Protestant Reformation新教改革

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A wide - ranging movement of religious renewal in Europe concentrated in the sixteenth century but anticipated by earlier reform initiatives, eg, by Waldensians in the Alpine regions, Wycliffe and Lollardy in England, and Hussites in Bohemia.廣泛-包括宗教運動在歐洲續期集中在1 6世紀,但早先預期的改革舉措,例如, W aldensians在高寒地區,威克里夫和L ollardy在英格蘭,並在波西米亞H ussites。 Although inseparable from its historical context, political (the emergent nation - states and the tactical interplay of forces and interests in Imperial Germany and in the loose Swiss Confederation), socio - economic (particularly urban growth, with expanding trade, the transition to a money economy, and new technologies, notably printing, promoting a new assertive middle class, alongside persistent peasant discontents), and intellectual (chiefly the Renaissance, especially in the Christian humanism of northern Europe), it was fundamentally religious in motivation and objective.雖然離不開它的歷史背景,政治(新興民族-國家和戰術相互作用的力量和利益的帝國在德國和瑞士的鬆散的邦聯) ,社會-經濟(尤其是城市的增長,擴大貿易,過渡到錢經濟,技術和新技術,尤其是印刷,促進新的自信的中產階級,同時堅持農民的不滿) ,智力(主要是文藝復興時期,尤其是在基督教人文主義的歐洲北部) ,這是宗教的根本動力和目標。

It was not so much a trail blazed by Luther's lonely comet, trailing other lesser luminaries, as the appearance over two or three decades of a whole constellation of varied color and brightness, Luther no doubt the most sparkling among them, but not all shining solely with his borrowed light.這是不是一個閃耀的線索路德孤獨的彗星,尾隨其他較小的燈具,如出現超過20年或30年的整個星座不同的色彩和亮度,路德無疑是最閃亮它們之間,但並非所有光輝只他借來的光。 The morning star was Erasmus, for most Reformers were trained humanists, skilled in the ancient languages, grounded in biblical and patristic sources, and enlightened by his pioneer Greek NT of 1516.上午的明星伊拉斯謨,對於大多數改革者進行了培訓人道主義者,熟練的古代語言,植根於聖經和教父來源,和開明的,他的先驅希臘的1516元。 Although Luther in Wittenberg's new university in rural Saxony had a catalytic effect felt throughout Europe, reform was astir in numerous centers.雖然路德在維滕貝格的新農村大學薩克森了促進作用在整個歐洲感到,改革是伀在許多中心。

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Probably independent in origin was Zwingli's radical reform in Zurich, provoking the thoroughgoing Anabaptist radicalism of the Swiss Brethren.也許獨立的原產地是茨溫利的激進的改革在蘇黎世,挑起了徹底的再洗禮派激進的瑞士弟兄。 Strasbourg under Bucer's leadership illustrated a mediating pattern of reform, while Geneva, reformed under Berne's tutelage, had by midcentury become an influential missionary center, exporting Calvinism to France, the Netherlands, Scotland, and elsewhere.斯特拉斯堡下布塞珥的領導說明了一個調解模式的改革,而日內瓦,伯爾尼根據改革的指導,由midcentury已成為一個有影響力的宣教中心,出口加爾文主義,以法國,荷蘭,蘇格蘭和其他地方。 Much of Germany and Scandinavia followed Luther's or perhaps Melanchthon's Lutheranism, while England welcomed a welter of continental currents, at first more Lutheran, later more Reformed, to energize indigenous Lollard undercurrents.許多德國和斯堪的納維亞之後路德或者梅蘭希通的路德教,而英格蘭歡迎大陸混亂的電流,在第一次更多的信義,後來更多的改革,激發土著Lollard暗流。

Protestant Objections新教反對

The Reformers' target may be generally described as degenerate late medieval Catholicism, over against which they set the faith of the apostles and the early fathers. Some central target areas may be specified.改革者的目標一般可描述為變質天主教中世紀後期,在對他們的信仰建立在使徒和早期的父親。一些中央的目標地區可能是指定的。

Papal Abuses教皇弊端

There was proliferating abuse, theological and practical, connected with penance, satisfactions, and the treasury of merit.有增殖性虐待,神學和實踐,與懺悔,滿意度,以及國庫的優點。 These practices were the basis of indulgences, to which were directed Luther's Ninety - five Theses with their pivotal affirmation that "the true treasure of the Church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God."這些做法的基礎上indulgences ,這是針對路德的90 -5論文的關鍵肯定說: “真正的財富,教會是最神聖的福音的榮耀和恩典的上帝。 ” Luther's anguished quest had taught him the bankruptcy of an exuberant piety that never lacked exercises for the unquiet conscience, vows, fasts, pilgrimages, masses, relics, recitations, rosaries, works, etc. The Reformation answer, to which Luther's new understanding of Romans 1 brought him through many struggles, was justification by God's grace in Christ alone received by faith alone.路德的痛苦的追求已教他的破產旺盛的虔誠從來沒有缺乏鍛煉的不平靜的良心,發誓,齋戒,朝聖,群眾,文物,朗誦, rosaries ,工程等改革的答案,而路德的新的理解羅馬一日給他通過許多鬥爭,理由是上帝的恩典在基督僅收到的信仰就有。

"The righteousness of God is that righteousness whereby, through grace and sheer mercy, he justifies us by faith." “在上帝的正義是正義的,即通過純粹的寬限期和憐憫,他證明我們的信仰。 ” Christ's righteousness credited to the believer gave him assurance before God, while he never ceased to be sinful and penitent, for "the whole life of the Christian is one of penitence."基督的義記入了他相信上帝面前保證,而他從來沒有停止罪惡和懺悔,因為“整個生命的基督教是一個懺悔。 ” Jesus said "Be penitent" (Greek), not "Do penance" (Latin Vulgate).耶穌說: “懺悔” (希臘文) ,而不是“不要懺悔” (拉丁語武加大) 。 Luther's theology of the cross was a protest against the "cheap grace" of a commercialized, fiscal religion.路德的神學兩岸是抗議“廉價恩典”的商業,財政的宗教。

The False Foundations of Papal Authority虛假的基礎教皇權威

Lorenzo Valla's exposure of the forged Donation of Constantine combined with fresh biblical and historical study to undermine papal pretensions.洛倫索瓦拉的接觸偽造捐贈君士坦丁結合新的聖經和歷史的研究,以破壞教皇的偽裝。 The rock on which the church was built was Peter's faith, and in the early centuries the Roman bishop enjoyed no more than a primacy of honor. While most Reformers professed a readiness to accept a reformed papacy that served to edify the church, so resistant did it prove to even moderate reform that Antichrist seemed a deserved designation.岩石上的教堂是建彼得的信仰,並在世紀初的羅馬主教享有不超過至高無上的榮譽。雖然大多數改革者宣稱願意接受改革教皇促使埃迪的教堂,所以沒有抗它證明,即使溫和的改革,反基督似乎是當之無愧的稱號。

The Ecclesiastical Captivity of the Word of God圈養的教會的天主的聖言

Whether by papal magisterium, church dogma, or the sophistries of schoolmen, canonists, and allegorists, this was a leading target of Luther's "Reformation Treatises" of 1520.無論是羅馬教皇magisterium ,教會教條,或詭辯的schoolmen , canonists ,並allegorists ,這是一個領先的目標,路德的“論文改革”的1520年。 In 1519 he had denied the infallibility of general councils.在1519年他拒絕了犯錯誤的一般理事會。 The Reformers liberated the Bible, by vernacular translation (notably Luther's German Bible), expository preaching (recommenced by Zwingli), and straighforward grammatichistorical exegesis (best exemplified in Calvin's commentaries).改革者解放聖經的白話翻譯(尤其是路德在德國的聖經) ,說明性說教(重新由茨溫利) ,並straighforward grammatichistorical註釋(最好的例證在卡爾文的評論) 。 Disputations, often critical in the pacing of reform, operated like communal Bible studies. Disputations ,往往是至關重要的起搏的改革,經營社區就像聖經研究。 Thus were the Scriptures enthroned as judge of all ecclesiastical traditions and the sole source of authentic doctrine, as well as experienced as the living power of God in judgment and grace.因此有聖經坐床擔任法官的所有傳統和教會的唯一來源真實的原則,以及經驗豐富的生活上帝的力量在判斷和寬限期。

The Superiority of the "Religious" Life的優越性“宗教”生命

The Reformers maintained a tireless polemic against monasticism, one of the most prominent features of Latin Christianity.改革者保持了不懈的論戰對修道,一個最突出的特點拉丁美洲基督教。 They rejected the distinction between the inferior life of the secular Christian and the higher "religious" world of monk and nun.他們拒絕之間的區別下生活的世俗的基督教和較高的“宗教”世界的僧侶和尼姑。 The Reformation was a strident protest against this distorted set of values.改革是一個刺耳的抗議扭曲的價值觀。 Luther and Calvin both stressed the Christian dignity of ordinary human callings of artisan, housewife, and plowman.路德和加爾文都強調基督教的尊嚴調用普通人的工匠,家庭主婦,和plowman 。 Reformers almost insisted on clerical marriage, by their own example elevating the importance of family life.改革者幾乎堅持辦事員結婚,自己的例子提升的重要性,家庭生活。 From another angle they objected to clerical intrusion into civil affairs, eg, the administration of marriage and divorce, and regarded political office as one of the most significant Christian vocations.從另一個角度來看,他們反對辦事員侵入的民事,如行政結婚和離婚,並認為政治辦公室作為一個最重要的基督教職業。

Perverted Priesthood and Usurped Mediation扭曲的神職人員和被剝奪的調解

The mediation of Mary (though not necessarily her perpetual virginity) and the intercession of the saints were denied alike by the Reformers. Christ alone was exalted as man's advocate before God and God's appointed priest to bear our sins and minister to our frailty.調解瑪麗(但不一定是她永久的處女)和調解的聖人都被剝奪的改革者。基督僅是崇高的人的倡導天主面前上帝的任命神父承擔我們的罪和部長對我們的脆弱。 By rejecting all but two, baptism and Lord's Supper, of the seven medieval sacraments, the Reformation liberated the faithful from the power of the priesthood.拒絕一切,但兩個洗禮和上帝的晚餐,七中世紀的聖禮,改革解放了信徒的力量鐸。 The church lost its indispensable role as sacramental dispenser of salvation.教會失去了其不可或缺的作用作為聖禮分配器的救贖。 Transubstantiation was refuted, along with the sacrificial character of the Mass except as the response of thankful hearts and lives. Transubstantiation駁斥,隨著祭祀性質的質量,除非反應感激的心和生活。 In accordance with NT usage all believers were declared to be by baptism a royal priesthood, free to fulfill a priestly service to others in need of the Word of life.按照新台幣使用所有信徒被宣布為的洗禮皇家神職人員,自由地履行祭司服務其他有需要的Word的生活。

The Hierarchical Captivity of the Church圈養的層次教會

In response to allegations of innovation and disruption of the church's long - lived unity, the Reformers claimed to be renovators, restorers of the primitive face of the church.針對指控的創新和破壞教堂的長期-住團結,改革者自稱是r enovators,恢復原始面貌的教堂。 Such a church was not dependent on communion with the papacy or hierarchical succession but was constituted by its election and calling in Christ and recognized by faithfulness to the word and sacraments of the gospel.這樣的教堂是不依賴於共融與教皇或繼承,但層次組成的選舉,並呼籲在基督和公認的忠誠這個詞和聖禮的福音。 Although several Reformers experienced doubts about infant baptism, and both Luther and Bucer hankered after a closer congregation of the truly committed, in the end all stood by the baptism of infants. A major factor was their fear of dividing the civil community which by common baptism could be regarded as coterminous with the visible church.雖然有些改革者疑慮經歷嬰兒的洗禮,都路德和布塞珥熱衷後,更教會的真正承諾,在結束所有站在洗禮的嬰兒。一個主要因素是他們擔心除以民間社會的共同洗禮可被視為與coterminous可見教堂。 Although the distinction between the church visible (seen by human eyes) and invisible (known only to God) was used by the Reformers, it was not their customary way of acknowledging the mixed character of the church.雖然之間的區別可見的教堂(被人眼)和無形(只知道上帝)使用的是改革者,這不是他們習慣的方式承認混合性質的教堂。

The Confusion of Divine and Human的混亂,神和人

Reformation theology was strongly theocentric, and clearly reasserted the distinction between Creator and creation.改革神學強烈theocentric ,並明確重申之間的區別Creator和創造。 Confusion between the two blighted medieval doctrine in various spheres, Eucharist, church, papacy, and made its influence felt in other areas, such as mysticism and anthropology.混淆這兩個秕中世紀的學說在各個領域,體,教堂,教皇,並認為其影響力在其他領域,如神秘主義和人類學。 With a starkly Augustinian understanding of original sin (qualified somewhat by Zwingli), the Reformers asserted mankind's total spiritual inability apart from the renewal of the Spirit.有了鮮明的理解奧古斯丁原罪(合格的多少茨溫利) ,改革者主張人類的精神總不能除了延長的精神。 On unconditional election the Reformation spoke almost as one voice.對無條件改造的選舉幾乎以一個聲音說話。 If Calvin related predestination more closely to providence and directed all his theology to the goal of the glory of God, Luther no less saw God's sovereign Word at work everywhere in his world.如果卡爾文有關預定更緊密地普羅維登斯,並指示他的所有神學的目標的榮耀上帝,路德不認為上帝的主權的Word工作無處不在自己的世界。

The Legacy of the Reformation遺留下來的改革

Quite apart from the varying hues and shades of their theologies, which owe much to different intellectual and religious formations as well as to temperament, sociopolitical setting, and conviction, the Reformers were not agreed on all issues.且不說不同的色彩和色調的theologies ,這歸功於許多不同的知識和宗教編隊以及氣質,社會政治環境,和信念,改革者是不同意的所有問題。

Most notoriously they parted company on the Lord's Supper.最臭名昭著的,他們分手公司的上帝的晚餐。 For Luther the solid objectivity of Christ's presence was created by his word ("This is my body") and could not be vulnerable to the recipient's unbelief.對於路德堅實的客觀性基督的存在是由他的話( “這是我的身體” ) ,無法受到收件人的不信教。 (His position is wrongly called "consubstantiation," because this implies that it belongs to the same conceptual order as "transubstantiation.") Others, even the mature Zwingli, stressed faith's spiritual eating of Christ's body and blood, and Calvin further focused on communion with the heavenly Christ by the Spirit. (他的立場是錯誤的所謂“ consubstantiation ” ,因為這意味著它屬於同一概念的命令“ transubstantiation 。 ” )其他,甚至是成熟的茨溫利,強調信仰的精神吃基督的身體和血液,和Calvin進一步集中在共融與天上的基督的精神。 In reform of worship and church order both Lutherans and Reformed adopted respectively conservative and more radical approaches.在改革的崇拜和教會秩序改制路德會,並分別通過保守和更激進的做法。 A significant difference lay in attitudes toward the Mosaic law.顯著性差異在於態度鑲嵌法。 Whereas for Luther its primary function is to abase the sinner and drive him to the gospel, Calvin saw it chiefly as the guide of the Christian life.而對路德其主要職能是侮的罪人,並把他的福音,加爾文認為這主要是為指導,基督教的生活。 Again, while for Luther Scripture spoke everywhere of Christ and the gospel, Calvin handled it in a more disciplined and "modern" manner.再次,而路德聖經各地以基督和福音,卡爾文處理在一個更有紀律和“現代”的方式進行。 Overall, "careful Calvin orchestrated Protestant theology most skillfully, but fertile Martin Luther wrote most of the tunes" (JI Packer).總的來說, “認真策劃的新教加爾文神學最巧妙,但肥沃的馬丁路德寫道大多數歌曲” (紀封) 。

Separate attention must be paid to the orthodox Anabaptist Radicals whose Reformation was more sweeping than the "new papalism," as they called it, of the magisterial Reformers. Believers' baptism identified and safeguarded the bounds of the church, the gathered community of the covenanted band.單獨必須注意正統的再洗禮派的改革自由基是不是更全面的“新papalism , ”因為他們所謂的它,神的改革者。信徒'的洗禮確認和保障的範圍教堂,聚集社會covenanted波段。 Discipline was essential to maintain its purity (a point not lost on influential Reformed circles).紀律是必不可少的,以保持其純度(點沒有失去對各界有影響力的改革) 。 The church's calling was to suffering and pilgrimage, and to total separation from the world. By its accommodation with the empire of Constantine the church had fatally "fallen."教會的要求是痛苦和朝聖,並完全分離的世界。在其住宿的帝國君士坦丁教會了致命的“下降” 。 The restitution of the apostolic pattern in all particulars entailed the renunciation of the sword and of oaths.歸還使徒模式的所有細節需要放棄劍和咒罵。 By advocating toleration, religious liberty, and separation of church and state, such Anabaptists were ahead of their time, and suffered for it.提倡寬容,宗教的自由,政教分離和國家,例如Anabaptists提前的時間,並遭受它。 As Christendom dies out in the West, the attraction of the Radical Reformation option appears in a clearer light.至於死亡的基督教在西方,吸引激進改革中出現的選擇更明確的參照。

At times, eg, c.有時,如角 1540 in Germany, it seemed as though reform - minded Catholics might prevail. 1540年在德國,它彷彿改革-志同道合的天主教徒可能會佔上風。 Rome thought otherwise, and in theology the Catholic reforms of Trent were in large measure counter - Protestant reaction.羅馬思想,否則在天主教神學改革特倫特是在很大程度上打擊-新教的反應。 If renewal was more evident elsewhere, in the new Jesuit order, the Spanish mystics, and bishops like Francis of Sales, not until the twentieth century and Vatican Council II did the Roman Church take to heart the theological significance of the Reformation.如果更新是在其他地方更明顯,在新的耶穌秩序,西班牙神秘主義者,和主教像弗朗西斯的銷售,直到二十世紀和梵蒂岡理事會第二沒有羅馬教會採取心臟的神學意義的改革。

DF Wright東風賴特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
AC Cochrane, Reformed Confessions of the Sixteenth Century; BJ Kidd, Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation; HJ Hillerbrand, The Reformation in Its Own Words; HA Oberman, Forerunners of the Reformation: The Shape of Late Medieval Thought; W Cunningham, The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation; BMG Reardon, Religious Thought in the Reformation; H Strohl, La pensee de la Reforme; GW Bromiley, Historical Theology: An Introduction; H Cunliffe - Jones, ed., A History of Christian Doctrine; S Ozment, The Age of Reform, 1250 - 1550; HJ Grimm, The Reformation Era 1500 - 1650; AG Dickens, The English Reformation; IB Cowan, The Scottish Reformation; GH Williams, The Radical Reformation; FH Littell, The Anabaptist View of the Church; GF Hershberger, ed., The Recovery of the Anabaptist Vision; PE Hughes, The Theology of the English Reformers; PDL Avis, The Church in the Theology of the Reformers.交流科克倫,改革的自白十六世紀;北京基德,文件說明了大陸改革;黃建忠Hillerbrand ,改革在自己的詞;醫管局奧伯曼,先驅改革:形狀的中世紀晚期思想; W坎寧安的改革者和神學改革; BMG公司爾登,宗教思想的改革; H Strohl ,香格里拉思想德拉魯阿改革;毛重Bromiley ,歷史神學:介紹; H坎利夫-瓊斯版。史基督教學說;語O zment ,年齡的改革, 1550至50年;黃建忠格林,改革時代的1600至50年;公司狄更斯,英國宗教改革;興業文,蘇格蘭宗教改革;生長激素威廉姆斯,激進改革;跳頻Littell ,看的再洗禮派的教會;石墨赫什伯格,編輯。 ,恢復視力的再洗禮派;體育休斯,神學的英文改革者;牙周阿維斯,教會在神學的改革者。

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