. He died Feb., 641.當赫拉克留,誰也只是為了落實教學諾,聽說該文件被拒絕在羅馬,他否定它在約翰四世的信,奠定了歸咎於謝爾蓋。他死於2月,641。 The pope wrote to the elder son of Heraclius, saying that the Ecthesis would doubtless now be withdrawn, and apologizing for Pope Honorius, who had not meant to teach one human will in Christ.教宗寫信給大兒子的赫拉克留,說現在的Ecthesis無疑將被撤回,並為教宗何諾道歉,誰也並不意味著一個人的意志,教導在基督。 St. Maximus Confessor published a similar defence of Honorius, but neither of these apologists says anything of the original error, the forbidding of the "two operations, which was soon to become once more the principal point of controversy. In fact on this point no defence of Honorius was possible. But Pyrrhus, the new Patriarch of Constantinople, was a supporter of the Ecthesis and confirmed it in a great council, which St. Maximus, however, reproves as irregularly convoked. After the death of Constantine and the exile of his brother Heracleonas, Pyrrhus himself was exiled to Africa Here he was persuaded in a famous controversy with St. Maximus (qv) to renounce the appeal to Vigilius and Honorius and to condemn the Ecthesis; he went to Rome and made his submission to Pope Theodore, John IV having died (Oct., 642).聖馬克西姆斯懺悔者發表了類似的辯護諾,但也沒有對這些辯護士說什麼原來的錯誤,是禁止的“兩個行動,這是不久將再次成為主要的爭議點。其實在這一點上沒有國防諾是可能的。但皮拉斯,新宗主教的君士坦丁堡,是一個支持者的Ecthesis並確認它在一個大議會,其中聖鮃,但是,譴責為不定期召集。後死亡的君士坦丁和流亡他的弟弟Heracleonas,皮拉斯自己被流放到非洲在這裡,他被說服在一個著名的爭論與聖鮃(請參閱)放棄上訴,以Vigilius和諾和譴責Ecthesis,他去了羅馬,並作了提交教皇西奧多,約翰四世去世後(10月,642)。

Meanwhile protests from the East were not wanting.同時抗議從東都不想。 St. Sophronius, who, after becoming Patriarch of Jerusalem, died just before Sergius, had yet had time to publish at his enthronization a formal defence of the dogma of two operations and two wills, which was afterwards approved by the sixth council.聖Sophronius,誰後,成為耶路撒冷主教,逝世前謝爾蓋,還沒有來得及公佈他的enthronization正式辯護的教條的兩個行動,兩個遺囑,這是事後批准了第六屆議會。 This remarkable document was the first full exposition of the Catholic doctrine.這份重要文件,是第一個完整的闡述了天主教教義。 It was sent to all the patriarchs, and St. Sophronius humbly asked for corrections. His references to St. Leo are interesting, especially his statement: "I accept all his letters and teachings as proceeding from the mouth of Peter the Coryphæus, and I kiss them and embrace them with all my soul".這是發送到所有的元老,和聖Sophronius謙虛地要求更正。他引用聖利奧很有意思,特別是他聲明:“我接受他所有的信件和教義出發從嘴裡彼得的領導者,我他們擁抱親吻他們,用我所有的靈魂“。 Further on he speaks of receiving St. Leo's definitions as those of Peter, and St. Cyril's as those of Mark.他談到了關於進一步接受聖里奧的定義為那些彼得和聖西里爾作為那些馬克。 He also made a large collection of testimonies of the Fathers in favour of two operations and two wills.他還提出了大量的收集證詞的父親贊成兩項行動和兩個遺囑。 He finally sent to Rome Stephen, Bishop of Dora, the first bishop of the patriarchate, who has given us a moving description of the way in which the saint led him to the holy place of Calvary and there charged him, saying: "Thou shalt give an account to the God who was crucified for us in this holy place, in His glorious and awful advent, when He shall come to judge the living and the dead, if thou delay and allow His Faith to be endangered, since, as thou knowest, I am myself let, by reason of the invasion of the Saracens which is come upon us for our sins. Swiftly pass, then, from end to end of the world, until thou come to the Apostolic See, where are the foundations of the holy doctrines. Not once, not twice, but many times, make clearly known to all those holy men there all that has been done; and tire not instantly urging and beseeching, until out of their apostolic wisdom they bring forth judgment unto victory."他最後被送往羅馬斯蒂芬,主教多拉,首先在東正教主教,誰給了我們一個移動的描述的方式,使他的聖聖所,有收費的各各他,說:“你必交代了上帝誰是釘在十字架上為我們在這個神聖的地方,在他的光榮和可怕的到來,當他將要審判活人與死人,你若延誤,讓他的信仰受到危害,因為正如你曉得,讓我自己,在入侵的原因是撒拉遜人臨到我們是為我們的罪。迅速通過,那麼,從端到端的世界,直到你來使徒看,哪裡的基礎神聖的教義。不是一次,兩次,但很多時候,清楚地表達對所有這些神聖的男子,都已經完成;和輪胎不會立即督促和懇求,直到出智慧的使徒,他們帶來的判斷你們的勝利。 “ Urged by almost all the orthodox bishops of the East, Stephen made his first journey to Rome.敦促幾乎所有的東正教主教東,斯蒂芬使他到羅馬的第一旅程。 On the death of St. Sophronius, his patriarchal see was invaded by the Bishop of Joppa, a supporter of the Ecthesis.在死亡聖Sophronius,他的家長看到的是入侵的主教約帕,一個支持者的Ecthesis。 Another heretic sat in the See of Antioch.另一個邪教坐在見安提阿。 At Alexandria the union with the Monophysites was shortlived.在亞歷山大工會與該monophysites是短命的。 In 640 the city fell into the hands of the Arabians under Amru, and the unfortunate heretics have remained until today (save for a few months in 646) under the rule of the infidel.在640個城市落入阿拉伯人手中的阿姆魯下,和不幸,直到今天仍然異端(節省了數個月646)統治下的異教徒。 Thus the whole of the Patriarchates of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria were separated from Rome.因此,整體的牧首的君士坦丁堡,安提阿,耶路撒冷和亞歷山大分離從羅馬。 Yet no doubt, except in Egypt, the great number of the bishops and the whole of their flocks were orthodox and had no wish to accept the Ecthesis.但毫無疑問,除了埃及,大量的主教和整個羊群的正統,並無意接受Ecthesis。

The bishops of Cyprus, independent of any patriarch, held a synod 29 May, 643, against the Ecthesis.塞浦路斯的主教,獨立於任何元老,5月29日舉行的主教會議中,有643對Ecthesis。 They wrote to Pope Theodore a letter of entreaty: "Christ, our God, has instituted your Apostolic chair, O holy head, as a God-fixed and immovable foundation. For thou, as truly spake the Divine Word, art Peter, and upon thy foundation the pillars of the Church are fixed, and to thee He committed the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. He ordered thee to bind and loose with authority on earth and in heaven. Thou art set as the destroyer of profane heresies, as Coryphæus and leader of the orthodox and unsullied Faith. Despise not then, Father, the Faith of our Fathers, tossed by waves and imperilled; disperse the rule of the foolish with the light of thy divine knowledge, O most holy. Destroy the blasphemies and insolence of the new heretics with their novel expressions. For nothing is wanting to your orthodox and pious definition and tradition for the augmentation of the Faith amongst us. For we - O inspired one, you who hold converse with the holy Apostles and sit with them - believe and confess from of old since our very swaddling clothes, teaching according to the holy and God-fearing Pope Leo, and declaring that 'each nature works with the communion of the other what is proper to it'", etc. They declare themselves ready to be martyred rather than forsake the doctrine of St. Leo: but their Archbishop Sergius, when the persecution arose, was found on the side of the persecutors, not of the martyrs.他們說,教皇西奧多一信懇求:“基督,我們的上帝,已設立的使徒椅子啊,神聖的頭,如同神固定和不動產的基礎。因為你,因為真正的聖言如是說,藝術彼得,並籲請你的基礎的重要支柱,教會是固定的,和你的鑰匙,他犯了天國。他命令你來綁定和寬鬆的有權威的地球和天堂。祢驅逐艦定為異端邪說的褻瀆,作為領導者和領袖的信仰東正教和污點。鄙夷不是那麼,爸爸,我們的父輩的信仰,與迎面而來的海浪和危害;驅散愚昧統治了你的光神聖知識,噢,最神聖的。摧毀褻瀆和傲慢新的異端與小說表現形式。對於什麼是你想要和虔誠的正統和傳統定義為增強我們之間的信仰。對於我們-氧啟發一,你認為誰交談與聖使徒和他們坐在一起-相信和承認,從舊衣服,因為我們非常襁褓,因材施教的神聖和虔誠的教皇利奧,並宣布這是每一個項目的性質與共融其他什麼是正確的,它的“,等等,他們宣布自己準備好烈屬,而不是放棄原則聖利奧:但他們的主教謝爾蓋,當出現迫害,被發現側面的迫害者,而不是烈士。 It is abundantly clear that St. Maximus and his Constantinopolitan friends, St. Sophronius and the bishops of Palestine, Sergius and his suffragans, had no notion that the Apostolic See had been compromised by the letters of Honorius, but they look to it as the only port of salvation. Similarly in 646 the bishops of Africa and the adjoining islands held councils, in the name of which the primates of Numidia, Byzacene and Mauritania sent a joint letter to Pope Theodore, complaining of the Ecthesis: "No one can doubt that there is in the Apostolic See a great and unfailing fountain pouring forth waters for all Christians", and so forth.這是十分清楚,他的君士坦丁堡聖鮃和朋友,聖主教Sophronius和巴勒斯坦,謝爾蓋和他suffragans,沒有概念,即聖座已經失密由字母諾,但他們期待它作為得救的唯一的港口。同樣,在646主教非洲和鄰近島嶼舉行的議會,在名稱中的靈長類動物,其中的努米底亞,Byzacene和毛里塔尼亞聯名寫信給教皇西奧多,抱怨的Ecthesis:“沒有人能懷疑有在聖座一項偉大而堅定的噴泉水潑出所有的基督徒“,等等。 They enclose letters to the emperor and to the patriarch Paul, to be sent to Constantinople by the pope.他們附上信件,皇帝和保羅的元老,被發送到君士坦丁堡的教皇。 They are afraid to write directly, for the former governor, Gregory (who had presided at the disputation of his friend St. Maximus with Pyrrhus) had revolted and made himself emperor, and had just been defeated; this was a blow to orthodoxy, which it brought into discredit at Constantinople.他們害怕直接寫入,前州長,格雷戈里(誰曾主持了他的朋友爭論與皮拉斯聖鮃)的反抗,使自己的皇帝,並且剛剛被擊敗,這是一個打擊正統,這它帶入抹黑在君士坦丁堡。 Victor, elected primate of Carthage after the letters were written, added one of his own.維克多,靈長類動物的迦太基當選後寫的信,說他的一個自己。

Paul the patriarch whom the Emperor Constans had substituted for Pyrrhus, had not been acknowledged by Pope Theodore, who demanded of him that Pyrrhus should first be tried by a council before two representatives of the Holy See.其中元老保羅皇帝士坦思已取代皮拉斯沒有得到承認教皇西奧多,誰要求的他,皮拉斯應首先交由議會前一兩名代表羅馬教廷。 Paul's reply is preserved: the views he exposes are those of the Ecthesis, and he defends them by referring to Honorius and Sergius.保羅的回答是保留了:他公開的意見都是各Ecthesis,他指的是維護他們的何諾和謝爾蓋。 Theodore pronounced a sentence of deposition against him, and Paul retaliated by destroying the Latin altar which belonged to the Roman See in the palace of Placidia at Constantinople, in order that the papal envoys might be unable to offer the Holy Sacrifice; he also persecuted them, together with many orthodox laymen and priests, by imprisonment, exile, or stripes.西奧多宣告判決對他的沉積,和保羅報復,摧毀了拉壇屬於羅馬教廷在宮中的普拉奇迪亞在君士坦丁堡,為了使教皇的使節可能無法提供聖祭,他也迫害他們與很多外行和東正教神職人員,受到監禁,流放,或條紋。 But Paul, in spite of this violence, had no idea of resisting the definitions of Rome.但保羅,儘管這種暴力行為,不知道抵抗羅馬的定義。 Until now, Honorius had not been disowned there, but defended.到現在為止,諾沒有否定有,但辯護。 It was said that he had not taught one will; but the prohibition in the Ecthesis of two operations was but an enforcement of the course Honorius had approved, and nothing had as yet, it seems, been officially published at Rome on this point.據說,他沒有人會教,但禁止在Ecthesis的兩個行動只不過是一個執行的過程中諾已核准,什麼事也沒有迄今為止,似乎一書正式出版於羅馬這一點。 Paul, somewhat naturally, thought it would be sufficient if he dropped the teaching of one will, and prohibited all reference to one will or two wills as well as to one operation or two operations; it could hardly be urged that this was not in accordance with the teaching of Pope Honorius.保羅,很自然地認為這將是足夠的,如果他放棄了教學的一會,並禁止所有提及一個或兩個將遺囑以及一個或兩個操作運行,它可能很難要求,這是沒有根據教學與教皇諾。 It would be a measure of peace, and East and West would be again united.這將是一個衡量的和平,東方與西方將再次團結起來。 Paul therefore persuaded the emperor to withdraw the Ecthesis, and to substitute for that elaborate confession of Faith a mere disciplinary measure forbidding all four expressions under the severest penalties; none of the emperor's orthodox subjects have any longer permission to quarrel over them, but no blame is to attach to any who may have used either alternative in the past.保羅因此說服皇帝收回Ecthesis,並以取代詳細供認的信仰僅僅紀律措施,禁止所有四個表情下最嚴厲的懲罰;沒有一個皇帝的正統的科目,不再允許爭吵過,但沒有責怪是誰附加到任何可能的替代使用,也可以在過去。 Transgression of this law is to involve deposition for bishops and clerics, excommunication and expulsion for monks, loss of office and dignity for officials, fines for richer laymen, corporal punishment and permanent exile for the poorer.逾越這條法律是涉及沉降的主教和神職人員,逐出教會和被驅逐的僧侶,失去職位和尊嚴的官員,罰款更豐富的外行,體罰和永久流放的窮。 By this cruel law heresy is to be blameless and orthodoxy forbidden.通過這種殘酷的法律異端是無可指責和正統禁止。 It is known as the Type of Constans.這是被稱為類型士坦思。 It is not a Monothelite document, for it forbids that heresy just as much as the Catholic Faith.這不是一個Monothelite文件,因為它禁止的邪教一樣多的天主教信仰。 Its date falls between Sept. 648 and Sept. 649.它的日期是9月至9月和649 648。 Pope Theodore died 5 May of the latter year, and was succeeded in July by St. Martin I. In October St. Martin held a great council at the Lateran, at which 105 bishops were present. The pope's opening speech gives a history of the heresy, and condemns the Ecthesis, Cyrus, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and the Type.教皇西奧多5月5日去世後,並於今年7月成功地在聖馬丁聖馬丁一,10月舉行的大議會在拉特蘭,在這105名主教出席了會議。教宗的開幕式講話給出了一個歷史的異端,並譴責Ecthesis,賽勒斯,謝爾蓋,皮拉斯,保羅,和類型。 John IV had spoken of Sergius with respect; and Martin does not mention Honorius, for it was obviously impossible to defend him if the Type was to be condemned as heresy.約翰四世曾談到謝爾蓋的尊敬;和馬丁沒有提及諾,因為這顯然是不可能為他辯護,如果類型是被譴責為異端。 Stephen of Dora, then on his third visit to Rome, presented a long memorial, full of devotion to the Apostolic See.斯蒂芬的多拉,然後在他第三次訪問羅馬,提出了長紀念館,充滿獻身使徒見。 A deputation followed, of 37 Greek abbots residing in or near Rome, who had apparently fled before the Saracens from their various homes in Jerusalem, Africa, Armenia, Cilicia, etc. They demanded the condemnation of Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Cyrus and the anathematizing of the Type by the Apostolic and head See.一個代表團隨後,37個居住在希臘的住持或接近羅馬,誰顯然前逃離現場撒拉遜人從他們的家園在耶路撒冷不同,非洲,亞美尼亞,基利家,等他們要求譴責謝爾蓋,皮拉斯,保羅,居魯士和該類型的anathematizing由使徒和頭見。 The heretical documents read were part of a letter of Theodore of Pharan, the seventh proposition of Cyrus, the letter of Sergius to Cyrus, excerpts from the synods held by Sergius and Pyrrhus (who had now repented of his repentance), and the approval of the Ecthesis by Cyrus.邪教的文件讀了信的一部份西奧多Pharan,古列第七命題,信中的謝爾蓋賽勒斯,摘錄的主教會議舉行謝爾蓋和皮拉斯(誰,他現在已經悔改悔改),以及批准由Cyrus的Ecthesis。 The letter of Sergius to Honorius was not read, nor was anything said about the correspondence of the latter with Sergius.該信的謝爾蓋以諾是不識字,也沒有任何有關的信件說,後者與謝爾蓋。 St. Martin summed up; then the letter of Paul to Pope Theodore and the Type were read.聖馬丁總結,然後在信中,教皇保羅西奧多和類型的閱讀。 The council admitted the good intention of the latter document (so as to spare the emperor while condemning Paul), but declared it heretical for forbidding the teaching of two operations and two wills.該委員會承認的良好願望,後者文件(以便騰出皇帝同時譴責保羅),但宣布它為邪教,禁止教學的兩個行動,兩個遺囑。 Numerous excerpts from the Fathers and from Monophysite writers were read, and twenty canons were agreed to, the eighteenth of which condemns Theodore of Pharan, Cyrus, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, the Ecthesis, and the Type, under anathema.許多摘錄的父親和作家從基督一讀,20炮獲得通過,其中18西奧多Pharan譴責,賽勒斯,謝爾蓋,皮拉斯,保羅,Ecthesis和類型,下詛咒。 A letter to the emperor was signed by all.皇帝的信上簽了字的。 An encyclical letter was sent throughout the Church in the name of St. Martin and the council, addressed to all bishops, priests, deacons, abbots, monks, ascetics, and to the entire sacred fulness of the Catholic Church.安通諭致函整個教會的名義,聖馬丁和安理會向所有主教,司鐸,執事,方丈,僧侶,苦行者,和整個充滿神聖的天主教教會。 This was a final and complete condemnation of the Constantinopolitan policy.這是最後和徹底的譴責的君士坦丁堡的政策。 Rome had spoken ex cathedra. Stephen of Dora had been before appointed papal vicar in the East, but he had by error been informed only of his duty to depose heretical bishops, and not that he was authorized to substitute orthodox bishops in their place.羅馬曾發言的教堂前。斯蒂芬多拉教皇任命前已經副主教在東部地區,但他的錯誤被告知只有罷免職務邪教主教,而不是他被授權代替東正教主教在自己的位置。 The pope now gave this commission to John, Bishop of Philadelphia in Palestine, who was ordered to appoint bishops, priests, and deacons in the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.現在的教宗約翰給這個委員會,費城主教在巴勒斯坦,誰下令任命主教,神父,和執事的牧首轄區的安提阿和耶路撒冷。 Martin also sent letters to these patriarchates, and to Peter, who seems to have been governor, asking him to support his vicar; this Peter was a friend and correspondent of St. Maximus.馬丁也致函這些大主教,和彼得,誰似乎已經省長,要求他支持他的牧師,這是彼得的朋友和記者聖馬克西姆斯。 The pope deposed John, Archbishop of Thessalonica, and declared the appointments of Macarius of Antioch and Peter of Alexandria to be null and void.教皇約翰廢黜,大主教薩洛尼卡,並宣布任命米加利阿斯安提和彼得亞歷山大是無效的。 Constans retaliated by having St. Martin kidnapped at Rome, and taken a prisoner to Constantinople.士坦思報復,被綁架後聖馬丁在羅馬,並採取了囚犯君士坦丁堡。 The saint refused to accept the Ecthesis, and after sufferings, many of which he has himself related in a touching document, he died a martyr in the Crimea in March, 655 (see POPE MARTIN I).聖拒絕接受Ecthesis,經過痛苦,其中許多有關他自己在一個動人的文件,他死了烈士在克里米亞3月,655(見波普馬丁一)。 St. Maximus (662), his disciple the monk Anastasius (also 662), and another Anastasius, a papal envoy (666), died of ill-treatment, martyrs to their orthodoxy and devotion to the Apostolic See.聖鮃(662),他的弟子和尚阿納斯塔修斯(也是662),另一個阿納斯塔修斯,教皇特使(666),死於虐待,他們的正統和烈士獻身使徒見。

While St. Martin was being insulted and tortured at Constantinople, the patriarch Paul was dying.雖然聖馬丁被侮辱和折磨在君士坦丁堡,死亡的元老保羅。 "Alas, this will increase the severity of my judgment", he exclaimed to the emperor, who paid him a visit; and Constans was induced to spare the pope's life for the moment. “唉,這將嚴重增加我的判斷”,他大聲說皇帝,誰去看望了他和康斯坦誘導不遺餘力教宗的生活的時刻。 At Paul's death Pyrrhus was restored.在保羅的死皮拉斯恢復。 His successor Peter sent an ambiguous letter to Pope Eugenius, which made no mention of two operations, thus observing the prescription of the Type. The Roman people raised a riot when it was read in Sta.他的繼任者彼得發出曖昧的信,教皇葉夫根尼,而沒有提到兩項行動,從而觀察處方的類型。羅馬人提出了騷亂,當時讀站。 Maria Maggiore, and would not permit the pope to continue his Mass until he promised to reject the letter. Maria Maggiore的,也不會允許他繼續教皇彌撒,直到他答應拒絕信。 Constans sent a letter to the pope by one Gregory, with a gift to St. Peter.士坦思致信教皇格雷戈里一,以聖彼得的禮物。 It was rumoured at Constantinople that the pope's envoys would accept a declaration of "one and two wills" (two because of the natures, one on account of the union).相傳在君士坦丁堡,教皇的特使將接受申報的“一,兩個遺囑”(兩個因性質,一對帳戶的聯盟)。 St. Maximus refused to believe the report.聖馬克西姆斯拒絕相信這個報告。 In fact Peter wrote to Pope Vitalian (657-672) professing "one and two wills and operations" and adding mutilated quotations from the Fathers; but the explanation was thought unsatisfactory, presumably because it was only an excuse for upholding the Type. In 663 Constans came to Rome, intending to make it his residence, on account of his unpopularity at Constantinople, for besides putting the pope to death and proscribing the orthodox faith, he had murdered his brother Theodosius.其實彼得說,教皇維拉利安(657-672)信奉“一個和兩個意志和行動”,並加入肢解報價從父親,但被認為不能令人滿意的解釋,大概是因為它只是一個藉口堅持的類型。在663士坦思來到羅馬,準備讓他的住所,他的不受歡迎的帳戶在君士坦丁堡,除了把教皇為死刑,禁制的正統信仰,他謀殺了他的弟弟狄奧多西。 The pope received him with all due honour, and Constans, who had refused to confirm the elections of Martin and Eugenius, ordered the name of Vitalian to be inscribed on the diptychs of Constantinople.教宗接見了他以應有的榮譽,士坦思,誰也拒絕證實該選舉的馬丁和葉夫根尼,下令名稱維拉利安是刻在diptychs君士坦丁堡。 No mention seems to have been made of the Type.似乎沒有提到已經作出的類型。 But Constans did not find Rome agreeable.但士坦思沒有找到羅馬同意。 After spoiling the churches, he retired to Sicily, where he oppressed the people.破壞的教堂後,他退休的西西里,在那裡他被壓迫人民。 He was murdered in his bath in 668.他被謀殺在他洗澡的668。 Vitalian vigorously opposed rebellion in Sicily, and Constantine Pogonatus, the new emperor, found the island at peace on his arrival.維拉利安大力反對叛亂在西西里,和君士坦丁Pogonatus,新的皇帝,在島上發現了他的和平的到來。 It does not seem that he took any interest in the Type, which was doubtless not enforced, though not abolished, for he was fully occupied with his wars against the Saracens until 678, when he determined to summon a general council to end what he regarded as a quarrel between the Sees of Rome and Constantinople.它似乎沒有任何興趣,他參加了在類型,這無疑是不執行,雖然沒有取消,因為他完全被他的戰爭,直到678對撒拉遜人,當他決定召集總理事會結束,他認為什麼作為一個看到之間的爭吵,羅馬和君士坦丁堡。 He wrote in this sense to Pope Donus (676-78), who was already dead.他說在這個意義上說,教皇多努斯(676-78),誰已經死亡。 His successor St. Agatho thereupon assembled a synod at Rome and ordered others to be held in the West.他的繼任者聖Agatho隨即召集了一個主教在羅馬,並命令其他人在西方舉行。 A delay of two years was thus caused, and the heretical patriarchs Theodore of Constantinople and Macarius of Antioch assured the emperor that the pope despised the Easterns and their monarch, and they tried, but unsuccessfully, to get the name of Vitalian removed from the diptychs.阿推遲兩年因此造成的,而邪教元老西奧多君士坦丁堡和米加利阿斯安提保證皇帝,教皇藐視東方的和他們的君主,他們嘗試過,但沒有成功,得到的名稱維拉利安刪除從diptychs 。 The emperor asked for three representatives at least to be sent from Rome, with twelve archbishops or bishops from the West and four monks from each of the Greek monasteries in the West, perhaps as interpreters.皇帝要求三名代表至少要發送從羅馬,12大主教或主教從西方和四僧的希臘各寺廟在西方,也許擔任翻譯。 He also sent Theodore into exile, probably because he was an obstacle to reunion.他還派西奧多流亡海外,可能是因為他是一個障礙團聚。

The first session of the Sixth Œcumenical Council took place at Constantinople (7 Nov., 680), Constantine Pogonatus presiding and having on his left, in the place of honour, the papal legates.第一屆會議第六乃眾人會發生在君士坦丁堡(11月7日,680),康斯坦丁Pogonatus主持了對他的離開,在這個地方的榮譽,教皇使節。 Macarius of Antioch was the only prelate who stood up for Monothelitism, and he was in due course condemned as a heretic (see MACARIUS or ANTIOCH).米加利阿斯是唯一的安提阿主教誰站起來Monothelitism,並在適當的時候,他譴責為異端(見米加利阿斯或安提阿)。 The letters of St. Agatho and of the Roman Council insisted on the decisions of the Lateran Council, and repeatedly affirmed the inerrancy of the Apostolic See.這些信件聖Agatho和羅馬會議的決定,堅持在拉特蘭會議,並一再申明無誤的使徒見。 These documents were acclaimed by the council, and accepted by George, the new Patriarch of Constantinople and his suffragans. Macarius had appealed to Honorius; and after his condemnation a packet which he had delivered to the emperor was opened, and in it were found the letters of Sergius to Honorius and of Honorius to Sergius.這些文件是由著名的議會,並接受由喬治,新宗主教的君士坦丁堡和他suffragans。米加利阿斯曾呼籲諾,以及一個數據包後,他譴責他所交付給皇帝開了,在它被發現字母謝爾蓋以諾和諾向謝爾蓋。 As these were at best similar to the Type, already declared heretical, it was unavoidable that they should be condemned.由於這些人充其量相似的類型,已經宣布的邪教,這是不可避免的,他們應該受到譴責。 The fifth council had set the example of condemning dead writers, who had died in Catholic communion, but George suggested that his dead predecessors might be spared, and only their teaching anathematized.第五次理事會以身作則作家譴責死,誰死了,在天主教共融,但喬治認為,他死去的前輩可能倖免,只是他們的教學和詛咒。 The legates might have saved the name of Honorius also had they agreed to this, but they evidently had directions from Rome to make no objection to his condemnation if it seemed necessary.該使節可能挽救的名稱諾還他們同意這一點,但他們顯然已經指示從羅馬到不作任何反對他的譴責,似乎有必要。 The final dogmatic decree contains the decisions of the five preceding general councils, condemns the Ecthesis and the Type, and heretics by name, including Honorius, and "greets with uplifted hands" the letters of Pope Agatho and his council (see HONORIUS I, Pope).最後的教條式的法令包含的決定之前5個一般委員會,譴責Ecthesis和類型,和異教徒的名字,包括諾和“映入眼簾的抬升的手”的信和他的教皇Agatho理事會(見挪留我,教皇)。 The address to the emperor, signed by all the bishops, declares that they have followed Agatho, and he the Apostolic teaching.該報告給皇帝,簽署了所有的主教,宣布他們是按照Agatho,和他的使徒教學。 "With us fought the prince of the Apostles, for to assist us we had his imitator and the successor to his chair. The ancient city of Rome proffered you a divinely written confession and caused the daylight of dogmas to rise by the Western parchment. And the ink shone, and by Agatho, Peter spoke; and you, the autocrat king, voted with the Almighty who reigns with you."他說:“我們打的王子的使徒,為協助我們,我們有自己的模仿和繼承他的椅子。古城羅馬痛心疾首你一個神聖的書面供詞,導致白天的教條將上升西方羊皮紙。與閃閃發光的油墨,以及Agatho,彼得發言和你,專制的國王,誰投的全能統治你。“ A letter to the pope was also signed by all the Fathers.教宗的信也簽署了所有的父親。 The emperor gave effect to the decree in a lengthy edict, in which he echoes the decisions of the council, adding: "These are the teachings of the voices of the Gospels and the Apostles, these are the doctrines of the holy synods and of the elect and patristic tongues; these have been preserved untainted by Peter, the rock of the faith, the head of the Apostles; in this faith we live and reign."皇帝給予實施該法令,在一個漫長的法令,其中他呼應了安理會的決定,並補充:“這是對聲音的教導的福音和使徒,這些都是教義的聖主教會議和選舉和教父的舌頭,這些已保存有污點的彼得,岩石的信仰,頭部的使徒,在這個信念,我們的生活和統治。“ The emperor's letter to the pope is full of Such expressions; as for example: "Glory be to God, Who does wondrous things, Who has kept safe the Faith among you unharmed. For how should He not do so in that rock on which He founded His Church, and prophesied that the gates of hell, all the ambushes of heretics, should not prevail against it? From it, as from the vault of heaven, the word of the true confession flashed forth," etc. But St. Agatho, a worker of many miracles, was dead, and did not receive the letter, so that it fell to St. Leo II to confirm the council.皇帝的信教宗充滿這樣的表達式;作為例子:“榮耀歸於上帝,誰做奇妙的事情,誰保持安全的信念,在你們中間沒有受傷。對於應如何他不這樣做,是岩石上,他創立了教會,並預言地獄的大門,所有的伏擊的異端,不應該戰勝它?從它,從蒼穹,這個詞的真實自白閃現出“等,但聖Agatho一個工人的許多奇蹟,已經死了,並沒有收到信,所以,它下降到聖利奧二世確認議會。 Thus was the East united again to the West after an incomplete but deplorable schism.因此,是東方向西方再次團結後一個不完整的,但令人遺憾的分裂。

It would seem that in 687 Justinian II believed that the sixth council was not fully enforced, for he wrote to Pope Conon that he had assembled the papal envoys, the patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, the senate and civil officials and representatives of his various armies, and made them sign the original acts which had recently been discovered.看來,在687查士丁尼二世認為,第六屆議會並沒有完全執行,因為他說,教皇科農說,他組裝了教皇特使的元老,大都市,主教,參議院和民事官員和代表他的各種軍隊,並讓他們簽署了原來的行為,最近被發現。 In 711 the throne was seized by Philippicus Bardanes, who had been the pupil of Abbot Stephen, the disciple "or rather leader" of Macarius of Antioch.在711位檢獲Philippicus巴爾達涅斯,誰一直是學生的住持斯蒂芬弟子“或相當的領袖”,米加利阿斯安提。 He restored to the diptychs Sergius, Honorius, and the other heretics condemned by the council; he burned the acts (but privately, in the palace), he deposed the Patriarch Cyrus, and exiled some persons who refused to subscribe a rejection of the council.他恢復到diptychs謝爾蓋,諾和其他異教徒安理會譴責,他燒的行為(但私下,在王宮),他廢黜了主教居魯士,和一些流亡人士認購一誰拒絕了安理會拒絕。 He fell, 4 June, 713, and orthodoxy was restored by Anastasius II (713-15).他下跌,6月4日,713,和正統恢復了阿納斯塔修斯二世(713-15)。 Pope Constantine had refused to recognize Bardanes.教皇康斯坦丁拒絕承認巴爾達涅斯。 The intruded patriarch, John VI, wrote him a long letter of apology, explaining that he had submitted to Bardanes to prevent worse evils, and asserting in many words the headship of Rome over the universal Church.在闖入元老,約翰六世,給他寫了一封長信道歉,解釋說,他已提交給巴爾達涅斯,以防止嚴重罪惡,並主張在許多字的戶主在羅馬普世教會。 This was the last of Monothelitism.這是最後的Monothelitism。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息寫由約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.致力於耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,體積十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。+約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


The chief ancient authorities for our knowledge of the Monothelites are the acts of the Lateran synod and of the sixth council, the works of ST.行政當局對我們的古代知識的Monothelites是行為的拉特朗主教和第六屆理事會,工程的ST。 MAXIMUS CONFESSOR and ANASTASIUS SINAITA, and the Collectanea of ANASTASIUS BIBLIOTHECARIUS.馬克西姆斯懺悔和阿納斯塔修斯SINAITA,以及會論文集的阿納斯塔修斯BIBLIOTHECARIUS。 Of modern works only a few need be specially mentioned: COMBÉFIS, Auctarium novum, II (Historia Monothelitarum et Dissertatio apol. pro actis VI synodi (Paris, 1648); PETAVIUS, De Incarnatione, VIII, IX; HEFELE, Hist. of Councils, V (Eng. tr.); BARDENHEWER, Ungedruckle Excerpte aus einer Schrift des Patriarchen Eulogius von Alexandria (in Theolog. Quartalschrift, 1896, no. 78); OWSEPIAN, Die Entstehungsgeschichte des Monotheletismus nach ihren Quellen geprüft (Leipzig, 1897). See also HONORIUS I, POPE, and MAXIMUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE.現代工程需要的話只有少數特別提到:COMBÉFIS,Auctarium,新創,二(史記Monothelitarum等Dissertatio apol。親英聯六synodi(巴黎,1648); PETAVIUS,德Incarnatione,八,九,黑弗勒,組織胺。兩局, V(英文。);巴登黑韋爾,Ungedruckle Excerpte澳大利亞einer Schrift德Patriarchen Eulogius亞歷山大馮(在Theolog。Quartalschrift,1896年,沒有。78); OWSEPIAN,模具Entstehungsgeschichte德Monotheletismus乙酰膽鹼ihren Quellen geprüft(萊比錫,1897年)。查看我還何諾,教皇和大菱鮃君士坦丁堡。

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在