New School Theology新學校神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

New School Presbyterianism embodied mainstream evangelical Christianity in the middle decades of the nineteenth century.新學校的主流福音派基督教長老會體現在中間幾十年的19世紀。 Its modified Calvinist theology, enthusiasm for revivalism, moral reform, and interdenominational cooperation were its most notable characteristics.加爾文神學的修改,熱情為復古,道德改革,教派間的合作是其最顯著的特點。

New School theology had its remote roots in the Calvinism of Jonathan Edwards, but its immediate predecessor was the New Haven theology of Nathaniel Taylor, who advocated a theology of moral government.新學院的神學有其根源在加爾文偏遠的喬納森愛德華茲,但其直接的前身是紐黑文神學納撒尼爾泰勒,誰主張神學道德的政府。 He synthesized moralistic elements from Scottish commonsense philosophy with reinterpretations of traditional Calvinism to construct a semi - Pelagian foundation for revivalism. Denying the imputation of Adam's sin and claiming that unregenerate man can respond to moral overtures, especially Christ's death, Taylor argued that men need not wait passively for the Holy Spirit to redeem them.他合成的道德要素從蘇格蘭常識哲學,重新解釋傳統的加爾文主義,構建一個半-伯拉糾基礎復古。否認歸責亞當的罪,聲稱頑固不化的人可以回應的道德姿態,特別是基督的死亡,泰勒認為,男人不需要靜待聖靈贖回。 His views reflected a long - standing American faith in human freedom.他的觀點反映了一種長期-站在美國信仰的人的自由。

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While Old School leaders roundly attacked Taylor's theology, revivalists and ministers such as Charles G Finney, Lyman Beecher, and Albert Barnes popularized it.雖然舊學校領導嚴厲抨擊泰勒的神學,復興主義和部長,如查爾斯G芬尼,萊曼比徹,巴恩斯和阿爾伯特推廣它。 Finney used Taylor's theology to redefine revivals as works which man can perform using means which God has provided.芬尼用泰勒的神學重新復出擔任工程的人可以利用的手段,執行上帝提供。 With such a theological basis he introduced his famous "new measures," such as referring to his hearers as "sinners" and calling them to sit on an "anxious bench" while they contemplated converting to Christ.有了這樣一個神學基礎上,他介紹了他的著名的“新措施”,如指他的聽眾為“罪人”,並要求他們坐在一個“惶惶不安”,而他們設想轉換為基督。

Schism divided the two schools of Presbyterians in 1837 when an Old School majority expelled New School members for tolerating theological errors.分裂分為兩所學校的長老會在1837年時,多數被驅逐的老學校新校區成員容忍神學上的錯誤。 Differences over a plan of union with Congregationalists and slavery played a secondary role.分歧的計劃與公理工會和奴役發揮次要作用。 Those ejected published the Auburn Declaration, which denied sixteen accusations alleged by the Old School.這些彈出公佈的奧本聲明,否認16項指控,指控的老學校。 The declaration affirmed a weakened view of imputation, Adam's sinful act was not counted against all men, but all men after Adam were sinners, supported Christ's substitutionary atonement, and asserted that the work of the Holy Spirit, not human choice, was the basis of regeneration.宣言肯定了削弱歸責,亞當的罪惡行為不計入所有的人,但所有的人後,亞當的罪人,支持基督的替代贖罪,並聲稱這項工作的聖靈,而不是人的選擇,是基礎再生。 It was a compromise between New England theology and the Westminister Confession.這是新英格蘭神學之間的妥協和西敏寺自白。

This modified Calvinism was used to champion activism in American social life.這是用來修飾加爾文冠軍運動在美國社會生活。 Voluntary societies consisting of members from various denominations carried out missionary activity and combated social ills.自願組成的社團的成員來自不同教派進行傳教活動和打擊社會弊病。 These constructive crusades, in which New School Presbyterians played a leading role, were inspired by postmillennial expectations of progress.這些建設性的十字軍東征,其中新學長老發揮了主導作用,是鼓舞postmillennial期望的進展。

In the decades after 1840 New School theology became more conservative. 1840年後的幾十年中新學校神學變得更加保守。 Its proponents widely criticized Finney's prefectionism.它的支持者廣泛批評芬尼的prefectionism。 They attacked Darwinism, early biblical criticism, and German philosophy and theology.他們襲擊達爾文主義,早期聖經批評,德國哲學和神學。 Henry B Smith of Union Theological Seminary emerged as the leading spokesman. His defense of systematic theology and biblical infallibility and his perceptions that New Schoolers had become more orthodox were influential in the reunion of the Presbyterian Church in 1869.亨利B史密斯的協和神學院成為領先的發言人。他的防禦系統神學和聖經犯錯誤,他的看法是,新上中學已變得更加正統的有影響的團聚的基督長老教會於1869年。

WA Hoffecker西澳奧費克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃爾韋爾福音字典)

Bibliography 書目
A Barnes, Notes on the Epistle to the Romans; CG Finney, Lectures on Revivals of Religion; G Marsden, The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; NW Taylor, Lectures on the Moral Government of God.阿巴恩斯,債券在書信向羅馬人;重心芬尼,講座恢復現象的宗教; Ğ馬斯登,福音心靈和新學校長老會的經驗;熱釋光史密斯,復興運動和社會改革;淨重泰勒,道德講座政府神。

Lyman Beecher萊曼比徹

General Information 一般信息

Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) was an American Presbyterian clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut, and educated at Yale College (now Yale University).萊曼比徹(1775年至1863年),美國長老會牧師,出生在紐黑文,康涅狄格州,並就讀於耶魯大學(現耶魯大學)。 He became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at East Hampton, New York, in 1798.他成為長老教會的牧師在東漢普頓,紐約,於1798年。 At this church, in 1804, he attained national prominence through his brilliant sermon on the death of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with the American statesman Aaron Burr.在這個教堂,在1804年,他獲得國家突出通過他的光輝講道在死亡的美國政治家亞歷山大漢密爾頓,誰在決鬥中被打死的美國政治家阿龍伯爾。 Beecher held pastorates successively at Litchfield, Connecticut, and Boston between 1810 and 1832, and during this period he became known as one of the most eloquent preachers of his time.比徹在利奇菲爾德先後舉行pastorates,康涅狄格州和波士頓1810年和1832年之間,在此期間,他被稱為一個最雄辯的鼓吹者,他的時間。 He also was one of the leaders of a Presbyterian faction, called the New School, that opposed the strict doctrine and discipline of the conservative Presbyterians, called the Old School.他也是一個長老會的領導人一個派別,叫做新學校,即反對和紀律的嚴格教義的保守長老,稱為舊學校。

In 1832 Beecher was appointed first president of Lane Theological Seminary, near Cincinnati, Ohio, and pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati.比徹在1832年被任命為第一任總統的神學院巷,靠近辛辛那提,俄亥俄和牧師第二長老教會的辛辛那提。 His doctrinal liberalism soon brought him into conflict with his regional superiors.他的理論使他很快自由主義與他發生衝突地區的上司。 In 1835 he was tried by the presbytery on charges of heresy and hypocrisy, but was acquitted. 1835年他被審判的長老收費的異端和虛偽,但被無罪釋放。 The Presbyterian Synod, to which the verdict was appealed, sustained his acquittal in the same year.長老主教會議,對此判決提出上訴,維持了其無罪,同年。 When the schism foreshadowed by the Old School - New School controversy finally developed in 1838, Beecher adhered to the New School. He continued to preach at his Cincinnati church until 1842 and retained the titular presidency of Lane Theological Seminary for the remainder of his life.當分裂預示了舊學校-新學的爭論終於在1838年制定,比徹堅持新學校。他繼續鼓吹他的教會,直到1842年辛辛那提和保留名譽主席的巷神學院,其餘的為他的生命。 He was the father of 13 children, among them the noted American writer Harriet Beecher Stowe.他是父親的13個孩子,其中包括著名的美國作家著名作家。 All seven of his sons became clergymen.所有7個兒子成了他的牧師。 His writings include Collected Works (3 volumes, 1852) and Autobiography and Correspondence (1863).他的著作包括文集(3卷,1852年)和自傳和通訊(1863年)。

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