General Information 一般信息

The Pharisees were a major Jewish sect from the 2d century BC to the 2d century AD.在法利賽是一項重大的猶太節從公元前2世紀到公元2世紀。 The seeds of Pharisaism were planted during the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 536 BC), and a clearly defined party emerged during the revolt of the Maccabees (167 - 165 BC) against the Seleucid rulers of Syria - Palestine.種子種植Pharisaism在巴比倫籠養( 587 -5 36年) ,並明確界定黨的過程中出現的反抗的馬加比( 1 67- 16 5年)對塞琉統治者敘利亞-巴勒斯坦。 The origin of the name Pharisees is uncertain; one suggestion renders it as "those separated," meaning separation from impurity and defilement.原產地的名稱法利是不確定的;一個建議使其為“分離” ,這意味著分離雜質和污辱。 The name first appeared during the reign of John Hyrcanus (135 - 105 BC), whom the Pharisees opposed because of his assumption of both the royal and high - priestly titles and because of the general secularism of the court.的名字第一次出現在約翰統治Hyrcanus ( 135 -1 05年) ,法利賽人的反對,因為他既擔任王室和高-祭司冠軍,並因為一般世俗法院。

The Pharisees' chief rival sect was the Sadducees. Whereas the Sadducees were drawn mainly from the conservative and aristocratic priestly class, the Pharisees tended to be middle class and open to religious innovation. In the interpretation of the law the Pharisees differed from the Sadducees in their use of oral legal tradition to supplement the Torah , although their interpretations, once given, were scrupulously adhered to. Pharisaic emphasis on divine providence led to a marked fatalism, and they adopted a belief in resurrection and an elaborate angelology, all of which was rejected by the Sadducees. The struggle for power between the two groups led to rancor and, in some cases, violence.在法利'節的主要競爭對手是撒都該人。 鑑於撒都該人制定主要是從保守貴族和祭司類,法利賽往往是中產階級和開放的宗教革新。在解釋法律的法利賽不同於在撒都該人他們使用口服法律傳統,以補充律法 ,雖然他們的解釋後,給予了嚴格遵守。 Pharisaic強調神導致了顯著宿命論,他們通過了一個復活的信念和精心天使,這一切都是拒絕撒都該人。權力鬥爭兩組間導致積怨,在某些情況下,暴力行為。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
In the New Testament the Pharisees appear as Jesus' most vocal critics. 在新約聖經的法利顯示為耶穌的最強烈批評。 Their insistence on ritual observance of the letter rather than the spirit of the law evoked strong denunciation by Jesus; he called them "white washed tombs" (Matt. 23:27) and self - righteous lovers of display (Matt. 6:1 - 6, 16 - 18). 他們堅持紀念儀式的信,而不是法律的精神,誘發強烈譴責耶穌;他呼籲他們“白洗墓” (瑪特泰23:27 )和自我-正義愛好者展示(瑪特泰6 :1- 6 , 16 -1 8) 。 The Pharisees are portrayed as plotting to destroy Jesus (Matt. 12:14), although they do not figure in the accounts of his arrest and trial.在法利賽人描繪成陰謀破壞耶穌(瑪特泰12:14 ) ,但他們並不數字賬戶中他的逮捕和審判。 Despite Jesus' attacks on the Pharisees - which were possibly on unrepresentative members of the sect - he shared many beliefs with them, including the resurrection of the dead.儘管耶穌的攻擊法利賽-這是可能的代表性成員的節-他有許多共同信仰,其中包括復活的死亡。

The Pharisees held the Jews together after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD.在法利賽猶太人舉行後一起破壞寺公元70 。 The sect continued into the 2d century, working on the redaction of the Talmud and looking for the restoration of Israel through divine intervention.該節一直持續到2世紀,從事編輯猶太法典,並尋求恢復以色列通過神的介入。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography 目錄
I Abrahams, Studies in Pharisees and the Gospels (1917 - 24); A Finkel, The Pharisees and the Teacher of Nazareth (1964); L Finkelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (1962); DS Russell, Between the Testaments (1960).餘亞伯拉罕,研究法利和福音( 1917 -2 4) ;阿芬克爾,在法利賽人及教師拿撒勒( 1 964年) ; L芬克爾斯坦,在法利賽:社會學背景下他們的信仰( 1 962年) ;德尚羅素之間的聖經( 1960年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Pharisees were an important Jewish group which flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first century AD在法利賽是一個重要的猶太團體在巴勒斯坦蓬勃發展的後期公元前二世紀後期到公元一世紀


Virtually all our knowledge about the Pharisees is derived from three sets of sources: the works of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War (ca. AD 75), The Antiquities of the Jews (ca. AD 94), and Life (ca. AD 101); the various compilations of the rabbis (ca. AD 200 and later); and the NT.幾乎所有我們了解法利來自三套來源:工程的猶太歷史學家約瑟夫弗拉菲烏斯,猶太戰爭(約公元75 ) ,古物的猶太人(約公元94 ) ,和生命(約。公元101 ) ;的各種資料彙編的拉比(約公元200及更高版本) ;和NT 。 Other works, parts of the Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, or the Dead Sea Scrolls, may also contain information concerning the Pharisees.其他工程,部分偽經的Pseudepigrapha ,或死海古卷,還可能包含有關法利。 But since the Pharisees are never explicitly mentioned in these works, their use in constructing a picture of the Pharisees is heavily dependent on prior assumptions which are at best speculative.但是,由於法利從未明確提到這些作品,將其用於建造一個圖片的法利賽是嚴重依賴於事先假定這是最好的投機性。

It should be noted, however, that even the use of the explicit sources is problematical.應該指出的是,即使是使用明確的來源問題。 Most of the NT is written from a point of view that is antagonistic to the tenets of Pharisaism.大多數的NT是書面的觀點是對立的原則Pharisaism 。 The rabbinic traditions about the Pharisees are also shaped by polemical forces and are often anachronistic.傳統的拉比的法利也形成的論戰力量,而且往往不合時宜。 The value of Josephus's information (traditionally regarded as the most helpful) is diminished by recent studies which suggest that Josephus was not a Pharisee before AD 70 and that his eventual conversion was motivated more by political realities than by careful study of the different Jewish sects.價值約瑟夫的信息(傳統上被視為最有幫助的)是減少了它最近的研究表明,約瑟夫不是一個法利賽人公元70之前,他的最終轉換的動機更多的是政治現實,而不是認真研究不同教派的猶太人。 It certainly cannot be denied that Josephus's descriptions of the Pharisees are superficial. In short, therefore, our sources provide neither a complete nor a straightforward picture of the Pharisees.這當然不能否認,約瑟夫的說明法利是膚淺的。總之,因此,我們既不來源提供一個完整的,也不是簡單的圖片的法利賽人。


Various etymologies have been proposed for the name "Pharisee." The only one to receive general approval is that which derives the name from the Aramaic passive participle peris, perisayya, meaning "separated."各種etymologies已經被提出了名稱為“法利賽人。 ”唯一的一個得到普遍認可的是,它的名字源於從阿拉姆被動分詞peris , perisayya ,意思是“分開。 ” The consensus is that the Pharisees regarded themselves, or were regarded, as the "separated ones."目前的共識是,在法利賽人認為自己,或者被視為作為“分開的。 ” From what or whom they were separated is not as clear.從什麼或他們分別是不明確的。 The Hasmonean rulers, the Gentiles, the common people, and non-Pharisaic Jews in general have all been suggested as possibilities.該Hasmonean的統治者,外邦人,共同的人民,和非猶太人Pharisaic一般都被建議的可能性。 Present evidence seems to favor the last two options.當前的證據似乎青睞的最後兩個選擇。

Nature and Influence性質和影響

The fundamental issue in Pharisaic studies is the twofold question of the nature of the group and its influence within broader Judaism.最根本的問題是Pharisaic研究的雙重問題的性質,組和它的影響力在更廣泛的猶太教。 Two basic positions have been taken on this question.兩個基本立場已經採取了這個問題。 The traditional view holds that the Pharisees were the creators and shapers of late second temple Judaism.傳統觀點認為,法利賽人的創造和塑造下旬第二次廟會猶太教。 They were not so much a sect as a dominant party within Judaism.他們沒有這麼多教派佔主導地位作為一個黨的猶太教。 According to the traditional view, although not all Pharisees were legal experts, Pharisaism was the ideology of the vast majority of the scribes and lawyers.根據傳統觀點,儘管並非所有法利賽人的法律專家, Pharisaism是意識形態的絕大多數文士和律師。 Thus, as a group the Pharisees were the guardians and interpreters of the law.因此,作為一個群體的法利賽人的監護人和口譯員的法律。 Jewish institutions associated with the law, such as the synagogue and the Sanhedrin, were Pharisaic institutions. While disagreeing over whether the Pharisees were primarily politically or religiously oriented, proponents of the traditional view agree that the Pharisees commanded the loyalty of the masses in both spheres. Indeed, most proponents of the traditional view would accept Elias Bickerman's dictum: "Judaism of the post-Maccabean period is Pharisaic."猶太機構相關的法律,如猶太教堂和公會,是Pharisaic機構。雖然不贊同是否法利賽主要是政治或宗教導向,提倡傳統的觀點認為,法利賽指揮的忠誠的群眾都領域。事實上,大多數支持者的傳統觀點將接受埃利亞斯Bickerman的格言: “猶太教後Maccabean期間Pharisaic 。 ”

The second point of view is a relatively recent development. Proponents of this position argue that when the inherent limitations and tendencies of our sources are taken into account, the Pharisees come across not as the creators and shapers of Judaism but merely as one of its many expressions.第二個觀點是一個相對較新的發展。贊成這一立場爭辯說,當固有的局限性和傾向的來源是考慮到,在法利賽碰到不作為創作者和塑造猶太教,而只是作為其許多表情。 In essence, according to this view, the Pharisees were a rather tightly knit sect organized around the observance of purity and tithing laws; on most other issues the Pharisees reflected the range of views present within Judaism.從本質上說,根據這一觀點,法利是一個相當嚴密的邪教組織在遵守純度和什一奉獻的法律;對大多數其他問題的法利反映了各種不同的意見,目前在猶太教。 Since Josephus and the Gospels carefully distinguish between the Pharisees and the scribes, scholars of this persuasion argue that it is better not to confuse Pharisaism with the ideology of the scribes.自從約瑟夫和福音仔細區分法利賽和文士,學者的勸說認為,最好是不要混淆Pharisaism與思想的文士。 Pharisaism must be seen as a movement which drew from all walks of life. Pharisaism必須被看作是一種運動吸引來自各行各業。 There were Pharisees who were political and religious leaders, but their positions of influence were due to other factors besides sectarian affiliation.有法利賽誰是政治和宗教領袖,但其立場的影響,因為除了其他因素的宗派關係。 Proponents of this second view posit that the Judaism of Christ's day was much more dynamic and variegated than the traditional view allows and that the Pharisees were only one of several sects that influenced the development of Judaism.支持者認為這第二個假定的猶太教基督的天更是充滿活力和多樣的比傳統的看法,並允許該法利只是幾個教派,影響發展的猶太教。

Of course, not all scholars subscribe to one of these two views; many hold mediating positions.當然,並不是所有的學者之一訂閱這兩個意見;許多舉行調解的立場。 Nevertheless, these two views constitute the foundations upon which the modern study of Pharisaism is based.然而,這兩種觀點構成基礎的現代研究Pharisaism的基礎。


The origin of the Pharisaic movement is shrouded in mystery. According to Josephus, the Pharisees first became a significant force in Jewish affairs during the reign of Hyrcanus I (134-104 BC).的起源Pharisaic運動是籠罩在神秘。根據約瑟夫的法利賽首次成為一支重要力量猶太人事務的統治期間的Hyrcanus口(公元前134-104 ) 。 In an earlier work, however, Josephus places the rise of the Pharisees much later, during the reign of Salome Alexandra (76-67 BC).在早先的工作,但是,約瑟夫地方的崛起法利更晚,在統治撒羅米亞歷山德拉( 76-67年) 。 Some scholars who view the Pharisees as the shapers of late second temple Judaism have sought to trace the beginnings of the group back to the time of Ezra and beyond.一些學者認為誰的法利賽人的塑造第二晚猶太教廟宇設法追查的開端組回來的時間以斯拉和超越。 But such reconstructions are speculative at best.但是,這種重建是投機最好。 It is more likely that the Pharisees were one of several groups to grow out of the revival and resistance movement of the Maccabean period (ca. 166-160 BC).這是更有可能的法利賽之一,幾組增加了恢復和抵抗運動的Maccabean時期(約公元166-160年) 。

Whatever its origins, the Pharisaic movement seems to have undergone a two-stage development.不管其起源,遷徙的Pharisaic似乎已經歷了兩個階段的發展。 During the reign of Salome Alexandra the Pharisees as a group were heavily involved in politics and national policy making.在莎樂美統治的法利賽珊作為一個群體被大量參與政治和國家決策。 Sometime after this, possibly when Herod the Great rose to power (37 BC), the Pharisees withdrew from politics.有時後,可能當希律王大上升到權力( 37年) ,在法利退出政壇。 Individual Pharisees remained politically involved, but there was no longer any official Pharisaic political agenda.個人法利仍然在政治上參與,但已不再有任何官方Pharisaic政治議程。 This seems to have been the situation during the time of Christ.這似乎已在的情況時,基督。

The Pharisees were divided over the issue of Roman rule.在法利賽分成的問題,羅馬統治。 Josephus tells us that a Pharisee named Zaddok was instrumental in forming a "fourth philosophy" which was violently opposed to Roman rule. Elsewhere, however, Josephus records that at a later time certain well-placed Pharisees sought to forestall the Jews' rush toward revolt against the empire.歷史學家告訴我們,法利賽人命名Zaddok有助於形成一個“第四哲學” ,這是暴力反對羅馬統治。其他地方,但是,約瑟夫記錄,在以後的某些有利地位法利設法阻止猶太人起義急於走向對帝國。 It is impossible to tell which tendency reflected the conviction of the majority of the Pharisees.這是不可能告訴這趨勢反映了信念的大多數法利。

After the Jewish revolt of AD 70 many scholars with Pharisaic leanings gathered at the city of Jamnia to form a school for the preservation and redefinition of Judaism.在猶太人起義70的AD與許多學者Pharisaic傾向聚集在城市詹姆尼,形成一所學校,為維護和重新界定猶太教。 There is evidence that the Jamnia school was not exclusively Pharisaic.有證據表明,詹姆尼學校並不完全Pharisaic 。 Nevertheless, it can be safely said that the Pharisees were the single most powerful sectarian element at Jamnia.然而,可以有把握地說,法利賽人是最強大的宗派元素詹姆尼。 Thus they played an important role at the beginning of the century-long process which transformed second temple Judaism into rabbinic Judaism.因此,他們發揮了重要的作用在本世紀初長的過程,第二個轉變到寺廟猶太教拉比猶太教。


The Pharisees were strongly committed to the daily application and observance of the law.在法利賽人堅定地致力於日常應用和遵守法律。 This means they accepted the traditional elaborations of the law which made daily application possible.這意味著他們接受了傳統的闡釋的法律,每日應用可能。 They believed, moreover, in the existence of spirits and angels, the resurrection, and the coming of a Messiah.他們認為,此外,在存在的精神和天使,復活,以及未來的救世主。 They also maintained that the human will enjoyed a limited freedom within the sovereign plan of God.他們還堅持認為,人類將享有有限的範圍內自由的主權計劃的上帝。

Yet there is little evidence to suggest that these were distinctively Pharisaic beliefs.然而,幾乎沒有證據表明,這些人明顯Pharisaic信念。 To the best of our knowledge these beliefs were the common heritage of most Jews.要盡我們所知這些信仰的共同遺產,大多數猶太人。 To some scholars this fact is proof that the Pharisees were the dominant religious force in Judaism; to others it is only another indication that the Pharisees' distinguishing mark was nothing but the scrupulous observance of purity and tithing laws.一些學者這一事實證明,法利賽人的主要宗教猶太教力量;給他人,只有另一跡象表明,法利'區分標誌,無非是嚴格遵守的純度和什一奉獻的法律。

The Pharisees and Jesus在法利賽和耶穌

The NT does not present a simple picture of the relationship between the Pharisees and Jesus.新台幣沒有提出一個簡單的圖片之間的關係法利和耶穌。 Pharisees warn Jesus of a plot against his life (Luke 13:31); in spite of their dietary scruples they invite him for meals (Luke 7:36-50; 14:1); some of them even believe in Jesus (John 3:1; 7:45-53; 9:13-38); later, Pharisees are instrumental in ensuring the survival of Jesus' followers (Acts 5:34; 23:6-9).法利說耶穌的陰謀對付他的生命(路13:31 ) ; ,儘管他們的飲食顧忌,他們邀請他吃飯(路7:36-50 ;十四時01分) ;其中一些人甚至相信耶穌(約翰三: 1 ; 7:45-53 ; 9:13-38 ) ;後,法利賽是在確保生存的耶穌的信徒(使徒5時34分; 23:6-9 ) 。

Nevertheless, Pharisaic opposition to Jesus is a persistent theme in all four Gospels.然而, Pharisaic反對耶穌是一個持續的主題在所有四個福音。 This opposition has been explained differently by those who hold differing views on the nature and influence of the Pharisees.這反對派一直有不同的解釋這些誰持有不同意見的性質和影響力的法利賽人。 Those who see the Pharisees as a class of political leaders posit that Jesus came to be understood as a political liability or threat.這些誰看到法利賽作為一個階級的政治領導人斷定,耶穌後來被理解為一種政治責任或威脅。 Those who understand the Pharisees as a society of legal and religious experts suggest that Jesus became viewed as a dangerous rival, a false teacher with antinomian tendencies.這些誰了解法利作為一個社會的法律和宗教專家建議,耶穌成為看作是一個危險的對手,假教師antinomian傾向。 To the extent that there were Pharisaic leaders and scribes, both these factors probably played a part.只要有Pharisaic領導人和文士,這些因素都可能發揮了作用。 Yet other scholars point out that according to the Gospels the disputes between Jesus and the Pharisees centered primarily on the validity and application of purity, tithing, and sabbath laws (eg, Matt. 12:2, 12-14; 15:1-12; Mark 2:16; Luke 11:39-42).然而,其他學者指出,根據福音的耶穌之間的爭端和法利賽人為本,主要的有效性和應用純潔性,什一奉獻,和安息日的法律(例如,馬特。 12:2 , 12-14 ; 15:1-12馬克2時16分;盧克11:39-42 ) 。 In the light of this evidence it would seem that at least part of the Pharisaic opposition to Jesus was occasioned by the obvious disparity between Jesus' claims about himself and his disregard for observances regarded by the Pharisees as necessary marks of piety.鑑於這方面的證據看來,至少有一部分Pharisaic反對耶穌所引起的明顯差距耶穌聲稱他本人和他無視紀念活動看作由法利必要的標誌虔誠。 In the end, the Pharisees could not reconcile Jesus, his actions and his claims, with their own understanding of piety and godliness.最後,法利無法調和耶穌,他的行動和他的說法,他們有著自己的理解和信仰的虔誠。

S Taylor這是一種為了滿足泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J. Bowker, Jesus and the Pharisees; E. Rivkin, "Defining the Pharisees; The Tannaitic Sources," HUCA 40-41:205-49, and A Hidden Revolution; L. Finkelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith, 2 vols.; RT Herford, The Pharisees; E. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ; HD Mantel, "The Sadducees and the Pharisees," in The World History of the Jewish People, VIII; M. Avi-Yonah and Z. Baras, eds., Society and Religion in the Second Temple Period; J. Neusner, From Politics to Piety: The Emergence of Pharisaic Judaism.學者鮑克,耶穌和法利賽人;體育里夫金“ ,確定法利;的Tannaitic來源” , HUCA 40-41:205-49 ,並隱革命;屬芬克爾斯坦,在法利賽:社會學背景的信念2第一卷和第二卷。 ;逆轉錄爾福德,在法利賽人;體育Schurer ,史猶太民族時代的耶穌基督;高清曼特爾說: “撒都該人和法利賽人, ”在世界歷史的猶太社區,八;阿維先生, Yonah和威爾Baras合編。 ,社會和宗教在第二聖殿時期; Neusner學者,從政治到孝:出現Pharisaic猶太教。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Pharisees were separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, "to separate").法利賽人的分離主義分子(希伯來書persahin ,來自parash , “分離” ) 。 They were probably the successors of the Assideans (ie, the "pious"), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy.他們可能的繼承人Assideans (即“虔誠” )的黨,起源於時間安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯在反抗他heathenizing政策。 The first mention of them is in a description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the Jews were divided (BC 145).首先提到的是在一個由約瑟夫描述的三個教派或學校變成了猶太人被分為(公元前145 ) 。 The other two sects were the Essenes and the Sadducees.其他兩個教派的愛色尼和撒都該人。 In the time of our Lord they were the popular party (John 7:48).在規定的時間內我們的主他們是人民黨(約7點48 ) 。 They were extremely accurate and minute in all matters appertaining to the law of Moses (Matt. 9:14; 23:15; Luke 11:39; 18:12).他們都非常準確,一分鐘,所有事項附屬物的摩西律法(瑪特泰9時14分; 23:15 ;盧克11:39 ; 18:12 ) 。 Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem, professed himself a Pharisee (Acts 23:6-8; 26:4, 5).保羅時,提交安理會耶路撒冷,聲稱自己是法利賽人(使徒23:6-8 ; 26:4 , 5 ) 。

There was much that was sound in their creed, yet their system of religion was a form and nothing more.有許多是無害的信仰,但其系統的宗教是一種形式而已。 Theirs was a very lax morality (Matt. 5:20; 15:4, 8; 23:3, 14, 23, 25; John 8:7).他們是一個非常寬鬆的道德(瑪特泰5點20分, 15點04分, 8個; 23時零三, 14日, 23日, 25日;約翰8時07分) 。 On the first notice of them in the New Testament (Matt. 3:7), they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees as a "generation of vipers."在第一通知他們在新約全書(瑪特泰3:7 ) ,他們的排名,是我們的上帝與撒都該人為“新一代的毒蛇。 ” They were noted for their self-righteousness and their pride (Matt. 9:11; Luke 7: 39; 18: 11, 12).他們指出他們的自以為是和他們的驕傲(瑪特泰9時11分;盧克7 : 39 ; 18 : 11日, 12日) 。 They were frequently rebuked by our Lord (Matt. 12:39; 16:1-4). From the very beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and persistent enemies of our Lord.他們經常指責我們的上帝(瑪特泰12:39 ; 16:1-4 ) 。從一開始他的部的法利表明自己的痛苦和持久的敵人我們的上帝。 They could not bear his doctrines, and they sought by every means to destroy his influence among the people.他們無法忍受他的學說,他們所尋求的一切手段來摧毀他的影響力的人。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)

Also, see:此外,見:
(Advanced) Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes (高級)法利,撒都該人,以及愛色尼

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