Priscillian, Priscillianism Priscillian , Priscillianism

General Information 一般信息

Priscillian, dc 385, was a Spanish ascetic who founded the movement called Priscillianism, which was condemned as heretical by the church. Priscillian ,直流385 ,是西班牙的一個禁慾誰創立了所謂的Priscillianism運動,這是譴責邪教的教堂。 Despite his unorthodox views, which were apparently influenced by gnosticism and Manichaean dualism, he became bishop of Avila in 380.儘管他非正統的看法,這顯然影響諾斯替主義和摩尼教的二元論,他成為主教阿維拉在380 。 He was later judged guilty of sorcery, however, and executed.他後來被判定犯有巫術,然而,執行死刑。 Priscillianism persisted in Spain until the 6th century. Priscillianism堅持在西班牙,直到6世紀。

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Advanced Information 先進的信息

The movement is named after its originator, Priscillian of Avila, although he probably did not share the views of his successors on the nature of the Trinity.運動命名為發端後, Priscillian的阿維拉,儘管他可能不同意的意見,他的繼任者的性質三一。 Priscillian himself was a talented layman who began to organize independent Bible study groups in which self - denial and a deeper spiritual life were emphasized along with the need to know the power of the living Word. Priscillian自己是一個天才外行誰開始組織獨立的研究小組聖經中自我-拒絕和更深的精神生活,強調了一起需要知道的力量,生活的W ord。 Women were encouraged to participate in these meetings and to exercise their gifts in ministry.鼓勵婦女參加這些會議,並行使自己的禮物在部。 Many attached themselves to this movement.許多重視自己這一運動。 Even bishops and other clergy gave their support.即使是主教和其他神職人員了他們的支持。 Priscillian's emphasis on celibacy, however, ran afoul of the church, which confused his teaching with Manichaeism and condemned his doctrines at the Council of Sargossa in 380. Priscillian強調獨身生活,但是,過衝突的教堂,它混淆了教學與摩尼教,並譴責他的理論在安理會的Sargossa在380 。 He was nevertheless ordained as bishop of Avila amid growing controversy.不過,他作為主教祝聖的阿維拉由於越來越多的爭議。 Ultimately, after unsuccessful appeals to Pope Damascus and Ambrose of Milan, Priscillian laid his case before the Emperor Maximus and was beheaded, along with six of his followers, at Triers in 385.歸根結底,失敗後,教皇呼籲大馬士革和劉漢銓的米蘭, Priscillian奠定他的案子之前,天皇馬克西穆斯和被斬首,隨著六個他的追隨者,在審判犯罪的385 。 This appears to have been the first Christian execution for heresy and caused him to be venerated as a martyr, especially in Galicia.這似乎是第一次執行的基督教異端,並造成他是崇敬為烈士,尤其是在加利西亞。

It is not always easy to separate the beliefs of Priscillian from those of his later followers.這並不總是很容易分開的信仰從這些Priscillian他後來的追隨者。 Priscillian himself wrote a series of canons which appear in many texts of the Vulgate Bible. Priscillian自己寫了一系列的大砲出現在許多文本武加大聖經。 He divided the Pauline epistles (in which he included the Epistle to the Hebrews) into a series of texts on the theological points and wrote an introduction to each.他分為保書信(其中包括他的書希伯來)到了一系列的法規對神學分,寫了介紹每個。 These canons survived in a form edited by Peregrinus, who considered them an indispensable aid in the study of Scripture.這些大砲倖存的形式編輯的官,誰認為他們不可缺少的援助在研究聖經。 They contain a strong call to a life of personal piety and asceticism, including vegetarianism, teetotalism, and celibacy. Slavery and sexual differences are abolished in Jesus Christ, and the charismatic gifts of all believers affirmed.它們包含一個強大打電話給個人生活的虔誠和禁慾主義,包括素食,戒酒,並獨身。奴役和性差異的廢除耶穌基督,和魅力的禮物,所有信徒肯定。 The elect were called to combat the devil and his evil powers, and to enter into a knowledge of the deep mysteries of God.該選舉被稱為打擊魔鬼和他的邪惡力量,並進入一個以知識的深海奧秘的上帝。

Priscillian and his followers placed considerable emphasis upon apocryphal works, which they did not regard as canonical but rather as helpful to the spiritually minded who could discern truth from error. Priscillian和他的追隨者相當重視對未經工程,因為他們不認為是典型,而是幫助志同道合的精神可以看出誰實事求是的錯誤。 Thus apocryphal writings are quoted significantly in Priscillianist writings.因此,未經著作被引用Priscillianist顯著的著作。 Generally ascribed to the Priscillianist school are the prologues to the four Gospels as they are found in many Old Latin texts.一般來說歸咎於Priscillianist學校是prologues四福音因為他們發現在許多老拉丁美洲的案文。 These are strongly monarchian in theology and do not allow for a clear distinction between the persons of the Godhead.這些都是在大力monarchian神學和不允許明確區分人的神體。 In 1889 G Schepss published a series of eleven treatises which he had discovered at Wurzburg.在1889年G Schepss發表了一系列論文11 ,他發現了在維爾茨堡。 Although the text named Priscillian as the author, it seems more probable that these treatises were written by one of his supporters.雖然名為Priscillian文的作者,似乎更有可能,這些論文寫的是他的一個支持者。 They too contain a strong emphasis on Bible study, an allegorical interpretation of Scripture, asceticism, and the unity of God rather than the Trinity.他們也包含一個非常重視研究聖經的寓言解釋聖經,禁慾主義和團結,而不是上帝的三位一體。 Christ is frequently referred to as "ChristGod" and is called "unbegettable."基督是經常被稱為“ ChristGod ”和被稱為“ unbegettable 。 ”

Closely related to the Wurzburg treatises in both content and thought is a ninth century manuscript of an anonymous treatise, On the Trinity.密切相關的維爾茨堡論文在內容和思想是第九世紀的手稿由一位匿名的論文,論三一。 Father and Son are declared to be names for the same person, with Father representing mind and Son word.父與子被宣布為名字為同一人,同代表牢記父親和兒子字。 There is also a fragment of a letter by Priscillian which is quoted by Orosius, a decidedly hostile witness.還有一個片段的信Priscillian這是引述Orosius ,決定性的敵意證人。

The critics of Priscillianism accused the movement of astrology, sorcery, dualism, Manichaeism, Sabellianism, modalism, and outright lying.批評Priscillianism被告的流動占星術,巫術,二元,摩尼教,撒伯流主義, modalism ,並公然撒謊。 The strong following of women led to charges of sexual orgies.強勁以下的婦女導致性收費orgies 。 Priscillianists were also said to teach that preexistent human souls were attached as a punishment to the body, which was the creation of the devil. Priscillianists據說也告訴我們,人類靈魂preexistent附作為一種懲罰的機構,這是建立了魔鬼。 Thus the bodily humanity of Christ was denied, and fasting instituted on Christmas Day and Sundays. Priscillianism continued at least until 563, when it was officially condemned by the Council of Braga.因此,人類的身體基督被拒絕,並絕食提起聖誕節和星期日。 Priscillianism繼續,至少到563 ,當它被正式譴責安理會的布拉加。

RC Kroeger and CC Kroeger鋼筋混凝土克勒格爾和CC克勒格爾

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
H Chadwick, Priscillian of Avila; J Chapman, Notes on the Early History of the Vulgate Gospels. H查德威克, Priscillian的阿維拉; J查普曼,說明早期歷史的拉丁文聖經福音。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis. His first adherents were a lady named Agape and a rhetorician named Helpidius, through whose influence Priscillian "a man of noble birth, of great riches, bold, restless, eloquent, learned through much reading, very ready at debate and discussion (Sulpicius Severus, "His. Sac.", II, 46) was also enrolled. His high position and great gifts made him the leader of the party and he became an ardent apostle of the new doctrines. Through his oratorical gifts and reputation for extreme asceticism he attracted a large following. Among those drawn to him were two bishops, Instantius and Salvianus. The adherents of the new sect organized themselves into an oath-bound society the rapid spread of which attracted the attention of the Catholic Bishop of Cordova, Hyginus, who made known his fears to Idacius, Bishop of Emeritu, and, at the instance of the latter and of Ithacius of Ossanova, a synod was held at Saragossa in 380. Bishops were present at this synod not only from Spain but from Aquitaine. Though summoned, the Priscillianists refused to appear, and the synod pronounced sentence of excommunication against the four leaders, Instantius, Salvianus, Helpidius, and Priscillian.這異端起源於西班牙在第四世紀,是來自諾斯底,摩尼教教義教的馬庫斯,埃及從灰熊隊。信徒他的第一夫人是一個名為愛和雄辯家名為Helpidius ,通過其影響Priscillian “一個高尚的人出生,具有財富,大膽,焦躁不安,雄辯的,教訓是很多閱讀,非常願意在辯論和討論( Sulpicius塞維魯, “他的。胚囊。 ”二, 46歲)也參加。他很高的地位和偉大的禮物,他領導人的黨和他成為一個熱心倡導者的新理論。通過他的演講禮物和聲譽的極端禁慾主義,他吸引了大量以下。其中提請他有兩個主教, Instantius和Salvianus 。的擁護者新的節組織起來成為一個宣誓約束社會的迅速蔓延引起注意的天主教主教科爾多瓦, Hyginus ,誰知道他擔心的Idacius ,主教Emeritu ,並在實例,後者和Ithacius的Ossanova一個主教舉行的薩拉戈薩在380 。主教出席了這次會議不僅來自西班牙,而是來自阿基坦。雖然傳喚的Priscillianists拒絕出庭,並宣布主教逐出教會一句對四國領導人, Instantius , Salvianus , Helpidius ,並Priscillian 。

The enforcement of the synod's decrees was committed to Ithacius, an impulsive and violent man.執行主教的法令致力於Ithacius ,一個衝動和暴力的人。 He failed to bring the heretics to terms, and, in defiance, Priscillian was ordained to the priesthood and appointed Bishop of Avila. Idacius and Ithacius appealed to the imperial authorities.他沒有把異教徒的條款,並在藐視, Priscillian晉鐸,並任命主教的阿維拉。 Idacius和Ithacius呼籲帝國當局。 The Emperor Gratian issued a decree which not only deprived the Priscillianists of the churches into which they had intruded themselves but sentenced Priscillian and his followers to exile.皇帝格拉提安頒布了一項法令,這不僅剝奪了Priscillianists的教堂到他們自己的入侵,但被判Priscillian和他的追隨者流亡。 Instantius, Salvianus, and Priscillian proceeded to Rome to gain the aid of Pope Damasus in having this sentence revoked. Instantius , Salvianus ,並著手Priscillian羅馬獲得援助教皇達瑪斯擁有這句話撤銷。 Denied an audience, they went to Milan to make a similar request of St. Ambrose, but with the same result.剝奪了觀眾,他們去米蘭作出了類似的請求聖劉漢銓,但同樣的結果。 They then resorted to intrigue and bribery at the Court with such success that they were not only freed from the sentence of exile, but permitted to regain possession of their churches in Spain, where, under the patronage of the imperial officials, they enjoyed such power as to compel Ithacius to withdraw from the country.然後,他們訴諸陰謀和賄賂在法院這種成功,他們不僅擺脫了一句流亡,但允許收回其教堂在西班牙,那裡的贊助下,帝國的官員,他們享有這種權力以迫使Ithacius撤出該國。 He, in turn, appealed to Gratian, but before anything had been accomplished the emperor was murdered in Paris, and the usurper Maximus had taken his place.他反過來,呼籲格拉提安,但在此之前一切都還沒有完成皇帝被謀殺在巴黎,和逆賊馬克西穆斯採取了他的位置。

Maximus, wishing to curry favour with the orthodox party and to replenish his treasury through confiscations, gave orders for a synod, which was held in Bordeaux in 384.大菱鮃,希望討好的正統的黨和充實國庫他通過沒收,吩咐的主教,這是在波爾多舉行384 。 Instantius was first tried and condemned to deposition. Thereupon Priscillian appealed to the emperor at Trier. Instantius首次審判和譴責,以沉積。於是Priscillian呼籲天皇在特里爾。 Ithacius acted as his accuser and was so vehement in his denunciations that St. Martin of Tours, who was then in Trier, intervened, and, after expressing his disapproval of bringing an ecclesiastical case before a civil tribunal, obtained from the emperor a promise not to carry his condemnation to the extent of shedding blood. Ithacius擔任他的指控,並因此在他的強烈譴責,聖馬丁之旅,當時誰在特里爾,干預,之後,他表示不贊成把一個教會案件在民事法庭,從皇帝承諾不背著他的譴責的程度流血。 After St. Martin had left the city, the emperor appointed the Prefect Evodius as judge.在聖馬丁離開了城市,天皇任命省長Evodius擔任法官。 He found Priscillian and some others guilty of the crime of magic.他發現Priscillian和其他一些犯了罪的魔力。 This decision was reported to the emperor who put Priscillian and several of his followers to the sword; the property of others was confiscated and they were banished. The conduct of Ithacius immediately met with the severest reprobation.這一決定是向皇帝誰把Priscillian和他的幾名追隨者劍;他人的財產被沒收,他們放逐。開展Ithacius立即會見了嚴厲的譴責。 St. Martin, hearing what had taken place, returned to Trier and compelled the emperor to rescind an order to the military tribunes, already on their way to Spain to extirpate the heresy.聖馬丁,聽證會採取了什麼地方,回到特里爾,迫使皇帝撤銷了以軍事tribunes ,已經在西班牙的方式消滅的異端邪說。 There is no ground in the condemnation and death of Priscillian for the charge made against the Church of having invoked the civil authority to punish heretics.人們沒有理由譴責和死亡的Priscillian的指控對教會援引權威的民間懲罰異教徒。 The pope censured not only the actions of Ithacius but also that of the emperor.教皇指責不僅對Ithacius行動,而且是皇帝。 St. Ambrose was equally stern in his denunciation of the case and some of the Gallican bishops, who were in Trier under the leadership of Theognistus, broke off communion with Ithacius, who was subsequently deposed from his see by a synod of Spanish bishops, and his friend and abettor Idatius, was compelled to resign.聖劉漢銓也同樣在他的嚴厲譴責的情況下,一些高盧聖主教,誰在特里爾的領導下Theognistus ,斷絕與Ithacius共融,誰後來被廢黜的他看到了西班牙主教的主教,和他的朋友及教唆非法入境者Idatius ,被迫辭職。

The death of Priscillian and his followers had an unlooked for sequel.死亡的Priscillian和他的追隨者有unlooked的續集。 The numbers and zeal of the heretics increased; those who were executed were venerated as saints and martyrs.這些數字和熱情的異端增加;那些誰被處決了崇敬的聖人和烈士。 The progress and spread of the heresy called for fresh measures of repression.所取得的進展和蔓延的異端要求新鮮的鎮壓措施。 In 400 a synod was held in Toledo at which many among them two bishops, Symphonius and Dictinnius were reconciled to the Church.在400名主教舉行了托萊多在許多其中有兩名主教, Symphonius和Dictinnius和解教堂。 Dictinnius was the author of a book "Libra" (Scales), a moral treatise from the Priscillianist viewpoint. Dictinnius是作者的一本書“天秤座” (秤) ,道義上的論文從Priscillianist的觀點。 The upheaval in the Spanish peninsula consequent on the invasion of the Vandals and the Suevi aided the spread of Priscillianism.在動盪的西班牙半島由此對入侵沃達爾和計算機輔助Suevi的蔓延Priscillianism 。 So menacing was this revival that Orosius, a Spanish priest, wrote to St. Augustine (415) to enlist his aid in combating the heresy.因此,這一威脅是復興的Orosius ,一名西班牙神父,寫信給聖奧古斯丁( 415 )以爭取他的援助,打擊邪教。 Pope Leo at a later date took active steps for its repression and at his urgent insistence councils were held in 446 and 447 at Astorga, Toledo, and Galicia.教皇利奧在日後採取了積極的步驟為鎮壓和他的迫切要求議會舉行了第446和447在阿斯託加,托萊多和加利西亞。 In spite of these efforts the sect continued to spread during the fifth century.儘管有這些努力,該教派繼續蔓延在第五個世紀。 In the following century it commenced to decline, and after the Synod of Braga, held in 563, had legislated concerning it, it soon died out.在下面的世紀開始下降,在世界主教會議後的布拉加舉行的563個,已制定有關,它很快熄滅了。

In regard to the doctrines and teaching of Priscillian and his sect, it is not necessary to go into the merits of the discussion as to whether Priscillian was guilty of the errors traditionally ascribed to him, whether he was really a heretic, or whether he was unjustly condemned -- the object of misunderstanding and reprobation even in his lifetime and afterwards made to bear the burden of heretical opinions subsequently developed and associated with his name.關於理論和教學Priscillian和他的節,沒有必要進入實質問題的討論是否Priscillian犯的錯誤傳統歸因於他,他是否是真正的邪教,還是他不公正的譴責-對象的誤解和非難甚至在他的一生和事後作出承擔邪教的意見,並隨後制定相關的他的名字。 The weight of evidence and the entire course of events in his lifetime make the supposition of his innocence extremely improbable.重量的證據和整個事件的過程中他的一生作出假設他的清白非常難以置信。 The discovery by Schepss of eleven treatises from his pen in a fifth or sixth-century manuscript, in the library of the University of Würzburg, has not put an end to a controversy still involved in considerable difficulty.這一發現的Schepss 11論文從他的筆在第五或第六世紀的手稿,在圖書館的維爾茨堡大學,還沒有結束的爭論仍在從事相當大的困難。 Kunstle (Antipriscilliana), who has examined all the testimony, has decided in favour of the traditional view, which alone seems capable of offering any adequate solution of the fact that the Church in Spain and Aquitaine was aroused to activity by the separatist tendency in the Priscillianist movement. Kunstle ( Antipriscilliana ) ,誰審查了所有的證詞,已決定贊成的傳統觀點,這似乎僅僅能提供任何適當的解決辦法的一個事實,即教會在西班牙和阿基坦是活動引起的分離主義傾向的Priscillianist運動。

The foundation of the doctrines of the Priscillianists was Gnostic-Manichaean Dualism, a belief in the existence of two kingdoms, one of Light and one of Darkness.的基礎理論Priscillianists是諾斯底,摩尼教二元論,相信存在著兩個王國,一個輕,一個黑暗的。 Angels and the souls of men were said to be severed from the substance of the Deity.天使和靈魂的人說是切斷了從實質的神。 Human souls were intended to conquer the Kingdom of Darkness, but fell and were imprisoned in material bodies.人類靈魂的目的是要征服王國的黑暗,但下跌和被監禁在材料機構。 Thus both kingdoms were represented in man, and hence a conflict symbolized on the side of Light by the Twelve Patriarchs, heavenly spirits, who corresponded to certain of man's powers, and, on the side of Darkness, by the Signs of the Zodiac, the symbols of matter and the lower kingdom.因此,這兩個王國的代表在人,因此,象徵著衝突的一方輕的十二始祖,天上的精神,誰符合某些人的權力,並在一側的黑暗,由符號的單子,在符號的物質和較低的王國。 The salvation of man consists in liberation from the domination of matter.拯救人類的解放包括從統治的問題。 The twelve heavenly spirits having failed to accomplish their release, the Saviour came in a heavenly body which appeared to be like that of other men, and through His doctrine and His apparent death released the souls of the men from the influence of the material. 12天上的精神未能完成其釋放,救世主排在天體這似乎是像其他男人,並通過他的學說和他的明顯死亡的靈魂釋放的男子的影響的材料。

These doctrines could be harmonized with the teaching of Scripture only by a strange system of exegesis, in which the liberal sense was entirely rejected, and an equally strange theory of personal inspiration.這些理論可以統一的教學聖經只能由一個奇怪的系統的註釋,在這種意義上的自由是完全拒絕,一個同樣奇怪的理論,個人的靈感。 The Old Testament was received, but the narrative of creation was rejected.舊約已收到,但敘事的創造被駁回。 Several of the apocryphal Scriptures were acknowledged to be genuine and inspired.幾個未經聖經被認為是真正的和鼓舞。 The ethical side of the Dualism of Priscillian with its low concept of nature gave rise to an indecent system of asceticism as well as to some peculiar liturgical observances, such as fasting on Sundays and on Christmas Day.道德方面的二元論Priscillian其低概念的性質引起了不雅系統的禁慾主義以及一些特殊的禮儀慶祝活動,如禁食,星期日及聖誕節。 Because their doctrines were esoteric and exoteric, and because it was believed that men in general could not understand the higher paths, the Priscillianists, or at least those of them who were enlightened, were permitted to tell lies for the sake of a holy end.因為他們有深奧的理論和開放,因為它被認為男人一般無法理解更高的路徑,在Priscillianists ,或者至少那些他們誰是開明,允許說謊是為了一個神聖的結束。 It was because this doctrine was likely to be a scandal even to the faithful that Augustine wrote his famous work, "De mendacio".這是因為這一理論有可能是一個醜聞甚至忠實的奧古斯丁寫下了著名的工作, “德mendacio ” 。

Publication information Written by PJ Healy.出版信息撰稿PJ希利。 Transcribed by Matt Dean. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.轉錄由馬特院長。天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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