Church Music聖歌 教會音樂

General Information 一般信息

Music that is used as a functional part of corporate Christian worship can properly be called church music.音樂是作為一種功能性的一部分,基督教崇拜的企業能正確被稱為教堂音樂。 It varies greatly among religious groups by reason of differences in tradition, dogma, taste, financial support, and degrees of musical skill.它有很大不同宗教團體之間因不同的傳統,教條,口味,財政支持,以及程度的音樂技巧。

By far the largest amount and the highest artistic level of church music may be found for the choir, that is, in Choral Music. The traditional choral forms of the church--Masses, Motets, Anthems, and Cantatas--were developed to fill needs of the liturgies from which they sprang. 迄今為止數額最大和最高藝術水平的教堂音樂可以找到的合唱團,就是在合唱音樂。傳統的合唱形式的教堂-大眾,經文歌,國歌,以及康塔塔-開發,以填補需要liturgies他們從興起。 Nonliturgical faiths have not contributed significant musical forms but have provided additional dimensions to those named here. Nonliturgical信仰沒有顯著貢獻的音樂形式,但提供了更多的方面,這些命名這裡。

The music of the early church was intended for unison chorus (Plainsong), but the general acceptance of Polyphony in the Middle Ages moved the performance of part-music into the choir, which further benefited by the addition of instruments to the performing combination. In later years, such widely different sects as the Russian Orthodox and the Disciples of Christ have stressed choral music but have forbidden the use of instruments in their worship. Christian Science traditionally employs only a solo singer. Most denominations have depended on choirs, paid or volunteer, to supply the bulk of their vocal music, generally with Organ accompaniment. 音樂早期的教堂是為了齊聲合唱團( Plainsong ) ,但普遍接受的复調在中世紀的表現感動的部分音樂的合唱團,這進一步受益的除了文書表演組合。 在隨後幾年中,這種廣泛的不同教派的俄羅斯東正教和基督信徒所強調的合唱音樂,但禁止使用的文書在其崇拜。基督教科學傳統的員工只有獨唱歌手。面額有大部分取決於合唱團,支付或志願,以供應其大部分聲樂,一般機關伴奏。 The organ has been an important feature of church music because it satisfies the need for variety in supporting choral music without imposing the burden and expense of an instrumental ensemble; it is also a satisfactory instrument for leading congregational singing.該機構一直是一個重要的特點,教堂音樂,因為它滿足需要的各種支持合唱音樂而不強加的負擔和犧牲的器樂合奏,它也是一個令人滿意的手段,導致公理唱歌。

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There has been a centuries-long debate on the propriety of the popular idiom in church. Borrowing from secular sources in order to "intoxicate the ear" was deplored in the 14th century by Pope John XXII, and the matter has never since been settled satisfactorily. The Cantus Firmi of the Renaissance were often taken from Chansons.出現了長達數世紀的辯論是適當的流行成語中教堂。 舉債從世俗的來源,以便“醉人的耳朵”的遺憾在14世紀由教皇約翰二十二,和這個問題從來沒有被圓滿解決。 Firmi的坎圖斯文藝復興時期往往是從Chansons 。 Luther adapted secular tunes to the needs of his Chorales, and, since the middle of the 20th century, folk and popular idioms have again been incorporated into the music of the church.路德適應世俗歌曲的需要,他Chorales ,並自本世紀中葉,民歌和流行的成語又被納入了音樂的教堂。

Elwyn A. Wienandt Elwyn字母a. Wienandt

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Davidson, AT, Church Music (1952); Douglas, W., Church Music in History and Practice, rev.戴維森,美國,教會音樂( 1952年) ;道格拉斯,美國,教會音樂的歷史和實踐,恢復。 by L. Ellinwood (1962); Ellinwood, L., The History of American Church Music (1953); Fellerer, KG, The History of Catholic Church Music (1961); Routley, Erik, Twentieth Century Church Music (1964); Stevens, Denis, Tudor Church Music (1955); Wienandt, Elwyn A., Choral Music of the Church (1965; repr. 1979) and Opinions on Church Music (1974).由L. Ellinwood ( 1962 ) ; Ellinwood ,研究,歷史的美國教會音樂( 1953年) ; Fellerer ,公斤,歷史的天主教教會音樂( 1961年) ; Routley ,埃里克,二十世紀的教堂音樂( 1964年) ;史蒂文斯丹尼斯,都鐸教會音樂( 1955年) ; Wienandt , Elwyn a.段,合唱音樂堂( 1965年; repr 。 1979年)和意見教會音樂( 1974年) 。



Christian Music基督教音樂

General Information 一般信息

Plainsong is the name given to the monodic (single melodic line) vocal liturgical music of the Christian Catholic churches. It is unaccompanied and is usually in rhythm that is free, not divided into a regular measure. Plainsong的名稱是考慮到monodic (單旋律線)聲樂禮儀音樂基督教天主教教堂。這是孤身和通常是在節奏,是免費的,而不是分為定期措施。 As commonly used, the terms plainsong or plainchant and Gregorian chant are synonymous, although study readily shows the subject to be more complex.作為常用的術語plainsong或plainchant和格里高利聖歌是同義詞,但研究表明,容易受更為複雜。


After attending synagogue services on the sabbath, the early Christians repaired to the house of one of their members for agape, or love feast, a reenactment of the Last Supper and of the sacrificial death and resurrection of Christ.在出席猶太教堂服務的安息日,早日修復,以基督徒的房子之一,其成員為天主的愛德,或愛情盛宴,一個重演的最後的晚餐和犧牲的死亡和復活的基督。 Synagogue cantors attended the agape, and they brought a sophisticated music to a fledgling faith.猶太教堂cantors參加了天主的愛德,他們帶來了先進的音樂,一個新生的信念。 From cantorial song and from the melodic evolution of simple declamation, a profusion of liturgical chants developed by the 4th and 5th centuries. As the church spread, different traditions of chant arose, the most important being Byzantine, Old Roman, Gallican, and Mozarabic. The chant of Rome had developed by the time of Pope Gregory I (The Great; 590 - 604), after whom the whole body of Roman chant is named.從合唱指揮家的歌曲,從旋律演變的簡單declamation ,一個豐富的禮儀聖歌開發的第4和第5世紀。由於教堂蔓延,不同的傳統聖歌站起身來,其中最重要的是拜占庭,老羅馬,高盧聖,並摩沙拉。該詠羅馬已制定的時候, 教皇格里高利一世(大; 590 -6 04)後,他們整個身體的羅馬詠命名。

Under the reign of a Byzantine pope, Vitalian (657 - 672), the liturgy and chant of Rome underwent a thorough reformation, the fruits of which were designed for the exclusive use of the papal court.根據統治的拜占庭教皇, Vitalian ( 657 -6 72)的禮儀和聖歌的羅馬進行了徹底改造,果實其目的是專用的教皇法庭。 It was this chant that Charlemagne, some 150 years later, spread throughout the Frankish Empire as a part of his attempts at political unification. Vitalian (or Carolingian) chant, although highly ornamented, was characterized by great clarity of melodic line.正是這種吟詠的查理曼,大約150年後,擴散到整個法蘭克帝國的一部分,他試圖在政治上的統一。 Vitalian (或加洛林)聖歌,雖然高度裝飾,其特點是非常明確的旋律線。 As befitted the accentual patterns of the free prose texts, the chant melodies were written in a free rhythm using notes of long and short duration in proportion of two to one.作為befitted的重音模式的自由散文的案文,吟唱的旋律寫在一個自由的節奏使用說明長期和短期的比例2比1 。

Largely because of the rise of Polyphony, by the 11th century the subtleties of Vitalian chant were quite lost. 這主要是因為崛起的复調,由11世紀的微妙之處Vitalian詠相當丟失。 All notes were given the same basic duration, and thus rhythm was no longer proportional but equalist (hence the term cantus planus or plainsong), and ornamentation gradually disappeared. 的所有筆記有相同的基本期限,因此,節奏不再是成正比,但equalist (因此,長期旋律苔癬或plainsong )和紋飾逐漸消失。

Beginning in the 12th century the melodic notes themselves were tampered with, and by the early 16th century the melodies had been ruthlessly truncated.從12世紀的旋律注意到自己篡改,以及16世紀初的旋律已經無情地截斷。


No liturgical manuscripts exist that contain musical notation by which the old Roman chant as it was heard during Gregory's reign might be read or reconstructed. There is every reason to believe, however, that the tradition of 7th century Vitalian chant is faithfully preserved in 9th and 10th century manuscripts, the earliest actual sources of chant. 沒有禮儀手稿存在包含樂譜,其中舊羅馬聖歌因為它是在聽取了格雷戈里的統治地位可能會讀取或重建。有一切理由相信,然而,傳統的公元7世紀Vitalian詠是忠實地保存在第9和10世紀的手稿,最早的實際來源的聖歌。 The musical signs therein are not written notes, but rather depictions of the melodic shapes to be traced in air by the hand of the conductor, whose direction reminded the singers (schola cantorum) of the correct notes and indicated both rhythm and ornamentation.音樂劇的跡象都不是書面說明,而是描寫的旋律形狀進行追踪空氣中的手的指揮,其方向提醒歌手( schola cantorum )正確的說明,並表示雙方的節奏和紋飾。 The notational shapes were called neumes, and there were several neumatic systems; the most important and complete manuscripts containing them now bear the call numbers St. Gall 339 and 359 and Einsiedeln 121 (in St. Gall notation) and Laon 239 (in Metz notation). notational形狀的被稱為neumes ,並有幾個neumatic系統;最重要和最完整的手稿載他們現在承擔通話電話號碼街癭339和359和艾因西德倫121 (在聖加爾符號)和拉昂239 (在梅斯符號) 。

Various attempts were made in the 11th and 12th centuries to discover methods of notating melodies exactly: in some manuscripts alphabetical letters indicating precise pitches were written above the text's syllables; more often, in so - called diastematic notation, simplified neumes were written on from one to four pitch lines.各種嘗試進行了第11次和12世紀發現的方法notating旋律完全:在一些手稿按字母順序排列的字母顯示準確投球上面寫的文字的音節;更加頻繁,在這樣-所謂d iastematic符號,簡化n eumes寫上從一四個攤位線。

During the last hundred years, monks of the French Abbey of Solesmes have compared the melodic configurations in 9th and 10th century neumatic manuscripts with the same melodies in lettered and diastematic notation.在過去的一百年,僧侶的法國修道院索雷姆有比較旋律配置在第9和第10世紀neumatic手稿具有相同的旋律在diastematic字母和符號。 They restored and corrected the notes of the melodies; however, they retained the equalist rhythm of the 11th and succeeding centuries, the neumatic rhythmic indications merely as nuances.他們恢復和更正說明的旋律,但是它們保留了equalist節奏,第11和繼承百年來, neumatic節奏的跡象僅僅是細微的差別。 Such students of chant as Peter Wagner have lamented the loss of a proportional rhythm, pointing out the consistent unsuitability of melodies to texts when the melodies are understood in equalist terms.這些學生的聖歌作為彼得瓦格納都感到遺憾的損失比例的節奏,指出不適當的一致文本的旋律時,旋律的理解equalist條件。 The Dutch musicologist Jan Vollaerts (1901 - 56), relying heavily on MS Laon 239, developed a system for the proportional interpretation of neumes, thus clearing the way for a complete reconstruction of Vitalian chant; although further clarification and correction are needed, his theories, more than those of any other, point in the correct direction.荷蘭音樂揚Vollaerts ( 1901至56年) ,主要依賴於MS拉昂239 ,制定了系統的比例解釋neumes ,從而掃清了道路一個完整的重建Vitalian詠;雖然進一步澄清和糾正有必要,他的理論,超過任何其他,指向的正確方向。

Forms and Liturgical Use禮儀形式和使用

Chant plays an integral role in the mass and divine office.詠起著不可或缺的作用在大眾和神聖的辦公室。 Certain parts in simple, set formulas are assigned to the ministers; ordinary parts are sung by the congregation in simple melodies; complex chants proper to the feasts of the liturgical calendar are sung by the schola of trained singers.在某些地區的簡單,設定的公式分配給部長;普通零件成的簡單聚集在旋律;複雜的聖歌適當的節日禮儀的日曆是唱的schola受過訓練的歌手。 It was the propers of mass and office that were notated in the neumatic manuscripts.這是propers大規模和辦公notated是在neumatic手稿。 Two basic forms exist: Antiphon and responsory. Both have an ABA structure, with texts normally taken from the psalms.兩種基本形式存在: Antiphon和唱和。雙方有一個ABA的結構,文本通常取自詩篇。 In the antiphon, A is musically rather direct; B is a solo verse set to a simple formula. The A section in the responsory is relatively complex, with B an ornate vehicle for the cantor's musicianship.在antiphon , A是音樂而不是直接的; B是獨奏詩句設置為一個簡單的公式。的一節中的唱和比較複雜,與B車的華麗的領唱者的音樂。

The proper parts of the mass sung by the schola include: (1) the introit antiphon, or processional entrance song, which announces the feast being celebrated that day; (2) the gradual, a response to the Old Testament prophetical reading; (3) the alleluia, a response to the New Testament lesson and introduction to the reading of the Gospel; (4) the offertory, a processional piece in modified responsory form having from two to four highly ornate solo verses; and (5) the Communion antiphon.正確的部分群眾所唱schola包括: ( 1 ) introit antiphon ,或processional入口歌曲,其中宣布正在慶祝節日這一天; ( 2 )循序漸進,回應舊約預言的閱讀; ( 3 )的哈里路亞,應對新約的教訓,並介紹了讀福音; ( 4 )奉獻,一個在processional一塊唱和的形式修改了2至4個高度華麗的獨奏詩句; ( 5 )共融antiphon 。 During the time commemorating Christ's resurrection, the gradual is replaced by an alleluia; in times of penance or mourning, the alleluia is replaced by a tract (verses of a psalm); on certain feasts a Sequence is sung.在本次紀念基督的復活,逐步取代了哈里路亞;的時候懺悔或哀悼,對哈里路亞是取而代之的是道(聖經的詩篇) ;對某些節日序列是朴智星。 The ordinary parts of the mass sung by the congregation include the petition Kyrie eleison, the Credo or statement of beliefs, the Sanctus, the Pater noster (The Lord's Prayer), the petition Agnus Dei, and the hymn of praise Gloria in excelsis.普通地區的大規模成眾所包括的請願Kyrie eleison的信條或聲明的信念,眾神的佩特noster (該主禱文) ,呈請Agnus棣和聖歌讚美凱萊在excelsis 。

The office, or "canonical hours," is a set of 8 prayer hours that are spread throughout the day from before sunrise to nightfall. It consists of the singing of psalms, each preceded and followed by an antiphon proper to the feast or day, with hymns and orations. The 2 main hours are lauds (6 AM) and vespers (6 PM); the nocturnal hour of matins includes sung prophecies and lessons, with proper responsories.在辦公室,或“標準分” ,是一套8祈禱小時遍布每天從日出前到天黑。它包括唱詩歌,每一之前和之後, antiphon適當的節日或一天,與讚美詩和演說辭。 2分,主要是讚揚( 6分)和晚禱( 6分) ;夜間小時的matins包括成讖語和教訓,在適當的responsories 。

R John Blackley R約翰Blackley

Bibliography 目錄
W Apel, Gregorian Chant (1958); D Conomos, Byzantine Hymnology and Byzantine Chant (1984); DG Murray, Gregorian Chant According to the Manuscripts (1963); R / BC Pugsley, The Sound Eternal (1987); J Rayburn, Gregorian Chant (1964); Solesmes, ed., Paleographie musicale (1889), MS Einsiedeln 121 (1894), and vol. 10, MS Laon 239 (1909); SJP van Dijk, "The Old - Roman Rite," Studia patristica 80 (1962), "Papal Schola versus Charlemagne," in Organicae Voces (1963), and "The Urban and Papal Rites in Seventh and Eighth Century Rome," Sacris erudiri 12 (1961); JWA Vollaerts, Rhythmic Proportions in Early Medieval Ecclesiastical Chant (1960); P Wagner, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies: A Handbook of Plainsong (1910); E Werner, The Sacred Bridge (1959). W阿佩爾,陽曆詠( 1958年) ; D Conomos ,拜占庭帝國和拜占庭帝國Hymnology詠( 1984年) ;總局穆雷,格里高利聖歌根據手稿( 1963 ) ;的R /公元前Pugsley ,聲音永恆( 1987年) ; J當時的眾議院,陽曆詠( 1964 ) ;索雷姆,編輯。 , Paleographie音樂( 1889年) ,質譜艾因西德倫121 ( 1894年)和第二卷。 10 ,質譜拉昂239 ( 1909年) ; SJP凡戴克說: “老-羅馬禮” , 8 0個學科p atristica ( 1962年) , “教皇Schola與查理曼, ”在Organicae Voces ( 1963年) ,以及“城市和教皇儀式在第七和第八屆世紀的羅馬, ” Sacris erudiri 12日( 1961年) ; JWA基因Vollaerts ,藝術比例中世紀早期教會聖歌( 1960年) ; P瓦格納介紹陽曆旋律:手冊Plainsong ( 1910 ) ;電子郵件維爾納,聖橋( 1959年) 。

Choral Music合唱音樂

General Information 一般信息

The words chorus and choir--both derived from the ancient Greek choros, meaning a band of dancers and singers--are commonly understood to mean a large group of singers who combine their voices (with or without instrumental accompaniment) in several "parts," or independent melodic lines.一語合唱團和合唱團-都源於古希臘喬羅斯,這意味著一個樂隊的舞者和歌手-通常理解為一個大集團的合併歌手誰的聲音(有或沒有器樂伴奏)的幾個“零件, “或獨立的旋律行。 This definition, however, is very elastic. The most common type of choral ensemble today performs music in 4 parts, each assigned to a different voice range: soprano (high female), alto (low female), tenor (high male), and bass (low male).這一定義,但是,非常彈性。 最常見的類型的合唱團今天表現音樂4個部分,每個分配給不同的聲音範圍:女高音(高女) ,阿爾托(低女) ,男高音(高男) ,以及低音(低男性) 。 The abbreviation "SATB" refers to this type of "mixed" chorus, and to the music composed for it. There are many other common types: women's chorus (two soprano parts and two alto, of SSAA), men's chorus (TTBB), and double chorus (two distinct SATB groups), to name a few.縮寫“ SATB ”是指這種類型的“混合”合唱團,和音樂組成的。還有許多其他常見的類型:婦女合唱團(兩個高音部分和兩個上的SSAA ) ,男子合唱團( TTBB )雙合唱團( SATB兩個不同的群體) ,僅舉幾例。 Many choral works are in more or less than 4 parts, from as few as one ("monophonic," all singers singing the same melody) to as many as several dozen (as in the 40-part motet Spen in alium, by Thomas Tallis, or certain 20th-century works).許多合唱作品都多於或少於4個部分,從只有一個( “單聲道” ,所有歌手演唱同一旋律)多達幾十個(如40部分經文歌中花在alium ,由托馬斯塔利斯,或某些20世紀的作品) 。 Furthermore, there is no agreement as to the minimum number of singers in a "chorus."此外,也沒有協議的最低數目的歌手在“大合唱” 。 It has been suggested, for example, that certain choral works by composers such as Heinrich Schutz and JS Bach were originally performed with just one singer to a part.有人建議,例如,某些合唱作品的作曲家如海因里希舒茨和江蘇巴赫原來用一個歌手的一部分。 The more usual term for such a small group, however, would be not "chorus" but "vocal ensemble."更通常的任期為這樣一個小群體,但將不會“合唱” ,而是“聲樂合奏。 ”

The distinction (unique to English) between choir and chorus is fairly clear: a choir generally sings sacred or art music of earlier centuries (as in "madrigal choir"), while a chorus is associated with concert works, opera, musical theater, and popular entertainment. 這種區別(獨特的英語)之間的合唱團和合唱團是相當明確:一般合唱團唱的神聖或藝術音樂世紀早期(如“牧歌合唱團” ) ,而合唱團與作品音樂會,歌劇,音樂劇劇場,和流行的娛樂節目。 Among other names for vocal groups, glee club usually refers to a school chorus; a chorale of singers is a concert chorus; and the meaning of consort, properly an instrumental group that plays 17th- or 18th-century music, is sometimes extended to include singers.除其他名稱聲樂團體,高興俱樂部通常是指一個學校合唱團,一個合唱團的歌手是合唱音樂會;的意義勾勾搭搭,適當的工具組,發揮17或18世紀的音樂,有時是擴大到包括歌手。

Early Choral Music早期合唱音樂

Many cultures have traditions of group singing, but the two that laid the foundations of Western choral music were the Greek and Jewish cultures of the pre-Christian era.許多文化傳統的組唱,但兩個奠定了基礎,西方合唱音樂是希臘和猶太文化的預公元。 The chorus in Greek drama grew out of groups that sang and danced at religious festivals.合唱團在希臘戲劇中衍生出來的團體載歌載舞的宗教節日。 (The sense of "dance" survives in such terms as choreography and chorus line.) The Old Testament contains many references to choral singing on important occasions in Jewish life; the large and skillful choir at the Temple of Jerusalem (supplied by a famous choir school attached to the Temple) was the model for smaller synagogue choirs throughout ancient Israel. Both Greek and Jewish choral music of this period was monophonic and antiphonal--that is, performed responsively between soloists and choirs, or between two choruses. (感的“舞蹈”在這種生存條件的舞蹈和合唱隊) 。舊約包含了許多參考合唱團在重要場合在猶太人的生活;的大型合唱團,並善於在耶路撒冷的聖殿(由著名的合唱團學校重視寺)是模型的猶太教堂的合唱團小古代以色列全境。兩國希臘和猶太合唱音樂的這一時期的單聲道和antiphonal -也就是說,負責任的演出獨唱和合唱團之間,或兩個合唱團。

As an underground sect of Judaism, the early Christian church inherited the anitphonal style but not the splendor of Jewish public worship. Soon after the Roman emperor Constantine the Great officially sanctioned Christianity in 313, the first schola cantorum (literally "choir school," as well as the performing group from such a school) was founded in Rome by Pope Sylvester I. Schools of this type joined with monasteries (notably those of the order founded by Saint Benedict in the early 6th century) to develop the art of choral singing. 作為一個地下教派猶太教,基督教早期教會繼承了anitphonal風格而不是輝煌的猶太公共禮拜。後不久羅馬皇帝君士坦丁大帝官方認可的基督教在313 第一schola cantorum (字面“學校合唱團, ”作為以及表演團體從這樣的學校)成立於羅馬教皇西爾維斯特一,學校這種類型的同寺院(尤其是為了創辦的聖本篤初6世紀)發展的藝術合唱團。 (Secular vocal music of this time was usually performed by solo singers, not choruses.) (世俗聲樂的這個時候通常是由獨唱歌手,而不是合唱團。 )

In early medieval choirs, a small number of men, or men and boys, sang Plainsong, a metrically free, monophonic setting of liturgical text. Until the 8th century, when reliable musical notation was invented, plainsong melodies were passed down orally from generation to generation. Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of the liturgical reforms of Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604), became the dominant form of plainsong by the 10th century, and has remained in use ever since. 在中世紀早期的合唱團,也有少數男人,或男人和男孩,唱Plainsong ,一個metrically自由,單聲道設置禮儀文字。直到8世紀時,可靠的樂譜發明, plainsong旋律是口頭流傳一代一代。 格里高利聖歌的產物,改革的禮儀教皇格里高利一(在位590-604 ) ,成為主要形式plainsong的10世紀,並一直使用至今。

Part-Singing and the Renaissance部分歌唱和文藝復興

The practice of singing in unison began to give way in the 8th century to Organum, which began simply as a second voice part that moved in parallel with a chant melody, above or below it. By the 11th century, organum had flowered into a truly polyphonic style, in which one or more independent parts departed from and decorated the melody (Polyphony). 實踐齊唱開始讓位於在八世紀至奧爾加農,開始只是作為第二語音部分平行移動的聖歌旋律,高於或低於它。到了11世紀,奧爾加農已開花成為一個真正的和弦風格,其中一個或多個獨立的部分背離和裝飾的旋律(複音) 。 At first the province only of skilled soloists playing or singing together, polyphony reached the choir early in the 15th century.在全省第一個只有熟練的獨奏,或唱歌玩在一起,達到了複調音樂合唱團早在15世紀。

By this time, the term Motet had come to mean a polyphonic vocal setting of any sacred Latin text except sections of the Mass. Between about 1450 and 1600, the motet and Mass developed into elaborate compositions with three to six melodic lines, as in the works of John Dunstable, Josquin Des Prez, and Palestrena. 到這個時候,經文歌一詞來指和弦發聲設置任何神聖的拉丁文字除部分馬薩諸塞州的大約14時50分和1600的經文歌和大眾已發展成詳細成分與三至六個月旋律線,在工程約翰丹斯泰保,若斯坎德佩雷斯,並Palestrena 。 Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli added to the splendor of Venice with works in eight parts or even more, performed by multiple choirs. In the Church of England, which separated from the Roman Catholic church in 1534, a motet on an English text became known as an anthem (which is still the English and American term for a choral piece sung during worship) .安德烈和喬瓦Gabrieli添加到威尼斯的輝煌與工程八個部分,甚至更多,由多個合唱團。 在英格蘭教會,這脫離羅馬天主教會在1534年,一個經文歌的英文文本被稱為一個歌(這仍然是英語和美國長期的合唱團在一塊唱禮拜) 。

As compositions in many parts appeared, choirs began to take their modern form: ensembles of singers divided into groups according to the range of their voices. The exclusion of women from liturgical roles extended to the choir as well; high voice parts were sung by boys, falsetto singers, or (in Roman Catholic countries after about 1570) Castrato. In England particularly, the training of boy singers for cathedral choirs became a well-established tradition that continues today.至於成分在許多地方出現,合唱團開始其現代形式:歌舞團的歌手分成若干小組,根據一系列他們的聲音。 排斥婦女從禮儀的作用擴大到合唱團,以及高,聲音部分由男孩唱,假聲歌手,或(在羅馬天主教國家的約1570年後) Castrato 。尤其是在英格蘭,培訓男孩歌手的大教堂合唱團成為一個既定的傳統,今天仍在繼續。 As the Middle Ages came to a close, the average size of a choir began to increase gradually; the Sistine Choir in Rome, for example, grew from 18 singers in 1450 to 32 in 1625.隨著中古來結束,平均規模的合唱團開始逐步增加;西斯廷合唱團在羅馬,例如,增長18歌手14時50分至32在1625年。

The Baroque Era在巴洛克時代

Virtually no secular choral music existed before 1600; the Renaissance Madrigal, a polyphonic song, was only rarely performed with more than one singer to a part.幾乎沒有世俗合唱音樂1600年之前就存在;文藝復興時期的牧歌,一個和弦歌曲,只用很少超過一個歌手的一部分。 The first Italian operas, of which Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo is the leading example, represent an attempt to revive classical Greek drama, and so featured the chorus prominently.第一次意大利歌劇,其中克勞迪奧蒙特威爾第的奧菲歐是領先的榜樣,是一個企圖復活古典希臘戲劇,所以功能合唱團醒目。 But because the audience's attention focused on solo virtuosity and spectacle, the chorus lost some of its importance in baroque opera. It thrived, however, in Oratorio, a form of concert opera that dramatized a story (usually biblical) without the use of costumes or scenery. George Frideric Handel's oratorios sometimes put the chorus ahead of the soloists in importance; composing for an egalitarian English audience, he cast "the people" as protagonist in such works as Israel in Egypt (1738).但是,由於觀眾的注意力集中在獨奏的讚譽和奇觀,合唱團失去了它的一些重要的巴洛克式的歌劇。 它蓬勃發展,然而,在清唱劇的形式,演唱歌劇的戲劇故事(通常是聖經) ,而不需使用的服裝,或風景。喬治Frideric韓德爾的oratorios有時合唱前的獨奏重要性;組成一個平等的英文讀者,他投下“人民”作為主角在這樣的作品,以色列在埃及( 1738 ) 。

For centuries, instrumentalists had had the option of playing along on one or the other of the choir parts, but now composers such as Monteverdi and Alessandro Scarlatti were giving them their own "obbligato" (that is, not to be omitted) parts.數百年來,器樂不得不選擇沿上玩一方或另一方的合唱部分,但現在的作曲家,如威爾第和亞歷山德羅斯卡拉蒂讓他們有自己的“ obbligato ” (即不被省略)部分。

Whether composed for a prince's birthday or a Sunday on the liturgical calendar, the Cantata included such operatic elements as arias, recitatives (a kind of sung-spoken narration), and often choruses, but with a text more likely to be meditative or celebratory than dramatic.無論是組成一個王子的生日或週日的禮儀日曆,包括大合唱等歌劇詠嘆調的內容, recitatives (一種盛口語敘述) ,而且往往是合唱團,但文字更可能是沉思,或慶祝比戲劇性。

The Reformation, with its doctrine of "the priesthood of all believers," brought new ideas about church music. Calvinist congregations made their own music by singing psalms in unison, shunning anything that smacked of performance, even accompaniment on the organ. Martin Luther favored congregational singing too, but he kept choirs for their inspirational value. 改革,其學說的“牧師的所有信徒” ,帶來了新想法教堂音樂。加爾文主義教會了他們自己的音樂,唱詩歌一致,避免任何味道的性能,甚至伴奏的器官。馬丁路德青睞公理唱歌,但他一直合唱團為他們鼓舞人心的價值。 The cantatas of composers such as JS Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann incorporate the old German Chorales (hymn tunes) that Luther had collected.該清唱劇的作曲家如爵士演奏巴赫和格奧爾格菲利普泰勒曼納入歲的德國Chorales (讚美詩曲調)的路德收集了。

Choral Music in the Age of Democracy合唱音樂時代的民主

The political and industrial revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were made to order for choral music.政治和工業革命的18世紀末和19世紀初提出了為使合唱音樂。 A large and prosperous middle class emerged, eager for cultural accomplishments.大和繁榮的中產階級的出現,渴望文化的成就。 They founded such choruses as the Berlin Singakademie--a choir comprising both men and women from its inception in 1791.他們成立合唱團等作為柏林Singakademie -一個合唱團組成的男女雙方從一開始就在1 791年。 Many a factory owner encouraged loyalty among his workers by sponsoring a choral group in which they could sing.許多工廠老闆的忠誠度之間的鼓勵他的員工,贊助合唱組,他們在會唱。 The mania for Handel, continuing for decades after the composer's death, led to ever-larger performances of Messiah (a London concert in 1791 used over 1,000 performers) and to the formation of choral clubs such as the Sons of Handel (Dublin 1810) and the Handel and Haydn Society (Boston 1815). Following Handel's lead, romantic composers glorified the mass of humanity, whether in this life (Beethoven's "Choral" Symphony) of the next (Mahler's "Resurrection" Symphony, in works for large chorus and orchestra. The chorus returned to the opera stage in force after dwindling during the Classical period. Improved methods of music publication and distribution put affordable scores of new opera favorites and old masters in the hands of choral societies in every town and hamlet. Music written for church was performed in theaters, and sometimes new church music (such as Giuseppe Verdi's Requiem, sounded theatrical.在狂熱的韓德爾,持續了幾十年後的作曲家的死亡,導致越來越多的彌賽亞演出(音樂會在倫敦於1791年用1000多演員)和合唱團成立的俱樂部,如父子的亨德爾(都柏林1810年)和在韓德爾與海頓協會(波士頓1815年) 。 以下韓德爾的鉛,浪漫主義作曲家美化大眾的人類,無論是在此生活(貝多芬的“合唱交響曲” )的下一個(馬勒的“復活”交響曲,在工程的大型合唱團和管弦樂團。合唱回到歌劇舞台生效後,減少在古典時期。改進方法,音樂出版和發行了幾十負擔得起的新歌劇的最愛和老主人手中的合唱協會在每個城鎮和村莊。音樂書面教堂是在電影院,有時新的教堂音樂(如朱塞佩威爾第的安魂曲,劇場響起。

Choral music is also the ideal medium for nationalistic sentiments; in times of war the tide of patriotic choruses reaches flood stage.合唱音樂也是理想的培養基為民族主義情緒;在戰爭時期的潮流,愛國合唱團達到防洪階段。 On the other hand, 20th-century works such as Arnold Schoenberg's Gurrelieder and Benjamin Britten's War Requiem match the power of choral utterance with a text of protest and social idealism.另一方面, 20世紀的作品,如阿諾德勳伯格的Gurrelieder和本傑明布里頓的戰爭安魂曲匹配的權力話語合唱與文字的抗議和社會的理想。

The strong choral traditions of the United States arrived with European immigrants, spread through music programs in the public schools, and were transformed by Afro-American church music, which contributed rhythmic complexity and a call-and- response style of composition.強勁的合唱傳統的美國與歐洲抵達移民,傳播音樂節目中的公立學校,並改變美洲黑人教堂音樂,這有助於節奏的複雜性和號召性和反應風格組成。 Professional choruses explore not only older classical repertory but new works that contain every innovation found in new instrumental music: the tone clusters and vocal slides of Krzysztof Penderecki, the aleatory (chance) techniques of John Cage and Lukas Foss, and the minimalist pattern-music of Philip Glass.專業合唱團不僅探討老年人經典劇目,但新作品,包含每一個創新中找到新的器樂:集群的語調和聲音的幻燈片克日什托夫潘德列茨基的偶然(機會)技術約翰凱奇和盧卡斯福斯,以及最低限度的格局音樂的菲利普格拉斯。

David Wright戴維賴特

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Heffernan, CW, Choral Music: Technique and Artistry (1982); Kjelson, L., and McCray, J., The Singer's Manual of Choral Music Literature (1973); Robinson, R., Choral Music (1978); Wienandt, E., Choral Music of the Church (1965; repr. 1980); Young, PM, The Choral Tradition, rev.赫弗南,化學武器,合唱音樂:技術與藝術( 1982年) ; Kjelson ,研究,麥克雷和,學者,歌手的手冊合唱音樂文獻( 1973年) ;羅賓遜,河,合唱音樂( 1978年) ; Wienandt ,電子商務。 ,合唱音樂堂( 1965年; repr 。 1980年) ;楊時,合唱傳統,轉速。 ed.版。 (1981). ( 1981年) 。

Plain Chant平原詠

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of polyphony.由平原詠我們理解教堂音樂的中世紀早期出現之前複音。 Having grown up gradually in the service of Christian worship, it remained the exclusive music of the Church till the ninth century, when polyphony made its first modest appearance.在逐漸長大的服務的基督教崇拜,它仍然是獨家音樂的教會,直到第九世紀,當複調音樂第一次微薄的外觀。 For centuries again it held a place of honour, being, on the one hand, cultivated side by side with the new music, and serving, on the other hand, as the foundation on which its rival was built.數百年來再次舉行了一個地方的榮譽,目前,一方面,耕地並肩與新的音樂,和服務,另一方面,隨著基礎上,其競爭對手是基礎。 By the time vocal polyphony reached its culminating point, in the sixteenth century, plain chant had lost greatly in the estimation of men, and it was more and more neglected during the following centuries.的時候,聲帶複調音樂達到了高潮,在16世紀,純詠失去了很大的估計男子,這是越來越多的忽視在以下幾個世紀。 But all along the Church officially looked upon it as her own music, and as particularly suited for her services, and at last, in our own days, a revival has come which seems destined to restore plain chant to its ancient position of glory.但是,所有沿教會正式望著它作為自己的音樂,並作為特別適合她的服務,最後,在我們自己的天,復興已經到來似乎注定要恢復平原詠其古老的立場輝煌。 The name, cantus planus, was first used by theorists of the twelfth or thirteenth century to distinguish the old music from the musica mensurata or mensurabilis, music using notes of different time value in strict mathematical proportion, which began to be developed about that time.的名稱,旋律苔癬,最早是由理論家第十二屆或13世紀,以區分歲的音樂從音樂mensurata或mensurabilis ,音樂使用注意到不同的時間價值在嚴格的數學比例,開始制定有關的時間。 The earliest name we meet is cantilena romana (the Roman chant), probably used to designate one form of the chant having its origin in Rome from others, such as the Ambrosian chant (see GREGORIAN CHANT).最早的名稱是我們開會坎蒂羅馬(羅馬詠) ,可能用於指定一個形式的聖歌有其原產地在羅馬從別人,如安布羅西安聖詠(見陽曆CHANT試驗) 。 It is also commonly called Gregorian chant, being attributed in some way to St. Gregory I.這也是通常稱為陽曆詠,正因為在某種程度上格里高利聖一


Although there is not much known about the church music of the first three centuries, and although it is clear that the time of the persecutions was not favourable to a development of solemn Liturgy, there are plenty of allusions in the writings of contemporary authors to show that the early Christians used to sing both in private and when assembled for public worship.雖然目前還沒有多少了解教堂音樂的前三個世紀,雖然很清楚,當時的迫害是不利於發展的莊嚴聖禮,有大量的典故在當代的著作的作者表現出早期基督徒用來唱無論在私下和組裝時,為公共崇拜。 We also know that they not only took their texts from the psalms and canticles of the Bible, but also composed new things.我們也知道,他們不僅在其文本的詩歌和canticles聖經,而且還組成新的東西。 The latter were generally called hymns, whether they were in imitation of the Hebrew or of the classical Greek poetic forms.後者一般稱為讚美詩,不論是在模仿希伯來文或希臘古典詩歌的形式。 There seem to have been from the beginning, or at least very early, two forms of singing, the responsorial and the antiphonal.人們似乎已經從一開始,或至少是非常早期,兩種形式的唱歌, responsorial和antiphonal 。 The responsorial was solo singing in which the congregation joined with a kind of refrain.該responsorial是唱獨唱,其中眾同一種避免。 The antiphonal consisted in the alternation of two choirs. antiphonal組成的交替中的兩個合唱團。 It is probable that even in this early period the two methods caused that differentiation in the style of musical composition which we observe throughout the later history of plain chant, the choral compositions being of a simple kind, the solo compositions more elaborate, using a more extended compass of melodies and longer groups of notes on single syllables.這是可能的,即使在這個早期階段,兩種方法的差異造成的風格的音樂組成,我們觀察整個後來的歷史平原詠,組成的合唱團正在一個簡單的實物,組成的獨奏更詳細,使用更延長羅盤的旋律和長期組的說明單一的音節。 One thing stands out very clearly in this period, namely, the exclusion of musical instruments from Christian worship.有一件事脫穎而出非常清楚在此期間,即排斥的樂器從基督教崇拜。 The main reason for this exclusion was perhaps the associations of musical instruments arising from their pagan use.最主要的原因排斥也許是協會的樂器引起他們的異教徒使用。 A similar reason may have militated in the West, at least, against metrical hymns, for we learn that St. Ambrose was the first to introduce these into public worship in Western churches.類似的原因可能有militated在西方,至少對韻律讚美詩,因為我們知道,聖劉漢銓是第一個引進這些納入公共崇拜西方的教堂。 In Rome they do not seem to have been admitted before the twelfth century.在羅馬,他們似乎並沒有被接納前的12世紀。 (See, however, an article by Max Springer in "Gregorianische Rundschau", Graz, 1910, nos. 5 and 6.) (見然而,一篇文章馬克斯施普林格的“ Gregorianische評論報” ,格拉茨, 1910年,雙數。 5和6 。 )

In the fourth century church music developed considerably, particularly in the monasteries of Syria and Egypt.在第四世紀的教堂音樂很大發展,特別是在寺廟的敘利亞和埃及。 Here there seems to have been introduced about this time what is now generally called antiphon, ie, a short melodic composition sung in connexion with the antiphonal rendering of a psalm.這裡似乎已經介紹了這個時間現在一般稱為antiphon ,即短期旋律組成的聯接成的antiphonal渲染的詩篇。 This antiphon, it seems, was repeated after every verse of the psalm, the two choir sides uniting in it.這antiphon ,似乎又重複後,每一個詩的詩篇,這兩個合唱團雙方在這團結。 In the Western Church where formerly the responsorial method seems to have been used alone, the antiphonal method was introduced by St.在西方教會在原responsorial方法似乎已經單獨使用, antiphonal方法的介紹了街 Ambrose.劉漢銓。 He first used it in Milan in 386, and it was adopted soon afterwards in nearly all the Western churches.他首先用它在米蘭的386名,並獲得通過之後不久,幾乎所有西方的教堂。 Another importation from the Eastern to the Western Church in this century was the Alleluia chant.另一個進口來自東歐的西方教會在本世紀是哈里路亞聖歌。 This was a peculiar kind of responsorial singing in which an Alleluia formed the responsorium or refrain.這是一個奇特的responsorial唱歌,其中一個哈里路亞形成了responsorium或避免。 This Alleluia, which from the beginning appears to have been a long, melismatic composition, was heard by St. Jerome in Bethlehem, and at his instance was adopted in Rome by Pope Damasus (368-84).這哈里路亞,這從一開始就似乎已經很長, melismatic組成,聽取了聖杰羅姆在伯利恆,並在他的實例是通過在羅馬教皇達瑪斯( 368-84 ) 。 At first its use there appears to have been confined to Easter Sunday, but soon it was extended to the whole of Paschal time, and eventually, by St. Gregory, to all the year excepting the period of Septuagesima.在第一次使用,似乎已經局限於復活節後的星期日,但很快它已擴大到整個復活節的時間,並最終由聖格里高利,向所有今年除期間Septuagesima 。

In the fifth century antiphony was adopted for the Mass, some psalms being sung antiphonally at the beginning of the Mass, during the oblations, and during the distribution of Holy Communion.在第五世紀antiphony通過了質量,一些詩歌演唱antiphonally正在開始的時候,大眾,在oblations ,並在分配的聖餐。 Thus all the types of the choral chants had been established and from that time forward there was a continuous development, which reached something like finality in the time of St. Gregory the Great.因此,所有類型的合唱聖歌已經成立,由當時著有一個不斷發展,達到什麼樣的終局時,聖格里高利大。 During this period of development some important changes took place.在此期間,發展了一些重要的變化發生。 One of these was the shortening of the Gradual.其中之一是縮短的漸進性。 This was originally a psalm sung responsorially. It had a place in the Mass from the very beginning.這原本是成responsorially詩篇。它的地方的群眾從一開始。 The alternation of readings from scripture with responsorial singing is one of the fundamental features of the Liturgy.交替讀經文與responsorial唱是一個基本特徵聖禮。 As we have the responses after the lessons of Matins, so we find the Gradual responses after the lessons of Mass, during the singing of which all sat down and listened.正如我們的答复之後的經驗教訓, Matins ,所以我們找到了漸進的答复後,群眾的經驗教訓,在歌唱,所有坐下來傾聽。 They were thus distinguished from those Mass chants that merely accompanied other functions.因此,他們從這些傑出的質量聖歌,只是伴隨其他職能。 As the refrain was originally sung by the people, it must have been of a simple kind.如不採取原來唱的人,它必須被一個簡單的實物。 But it appears that in the second half of the fifth century, or, at latest, in the first half of the sixth century, the refrain was taken over by the schola, the body of trained singers. Hand in hand with this went a greater elaboration of the melody, both of the psalm verses and of the refrain itself, probably in imitation of the Alleluia. This elaboration then brought about a shortening of the text, until, by the middle of the sixth century, we have only one verse left.但看來,下半年的五世紀,或者在最近,在上半年的第六屆世紀,不要被接管schola ,身體受過訓練的歌手。攜手本到更大的擬訂的旋律,雙方的詩篇經文和避免本身,可能是在模仿哈里路亞。擬訂然後這帶來了一個縮短的文字,直到,由中間的第六屆世紀,我們只有一個留下詩句。 There remained, however, the repetition of the response proper after the verse.但是,人們仍然在重複適當的反應後,詩句。 This repetition gradually ceased only from the twelfth century forward, until its omission was sanctioned generally for the Roman usage by the Missal of the Council of Trent. The repetition of the refrain is maintained in the Alleluia chant, except when a second Alleluia chant follows, from the Saturday after Easter to the end of Paschal time.這種重複不僅逐漸停止從12世紀前進,直到其不被普遍認可的羅馬使用的Missal理事會的遄達。重複的不要保留在阿詠,除非第二哈里路亞詠如下:從週六復活節結束復活節時間。 The Tract, which takes the place of the Alleluia chant during the period of Septuagesima, has presented some difficulty to liturgists.在消化道,其中取代哈里路亞詠期間Septuagesima ,提出了一些困難, liturgists 。 Prof. Wagner (Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, i, 78, 86) holds that the name is a translation of the Greek term eìrmós, which means a melodic type to be applied to several texts, and he thinks that the Tracts are really Graduals of the older form, before the melody was made more elaborate and the text shortened.瓦格納教授(簡介陽曆旋律,我, 78 , 86 )認為,名字是一個翻譯的希臘長期首節,這意味著旋律型,適用於一些文本,他認為,大港真的Graduals舊形式,在旋律作了更詳細的文字和縮短。 The Tracts, then, would represent the form in which the Gradual verses were sung in the fourth and fifth centuries.在大港,然後將代表形式的漸進的詩句是朴智星在第四和第五世紀。 Of the antiphonal Mass chants the Introit and Communion retained their form till the eighth century, when the psalm began to be shortened. antiphonal的群眾高喊的Introit和交流的形式保留到8世紀,當詩篇開始縮短。 Nowadays the Introit has only one verse, usually the first of the psalm, and the Doxology, after which the Antiphon is repeated.如今, Introit只有一詩,通常是第一詩篇,以及三一頌,在此之後, Antiphon重複。 The Communion has lost psalm and repetition completely, only the requiem Mass preserving a trace of the original custom.在聖餐已經失去了詩篇和留級完全,只有安魂曲質量保持微量的原始習俗。 But the Offertory underwent a considerable change before St. Gregory; the psalm verses, instead of being sung antiphonally by the choir, were given over to the soloist and accordingly received rich melodic treatment like the Gradual verses.但是,奉獻經歷了相當大的變化之前,聖格雷戈里;的詩篇經文,而不是唱antiphonally的合唱團,被交給了獨奏及相應得到豐富的旋律一樣的待遇漸進的詩句。 The antiphon itself also participated to some extent in this melodic enrichment.該antiphon本身也參加了在一定程度上在這旋律活動。 The Offertory verses were united in the late Middle Ages, and now only the Offertory of the requiem Mass shows one verse with a partial repetition of the antiphon. After the time of St. Gregory musical composition suddenly began to flag.詩句的奉獻,團結中世紀後期,現在只有奉獻輓歌的質量顯示一個詩的部分重複antiphon 。時間後,聖格雷戈里音樂組成突然開始國旗。 For the new feasts that were introduced, either existing chants were adopted or new texts were fitted with existing melodies.對於這一新的節日了,無論是現有的聖歌通過或新安裝的文本與現有的旋律。 Only about twenty-four new melodies appear to have been composed in the seventh century; at least we cannot prove that they existed before the year 600.只有約04年的新旋律似乎已組成7世紀,至少我們不能證明他們存在一年前的600人。 After the seventh century, composition of the class of chants we have discussed ceased completely, with the exception of some Alleluias which did not gain general acceptance till the fifteenth century, when a new Alleluia was composed for the Visitation and some new chants for the Mass of the Holy Name (see "The Sarum Gradual and the Gregorian Antiphonale Missarum" by WH Frere, London, 1895, pp. 20, 30).在第七世紀,組成一流的聖歌,我們完全停止了討論,除了一些Alleluias沒有獲得普遍接受,直到十五世紀時,一個新的哈里路亞組成的訪問和一些新的唱法為大眾聖名(見“ Sarum漸進和陽曆Antiphonale Missarum ”的武漢弗里爾,倫敦, 1895年,頁。 20 , 30 ) 。 It was different, however, with another class of Mass chants comprised under the name of "Ordinarium Missæ".這是不同的,但是,與其他類別的群眾高呼組成的名義下“ Ordinarium彌撒” 。 Of these the Kyrie, Gloria, and Sanctus were in the Gregorian Liturgy, and are of very ancient origin.這些的Kyrie ,凱萊和眾神都在陽曆聖禮,是非常古老的起源。 The Agnus Dei appears to have been instituted by Sergius I (687-701) and the Credo appears in the Roman Liturgy about the year 800, but only to diappear again, until it was finally adopted for special occasions by Benedict VIII (1012-24).該Agnus棣似乎已經提起塞爾吉烏斯口( 687-701 )和信出現在羅馬聖禮約800年,但只是對diappear再次,直至最後通過特殊場合篤第八章( 1012至1024年) 。 All these chants, however, were originally assigned, not to the schola, but to the clergy and people.所有這些口號,然而,最初分配,而不是schola ,但神職人員和人民。 Accordingly their melodies were very simple, as those of the Credo are still.因此他們的旋律非常簡單,因為這些的信條仍然。 Later on they were assigned to the choir, and then the singers began to compose more elaborate melodies.後來,他們被分配到合唱,然後歌手開始撰寫更詳細的旋律。 The chants now found in our books assigned to Feria may be taken as the older forms.現在的吟唱中找到我們的圖書分配到博覽會可以作為老一輩的形式。

Two new forms of Mass music were added in the ninth century, the Sequences and the Tropes or Proses.兩種新形式的群眾又增加了音樂在第九世紀,序列和比喻或散文。 Both had their origin in St. Gall.兩者都起源於聖加爾。 Notker gave rise to the Sequences, which were originally meant to supply words for the longissimæ melodiæ sung on the final syllable of the Alleluia. Notker引起的序列,這是原來是指供應的話longissimæ melodiæ星的最後音節的哈里路亞。 These "very long melodies" do not seem to have been the melismata which we find in the Gregorian Chant, and which in St. Gall were not longer than elsewhere, but special melodies probably imported about that time from Greece (Wagner, op. cit., I, 222).這些“很長的旋律”似乎並沒有被melismata我們認為在陽曆詠,並在聖加爾是不長於其他地方,但特殊的旋律可能進口約,當時來自希臘(瓦格納,同前。引文。 ,我222 ) 。 Later on new melodies were invented for the Sequences.後來新的旋律發明的序列。 What Notker did for the Alleluia, his contemporary Tuotilo did for other chants fo the Mass, especially the Kyrie, which by this time had got some elaborate melodies.沒有什麼Notker的哈里路亞,他的當代Tuotilo沒有其他唱法的質量,特別是Kyrie ,這這個時候已經有一些詳細的旋律。 The Kyrie melodies were, in the subsequent centuries, generally known by the initial words of the Tropes composed for them, and this practice has been adopted in the new Vatican edition of the "Kyriale". Kyrie旋律的是,在隨後的世紀,一般人都知道由最初的話比喻為他們組成的,而且這種做法已經通過在新的梵蒂岡版“ Kyriale ” 。 Sequences and Tropes became soon the favourite forms of expression of medieval piety, and innumerable compositions of ther kind are to be met with in the medieval service books, until the Missal of the Council of Trent reduced the Sequences to four (a fifth, the Stabat Mater, being added in 1727) and abolished the Tropes altogether.序列和比喻很快成為熱門的表達形式的中世紀虔誠,和無數的成分有一種要滿足在中世紀的服務書籍,直到Missal理事會的遄減少了四個序列(一第五,聖母材料,被添加在1727年) ,並廢除了比喻完全。 As regards the Office, Gevaert (La Mélopée Antique) holds that one whole class of antiphons, namely those taken from the "Gesta Martyrum", belong to the seventh century.至於辦公室,吉華(香格里拉Mélopée古董)認為,一整類antiphons ,即那些取自“蓋斯塔Martyrum ” ,屬於7世紀。 But he points out also that no new melodic type is found amongst them.但他也指出,沒有新的旋律類型,發現他們中間。 So here again we find the ceasing of melodic invention after St. Gregory.因此,在這裡我們再次找到停止的旋律發明後,聖格里高利。 The responses of the Office received many changes and additions after St. Gregory, especially in Gaul about the ninth century, when the old Roman method of repeating the whole response proper after the verses was replaced by a repetition of merely the second half of the response.答复辦公室收到了許多修改和補充後,聖格里高利,尤其是在高盧約9世紀時,羅馬的舊方法重複整個適當的反應後,詩句改為重複只是下半年的反應。 This Gallican method eventually found its way into the Roman use and is the common one now.這高盧聖方法最終找到了進入羅馬使用,是目前常見的一種。 But as the changes affected only the verses, which have fixed formulæ easily applied to different texts, the musical question was not much touched.但是,隨著變化不僅影響的詩句,其中有固定的公式很容易適用於不同的文字,音樂的問題是沒有多大感動。

St. Gregory compiled the Liturgy and the music for the local Roman use.格里高利聖編纂的聖禮和音樂為當地羅馬使用。 He had no idea of extending it to the other Churches, but the authority of his name and of the Roman See, as well as the intrinsic value of the work itself, caused his Liturgy and chant to be adopted gradually by practically the whole Western Church.他沒有思想擴大到其他教會,但權威的自己的名字和羅馬教廷,以及內在價值的工作本身,造成他的聖禮,並高喊要通過逐步幾乎整個西方教會。 During his own lifetime they were introduced into England and from there, by the early missionaries, into Germany (Wagner, "Einführung", II, p. 88).在自己的有生之年,他們引入英國,並從那裡,由早期的傳教士,到德國(瓦格納, “ Einführung ” ,第二章,第88頁) 。 They conquered Gaul mainly through the efforts of Pepin and Charlemagne, and about the same time they began to make their way into Northern Italy, where the Milanese, or Ambrosian, Liturgy had a firm hold, and into Spain, although it took centuries before they became universal in these regions.他們征服了高盧人主要是通過努力丕平和查理曼,並大約在同一時間,他們開始使它們的方式進入意大利北部,在米蘭,或安布羅西安聖,聖禮了牢牢把握,並進入西班牙,儘管它在幾個世紀之前成為普遍在這些地區。 While the schola founded by St. Gregory kept the tradition pure in Rome, they also sent out singers to foreign parts from time to time to check the tradition there, and copies of the authentic choir books kept in Rome helped to secure uniformity of the melodies.雖然schola創辦的聖格雷戈里保持了傳統的純在羅馬,他們還發出了向外國歌手的部分不時檢查的傳統,並複製的真正合唱團的書籍存放在羅馬幫助,以確保統一的旋律。 Thus it came about that the manuscript in neumatic notation (see NEUM) from the ninth century forward, and those in staff notation from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, present a wonderful uniformity.因此,它是該手稿在neumatic符號(見烏姆)由第九世紀前進,和那些在工作人員的樂譜由十一至十四世紀,提出了奇妙的統一。 Only a few slight changes seem to have been introduced.只有少數一些細微的變化似乎已經介紹了。 The most important of these was the change of the reciting note of the 3rd and 8th modes from b to c, which seems to have taken place in the ninth century.其中最重要的是改變背誦注意到,第3和第8模式從B到C ,這似乎已在9世紀。 A few other slight changes are due to the notions of theorists during the ninth and following centuries.其他一些細微變化的原因是觀念的理論家在第九屆和下面的世紀。

These notions included two things: (1) the tone system, which comprised a double octave of natural tones, from A to a' with G added below, and allowing only one chromatic note, namely b flat instead of the second b; and (2) eight modes theory.這些概念包括兩件事: ( 1 )基調系統,其中包括雙倍頻的自然鈴聲,從A到一個與G補充以下,並允許只有一個色注意到,即降B而不是第二個B組;和( 2 ) 8模式理論。 As some of the Gregorian melodies did not well fit in with this theoretic system, exhibiting, if ranged according to the mode theory, other chromatic notes, such as e flat, f sharp, and a lower B flat, some theorists declared them to be wrong, and advocated their emendation.正如一些陽曆的旋律以及不符合這個理論體系,展示,如果不等根據模式的理論,其他色筆記,如電子持平,男尖銳,較低的B大調,一些理論家宣稱他們是錯了,並主張其校正。 Fortunately the singers, and the scribes who noted the traditional melodies in staff notation, did not all share this view.幸運的是,歌手,和文士誰指出,傳統的旋律在工作人員的符號,但並非所有同意這種觀點。 But the difficulties of expressing the melodies in the accepted tone system, with b flat as the only chromatic note, sometimes forced them to adopt curious expedients and slight changes.但是,困難的旋律表達了在接受音系統,降B作為唯一的色注意到,有時迫使它們採取好奇的權宜之計和一些細微的變化。 But as the scribes did not all resort to the same method, their differences enable us, as a rule, to restore the original version.但是,隨著文士都沒有訴諸同樣的方法,他們之間的分歧使我們,作為一項規則,以恢復原始版本。 Another slgiht change regards some melodic ornaments entailing tone steps smaller than a semi-tone. slgiht變化的另一個方面的一些旋律裝飾音的步驟涉及小於一個半調子。 The older chant contained a good number of these, especially in the more elaborate melodies.老詠載有相當數量的這些,特別是在更詳細的旋律。 In the staff notation, which was based essentially on a diatonic system, these ornamental notes could not be expressed, and, for the small step, either a semitone or a repetition of the same note had to be substituted.在工作人員的符號,它基本上是根據一個自然音階系統,這些觀賞注意到無法表達,並為小步驟,不論是半音或重複同樣的說明,以取代。 Simultaneously these non-diatonic intervals must have disappeared from the practical rendering, but the transition was so gradual that nobody seems to have been conscious of a change, for no writer alludes to it.同時這些非自然音階間隔必須有消失的實際渲染,但轉型是如此,沒有人逐步似乎已經意識到了變化,沒有作家提到它。 Wagner (op. cit., II, passim), who holds that these ornaments are of Oriental origin though they formed a genuine part of the sixth-century melodies, sees in their disappearance the complete latinization of the plain chant.瓦格納(同前。 ,二,各處) ,誰擁有,這些首飾是東方血統雖然他們組成了一個真正的參加了第六屆世紀的旋律,看到他們失踪的完整latinization的平原聖歌。

A rather serious, though fortunately a singular interference of theory with tradition is found in the form of the chant the Cistercians arranged for themselves in the twelfth century (Wagner, op. cit., II, p. 286).一個相當嚴重,但幸運的一個獨特的干擾理論與傳統中發現的形式唱熙為自己安排在12世紀(瓦格納,同前。前。 ,二,第286頁) 。 St. Bernard, who had been deputed to secure uniform books for the order, took as his adviser one Guido, Abbot of Cherlieu, a man of very strong theoretical views.聖伯納德,誰已總監,以確保統一的圖書訂單,在他的顧問之一吉,艾博特的Cherlieu ,一名男子很強的理論觀點。 One of the things to which he held firmly was the rule that the compass of a melody should not exceed the octave laid down for each mode by more than one note above and below.的事情之一這是他堅守的規則,指南針的旋律不應超過放下倍頻為每個模式由一個以上的說明上面和下面。 This rule is broken by many Gregorian melodies.這條規則被打破,許多陽曆的旋律。 But Guido had no scruple in applying the pruning knife, and sixty-three Graduals and a few other melodies had to undergo considerable alteration.但是,吉沒有顧忌運用剪枝刀,和63 Graduals和其他一些旋律,不得不接受大量的改動。 Another systematic change affected the Alleluia verse.另一種系統的變化影響了哈里路亞詩句。 The long melisma regularly found on the final syllable of this verse was considered extravagant, and was shortened considerably.長期melisma經常發現在最後音節的詩被認為是奢侈的,並大大縮短。 Similarly a few repetitions of melodic phrases in a melismatic group were cut out, and finally the idea that the fundamental note of the mode should begin and end every piece caused a few changes in some intonations and in the endings of the Introit psalmody.同樣一些重複的旋律詞組在melismatic組被切斷了,最後的想法,基本注意到模式開始和結束每件引起了一些變化,一些語調和結局的Introit psalmody 。 Less violent changes are found in the chant of the Dominicans, fixed in the thirteenth century (Wagner, op. cit., p. 305).那麼暴力的變化中發現詠的多米尼加人,固定在13世紀(瓦格納,同前。前。 ,第305頁) 。 The main variations from the general tradition are the shortening of the melisma on the final syllable of the Alleluia verse and the omission of the repetition of some melodic phrases.主要的變化從一般傳統縮短melisma的最後音節的哈里路亞詩和遺漏的重複一些旋律詞組。

From the fourteenth century forward the tradition begins to go down.從14世紀前進的傳統開始下降。 The growing interest taken in polyphony caused the plain chant to be neglected.在越來越大的興趣在複調音樂造成平原詠被忽視。 The books were written carelessly; the forms of the neums, so important for the rhythm, began to be disregarded, and shortenings of melismata became more general.這些書籍隨便寫的形式neums ,所以重要的是節奏,開始忽視和酥油的melismata變得更加普遍。 No radical changes, however, are found until we come to the end of the sixteenth century.沒有根本性變化,但被發現,直到我們即將結束的16世紀。 The reform of Missal and Breviary, intiated by the Council of Trent, gave rise to renewed attention to the liturgical chant.改革Missal和祈禱, intiated理事會的遄達,重新燃起了人們注意禮儀誦經。 But as the understanding of its peculiar language had disappeared, the results were disastrous.但是,隨著了解其獨特的語言已經消失,其結果是災難性的。

Palestrina was one of the men who tried their hands, but he did not carry his work through (see PR Molitor, "Die Nach-Tridentinische Choral Reform", 2 vols., Leipzig, 1901-2).帕萊斯特里是其中一名男子試圖誰手,但他沒有履行他的工作(見公關莫利托, “模具班上, Tridentinische合唱改革” ,第2卷。 ,萊比錫, 1901-2 ) 。 Early in the seventeenth century, however, Raimondi, the head of the Medicean printing establishment, took up again the idea of publishing a new Gradual.早在十七世紀,然而,萊蒙迪的負責人Medicean印刷的建立,再次拿起的想法,出版一個新的漸變。 He commissioned two musicians of name, Felice Anerio and Francesco Suriano, to revise the melodies.他委託兩個音樂家的名字,菲菲Anerio和弗朗切斯科Suriano ,修改旋律。 This they did in an incredibly short time, less than a year, and with a similarly incredible recklessness, and in 1614 and 1615 the Medicean Gradual appeared.他們這樣做的令人難以置信的時間短,不到一年的時間裡,與同樣不可思議的魯莽,並在1614年和1615年的Medicean逐步出現。 This book has considerable importance, because in the second half of the nineteenth century, the Congregation of Rites, believing it to contain the true chant of St. Gregory, had it republished as the official chant book of the Church, which position it held from 1870 to 1904.這本書具有相當的重要性,因為在下半年的19世紀,教會的儀式,認為它含有真正的聖歌聖格雷戈里,如果它重新作為官方詠書的教會,這立場舉行1970至04年。 During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries various other attempts were made to reform the Gregorian chant.在17和18世紀各種其他的企圖提出了改革的格里高利聖歌。 They were well intentioned, no doubt, but only emphasized the downward course things were taking.他們是抱著良好的願望,毫無疑問,但只強調了向下當然事情考慮。 The practice of singing became worse and worse, and what had been the glory of centuries fell into general contempt (see PR Molitor, "Reform-Choral", Freiburg, 1901).實踐唱成了糟,什麼是榮耀世紀落入一般的蔑視(見公關莫利托, “改革的合唱” ,弗賴堡, 1901年) 。

From the beginning of the nineteenth century dates a revival of the interest taken in plain chant.從19世紀初的日期復興的利益所採取的平原聖歌。 Men began to study the question seriously, and while some saw salvation in further "reforms", others insisted on a return to the past.男子開始研究這個問題嚴重,雖然有些看到救亡進一步“改革” ,另一些堅持要回到過去。 It took a whole century to bring about a complete restoration.花了整個世紀,以實現全面恢復。 France has the honour of having done the principal work in this great undertaking (see PR Molitor, "Restauration des Gregorianischen Chorales im 19. Jahrhundert" in "Historisch- politische Blätter", CXXXV, nos. 9-11).法國的榮譽而做的主要工作在這偉大的事業(見公關莫利托, “恢復之Gregorianischen Chorales免疫19 。 Jahrhundert ”中的“歷史,政治布拉特” , CXXXV ,雙數。 9-11 ) 。 One of the bet attempts was a Gradual edited about 1851 by a commission for the Diocese of Reims and Cambrai, and published by Lecoffre.一個賭注企圖是一個漸進的編輯約1851年的一個委員會的教區蘭斯和康布雷,並出版了Lecoffre 。 Being founded on limited critical material, it was not perfect; but the worst feature was that the editors had not the courage to go the whole way.作為成立於有限的關鍵物質,它並非十全十美,但最嚴重的特點是,編輯沒有的勇氣去整個方式。 The final solution of the difficult question was to come from the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes.最後的解決棘手的問題是來自本篤修道院索雷姆。 Guéranger, the restorer of the Liturgy, also conceived the idea of restoring the liturgical chant. Guéranger ,對恢復的聖禮,也構想恢復禮儀誦經。 About 1860 he ordered two of his monks, Dom Jausions and Dom Pothier, to make a thorough examination of the codices and to compile a Gradual for the monastery.關於1860年他下令他的兩個和尚,大教堂和大教堂Jausions波蒂埃,進行徹底審查codices ,並彙編一個漸進的寺院。 After twelve years of close work, the Gradual was in the main completed, but another eleven years elapsed before Dom Pothier, who on the death of Dom Jausions had become sole editor, published his "Liber Gradualis".經過12年的密切合作,逐步在主要完成,但11年又過去了波蒂埃大教堂前,誰對死亡的大教堂Jausions已成為唯一的編輯,出版他的“書Gradualis ” 。 It was the first attempt to return absolutely to the version of the manuscripts, and though capable of improvements in details solved the question substantially.這是第一次試圖返回絕對的版本手稿,雖然能夠改進的細節問題解決了。 This return to the version of the manuscripts was illustrated happily by the adoption of the note forms of the thirteenth century, which show clearly the groupings of the neums so important for the rhythm.這回的版本手稿愉快地說明了通過說明形式的13世紀,這清楚地表明該集團的neums如此重要的比賽節奏。 Since that date the work of investigating the manuscripts was continued by the Solesmes monks, who formed a regular school of critical research under Dom Mocquereau, Dom Pothier's successor.自該日起的調查工作的手稿是繼續由索雷姆僧侶,誰形成了正規學校教育的重要研究Mocquereau下大教堂,大教堂波蒂埃的繼任者。 A most valuable outcome of their studies is the "Paléographie Musicale", which has appeared, since 1889, in quarterly volumes, giving photographic reproductions of the principal manuscripts of plain chant, together with scientific dissertations on the subject.最有價值的成果是他們研究的“ Paléographie音樂節” ,這已經出現, 1889年以來,在每季度量,使攝影複製品的主要手稿平原詠,連同科學論文的主題。 In 1903 they published the "Liber Usualis", an extract from the Gradual and antiphonary, in which they embodied some melodic improvements and valuable rhythmical directions. 1903年,他們出版了“書Usualis ” ,摘錄的漸進性和antiphonary ,他們在一些體現改善和旋律珍貴節奏的方向。

A new epoch in the history of plain chant was inaugurated by Pius X. By his Motu Proprio on church music (22 Nov., 1903) he ordered the return to the traditional chant of the Church and accordingly the Congregation of Rites, by a decree of 8 Jan., 1904, withdrawing the former decrees in favour of the Ratisbon (Medicean) edition, commanded that the traditional form of plain chant be introduced into all churches as soon as possible.一個新時代的歷史平原詠開幕碧岳十,通過他就自行教堂音樂( 1903年十一月22日) ,他下令恢復傳統的聖歌,教會和教會相應的禮儀,通過了一項法令,在1904年1月8日,撤銷前的法令有利於Ratisbon ( Medicean )版,指揮,傳統形式的平原詠被引入所有教堂盡快。 In order to facilitate this introduction, Pius X, by a Motu Proprio of 25 April, 1904, established a commission to prepare an edition of plain chant which was to be brought out by the Vatican printing press and which all publishers should get permission to reprint.為了推動這一介紹,庇護十,通過自行的04年4月25日,成立了一個委員會,編寫出版了平原詠是被帶到了梵蒂岡印刷廠和出版商都應該得到許可重印。 Unfortunately differences of opinion arose between the majority of the members of the commission, including the Solesmes Benedictines, and its president, Dom Joseph Pothier, with the result that the pope gave the whole control of the work to Dom Pothier.不幸的是不同的意見之間出現的大多數委員會成員,其中包括索雷姆篤,其總裁約瑟夫大教堂波蒂埃,其結果是教皇了整個控制的工作大教堂波蒂埃。 The consequence was that magnificent manuscript material which the Solesmes monks, expelled from France, had accumulated in their new home on the Isle of Wight, first at Appuldurcombe afterwards at Quarr Abbey, remained unused.其後果是,宏偉的手稿材料的索雷姆僧侶,驅逐來自法國,積累了在新家園的懷特島,首先在Appuldurcombe後在Quarr修道院,仍然使用。 The Vatican edition, however, though it is not all that modern scholarship could have made it, is a great improvement on Dom Pothier's earlier editions and represents fairly well the reading of the best manuscripts梵蒂岡版,不過,雖然這是不是所有的,現代的獎學金可以做到了,是一個偉大的改善大教堂波蒂埃早先的版本,並代表良好的閱讀最好的手稿


The theory of the plain chant tone system and modes is as yet somewhat obscure. We have already remarked that the current medieval theory laid down for the tone system a heptatonic diatonic scale of about two octaves with the addition of b flat in the higher octave.該理論的平原詠音系統和模式,還有些模糊。我們已經指出,目前的中世紀的理論定下了基調制度heptatonic自然音階規模約兩八度音,增加了降B的高八度音。 In this system four notes, d, e, f, and g, were taken as fundamental notes (tonics) of modes.在這個體系四個注意到,日,英,法,和g ,採取了基本說明(補品)的模式。 Each of these modes was subdivided according to the compass, one class, called authentic, having the normal compass, from the fundamental note to the octave, the other, called plagal, from a fourth below the fundamental note to a fifth above.所有這些模式是根據細分的指南針,一類被稱為真正的,具有正常的指南針,從根本說明八,其他要求plagal ,從第四個以下的基本說明,上述的五分之一。 Thus there result eight modes.因此,結果8個模式。 These, of course, are to be understood as differing not in absolute pitch, as their theoretical demonstration and also the notation might suggest, but in their internal construction.當然,這些都是可以理解為不同沒有絕對音高,因為他們的理論論證和符號也可能顯示,但在其內部建設。 The notation, therefore, refers merely to relative pitch, as does, eg, the tonic sol-fa notation.符號,因此,僅僅是指相對音高,如不,如補藥唱名法符號。 Not being hampered by instrumental accompaniment, singers and scribes did not bother about a system of transposition, which in ancient Greek music, for instance, was felt necessary at an early period.沒有受到器樂伴奏,歌手和文士都沒有一個系統的轉換,這在古希臘的音樂,例如,被認為有必要在早期階段。

The theoretical distinction between authentic and plagal modes is not borne out by an analysis of the existing melodies and thier traditional classification (see Fr. Krasuski, "Ueber den Ambitus der gregorianischen Messgesänge", Freiburg, 1903).理論之間的區別真實和plagal模式不是證明了分析現有的旋律和他們的傳統分類(見神父。 Krasuski , “論登Ambitus之gregorianischen Messgesänge ” ,弗賴堡, 1903年) 。 Melodies of the fourth mode having a constant b flat fall in badly with the theoretic conception of a fourth mode having b natural as its normal note, and some antiphon melodies of that mode, although they use no b flat but have a as their highest note, eg, the Easter Sunday Introit, are out of joint with the psalmody of that mode.旋律的第四模式有降B不斷下降,嚴重的理論與概念的第四模式有b自然作為其正常的說明,以及一些膾炙人口的antiphon該模式,但他們不使用降B ,但有一個是它們的最高注意到例如,在復活節的星期日Introit ,是進行聯合與psalmody的模式。 It would, therefore, seem certain that the eight mode theory was, as a ready made system, imposed on the existing stock of plain chant melodies.因此,似乎確信,八個模式的理論是,作為一個現成的制度,對現有庫存的平原聖歌的旋律。 Historically the first mention of the theory occurs in the writings of Alcuin (d. 804), but the "Paléographie Musicale" (IV, p. 204) points out that the existence of cadences in the Introit psalmody based on the literary cursus planus tends to show that an eight mode theory was current already in St. Gregory's time.在歷史上首次提到了發生在理論的著作阿爾昆(草804 ) ,但“ Paléographie音樂節” (四,第204頁)所指出的那樣,存在cadences在Introit psalmody基礎上的文學往往cursus苔癬顯示, 8模式理論,目前已在聖格雷戈里的時間。 From the tenth century forward the four modes are also known by the Greek terms, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian, the plagals being indicated by the prefix Hypo.從10世紀提出了四種方式也被稱為希臘而言,道, Phrygian ,呂底亞,並米索利地安調,目前的plagals所表明的前綴低。 But in the ancient Greek theory these names were applied to the scales ee, dd, cc, bb respectively.但是,在古希臘理論這些名字被應用到表呀,日,抄送體分別。 The transformation of the theory seems to have come to pass, by a complicated and somewhat obscure process, in Byzantine music (see Riemann, "Handbuch der Musikgeschichte", I, §31).轉變的理論似乎已經過去,由一個複雜的過程中有些模糊,在拜占庭式的音樂(見黎曼, “ Musikgeschichte手冊” ,我, § 31 ) 。 The growth of the melodies themselves may have taken place partly on the basis of Hebrew (Syrian) elements, partly under the influence of the varying Greek or Byzantine theories.成長的旋律本身可能已經發生部分的基礎上,希伯來文(敘利亞)的內容,部分的影響下,不同的希臘或拜占庭式的理論。


Practically, the most important question of plain chant theory is that of the rhythm.實際上,最重要的問題平原詠理論認為的節奏。 Here again opinions are divided.在這裡再次的意見分歧。 The so-called equalists or oratorists hold that the rhythm of plain chant is the rhythm of ordinary prose Latin; that the time value of all the notes is the same except in as far as their connexion with the different syllables makes slight differences.所謂equalists或oratorists認為,節奏平原詠節奏是普通的散文拉丁美洲; ,時間價值的所有筆記是相同的,除非在盡可能的聯繫與不同的音節使略有不同。 They hold, however, the prolongation of final notes, mora ultimæ vocis, not only at the end of sentences and phrases but also at the minor divisions of neum groups on one syllable.他們認為,但延長最後指出,莫拉ultimæ vocis ,不僅結束時的句子和詞組,而且在小司的烏姆團體之一音節。 In the Vatican edition the latter are indicated by vacant spaces after the notes. The measuralists, on the other hand, with Dechevrens as their principal representative, hold that the notes of plain chant are subject to strict measurement.在梵蒂岡版,後者是靠後空置的空間說明。 measuralists的,另一方面,與Dechevrens作為其主要代表認為,說明平原詠受到嚴格的測量。 They distinguish three values corresponding to the modern quavers, crotchets, and minims.他們分為相應價值的現代quavers , crotchets ,並minims 。 They have in their favour numerous expressions of medieval theorists and the manifold rhythmical indications in the manuscripts, especially those of the St. Gall School (see NEUM).他們中許多有利於他們的表現中世紀的理論家和多方面的節奏跡象的手稿,特別是那些聖加爾學校(見烏姆) 。 But their rhythmical translations of the manuscript readings do not give a satisfactory result, which they admit themselves by modifying them for practical purposes.但他們有節奏的翻譯文稿讀不給一個令人滿意的結果,他們承認自己通過修改它們的實際用途。 Moreover, their interpretation of the manuscript indications does not seem correct, as has been shown by Baralli in the "Rassegna Gregoriana", 1905-8.此外,他們解釋的手稿跡象似乎不正確的,已經顯示出了Baralli在“ Rassegna Gregoriana ” , 1905-8 。 We may mention here also the theory of Riemann (Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, I, viii), who holds that plain chant has a regular rhythm based on the accents of the texts and forming two-bar phrases of four accents.我們可能會在這裡提到的理論也黎曼( Musikgeschichte手冊,我,八) ,誰主張,平原詠有一個經常的節奏基礎上口音的案文,形成兩列詞組的四個口音。 He transcribes the antiphon "Apud Dominum" in this way:他transcribes的antiphon “羧Dominum ”中這樣說:

This looks quite plausible.這看起來很有道理。 But he has to admit that this antiphon suits his purposes particularly, and when he comes to more complicated pieces the result is altogether impossible, and for the long final neumata of Graduals he has even to suppose that they were sung on an added Alleluia, a supposition which has no historical foundation.但他也不得不承認,這antiphon適合其目的尤其是,當他到更複雜件的結果是完全不可能的,長期的最後neumata的Graduals他甚至猜想,他們唱的補充哈里路亞,一個假設它沒有任何歷史基礎。 Possibly the melodies of Office antiphons, as they came from Syria, had originally some such rhythm, as Riemann states.可能是膾炙人口的辦公室antiphons ,因為他們來自敘利亞,原來一些這樣的節奏,因為黎曼國家。 But in the process of adaptation to various Latin texts and under the influence of psalmodic singing they must have lost it at an early period.但在適應的過程,各種文本和拉丁美洲的影響下, psalmodic歌唱他們必須已失去它在早期階段。 A kind of intermediate position, between the oratorists and the mensuralists is taken up by the school of Dom Mocquereau.一種中間立場,與oratorists和mensuralists是由學校的大教堂Mocquereau 。 With the mensuralists they state various time values ranging from the normal duration of the short note, which is that of a syllable in ordinary recitation, to the doubling of that duration.隨著國家mensuralists他們的價值觀不同時間從正常時間的簡短說明,這是一個音節在普通朗誦,到一倍的時間。 Their system is based on the agreement of the rhythmical indications in the manuscripts of St.他們的系統是基於協議的有節奏的跡象的手稿街 Gall and Metz, and recently Dom Beyssac has pointed out a third class of rhythmical notation, which he calls that of Chartres ("Revue Grégorienne", 1911, no. 1).戈爾和梅斯,最近大教堂Beyssac指出第三類有節奏的符號,他呼籲的沙特爾( “ Grégorienne雜誌” , 1911年,沒有。 1 ) 。 Moreover, they find their theories supported by certain proceedings in a large number of other manuscripts, as has been shown in the case of the "Quilisma" by Dom Mocquereau in the "Rassegna Gregoriana", 1906, nos.此外,他們還找到他們的理論支持的某些程序中大量的其他手稿,作為已被證明的情況“ Quilisma ”的大教堂Mocquereau在“ Rassegna Gregoriana ” , 1906年,雙數。 6-7. 6-7 。 Their general theory of rhythm, according to which it consists in the succession of arsis and thesis, ie, one part leading forward and a second part marking a point of arrival and of provisional or final rest, is substantially the same as Riemann's (see his "System der musikalischen Rhythmik und Metrik", Leipzig, 1903), and is becoming more and more accepted.他們一般理論的節奏,根據它包括在繼承arsis和論文,即一個領導著一部分和第二部分標誌點到達和臨時或最終的休息,是大致相同的黎曼的(見他“系統之musikalischen Rhythmik與Metrik ” ,萊比錫, 1903年) ,並正變得越來越接受。 But their special feature, which consists in placing the word accent by preference on the arsis, has not found much favour with musicians generally.但其特殊的功能,其中包括把字的口音優惠的arsis ,一直沒有找到很多與音樂家贊成普遍。


Plain chant has a large variety of forms produced by the different purposes of the pieces and by the varying conditions of rendering.平原詠有大量各種形式所產生的不同用途的作品和不同條件的渲染。 A main distinction is that between responsorial and antiphonal chants.一個主要的區別是,與responsorial和antiphonal聖歌。 The responsorial are primarily solo chants and hence elaborate and difficult; the antiphonal are choral or congregational chants and hence simple and easy.該responsorial主要是獨唱聖歌,因此制定和困難;的antiphonal是合唱或公理聖歌,因而簡單易用。 Responsorial are the Graduals, Alleluia verses, and Tracts of the Mass, and the rsponses of the Office antiphons and their psalmody. Responsorial是Graduals ,哈里路亞的詩句,並大港地下,並rsponses辦公室antiphons及其psalmody 。 The Mass antiphons, especially the Introit and Communion, are a kind of idealized antiphon type, preserving the general simplicity of antiphons, but being slightly more elaborated in accordance with their being assigned from the beginning to a trained body of singers.地下antiphons ,特別是Introit和交流,是一種理想化的antiphon類型,維護簡單,一般antiphons ,但是稍微闡述按照其被指派從一開始就以一個訓練有素的機構,歌手。 The Offertories approach more closely to the responsorial style, which is accounted for by the fact that their verses were at an early period assigned to soloists, as explained above.該Offertories辦法更密切的responsorial的風格,這是佔了一個事實,即他們的詩句是在早期階段分配到獨唱,如上文所解釋。 Another distinction is that between psalmodic and what we may call hymnodic melodies.另一個區別是, psalmodic之間以及我們可致電hymnodic的旋律。 The psalmody is founded on the nature of the Hebrew poetry, the psalm form, and is characterized by recitation on a unison with the addition of melodic formulæ at the beginning and at the end of each member of a psalm verse.該psalmody成立的性質希伯來文詩歌,禮讚形式,其特點是背誦了一致,增加了旋律優美的公式,在開始和結束時,每個成員的詩篇詩句。 This type is most clearly recognized in the Office psalm tones, where only the melodic formula at the beginning of the second part of the verse is wanting.這種類型是最清楚地認識到辦公室詩篇鈴聲,只有公式的旋律開始時的第二部分是想詩。 A slightly more ornamental form is found in the Introit psalmody, and a yet richer form in the verses of the Office responses.稍微複雜一些裝飾性的形式被發現在該Introit psalmody ,以及尚未形成豐富的詩句廳的答复。 But the form can also still be recognized in the responsorial forms of the Mass and the body of the Office responses (see Pal. Mus., III).但是,形式也可以仍然是公認的在responsorial形式的群眾和機構的辦事處反應(見帕爾。小家鼠。 ,三) 。 Of a psalmodic nature are various older chants, such as the tones for the prayers, the Preface, some of the earlier compositions of the Ordinary of the Mass, etc. The hymnodic chants, on the other hand, show a free development of melody; though there may be occasionally a little recitation on a monotone, it is not employed methodically. They are more like hymn tunes or folk songs. psalmodic的各種性質的老年合唱團,如聲調的祈禱,前言,一些早先組成的普通大眾等hymnodic聖歌,另一方面,顯示出自由發展的主旋律;儘管有可能會偶爾有點背誦的單調,它不是採用有條不紊。他們更喜歡讚美詩曲調或民歌。 This style is used for the antiphons, both of the Office and of the Mass. Some of these show pretty regular melodic phrases, often four in number, corresponding like the lines of a hymn stanza, as, eg the "Apud Dominum" quoted above.這種風格用於antiphons ,這兩個辦事處和馬薩諸塞州的一些這些節目很經常旋律詞組,往往是4個號碼,相應的像線的讚歌詩,因為,如“羧Dominum ”上面引述。 But oftentimes the correspondence of the melodic phrases, which is always of great importance, is of a freer kind.但是,往往對應的旋律詞組,這始終是非常重要的,是一個自由的實物。

A marked feature in plain chant is the use of the same melody for various texts. This is quite typical for the ordinary psalmody in which the same formula, the "psalm tone", is used for all the verses of a psalm, just as in a hymn or a folk song the same melody is used for the various stanzas.一個明顯的特徵平原詠是使用相同的旋律為各種文本。這是很典型的普通psalmody在相同的公式, “詩篇調” ,是用於所有的詩句的詩篇,就像在1讚美詩或民歌相同的旋律是用於各種stanzas 。 But it is also used for the more complicated psalmodic forms.但它也可用於更複雜psalmodic形式。 Graduals, Tracts, etc., though oftentimes with considerable liberty. Graduals ,大港等,但往往有相當的自由。 Again we find it in the case of the Office antiphons. In all these cases great art is shown in adapting the melodic type to the rhythmical structure of the new texts, and oftentimes it can be observed that care is taken to bring out the sentiments of the words.我們再次找到它的情況辦公室antiphons 。在所有這些情況偉大的藝術是表現在適應的旋律類型的節奏結構的新的案文,並經常可以看到,護理是採取帶出感情字。 On the other hand it seems that for the Mass antiphons each text had originally its own melody.另一方面,似乎對每一個質量antiphons文字原先自己的旋律。 The present Gradual, indeed, shows some instances where a melody of one Mass antiphon has been adapted to another of the same kind, but they are all of comparatively late date (seventh century and after).本漸進,實際上表明某些情況下一個主旋律的一個地下antiphon已經調整到另一個同類,但它們都是相對起步較晚(七世紀後) 。 Among the earliest examples are the Offertory, "Posuisti" (Common of a Martyr Non-Pontiff), taken from the Offertory of Easter Monday, "Angelus Domini", and the Introit, "Salve sancta Parens", modelled on "Ecce advenit" of the Epiphany.最早的例子是奉獻, “ Posuisti ” (共同的烈士非教宗) ,取自奉獻的復活節星期一“ ,多米尼鐘” ,並Introit , “寬慰聖親” ,仿照“幼兒保育和教育advenit ”的頓悟。 The adaptation of a melodic type to different texts seems to have been a characteristic feature of antique composition, which looked primarily for beauty of form and paid less attention to the distinctive representation of sentiment.在改編的旋律類型的不同文本似乎已經被一個特點古董組成,主要用於望著美麗的形式和支付較少注意的獨特代表性的情緒。 In the Mass antiphons, therefore, we may, in a sense, see the birth of modern music, which aims at individual expression.在大眾antiphons ,因此,我們可能會在某種意義上說,看到的誕生現代音樂,其目的是個人的表達。


There is little need to insist on the æsthetic beauty of plain chant.有沒有必要堅持美感平原聖歌。 Melodies, that have outlived a thousand years and are at the present day attracting the attention of so many artists and scholars, need no apology.旋律,這已經失去了一千多年,而且在目前每天吸引如此眾多的藝術家和學者,不需要道歉。 It must be kept in mind, of course, that since the language of plain chant is somewhat remote from the musical language of to-day, some little familiarity with its idiom is required to appreciate its beauty.它必須牢記,當然,由於語言的平原詠有點遠離音樂語言的一天,一些小熟悉的成語,需要欣賞其美。 Its tonality, its rhythm, as it is generally understood, the artistic reserve of its utterance, all cause some difficulty and demand a willing ear.它的音調,它的節奏,因為它是一般的理解,藝術後備其話語,都造成一些困難和需求願意耳朵。 Again it must be insisted that an adequate performance is necessary to reveal the beauty of plain chant.再次,必須堅持適當的性能是必要的揭示美麗的平原聖歌。 Here, however, a great difference of standard is required for the various classes of melodies.在這裡,但是,有很大差異的標準是需要的各類樂曲。 While the simplest forms are quite fit for congregational use, and forms like the Introits and Communions are within the range of average choirs, the most elaborate forms, like the Graduals, require for their adequate performance highly trained choirs, and soloists that are artists.雖然最簡單的形式很適合公理使用和形式等Introits和聖餐的範圍內,平均合唱團,最詳細的形式,如Graduals ,要求他們充分表現訓練有素的合唱團,和獨奏的畫家。 As to the liturgical fitness of plain chant it may be said without hesitation that no other kind of music can rival it.至於禮儀健身平原吟誦,可以說毫不遲疑地,沒有其他種類的音樂都可以通過它的競爭對手。 Having grown up with the Liturgy itself and having influenced its development to a large extent, it is most suitable for its requirements.長大了的聖禮本身並影響其發展,在很大程度上,這是最適合其要求。 The general expression of the Gregorian melodies is in an eminent degree that of liturgical prayer.一般表達的是陽曆的旋律中一位傑出的程度,禮儀祈禱。 Its very remoteness from modern musical language is perhaps an additional element to make the chant suitable for the purpose of religious music, which above all things should be separated from all mundane associations.其遠離現代音樂語言或許是一個額外的要素,使詠適合作此用途的宗教音樂,其中最重要的事情應該分開,所有世俗的協會。 Then the various forms of plain chant are all particularly appropriate to their several objects.然後,各種形式的平原詠都特別適合他們的幾個對象。 For the singing of the psalms in the Office, for instance, no other art form yet invented can be compared with the Gregorian tones.對於唱的詩歌辦公室,例如,沒有其他的藝術形式尚未發明可與陽曆的鈴聲。 The Falsi Bordoni of the sixteenth century are doubtless very fine, but their continuous use would soon become tedious, while the Anglican chants are but a poor substitute for the everlasting vigour of the plain chant formulæ.該Falsi Bordoni的16世紀無疑是非常好的,但其連續使用不久將成為乏味的,而英國聖公會聖歌是一個窮國,但取代的永恆活力平原詠公式。 No attempt even has been made to supply a substitute for the antiphons that accompany this singing of the psalms. At the Mass, the Ordinary, even in the most elaborate forms of the later Middle Ages, reflects the character of congregational singing.任何企圖甚至已經取得了供應的替代品antiphons伴隨這一唱的詩歌。大眾,普通,即使是在最精心形式的中世紀晚期,反映的性質公理唱歌。 The Introit, Offertory, and Communion are each wonderfully adapted to the particular ceremonies they accompany, and the Graduals display the splendour of their elaborate art at the time when all are expected to listen, and no ceremony interferes with the full effect of the music.該Introit ,奉獻,並交流各自奇妙適應特別儀式,他們陪同,並Graduals顯示其輝煌的藝術闡述時都將聽取,也沒有儀式干擾了充分發揮作用的音樂。

The revival of religious life about the middle of the nineteenth century gave the impetus for a renewed cultivation of plain chant.恢復宗教生活的十九世紀中葉的動力了重新種植的平原聖歌。 The extended use and perfected rendering of plain chant, so ardently desired by Pope Pius X, will in its turn not only raise the level of religious music, and enhance the dignity of Divine worship, but also intensify the spiritual life of the Christian community.延長使用和完善,使平原聖歌,所以熱切期望庇護十,將反過來不僅提高宗教音樂,並加強尊嚴的神聖的信仰,而且還加緊精神生活的基督教社區。

Publication information Written by H. Bewerunge.出版信息書面閣下Bewerunge 。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.隨著感謝聖母教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


WAGNER, Einführung in die gregorianischen Melodien (Leipzig, 1911), first vol. also in English: Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies (London); GASTOUÉ, Les origines du chant romain (Paris, 1907);RIEMANN, Handbguch der Musikgeschichte, I (Leipzig, 1905); WEINMANN, History of Church Music (Ratisbon, 1910); MÖHLER AND GATES, Compendium der katholischen Kirchenmusik (Ravensburg, 1909); JACOBSTHAL, Die chromatische Alteration in liturgischen Gesang der abendländischen Kirche (Berlin, 1897); NIKEL, Geschichte der katholischen Kirchenmusik, I (Breslau, 1908); LEITNER, Der gottesdienstliche Volksgesang im jüdischen u.瓦格納導論gregorianischen Melodien (萊比錫, 1911年) ,第一次卷。也有英文:介紹陽曆旋律(倫敦) ; GASTOUÉ ,法國杜詠起源羅曼(巴黎, 1907年) ;黎曼, Handbguch之Musikgeschichte ,我(萊比錫, 1905年) ;魏曼,歷史教會音樂( Ratisbon , 1910 ) ; MÖHLER和蓋茨,簡之katholischen Kirchenmusik (拉文斯堡, 1909年) ; JACOBSTHAL ,模具chromatische改造liturgischen Gesang之abendländischen教堂(柏林, 1897年) ;鎳,史katholischen Kirchenmusik ,我(布雷斯勞, 1908年) ;萊特娜,明鏡gottesdienstliche Volksgesang免疫jüdischen美國 christlichen Altertum (Freiburg, 1906); BEWERUNGE, The Vatican Edition of Plain Chant in Irish Ecclesiastical Record (Jan., May, and Nov., 1907); MOCQUEROU, Le nombre musical grégorien, I (Tournai, 1908); DECHEVRENS, Etudes de science musicale 93 vols., 1898); BENEDICTINES OF STANBROOK, A Grammar of Plainsong (Worcester, 1905); POTHIER, Les mélodies grégoriennes (Tournai, 1880); JOHNER, Neue Schule des gregorianischen Choralgesanges (Ratisbon, 1911); KIENLE, Choralschule (Freiburg, 1890); WAGNER, Elemente des gregorianischen Gesanges (Ratisbon, 1909); ABERT, Die Musikanschauung des Mittelalters (Halle, 1905). christlichen Altertum (弗賴堡, 1906年) ; BEWERUNGE ,梵蒂岡版的平原詠在愛爾蘭教會記錄( 1月, 5月和11月, 1907年) ; MOCQUEROU ,樂布雷音樂grégorien ,我(圖爾奈, 1908年) ; DECHEVRENS ,練習曲由科學音樂93第一卷和第二卷。 , 1898 ) ;篤的STANBROOK ,語法Plainsong (伍斯特市, 1905年) ;波蒂埃,法國的旋律grégoriennes (圖爾奈, 1880年) ; JOHNER ,新學派之gregorianischen Choralgesanges ( Ratisbon , 1911 ) ;金勒, Choralschule (弗賴堡, 1890年) ;瓦格納,元素之gregorianischen Gesanges ( Ratisbon , 1909年) ; ABERT ,模具Musikanschauung萬Mittelalters (哈雷, 1905年) 。

Gregorian Chant格利高裡聖歌

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of the early Middle Ages, but also later compositions (elaborate melodies for the Ordinary of the Mass, sequences, etc.) written in a similar style down to the sixteenth century and even in modern times.的名字往往是作為同義詞平原詠,不僅包括教堂音樂,中世紀早期,但後來也組成(詳細旋律的普通大眾,序列等) ,寫了類似的風格到16世紀,甚至在現代倍。 In a stricter sense Gregorian chant means that Roman form of early plain chant as distinguished from the Ambrosian, Galliean, and Mozarabic chants, which were akin to it, but were gradually supplanted by it from the eighth to the eleventh century.在嚴格意義上陽曆詠意味著,羅馬形式的早期平原詠作為區別於安布羅西安聖, Galliean ,並摩沙拉聖歌,這是類似的,但已逐漸取代了從第八至十一世紀。 Of the Gallican and Mozarabic chants only a few remains are extant, but they were probably closely related to the Ambrosian chant.在高盧聖詠和摩沙拉只有少數仍然是現存的,但它們可能密切相關的安布羅西安聖詠。 Of the latter, which has maintained itself in Milan up to the present day, there are two complete manuscripts belonging to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries respectively, and a considerable number belonging to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.對後者保持了自己在米蘭至今,有兩個完整的手稿屬於第十三和第十四分別世紀,並有相當多屬於第十五屆和第十六世紀。 An incomplete manuscript belongs to the twelfth century.一個不完整的手稿屬於12世紀。 It is at present in the British Museum and has been published in the fifth volume of the "Paléographie musicale".這是目前在大英博物館,並已出版在第五卷“ Paléographie音樂” 。 All these manuscripts contain the chants both for the Office and for the Mass. The Office chants are antiphons and responses, as in the Roman books. The Mass chants are Ingressa (corresponding to the Introit, but without psalm), Psalmellus (Gradual), Cantus (Tract), Offertory, Transitorium (Communion), and, in addition, two antiphons having no counterpart in the Gregorian Mass, one post Evangelium, the other the Confractorium.所有這些手稿包含兩種唱法的辦事處和馬薩諸塞州辦事處聖歌是antiphons和答复,如在羅馬的書籍。群眾高呼是Ingressa (相當於Introit ,但沒有詩篇) , Psalmellus (漸進式) ,坎圖斯(道) ,奉獻, Transitorium (聖餐) ,此外,兩個antiphons沒有對應的陽曆質量, 1個福音,其他的Confractorium 。 There are, further, a few Alleluia verses and antiphons ante Evangelium.目前,進一步的,有幾個哈里路亞詩句和antiphons事前福音。 Musically it can easily be observed that the syllabic pieces are often simpler, the ornate pieces more extended in their melismata than in the Gregorian chant.音樂它可以很容易地指出,音節往往是件簡單,華麗的作品更廣泛的melismata比陽曆聖歌。 The Gregorian melodies, however, have more individuality and characteristic expression.陽曆的旋律,然而,有更多的個性和特色的表達。 Though it is very doubtful whether these Ambrosian melodies date back to the time of St. Ambrose, it is not improbable that they represent fairly the character of the chant sung in Italy and Gaul at the time when the cantilena romana superseded the earlier forms.雖然這是很值得懷疑是否這些安布羅西安聖旋律追溯到時間的聖劉漢銓,這不是不可能的,他們代表公正的性質詠星在意大利和高盧時的坎蒂大同取代了以前的形式。 The frequent occurrence of cadences founded on the cursus at all events points to a time before the latter went out of use in literary composition, that is before the middle of the seventh century.頻繁發生的cadences基礎上cursus在所有活動點前的時間,後者走出使用的文學組成,這是在中間的七世紀。 (See Gatard in "Dict. d'arch. chrét.", sv "Ambrosien (chant)" and Mocquereau, "Notes sur l'Influence de l'Accent et du Cursus toniques Latins dans le Chant Ambrosien" in "Ambrosiana", Milan, 1897.) The name Gregorian chant points to Gregory the Great (590-604), to whom a pretty constant tradition ascribes a certain final arrangement of the Roman chant. (見Gatard在“快譯通。德拱。 chrét 。 ”希沃特“ Ambrosien (詠) ”和Mocquereau , “注要件影響法國口音等公司Cursus toniques拉丁人中的樂詠Ambrosien ”中的“ Ambrosiana ”米蘭, 1897年) 。陽曆的名稱詠點,格里高利大( 590-604 ) ,人很傳統,不斷賦予一定的最後安排的羅馬聖歌。 It is first met in the writings of William of Hirschau, though Leo IV (847-855) already speaks of the cantus St. Gregorii.這是第一次見面的著作威廉Hirschau ,但利奧四( 847-855 )已經講的旋律街Gregorii 。 The tradition mentioned was questioned first by Pierre Gussanville, in 1675, and again, in 1729, by George, Baron d'Eckhart, neither of whom attracted much attention.傳統提到有人質疑首先由皮埃爾Gussanville ,在1675年,又在1729年,喬治,男爵德克哈特,沒有一個人引起了極大的關注。 In modern times Gevaert, president of the Brussels music school, has tried to show, with a great amount of learning, that the compilation of the Mass music belongs to the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century.在現代吉華,總統在布魯塞爾音樂學院,曾試圖表明,以大量的學習,彙編地下音樂屬於月底或7月初八世紀。 His arguments led to a close investigation of the question, and at present practically all authorities, including, besides the Benedictines, such men as Wagner, Gastoué, and Frere, hold that the large majority of plain- chant melodies were composed before the year 600.他的論點導致了密切調查的問題,目前幾乎所有機構,包括,除本篤,例如男子瓦格納, Gastoué ,以及弗里爾,持有大多數普通詠旋律組成前600年。

The principal proofs for a Gregorian tradition may be summarized thus:主要證據為陽曆的傳統可歸納如下:

The testimony of John the Deacon, Gregory's biographer (c. 872), is quite trustworthy.的證詞約翰執事,格雷戈里的傳記作者(角872 ) ,是非常值得信賴的。 Amongst other considerations the very modest claim he makes for the saint, "antiphonarium centonem. . . compilavit" (he compiled a patchwork antiphonary), shows that he was not carried away by a desire to eulogize his hero.除其他因素的要求非常微薄他為聖人, “ antiphonarium centonem 。 。 。 compilavit ” (他彙編了東拼西湊antiphonary ) ,這表明他沒有帶走的願望謳歌他的英雄。 There are several other testimonies in the ninth century.有一些其他的證詞在第九世紀。 In the eighth century we have Egbert and Bede (see Gastoué, "Les Origines", etc., 87 sqq.). The latter, in particular, speaks of one Putta, who died as bishop in 688, "maxime modulandi in ecclesia more Romanorum peritus, quem a discipulis beati papae Gregorii didicerat".在第八世紀,我們有埃格伯和比德(見Gastoué , “法國起源”等, 87 sqq 。 ) 。後者,尤其是談到了一個Putta ,誰喪生的688名主教, “馬克西姆在教會modulandi更多Romanorum peritus ,終止1 discipulis beati採魯斯教皇Gregorii didicerat “ 。 In the seventh century we have the epitaph of Honorius, who died in 638 (Gastoué, op. cit., 93):在第七世紀,我們有墓誌銘挪留,誰死在638 ( Gastoué ,同前。前。 , 93 ) :

. . . . divino in carmine pollens迪維努在胭脂花粉

Ad vitam pastor ducere novit ovis廣告維生素牧師ducere novit羊

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Namque Gregorii tanti vestigia iusti Namque Gregorii坦蒂vestigia iusti

Dum sequeris culpiens meritumque geris達姆彈sequeris culpiens meritumque geris

-- that is: "Gifted with divine harmony the shepherd leads his sheep to life . -這是: “天才與神和諧的牧羊人導致他的羊群的生命。

. . for while following the footsteps of holy Gregory you have won your reward." According to this it was thought in Rome, less than forty years after the death of St. Gregory, that the greatest praise for a music-loving pope was to compare him to his predecessor Gregory.而下面的的足跡,神聖的格雷戈里你贏得你的獎賞。 “根據本以為這是在羅馬,不到四十年去世後,聖格里高利,即最大的讚揚音樂愛好教皇是比較他他的前任格雷戈里。

The feasts known to have been introduced after St. Gregory use in the main melodies borrowed from older feasts.眾所周知的節日已經介紹後,格里高利聖中使用的主要旋律借用老年人節日。 See the detailed proof for this in Frere's "Introduction".見詳細證明這一點弗里爾的“導言” 。

The texts of the chants are taken from the "Itala" version, while as early as the first half of the seventh century St. Jerome's correction had been generally adopted.的案文吟唱摘自“伊泰萊”版本,而早在今年上半年七世紀聖杰羅姆的修正已普遍採用。

The frequent occurrence in the plain-chant melodies of cadences moulded on the literary cursus shows that they were composed before the middle of the seventh century, when the cursus went out of use.頻繁發生的純詠旋律的cadences塑造的文學cursus表明,他們面前的組成中七世紀,當出去cursus使用。

Publication information Written by H. Bewerung.出版信息書面閣下Bewerung 。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄的托馬斯M貝瑞特。 Dedicated to Mother Angelica The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.獻給母親當歸的天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年九月一日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約


GEVAERT, Les Origines du Chant Liturgigue de l'Eglise Latins (Ghent, 1890); IDEM, La Melopee Antique dans le Chant de l'eglise Latine (Ghent, 1895); MORIN, Les Veritables Origines du Chant Gregorien (Maredsous, 1890); CAGIN, Un Mot sur l'Antiphonale Missarum (Solesmes, 1890); BRAMBACH, Gregorianisch (Leipzig, 1895, 2nd ed., 1901); FRERE, Introduction to the Graduale Sarisburiense (London, 1894); Paleographie musicale, IV; WAGNER, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, Pt.吉華,法國杜詠起源Liturgigue法國教堂拉丁人(比利時根特, 1890年) ;同上,香格里拉Melopee古董樂詠中的法國教堂拉丁(比利時根特, 1895年) ;莫蘭Veritables起源之杜詠Gregorien ( Maredsous , 1890 ) ; CAGIN ,聯合國獨要件Antiphonale Missarum (索雷姆, 1890 ) ; BRAMBACH , Gregorianisch (萊比錫, 1895年,第二版。 , 1901年) ;弗里爾,介紹Graduale Sarisburiense (倫敦, 1894年) ; Paleographie音樂,四;瓦格納,介紹陽曆旋律,鉑。 I (1901, English ed. by the Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, London, chapter xi); GASTOUE, Les origines du Chant Romain (Pris, 1907), pt.一( 1901年,英語版。由Plainsong和中世紀音樂協會,倫敦,第十一章) ; GASTOUE ,法國杜詠起源羅曼(刑法, 1907年) ,角。 II, i; WYATT, St. Gregory and the Gregorian Music (London, 1904).二,我;懷亞特,聖格雷戈里和陽曆音樂(倫敦, 1904年) 。

Religious Song宗教歌曲

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Sacred Song) (聖宋)

Religious song is the general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character.宗教歌曲是一般指定給許多詩意和音樂的創作已進入存在的過程中時間和使用方面的公共神崇拜,但不包括在官方禮儀上考慮他們更多的自由和主觀性質。 It has its origin in the desire on the part of the faithful, a desire even encouraged but always guided and controlled by the Church, to participate actively in the public religious ceremonies of the Church.它起源於願望的一部分,忠實,希望甚至鼓勵,但總是引導和控制的教會,積極參與公共宗教儀式的教堂。 While the psalms were sung in traditional fashion during the early Eucharistic celebrations at the public meetings, and the love-feasts, or agapae, or the early Christians, there soon sprang up the custom of improvising songs, participated in by the whole assembly, which, though religious in burden, by their spontaneity and freedom stood in contrast to the psalms and other lyric parts of the Holy Scripture in use at the Eucharistic celebration.雖然詩歌演唱了傳統的方式在早期聖慶祝活動的公開會議,以及愛情節日,或agapae ,或早期基督徒,很快興起的習俗,即興的歌曲,參與了整個大會,這雖然宗教的負擔,他們自發和自由鮮明對比的詩歌和其他抒情部分的聖經使用的體慶祝活動。 These creations in course of time lost their spiritual character, dignity, and fervour as the institution which gave them birth and of which they formed an important part degenerated in character, departed from its original purpose, and became an occasion for pleasure and dissipation.在這些作品隨著時間的推移,失去了他們的精神性格,尊嚴和熱情的機構,給他們的出生和他們的一個重要組成部分退化的性質,背離了其初衷,並成為一個機會感到高興和耗散。 The songs thus originated continued in use long after the institution had lost official sanction, and have become known in history by the name of the institution which gave rise to them.因此,該首歌曲源自繼續在長期使用後,該機構已失去正式批准,並已成為在歷史上已知的名稱的機構引起了他們。

As Christianity spread, there was an ever greater increase of spontaneous creations of this kind originating in the desire on the part of their authors to get nearer to the people and to convey to them by this means instruction as well as edification.作為基督教傳播,有越來越大的增加自發創作的這種原產於願望的一部分,其作者將獲得更接近人民,向他們轉達了,這意味著教學以及啟發。 As early as the fourth century there had come into use so many chants, hymns, and songs, in various parts of the Christian world, and abuses and aberrations had become so general, that the Council of Laodicea (360-381) forbade the singing of any text not taken from Holy Scripture.早在4世紀有使用到如此眾多的聖歌,讚美詩,以及歌曲,各地區的基督教世界,以及濫用和畸變已經變得如此普遍,安理會的老底嘉( 360-381 )禁止唱歌在沒有任何文字取自聖經。 The hymns by St. Hilary and St. Ambrose of Milan (especially the latter) - which now form a part of the liturgy - had for their original purpose the instruction of the people by having them sing in striking metrical form and to vigorous melodies the fundamental truths of religion.的讚美詩聖希拉里和聖劉漢銓米蘭(尤其是後者) -現在形式的一部分,禮儀-已為他們原來的目的的指示,人民讓他們唱驚人的格律形式和有力的旋律基本真理的宗教。 The sequences and tropes which came into existence with such exuberance in the early Middle Ages, while popular in form, sprang directly from the liturgy and always partook of its character.該序列和比喻生效存在這種繁榮在中世紀早期,而流行的形式,興起直接從禮儀,始終partook其性質。 In those regions where the liturgical language remained at the same time the tongue of the people, at least in a modified form, participation in the official chant of the Church on the part of all was general for many centuries, and in consequence the influence of the spirit of the liturgy and its music prevented the early development of a more subjective religious poetry and music than was to be the case in later times in other regions.在這些地區,禮儀語言仍然在同一時間舌頭的人,至少在修改的形式,參與官方詠教會的一部分,所有與會者普遍對許多世紀以來,在後果和影響精神的禮儀和音樂無法及早制定一項更主觀的宗教詩歌和音樂比這種情況在以後的時間在其他地區。 This is probably the reason why in Italy, Spain, and the other Latin countries the religious song in the vernacular has never taken root.這也許是為什麼在意大利,西班牙,和其他拉美國家的宗教歌曲,白話文從來沒有紮根。

While this was also true of France, for a considerable time, we find there an early and rapid growth of songs of every kind, bearing a strong national character.雖然這也是法國的相當長的一段時間,我們發現有早期和快速增長的歌曲的每一種,同時一個強大的國家性質。 Every important event in the domestic and religious life of the people soon found expression in song.每一個重要的事件在國內和宗教生活的人很快發現表達的歌曲。 The festivals of the Church inspired them and became by these means in turn impressed upon the popular imagination.在節日的教會啟發他們,並成為通過這些手段又印象深刻的流行想像力。 One of these characteristically French songs is the noël, or Christmas song, which had great vogue in the eleventh century, a vogue which reached its height in the seventeenth century and has survived in a certain form, ever to our day.其中的一個典型的法國歌曲是諾埃爾,或聖誕歌曲,其中有很大的盛行於11世紀,一個時髦達到其高度在17世紀,並存活了一定的形式,以往我們的一天。 The noël, the words of which were often paraphrases of liturgical texts, set to melodies naive and pastoral in character, was popular in every section of the kingdom and sung in every dialect in use.諾埃爾的話往往被釋義的禮儀文本,將旋律天真和畜牧性質,是在每一個受歡迎的部分,英國和朴智星在每一個方言的使用。 Processions, pilgrimages, and especially the mystery and miracle plays gave rise to many forms of songs.遊行,朝聖,尤其是神秘與奇蹟發揮引起了許多形式的歌曲。 The troubadours in the south and trouveres in the north exerted great influence on the development and propagation not only of secular but of religious songs as well.該troubadours在南部和trouveres在北方施加重大影響的發展和傳播不僅是世俗的,而是宗教歌曲,以及。 Among the many forms in use was the complaint, a song in narrative form of which the "Story of the Resurrection" (O filii et filiae) is a prominent type. The pastorale was another form which flourished from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, sometimes having religious texts and then again voicing secular sentiments.在眾多的形式使用的投訴,一首歌在敘述形式的“故事的復活” (海外filii等filiae )是一個突出的類型。的田園是另一種形式的蓬勃發展從第十二至十六世紀,有時有宗教經文,然後再次表達世俗的情緒。 With the sixteenth century began the custom of substituting secular airs in use at the time for the melodies to which the sacred texts of the noëls, complaints, etc., had thus far been sung; they were not only modelled on the Gregorian chant but had a distinctively niave simple character.隨著16世紀開始的習俗,代世俗擺架子在使用時的旋律而神聖的文本的noëls ,投訴等,迄今星,他們不僅是仿照陽曆吟詠,但1鮮明niave簡單的特點。 This substitution sometimes involved even the partial taking over of the profane text as well.這種替代有時甚至參與了部分接管褻瀆文字以及。 This was the beginning of the decadence which finally, in some places, reached the point where chansons de galanterie, or love songs, were completely transformed into cantiques, or religious songs, by merely substituting the name of the Blessed Virgin or that of Jesus Christ, for the name of the beloved one mentioned in the original.這是開始衰落,最終,在某些地方,達到的地步chansons德galanterie ,或愛情的歌曲,完全轉化為cantiques ,或宗教歌曲,僅僅代的名字聖母或耶穌基督為名稱的心愛的人中提到的原始。 The modern French cantique, which has taken the place of the traditional religious songs, is sentimental, quasi-military, and savours of the world, plainly showing the influence of the favourite French musical form, the opera.現代法國cantique ,它取代了傳統的宗教歌曲,是感傷,準軍事, savours的世界,顯然表現出的影響力最喜歡的法國音樂劇的形式,歌劇。

On account of their total unfamiliarity with the Latin language, the Germanic races were prevented from participating in the liturgical chant introduced with Christianity itself by their first missionaries.在考慮到它們的總熟悉拉丁語,日耳曼民族是無法參加禮儀詠介紹了自己的基督教第一次傳教士。 At most they joined in singing the Kyrie Eleison, and that in the form of a refrain.在他們最加入唱Kyrie Eleison ,並在形式避免。 This primitive practice became so general that it survived long after songs in the vernacular had come into universal use.這種原始的做法變得如此普遍,它存活很久以後的歌曲在白話文已經開始普遍使用。 The latter would frequently end with the above invocation, which was gradually abbreviated into "Kyrieleis".後者將為此經常與上述的調用,這是逐步縮寫為“ Kyrieleis ” 。 The songs or hymns in the vernacular were themselves called later on "Kyrieleis" and "Leisen".該歌曲或讚美詩的白話文本身所謂的後“ Kyrieleis ”和“萊森” 。 The word "lay", which designates a vast song literature of a whole subsequent period, is derived from "Leisen".單詞“奠定基礎” ,其中指定一個巨大的歌曲文獻隨後整個期間,來自“萊森” 。 To wean their neophytes from pagan beliefs and practices, the early missionaries were wont to make use of melodies familiar to the people, apply Christian texts to them, and turn them into effective means of instruction.為了說服他們的新手從異教信仰和習俗,早期的傳教士慣於利用熟悉的旋律的人,基督教文本適用於他們,並把他們變成有效的手段指示。 This practice soon led the naturally emotional and subjective race to give vent to their growing religious feelings in words and melodies of their own invention, so that as early as the latter part of the ninth century words in the vernacular were mixed with those of liturgical chants, the former forming a sort of glossary to the latter.這一做法很快導致自然的感情和主觀的比賽發洩日益增長的宗教感情的文字和旋律自己的發明,因此,早在後者的一部分, 9世紀字的白話混合與禮儀聖歌前形成的一種詞彙後者。 From this time on there is a constant growth in songs of all kinds in honour of Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the saints, inspired by the great feasts; songs called forth by national events, the Crusades, and, as elsewhere, processions and pilgrimages, many of them created and all of them fostered by the minnesingers and poets of the day.從這個時間有一個不斷增長的歌曲的各種紀念耶穌基督,聖母,聖人,靈感來自偉大的節日;歌曲提出要求的國家發生的事件,十字軍東征,並與其他地方一樣,遊行和朝聖,其中許多是建立和所有這些促進了minnesingers和詩人的一天。 The texts in the vernacular and the melodies originated from the earliest days of Christianity up to the Reformation in Germanic countries; they were usually sung by the whole congregation, and belong to what is most sturdy and profound in sentiment and expression in this field.案文中的方言和旋律源於初期基督教到改革的日耳曼國家;他們通常成整個教會,屬於最堅固的和深刻的情感和表達在這一領域。 The fact that some 1500 melodies, antedating the Reformation, have come down to us gives us some idea of the hold the religious song had upon the people.事實上,一些1500年的旋律,提前改造,都可以歸結為我們給我們的一些想法,舉行了宗教歌曲的人。 The Reformers, like the Arians of the fourth century, availed themselves of the love for song on the part of the people, and converted it into an insidious and powerful means for the dissemination of their erroneous doctrines.改革者一樣, Arians第四世紀,利用自己的愛歌曲的一部分人,並轉換成一個陰險和強有力的手段來傳播他們的錯誤的教條。 The impetus thus given to singing exclusively in the vernacular by the leaders of Protestantism was so widespread and powerful that it soon reacted upon those who remained loyal to the faith of their fathers.因此,推動唱歌給只在白話文的新教領導人是如此廣泛和強大,它的反應很快對這些誰仍忠於信仰他們的父親。 It resulted not only in the creation of a large number of new hymn books but also in the custom, which has not yet been rooted up in all places, of singing in German during liturgical services.它不僅在創造大量新的讚美詩書籍,而且在習俗,尚未紮根在所有地方,唱歌期間在德國禮儀服務。

A number of influences have contributed to the degeneration of the hymn in the vernacular which reached its limit in the eighteenth century.一些影響作出貢獻的變質的讚美詩在白話達到它的極限在18世紀。 The most potent factors in its decay were the growth of Rationalism affecting even those within the fold and the ever-increasing ascendancy of secular music, resulting in the seventeenth century in the abandonment of the Gregorian modes, upon which practically all hymn melodies had been modelled, and the substitution of the modern keys.最有力的因素及其衰變的增長,理性甚至影響到那些在倍和日益增加的佔支配地位的世俗音樂,因此在17世紀放棄陽曆模式時,其中幾乎所有的讚美詩的旋律已經為藍本,並取代現代鑰匙。 With the revival of the Catholic spirit at the beginning of the nineteenth century came a return to early ideals.隨著恢復天主教的精神在19世紀初來到回到早期的理想。 Poets and musicians of the right stamp, both clerical and lay, inspired by the spirit of the Church and later fostered by the power agency of the Saint Cecilia Society, have restored to the Catholic people of German-speaking countries a song literature in the vernacular tongue, which is as rich in variety as it is sturdy in its expression of faith.詩人和音樂家的權利郵票,包括文書和奠定基礎,精神鼓舞下的教會,後來培育的權力機構的聖塞西莉亞協會,已恢復到天主教人講德語的國家一首歌文學的白話舌頭,這是因為豐富的品種,因為它是堅固在其表達的誠意。 In France a vigorous effort is being made, as part of the Gregorian restoration, to reconstruct a sound and wholesome taste among the people by the republication and propagation of proses, rhythmes, sequences, and other chants in honour of Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the saints, or the church festivals, written in one or other of the Gregorian modes, and in vogue during the ages of simple and lively faith.在法國的積極努力正在取得,作為陽曆恢復,重建一個健全和健康的口味人民之間的再版和傳播的散文, rhythmes ,序列,和其他聖歌紀念耶穌基督,聖母,聖人,或教堂的節日,在一個書面或其他的陽曆模式,並在流行期間,年齡在簡單而生動的信念。 Competent church musicians and Gregorianists are successfully creating similar new melodies to standard texts.主管教會音樂工作者和Gregorianists成功地創造新的旋律類似的標準文本。

Their use is becoming widespread.其使用日益普及。

There is very little trace of the existence in early times in most English-speaking countries of religious songs in the vernacular.很少有微量的存在早期在大多數講英語的國家的宗教歌曲中的白話。 The missionaries sent from Rome in the sixth century introduced the liturgical chant into the British Isles and seem to have made but little effort to utilize any characteristically national melodies already existing.傳教士從羅馬發出的第六屆世紀介紹了禮儀詠到不列顛群島,似乎作出了努力,但沒有利用任何國家的旋律特徵已有。 Unlike their colleagues in regions across the Channel, the gleemen, harpers, and bards of old continued to cultivate chiefly the secular field, and their productions and activity had not much influence on the creation and development of a national religious song literature, nor does Celtic musical and poetical culture seem to have been directed into that channel.與他們的同事在整個地區的頻道, gleemen ,哈潑斯,以及管理層出局歲的繼續培養世俗的主要領域,其產品和活動並沒有多大影響力的建立和發展一個國家的宗教歌曲文學,也不凱爾特音樂和詩文化似乎已經指示進入該頻道。 While polyphonic music had attained a highly flourishing state before the sixteenth century, it was only at the time of the Reformation that singing in the vernacular assumed greater importance in England.雖然和弦音樂達到了一個高度繁榮的美國前十六世紀,它只是在當時的改革是在唱白話承擔更大的重要性在英格蘭。 As in the other Protestant countries the song in the vernacular became a great factor in British national worship.至於其他的新教國家的歌曲在白話成為一個偉大的因子在英國國家崇拜。 On account of most unpropitious conditions during several hundred years English-speaking Catholics had created but very little of any permanent value until, about the middle of the last century, a new era was inaugurated by religious poets like Faber and Newman. Unfortunately their lyrics have as yet seldom found adequate musical interpretation.考慮到條件最unpropitious在幾百年裡講英語的天主教徒建立了,但很少任何永久的價值,直到大約中間的上個世紀,一個新的時代成立的宗教詩人像花和紐曼。不幸的是他們的歌詞有還很少找到適當的音樂解釋。 What is true of transatlantic English-speaking Catholics holds good in a greater degree in the United States of America.什麼是真正的跨大西洋講英語的天主教徒擁有良好的更大程度的美利堅合眾國。 Partly on account of the scarcity of suitable and worthy hymns in the English vernacular and partly on account of incompetency on the part of those who undertake to supply the deficiency, the taste of the people has been formed by trivial and superficial tunes, generally echoes of the opera, the shallow popular air, and even the drinking song set to sentimental and often trivial texts.部分是由於缺乏合適的和有價值的讚美詩在英文白話和部分到不稱職的一部分,這些誰承擔供應的不足,口味的人已經形成了瑣碎和膚淺的曲調,一般迴聲歌劇,流行的淺空氣,甚至飲用水歌曲設定為多愁善感,常常瑣碎的案文。 Of late years, however, several collections of hymns in the vernacular, indicating a return to what is best in religious poetry and in popular sacred song, have come into existence and are gradually making their way into general use.近幾年,然而,一些收藏的讚美詩中的方言,說明返回什麼是最好的宗教詩歌和流行神聖的歌曲,已經存在,並逐步使他們的方式納入一般使用。

Publication information Written by Joseph Otten.出版信息撰稿約瑟夫歐登。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄的托馬斯M貝瑞特。 Dedicated to Christian musicians and composers The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.致力於基督教音樂家和作曲家的天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


WEINMANN, History of Church Music (New York, 1910); BAUMKER, Das deutsche Kirchenlied in seinen Singweisen (Freiburg, 1901); WAGNER, Einfuhrung in die gregorianischen Melodien (Fribourg, 1901); TIERSOT, Melodies populaires des provinces de France, noëls francais, etc. (Paris, 1894); DUCHESNE, Christian Worship (London, 1903).魏曼,歷史教會音樂(紐約, 1910 ) ; BAUMKER ,德國Kirchenlied在seinen Singweisen (弗賴堡, 1901年) ;瓦格納導論gregorianischen Melodien (弗里堡, 1901年) ; TIERSOT ,旋律萬人民省份法國, noëls法國等(巴黎, 1894年) ;杜申,基督教崇拜(倫敦, 1903年) 。

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